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Name

Date

CHAPTER

25

CHAPTER TEST

The United States in World War II

Form B

Part 1: Main Ideas


Write the letter of the answer that best completes each sentence. (4 points each)
______ 1. The problem of ___ was targeted by the Office of Price
Administration.
a. inflation
c. depression
b. recession
d. unemployment
______ 2. To protest discrimination, ___ organized a march on Washington on
July 1, 1941.
a. Franklin D. Roosevelt
c. General George Marshall
b. Harry S. Truman
d. A. Phillip Randolph
______ 3. General ___ led the Third Army into Paris to liberate the city from
German occupation.
a. George Patton
c. Douglas MacArthur
b. George Marshall
d. Dwight D. Eisenhower
______ 4. The Battle of the Bulge was significant because it marked the ___.
a. last German offensive
c. Allies first victory in a land battle
b. liberation of the death camps
d. Axis powers first loss in a land battle

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______ 5. The Allied invasion of ___ was given the code name D-Day.
a. Japan
c. North Africa
b. Italy
d. Nazi-occupied Europe
______ 6. V-E Day, or May 8, 1945, was the day when ___.
a. the United States entered the war
c. Germany surrendered
b. Allied forces invaded France
d. the Soviets stopped the Germans at the Volga
______ 7. When forced to abandon the Philippines, ___ made the vow, I shall
return.
a. Hideki Tojo
c. Douglas MacArthur
b. Chester Nimitz
d. Franklin D. Roosevelt
______ 8. Trumans aim in deciding to drop the atomic bomb was to ___.
a. find out how destructive the bomb really was
b. teach Japanese military leaders a lesson
c. end the war and save American lives
d. show how powerful the United States was
______ 9. Nisei who lived on the West Coast were subjected to ___ during the war.
a. interrogation
c. torture
b. internment
d. compensation

The United States in World War II 451

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Test Form B continued

______ 10. With respect to finding better jobs, the war years marked a period of
___ for African Americans.
a. decline
c. stagnation
b. advance
d. uncertainty

Part 2: Map Skills


Use the map to complete this section. Write the letter of the best answer. (2 points each)
______ 11. Where did the Allied forces first invade Axis-controlled Europe?
a. the coast of Normandy
c. Paris, France
b. the island of Sicily
d. Anzio, Italy
______ 12. What did the Allied forces that liberated Paris do next?
a. They attacked German forces in Italy. c. They fought their way east toward Germany.
b. They marched toward Austria.
d. They retreated to Great Britain.
______ 13. How long did the Battle of Stalingrad last?
a. about one week
c. about two months
b. about three weeks
d. about five months
______ 14. When did the Russian offensive begin and end?
a. It began in 1941 and ended in 1943. c. It began in 1943 and ended in 1944.
b. It began in 1941 and ended in 1945. d. It began in 1943 and ended in 1945.
Allied Advances in Europe and North Africa, 19421945
FINLAND

Axis Powers

NORWAY

Axis-controlled

North
Sea

Normandy invasion
June 6, 1944 

 LUX.


Paris liberated
Aug. 25, 1944

YU

AL

4
19
4

PO L A N D
A


Stalingrad
Aug. 21, 1942
Jan. 31, 1943

Caspian
Sea

ROMANIA
GO

SL

Black Sea

AV
IA 4

RomeAnzio
ALBANIA
liberated
June 4, 1944
Salerno

BULGARIA

Corsica

Au

g.

L OV A K I

Kiev


TUG

19 4

19

POR

H OS

LY

MOROCCO

Algiers

1 944

ITA


Casablanca

SOVIET UNION

Warsaw

AUSTRIA HUNGARY

SWITZ.

Sardinia
Operation Torch
Nov. 4, 1942

1 9 45

GERMANY
C ZE
C

FRANCE

SPAIN

LITH.
East
Prussia

Berlin
surrendered
May 2, 1945 
45
1 9 44

BEL.

Moscow

 Germans repulsed
Dec. 1941

T UR K E Y
GREECE

Tunis

TUNISIA

1943

SYRIA

Sicily
Cyprus

LEBANON

Mediterranean Sea

PALESTINE
N ov

ALGERIA

452 Unit 7, Chapter 25

LIBYA

. 194

Cairo

El-Alamein 
Oct. 23Nov. 5, 1942

EGYPT

TRANSJORDAN
SAUDI
ARABIA

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London 

Se

NETH.

