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Be Prepared:

ISN Notebooks
Pencil/pen
Textbook
Be ready to Learn

Tuesday 2/16/2016
Mendel-and-inheritance

Due today:
Summative Projects Brochures: Please turn in at the
beginning of the class.

Hair Color Finish exit ticket from FRI


93
Bellringer 2/16/16 Tuesday

Writ
T13
e
1. ____ Do more people have Brown hair, or blonde hair?
A. Blonde
B. Brown
Nam
2. ____ If more people have a certain trait, its ________.
e/CL
A. dominant
B. recessive
ASS
3. ____ Which hair color gene would be recessive?
A. Blonde
B. Brown
PERI
4. ____ Which hair color gene would be dominant?
OD
A. Blonde
B. Brown
5. ____ Which allele would you use for brown hair?
A. B
B. b
6. ____ Which allele would you use for blonde hair?
A. B
B. b
7. ____ Which genotype below is homozygous recessive?
A. BB
B. Bb
C. bb
8. ____ Which genotype below is homozygous dominant?

Hair Color Finish exist ticket from FRI


93
Bellringer 2/16/16 Tuesday

Writ
T13
e
1. ____ Do more people have Brown hair, or blonde hair?
A. Blonde
B. Brown
Nam
2. ____ If more people have a certain trait, its ________.
e/CL
A. dominant
B. recessive
ASS
3. ____ Which hair color gene would be recessive?
A. Blonde
B. Brown
PERI
4. ____ Which hair color gene would be dominant?
OD
A. Blonde
B. Brown
5. ____ Which allele would you use for brown hair?
A. B
B. b
6. ____ Which allele would you use for blonde hair?
A. B
B. b
7. ____ Which genotype below is homozygous recessive?
A. BB
B. Bb
C. bb
8. ____ Which genotype below is homozygous dominant?

LETS Review Bellringer


answers from Thu 2/11/16 from 416
1.

F1 Generation was first filial(daughter) generation


from crossing two parental pure-breed plants (purebreed tall and pure-breed short)
2. F1 generation was all tall-so tall trait was Dominant.
3. F2 generation was offspring from crossing F1 with
F1
4.F2 was 75% tall and 25% short; short trait skipped a
generation and reappeared. Why?
Do Punnett square now (after done letss go to
slide 24)
5. Lets Look at figure 2 in book page 416 again.

Write 3 things you have learned


from video.

Share the three things


you have learned
with your
shoulder partners.
Take 2 min-take turns.
ADD To Your Notes
If partner had something you did not.
Mendel Inheritance twig

The Law of Segregation - gene pairs separate during sex cell formation and alleles unite at fertilization.
The Law of Independent Assortment - the way in which alleles separate then reunite is independent of other genes.
The Law of Dominance - when two alleles for a gene are different, one is dominant and one is recessive.

The Work of Gregor Mendel

Current genetic
terminology
Phenotype

is the outward
appearance; ex: tall or short height
Memory trick:
Genotype

is the genes
Phenotype is the physical feature you see

Be Prepared:
ISN Notebooks
Pencil/pen
Textbook
Be ready to Learn

Tuesday 2/16/2016
Mendel-and-inheritance
Last Due today:
Summative Projects Brochures: Please turn in at the
beginning of the class.

Bellringer Wednesday 2/17/16


Use your own words to explain the terminology words we studied together
You can use book as well but dont just copy definition from back

1.

What is Genetics
2. What is Heredity
3. What Geneticists do?

What is genetics?
Why study it?
Genetics

= study of heredity
Heredity = passing on of
characteristics from parents to
offspring
Geneticists study genes, stretches of
DNA, that code for proteins

Bikini Bottom Genetics


#1
Work will work together with your
shoulder partner, sign both names on
the lab sheet.
You will have the rest of the class to
turn your lab for a grade. (formative
grade 5 questions 5 points each-out
of 25 total )
If you have questions raise your hand
and ask-I will help on individual basis.
Voice level is: 1 (low voices/whisper)

Be Prepared:
ISN Notebooks
Pencil/pen
Textbook
Be ready to Learn

Tuesday 2/16/2016
Mendel-and-inheritance
Last Due today:
Summative Projects Brochures: Please turn in at the
beginning of the class.

Bellringer
2/18
Thu 2/18
If you crossed two hybrid plants with
purple flowers and planted 200 of the
seeds, how many would you expect to
have white flowers?
Create a Punnett square to support
your answer.

Lets try more


Punnett square
Practice:

Do problems:
fam3-fam9
Punnet-squaredefinition-example
STUDY

What are some features


in humans that
everyone has in
common?

Be prepared:
ISN NOTEBOOK
TEXTBOOK
PENCIL/PEN
GREAT ATTITUDE

The Race
for the
AGENDA:
REVIEW
Mendel-and-inheritance Twig

Bellringer Friday 2/19/2016

PLEASE

CHECK/Review YOUR Bellringers for next 7 min


No
New Bellringers Today-Fri

(Set timer) Make up missing work even if you were


absent.
2/19/16

After

7 Min Teacher will collect all ISN


For grade. GET/FILL OUT YELLOW self check paper

After

Bellringers: Lets play KAHOOT REVIEW GAME

PLEASE

CHECK/Review YOUR Bellringers for next 7 min


No
New Bellringers Today-Fri

(Set timer) Make up missing work even if you were


absent.
2/19/16

After

7 Min Teacher will collect all ISN


For grade. GET/FILL OUT YELLOW self check paper

After

Bellringers: Individual class work-packets Punnett Square Practice-exit ticket-to be done and
turned in before the end of class to teacher.

What are some


features that are
different from
human to human?

