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x y ( x, t ) a sin(kx t )
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2

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x
y a sin(t kx) y a cos(t kx )

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x
y a sin(t kx ) y a cos(t kx)

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y a sin(t kx); y a cos(t kx)
t

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y a sin 2 T kx ; y a cos 2 T kx

y a sin

2
2
vt x ; y a cos vt x

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a

v T

vs ;
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v1 ;

Y
B

vg ;

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v v

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v v0 vm

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y a sin t kx
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a T v k


' v ' ' ' ' ' ' T '

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v

v T a b v K T a b k
1 1
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v M 0 LT
T M 1LT
M 1L1

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M 0 L1T 1 [ M 1 L1T 2 ]a [ M 1 L1 ]b

1 1
M 0 LT
M ab La bT 2a

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1 2a a

1
2

ab 0 b
1

1
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v (1)T 2 2 [ K 1]


v B a b v K B a b (1) k

1 3
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v M 0 LT
B M 1 L1T 2 M L

M 0 L1T

[ M 1 L 1T

] a [ M 1 L3 ]b

0 a b
1 a 3b
1 2a a
1
2
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kB

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y1 , y2 , y3 y y 1 y 2 ......

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v
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y a sin t

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C R

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y a sin t kx 2 v, k

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' l ' T
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2

v T /

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N

1
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1
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l2

2(l2 l1 )

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v 2 (l2 l1 )

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v 2 l
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B1, B2
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3 3 33
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3 4l n3 3n1

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5 5 5 55
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5
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4
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V 5V

n5 5n1
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' '
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v (1)

l1 / 4 e l2 3 / 4 e
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l2 l1 3 / 4 / 4 / 2

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2 ( l 2 l1 )

1 2

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P, Q ' l '

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y 1 A s in ( k x t )

X y 2 A s in ( k x t )

y y1 y2

y A sin(kx t ) A sin(kx t ) 2 A sin kx.cos t

2Asin kx
x / 2,2 / 2,3 / 2
x / 4,3 / 4, 5 / 4

1 T
2l

T ' ' ' '


' l '
1/ l l
' l ' ' ' ' '


T
T
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1/

1
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2 l
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22
2l
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v2

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2 2 (2)

3 l
3

'2 '
3 3 (3)

33
2

2l
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v v3

3
3
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v
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: 1 : 3 1: 2 : 3.....


l / 4

3 3 33
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3
V 3V

3 4l n3 3n1

n3

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5 5 5 55
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4 2 2
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n5

V 5V

n5 5n1
5 4l

1 2

y1 a sin 1t y2 a sin 2t
y y1 y2
y a sin 1t a sin 2t
1 21 2 22


y 2 A cos 2 1 2 t sin 2 1 2 t
2
2
1 2

1 2

2

2Acos2 2 t A y A sin 2

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1 2

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y a sin 21t a sin 2 2t

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cos 2

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2

t 0

k 0,1, 2,3........

3
2
1

1 2 1 2 1 2

hi


cos 2 1 2 t 0
2

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t 1 / 1 2

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1 ~ 2

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T0
t 0 L v
t1

L
1
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T0 vsT0
L vsT0
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n 1

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(2)
v

L nT0 vs
tn 1 n.T0

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L nvsT0 L
n t tn 1 t1 nT0
v (3)
v

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L nvsT0 L
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V /n
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T0
1

vsT0
v 1
T0 1 s
v
v T

T 0
0


1
1 1 vs
1 0 1 vs
0
v
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vs

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~ 0

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L V0T0

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T0
t 0 ' L ' v

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t1

L
v

T0 v0T0

L v0T0

w
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t2
n 1

T0 v0T0
(2)
v

L nv0T0
tn 1 nT0

n t tn 1 t1
L nv0T0 L nT0 nT0V0
nT0
(3)
V
v
v

nT0 nT0v0

T T0

T0 v0
(4)
v

1
1
0 T
T
0

1
1 1 v0
v0

1 0 1 (5)
0
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0 1 v

0.6m 30Hz
0.05kg / m


v 30 Hz l 0.6m ; 0.05kg m 1
? T ?
2vl 2 30 0.6 36 m / s
T v 2 36 36 0.05 64.8 N

3cm 10kN 7.8 g / cm3


T 10kN 104 N

D 3
3
cm 102 cm
2 2
2

.s
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22 3

102
7 2

A r2

22 9
104 m2 7.8 g / cm3 7.8 103 kg / cm3
7 4

w
w

T
A

104
22 9
4
3
10 7.8 10
7
4

42.6m / s

y1 0.07 sin (12 x 500t )


