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B r i t i s h A i r w a y s E n g i n e e r i n g Tr a i n i n g

EASA Part-66 Module 10
Air Legislation
Course Notes
Book 1 of 1

66M10B12
ETBN 0496

ISSUE 2 - APRIL 2012

ENGINEERING
TRAINING

66M10B12
ETBN 0496

ISSUE 2 - APRIL 2012

ENGINEERING
TRAINING

A i r c r a f t

M a i n t e n a n c e

L i c e n c e

T r a i n i n g

Aviation Legislation Notes
These notes have been prepared by British
Airways Engineering Training to provide a source
of reference during your period of training.
The information presented is as correct as
possible at the time of printing and is not subject
to amendment action.
They will be useful to you during your training,
but I must emphasise that the appropriate
Approved Technical Publications must always be
used when you are actually working on the
aircraft.
I trust your stay with us will be informative and
enjoyable.

DAVE WINTER
Examination Compliance Manager

Contents
Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework ...... 2
British Legal System Overview .................... 9
Civil Aviation Act - 1982 .............................. 10
The Air Navigation Order (ANO) ................. 11
Air Navigation Regulations (ANR's) ............ 12
Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) ......................13
CAA Publications .......................................14
Mandatory Modifications and
Requirements ............................................. 16
Joint Aviation Authorities .............................17
General Organisation of the JAA ................ 20
Joint Aviation Requirements ....................... 22
JAR Relationships ...................................... 23
Regulation Organisational Structure .......... 24
Relationship with other Aviation Authorities 25
EASA Part-66 ............................................. 26
EASA Part-145
Approved Maintenance Organisations ....... 36
EASA Part-145 Approval Certificate ........... 54
JAR-OPS 1 ................................................ 58
EASA PART-66
MODULE 10

Air Operators Certificate (AOC) .................59
Documents to be Carried Onboard ............ 62
Information Retained on the Ground ..........63
Aircraft Placards and Markings ..................64
EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance .....68
Occurrence Reporting ...............................76
Certification Requirements (CS-25) ...........77
Type Certificates
(EASA Part-21Subpart B-J) .......................81
Aircraft Certification (Documents) ..............95
Maintenance Planning .............................. 105
Approved Maintenance Schedule ............. 106
Maintenance Planning .............................. 109
Modification Procedures........................... 110
Modification Classes ................................111
Modification Record Book ........................ 112
Mandatory Modification and Inspections .. 113
Modification Work, Certification and
Documentation ......................................... 114
Airworthiness Directives .......................... 115
Mandatory Aircraft Modifications &
Inspections Summary .............................. 116
Stores Procedures ...................................117
Stores Accommodation ........................... 118
Clasification of Parts ................................119
Certification and Release Procedures .....120
Authorisations ..........................................122
Certification ..............................................123
Duplicate Inspection ................................. 124
Interface with Aircraft Operation ...............126
Maintenance Inspection ............................127
Clasification of Inspections ......................128
Scope of Inspection ................................. 129
Quality Control/Quality Assurance ...........132
The Quality Department ........................... 133
Quality Management ................................134
Additional Maintenance Procedures ......... 135
Control of life limited components ............ 140
Minimum Equipment List .......................... 143
Approved Technical Publications (ATP's) 145
All Weather Operations ............................153

AVIATION LEGISLATION
APRIL 2012

1

construction test and maintenance. established its own inspection department for the: • • Acceptance of all incoming supplies Continuous progress inspections during production.AID was formed in 1914 to ensure a consistently high standard of inspection throughout the British aircraft industry. In 1919 the AID was put under the control of the newly formed air ministry. 1919 International Convention of Aerial Navigation. 1929 Warsaw Convention 1932 Carriage by Air Act 1936 Air Navigation Act Following many complaints about civil aviation being controlled by the military. 1920 First British Air Navigation Regulations as a result of the Air Navigation Act. Responsible for a variety of internationaly accepted standards including ATA100 and its successors. • As civilian firms began to tender for contracts. basically: • • • AID ARB CAA and ARB 1914 1936 1971 The period immediately prior to World War 1 saw the rapid growth of the use of aircraft and the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough .the principal constructor of military aircraft at the time.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework The Purpose Of British Legislation To control and regulate: • All phases of British Civil aircraft design. the government decreed that their inspections should be of the same standard as Farnborough’s. 2 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . 1936 Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Organisation formed by a group of US airlines to promote a safe and efficient air transport system. Paris. History British Legislation revolves around three sets of initials. To this end the Aeronautical Inspection Directorate . this act gave power for the Secretary of State for Air to delegate certain of his functions to the Minister for Civil Aviation who in turn delegated his duties to the newly formed Air Registration Board (ARB) which assumed responsibility for the satisfactory construction of civil aircraft. • Operation of all civil aircraft over the UK and the Channel and the Atlantic and the operation of military aircraft over these areas. Final examination and test of the finished aircraft.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework 1914 AERONAUTICAL INSPECTION DIRECTORATE (AID) FORMED 1919 AIR MINISTRY FORMED 1920 BRITISH AIR NAVIGATION REGULATIONS WARSAW CONVENTION 1929 1932 1936 INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON AERIAL NAVIGATION CARRIAGE BY AIR ACT AIR NAVIGATION ACT AIR REGISTRATION BOARD (ARB) CHICAGO CONVENTION INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO) 1944 1945 1948 1949 GENEVA CONVENTION CIVIL AVIATION ACT JOINT AIRWORTHINESS AUTHORITIES (JAA) FORMED 1970 CIVIL AVIATION ACT 1971 CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY (CAA) FORMED EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 1990 JOINT AVIATION AUTHORITIES ‘ARRANGEMENTS’ SIGNED 2003 EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY (EASA) REPLACES JAA AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 3 .