Gregor Mendel
Genetics

the scientific
study of heredity

Gregor

Mendel (born in
1822) worked with true
breeding garden peas to
study inheritance

True

breeding produce
offspring identical to
themselves when they selfpollinate

Why did Mendel Choose the Pea?


Flower Structure/ allowed controlled mating
Many variable traits/ simple traits
Fast Generation Time

Why pea plants?


Easy

to grow and mature quickly


Structure & method of pollination made
them easy to use in controlled experiments:
could self-fertilize or cross-fertilize
Different plants show contrasting traits
Characteristic

= heritable feature that varies


among individuals, ex: flower color
Trait = different varieties for a characteristic,
ex: purple or white flowers

White

Removed
stamens
from purple
flower

Flower color

Stamens
Carpel
PARENTS
(P)

Purple

White

Axial

Terminal

Seed color

Yellow

Green

Seed shape

Round

Wrinkled

Pod shape

Inflated

Constricted

Pod color

Green

Yellow

Tall

Dwarf

Flower position

2 Transferred
Purple

pollen from
stamens of white
flower to carpel
of purple flower

3 Pollinated carpel

matured into pod

Planted
seeds
from pod

OFFSPRING
(F1)

Stem length

Genes and Dominance


Mendel

crossed plants with seven different pea


plant traits that each had two contrasting
characteristics and studied the offspring.

generation original pair of plants


F1 generation 1st generation of offspring
F2 generation 2nd generation of offspring

Mendels Crosses
Self-pollination

sperm cells fertilize


egg cells of the same plant (i.e. one
parent, but still sexual reproduction)
True-breeding plants if allowed to selfpollinate, they would always produce
offspring identical to themselves

Ex: true-breeding short plants always have


offspring that are short when then self-pollinate

The F1 Cross
Mendel

wondered if the recessive alleles had


disappeared or if they still existed in the F 1
generation.
He let the F1 plants self-pollinate creating the F 2
generation.

Traits

controlled by the recessive alleles reappeared


in 1/4th of the F2 generation.

Mendel made two conclusions:


Inheritance is determined by factors passed on
from one generation to the next.

1.

Genes pieces of DNA that determine a trait


Alleles different forms of genes
Some alleles are dominant and others are
recessive. (Principle of Dominance)

2.

Dominant allele always expressed as a


trait when present (represented by a capital
letter)
Recessive allele only expressed when the
dominant allele is not present (represented
by a lower case letter)

General Terms:
Homozygous

having two identical alleles for a


trait (ex: TT homozygous dominant or tt
homozygous recessive)

Heterozygous

trait (ex: Tt)

Hybrid

having two different alleles for a

offspring of crosses with different traits

Genotype

TT, Tt or tt)

genetic makeup of an individual (ex:

Phenotype

physical appearance of an individual

Probability

the likelihood that an event will

(ex: brown, tall)

occur

The Albino Trait

Genetics and Probability


Mendel

realized that probability could be used to


explain the results of genetic crosses.

Punnett Squares:
T tall
50% Tt tall
t short
short

Possible

25% TT tall
25% tt

offspring of a Tt x Tt cross:
75% chance - tall and 25% - short (3:1 ratio)

Mendels Law of Segregation:


As seen in P and F1 generations
Dad

T = tall

(dominant)

t = short

(recessive)

Parental!

Mom

TT x

meiosis
Gametes?

Punnett
Square for
monohybrid
crosses

tt

Mendels Law of Segregation:


As seen in P and F1 generations
Dad

T = tall

(dominant)

t = short

(recessive)

Parent 2 Gametes

Parent 1 Gametes

Tt
tall

Tt
tall

Tt
tall

Tt
tall

Mom

TT x

Parental!

tt

meiosis

Tt

Gametes

Genotype = 100% Tt
Phenotype = 100% tall

Mendels Law of Segregation:


As seen in P and F1 generations
Dad

T = tall

Tt

(dominant)

t = short

Mom

Tt

(recessive)

T
Probabilities?

TT
tall

Tt
tall

Tt
tall

t T

Offspring = F2
generation
t t genotype = 1 TT: 2 Tt:
1 tt
short
phenotype = 3 tall : 1

Practicing with Punnett Squares


Parents Tt and tt
T
t

Parents TT and Tt
T
T

Tt

tt

TT

TT

Tt

tt

Tt

Tt

Offspring:
50% Tt tall
50% tt short
ratio - (2:2) or (1:1)

Offspring:
100% TT or Tt tall
ratio - (4:0)

Beyond Dominant & Recessive


Some genes are neither dominant nor
recessive and many traits are controlled by
multiple alleles or multiple genes.
Incomplete

Dominance neither allele is


completely dominant so the heterozygous
phenotype is a blending of traits
Ex:

four oclocks - red flower crossed


with white flower produces pink flower

Codominance
Q: What does cooperate mean?
A: Operate together
Codominance = when both alleles are expressed;
neither is dominant nor recessive
Q: If the two homozygotes are red and white,
whats the phenotype of the heterozygote?
A: The heterozygote shows red and white hairs
Roan

coat in cows and horses

Both

red and white hairs are present

Codominance

both alleles are


dominant so both traits show in the
heterozygous phenotype

Ex: chickens white chicken crossed with


black chicken produces black and white
speckled chicken

Multiple

Alleles many genes have


three or more alleles of the same gene

Ex: blood type

Polygenic

traits traits that are


controlled by two or more genes; show a
wide range of phenotypes.

Ex: skin color is controlled by at least 4


genes

Sex Linked Traits


Q: What are the two types of chromosomes?
A: Sex chromosomes and autosomes
Q: How many sex chromosomes are there?
What are they? What do the different
combinations mean?
A: Two sex chromosomes X & Y
XX = female
XY = male

Color-blindness test!

Color-blindness test!