y2 0.07 sin (12 x 500t )

0.4m 0.16g 70N



l 0.4m; M 0.16 g 0.16 103 kg ;

M 0.16 103

0.4 103 kg / m
l
0.4

T 70 N ; vn

v1

1
2l

P T
2l

T
1
70

523Hz
2 0.4 0.4 103

v2 2v1 2 523 1046 Hz


v3 3v1 3 523 1569 Hz

2l
2

hi

4kHz

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2
2

0.16m
K 12

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A1 0.07; A2 0.07; K 12

y 2 A 0.14m

v v
4kHz (1)
2l

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a

4kHz

w
w

l
v1

4l
4

v v 4kHz

2kHz
4l
2

70cm 331m / s


l 70cm 70 10 2 m; v 331m / s; v ?
v

v
331

118.2 Hz
4l 4 70 102


320Hz
20cm, 73cm

2
v 320 Hz l1 20cm 20 10 m

l2 73cm 73 10 2 m; ?

2v (l2 l1 )
2 320(73 102 20 102 )

339m / s

65cm, 70cm

330m / s
l1 65cm 0.65m

co
m

l2 70cm 0.7m

v v1 v2

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330m / s

330
330

18 Hz
2l1 2l2 2 0.65 2 0.7


219Hz 184Hz
340m / s

hi


v
v (1)
s

ks

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a


v
(2)
s

v 219 Hz ; v 184 Hz

340m / s

w
w

(1)
v ( s )

(2)
v ( 2 )
219

340 s

184 340

s 29.5m / s

v v

340 29.5
219

340

199.98
v 200Hz

60kmph 70kmph

(drive) 400 Hz
330m / s )

vs 60kmph 60

5
300
m/s
m/s
18
18

v0 70kmph 70

5
350
m/s
m/s
18
18

co
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v 400 Hz
0
v v

350

330 18
v 400
300
330

18

629
33 18 35
400
400

564
33 18 30

v 446Hz

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v v0
v

v vs

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a

350

330 19
v 400
300
330

18

w
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594 35
400

594 30

v 358.33Hz

2.50kg 200N 20.0m


M 2.50kg T 200 N , l 20.0 M
M
2.5

l
20.0

200

V 0.125 40m / s

l 20

0.5s
V 40

300m

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340ms 1
( g 9.8ms 2 )

h 300m, g 9.8m / s 2 , 340m / s

t1
1
S ut at 2
2

300
7.82 s
4.9

ks

t1

hi

1
300 0 9.8 t12
2

t2

.s
a

h 300

0.88s
v 400

t1 t2 7.82 0.88 8.70 s


12.0m 2.10kg 200 C
343ms 1

l 12.0m, 2.10kg , T ?

w
w

v 343m / s

M 2.10

l
12.0

0.175kg / m

T 2 . (343) 2 0.175 206 104 N

P RT

RT
M

R, M T

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PV nRT , P M RT

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1000kHz
340ms 1
1486ms 1

100 KHz 105 Hz a 340m / s w 1486ms 1

ks

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340
3.4 103 m
105

.s
a

a
a
v

w
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w 1486

1.486 102 m
5
v
10

(ultrasonic scanner )
1.7kms 1
4.2MHz

1.7 kms 1 1700ms 1


v 4.2MHz 4.2 106 Hz

1700

m 0.405 103 m
6
v 4.2 10

0.405mm

y ( x, t ) 3.0sin(36t 0.018 x / 4)
x, y cm ; t ( s ) x


y ( x, t ) a sin(t kx ) (1)

y ( x, t ) 3sin(36t 0.018 x / 4) (2)

a 3cm;