GREAT
BRITAIN

ATLANTIC
OCEAN

l
Ba

19 4 4

IRELAND

Major battles

44

1 94

LATVIA

ic

Allied advances

SWEDEN

Battle of
the Bulge
Dec. 16, 1944 DENMARK
Jan. 31, 1945

19

Neutral countries

Allied territory

Leningrad
 besieged
Sept. 1941Jan. 19, 1944

ESTONIA

Name

Test Form B continued

______ 15. What area did Allied troops invade in 1942?


a. France
c. Spain
b. Yugoslavia
d. North Africa
Use the map on page 452 to answer the following questions in complete sentences.
Write on the back of this paper or on a separate sheet. (5 points each)
16. How does this map demonstrate that Stalingrad was a critical battle of the war?
17. Judging from the map, why was victory in North Africa essential to an invasion
of southern Europe?

Part 3: Document-Based Questions


Historical Context: On D-Day, Allied troops landed at five different beaches on the
coast of Normandy, in northern France. The German defense of Normandy was
ferocious, especially at Omaha Beach.
Study each document carefully and answer the question about it. (4 points each)

Document 1
Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force!

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You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months.
The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march
with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about
the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed
peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.
Your task will not be an easy one. Your enemy is well trained, well equipped and battle-hardened.
He will fight savagely.
But this is the year 1944! Much has happened since the Nazi triumphs of 194041. The United Nations
have inflicted upon the Germans great defeats, in open battle, man-to-man. Our air offensive has seriously reduced their strength in the air and their capacity to wage war on the ground. Our Home Fronts
have given us an overwhelming superiority in weapons and munitions of war, and placed at our disposal
great reserves of trained fighting men. The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching
together to Victory!
I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less
than full Victory!
Good Luck! And let us all beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Order of the day for June 5, 1944

The United States in World War II 453

Name

Test Form B continued

18. According to Eisenhowers order, why should the troops about to invade
Normandy feel confident, even though their enemy will fight savagely?

Omaha Beach, D-Day morning, June 6, 1944


19. What does the photograph tell you about how soldiers got ashore during the
Normandy invasion?

454 Unit 7, Chapter 25

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Document 2

Name

Test Form B continued

Document 3
Our men simply could not get past the beach. They were pinned down right
on the waters edge by an inhuman wall of fire from the bluff. Our first
waves were on that beach for hours, instead of a few minutes, before they
could begin working inland. . . .
The first crack in the beach defenses was finally accomplished by terrific and
wonderful naval gunfire, which knocked out the big emplacements [longrange artillery built into the bluffs]. . . .
When the heavy fire stopped, our men were organized by their officers and
pushed on inland, circling machine-gun nests and taking them from the rear.
As one officer said, the only way to take a beach is to face it and keep going.
It is costly at first, but its the only way. If the men are pinned down on the
beach, dug in and out of action, they might as well not be there at all. They
hold up the waves behind them, and nothing is being gained.
Our men were pinned down for a while, but finally they stood up and went
through, and so we took that beach and accomplished our landing. We did
it with every advantage on the enemys side and every disadvantage on
ours. . . .
. . . These units that were so battered and went through such hell are still,
right at this moment, pushing on inland without rest, their spirits high, their
egotism in victory almost reaching the smart-alecky stage.
. . . Which proves that, while their judgment in this regard is bad, they certainly have the spirit that wins battles and eventually wars.

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from a war dispatch by reporter Ernie Pyle at Omaha Beach

20. According to Pyles description, why is a beach invasion costly at first?

21. What do you think was on the mind of ordinary enlisted men as they took part
in the invasion of Normandy? How might their thoughts be different just
before the battle, at the end of the first day, and after the invasion moved
inland? Write a brief essay in response to this question, citing examples and
evidence from the three documents. You may use the back of this paper or a
separate sheet for your essay. (8 points)

The United States in World War II 455

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Test Form B continued

Part 4: Extended Response


Answer each of the following questions in a short essay on the back of this paper or on a
separate sheet. (10 points each)
22. What opportunities, adjustments, and tensions did the war create for
Americans? Do you think most of the changes were positive for American
society? Think About:
economic gains
return of servicemen to civilian life
discrimination experienced by minorities

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23. At the Nuremberg trials, top Nazi officials defended their actions during the
Holocaust by claiming that they were following orders. Do you agree with this
defense? Explain your answer. Think About:
the Nazis attempts to destroy evidence
what the Nazis represented
the extent of their crimes

456 Unit 7, Chapter 25