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American University of Sharjah

Mech. Engineering Department
School of Engineering
P.O.Box 26666
Sharjah, UAE
Semester: S 16

Dr. Hassan El-Banna Fath
Office: EB2 231
Phone: 06-5154933
Fax: 06-5152979
E-mail: hfath@aus.edu

MCE 494 : Desalination
HW # 1.b Due Time: Feb. 18th , 2016
Definitions and classification of Desalination processes

1- List the % of fresh and saline water on our planet (Earth)?
The total volume of water on Earth is estimated at 1.386 billion km³ (333 million cubic miles),
with 97.5% being salt water and 2.5% being fresh water. Of the fresh water, only 0.3% is in liquid form on
the surface.

2- How much fresh water is needed per capita (Per Person)?
a- Direct Use:
7800 cubic metres per capita
b- Total Annual (Direct, Agriculture, Industry,…):
Agriculture(irrigation)=69%
Industry=23%
Direct(household & sanitation etc)=8%

3- List the salinity of the following seawater:a- Mediterranean Sea: 3.8%
b- Red Sea: 36%-41%
c- Gulf Water: 40%-41%
d- Dead Sea: 33.7%
c- Baltic Sea: 3.5%
d- Black Sea: 17.5%-18%
Why the water salinity varies between these seas?
The reasons for different salinity in these water bodies are:
Air temperature

Distillation is the action of separation of solutions by heating or cooling whereas desalination is the process of removing salt from saline water.List three main types of salts in seawater Sodium chloride Magnesium chloride Potassium chloride Gypsum Calcium carbonate 5.Volume of water that flows into it Age of the water body Chemical composition of geological surrounding Evaporation and Precipitation rate 4.Draw Schematic diagram of the three main sub-systems of desalination plant: Flash Chamber: . 6. Eg: distillation can be used in separating crude oil into different oils whereas delation is specifically to salt water only.What is the meaning of: a­ MSF: Multi Stage Flashing b­ MED: Multiple effect Distillation c­ RO: Reverse Osmosis d­ ED / EDR: Electro dialysis Reversal e­ IX: Ion Exchange f­ FO: Forwards Osmosis g­ MD: Membrane Distillation h­ MVC: Mechanical Vapor Compression i­ NF: Nano filtration j­ TDS: k­ Total Dissolved Solids TSS: Total Suspended Solids 6.What is the difference between desalination & distillation? Give examples.

Brine Heater: Water Pump from the source: .