36rad s 1 ;

2
& v n
2
k

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k 0.018cm 1

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36
36 1000
2
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2000cm 20m


18
2 k k 0.018

20ms 1

a 3cm

36
36

5.73Hz
2 2 2 3.14

ks

hi


2
2 2 3.14

k
0.018

.s
a

348.89cm 3.49m

( y ) (t ) x 0, 2, 4cm

w
w

y ( x, t ) 3sin 16t 0.018 x (1)


4

x 0 y (0, t ) 3sin 16t 4

2
16 rad s 1
T

2 2

s
16 8

y ( x, t ) 2.0 cos 2 (10t 0.0080 x 0.35) x, y cm t


( s )

a) 4m

c) / 2

b) 0.5m

d )3 / 4

10t

y 2.0 cos 2 0.0080


x 0.7
0.0080

2
2 0.0080

2
x

co
m

2
x 2 0.0080 400

6.4
x 0.5 50cm

2
x 2 0.0080 50

0.8

y ( x, t ) 0.06 sin 3 x cos(120 t )

2 3 3

4
2

.s
a

3
4

hi

2

2

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x 4m 400cm

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x, y m t ( s ) 1.5m 3.0 102 kg





y ( x, t ) 0.06 sin

2
x cos120 t (i )
3

2 2

3m

2
120

60 60 3 180m / s 1

180

60 Hz

T
2 T /

co
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3 102
T
1.5
2

T (180)2 2 10 2 648 N

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2 102 kg / m

i )


ii) 0.375m
i )
ii)

hi

2
y ( x, t ) 0.06 sin
x cos(120 t )
3

x 0.375m
2
x 1
3

ks

A 0.06 sin

2
0.375
3

0.06sin

0.06

0.042m
4
2

x, t
i ) ii ) iii )
y 2 cos(3 x) sin(10t )

w
w

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a

0.06 sin

y 2 x vt
y 3sin(5 x 0.5t ) 4 cos(5 x 0.5t )
y cos x sin t cos 2 x sin 2t
x t

45Hz
3.5 102 kg 4.0 102 kg m 1

M 3.5 102 7

4.0 102 8

7
l
2
8

7
m 1.75m
4

co
m

v 45 1.75 78.75m / s
T

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T 2 (78.75) 2 4.0 102 248.06N


(340 Hz 25.5cm
79.3cm
(edge effecgts )

l1 25.5
4

4 25.5 102cm 1.02cm

hi

v 340 1.02 346.8m / s

100cm
2.53kHz

l 100cm 1m, v 2.53KHz 2.53103 Hz

.s
a

ks



4 4 2

w
w

2l 2m
v
2.53 103 2 5.06 103 ms 1

20cm 430Hz


340ms 1 )

l 20cm 0.2m, vn 430 Hz

340m / s

n vn (2n 1)

4l

430 (2n 1)
2n 1

340
4 0.2

430 4 0.2
1.02
340

2n 2.02, n 1.01

vn n

430 2 0.2
0.5
340

co
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n 340

430
2l 2 0.2

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100Hz
i ) 10ms 1 10ms 1
ii )
340ms 1
v 400 Hz , 340m / s 1

s 10m / s
v1

v
340 400

412.12 Hz
s 340 10

v1

v 340 400

s 340 10

.s
a

( station yard ) 400Hz


10ms 1

10ms 1
340ms 1

w
w

ks

388.6Hz
ii) 340m / s

hi

s 10m / s

v 400 Hz , m 10 ms 1 ; 340 m / s 1

m 340 10 350m / s 1

v 400Hz

m 350

v
400

0.875M

m 0

1 10m / s s 0

v1

( 1 )
(340 10)
v
400

340

411.76Hz

i.e. 1 0.875M

w
w

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a

ks

hi

ed
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m 340 0 340m / s