In October of the same year. reviewing in detail the work of the organisation and setting policy for the coming years. It meets every three years.e. composed of representatives from all contracting states. efficient and economical air transport. The Council.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework 1944 Chicago Convention . prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition. promote safety of flight in international air navigation.ICAO The Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention). is composed of 33 states. was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States. encourage the development of airways. The Assembly. The United Kingdom was and remains a participating member (i. It is the Council which sets Standards and it’s Recommended Practices are adopted and incorporated as Annexes to the Convention on Civil Aviation. Transport and the Regions (DETR) of those changes and their acceptability for United Kingdom adoption. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . airports. promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics. It functioned from 6 June 1945 until 4 April 1947. ensure that the rights of Contracting States are fully respected and that every Contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines. the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organisation (PICAO) was established. ICAO works in close co-operation with other members of the United Nations family and nongovernmental organisations which also participate in ICAO’s work include the International Air Transport Association (IATA). it is the responsibility of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) to advise the Department of the Environment. Contracting State) of ICAO. The aims and objectives of ICAO are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and development of international air transport so as to: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 4 ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world. The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission (technical matters). avoid discrimination between Contracting States. Whenever amendments are made to the Convention. By 5 March 1947 the 26th ratification was received. the governing body which is elected by the assembly for a three year term. or to the technical standards. is the sovereign body of ICAO. encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes. the committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services and the Finance Committee. and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation. the International Federation of Airline Pilots’ Associations (IFALPA) and the International Council of Aircraft Owners and Pilots Associations. The International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) came into being on 4 April 1947. the Air Transport Committee (economic matters). ICAO became a specialised agency of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States. regular. meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework UK OTHERS USA FORMED CHICAGO 1944 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION (ICAO) OTHER GOVERNMENTS BRITISH GOVERNMENT US GOVERNMENT LAWS PASSED RATIFYING ICAO CIVIL AVIATION ACT PASSED 1949 RATIFYING ICAO LAWS PASSED RATIFYING ICAO EASA NATIONAL AVIATION AUTHORITIES (NAAs) NATIONAL REQUIREMENTS IR’s AIR NAVIGATION ORDER CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY (CAA) JOINT AVIATION BRITISH CIVIL AUTHORITY AIRWORTHINESS (JAA) REQUIREMENTS (BCARs) JOINT AVIATION REQUIREMENTS (JARs) FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS (FARs) IRS EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 5 .

Airbus) and the import and export of aircraft within the group. routes. Set up a Board to advise on technical aspects of civil aviation.g.but gave no technical definition to those laws. licensing and certification/design standards for aircraft of all classes. Make regulations . • • • 1951 Granting of licences to aircraft maintenance engineers. maintenance. the state owned BOAC and BEA). easy traffic of passengers and cargo between airlines. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . (C of A) • 1955 European Civil Aviation Conferance (ECAC) European Civil Aviation Conferance formed with UK as a founder member. to harmonise civil aviation policies and practices amongst its Member States and promote understanding on policy matters between its Member States and other parts of the world.(Air Navigation Regulations) ANRs. British Airways Board (BAB) to control the activities of British Airways (then. Issue and renewal of Certificate of Airworthiness. Relaunched in 1945 as an international association of airlines which attempts to regulate fares. Main purpose was to develop common standards for the certification of large aircraft and engines to aid development of colaborative projects (e. etc and to use standard procedures to provide quick. it became truly international when PanAm joined in 1939. Its purpose is to promote the continued development of a safe.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework 1945 International Air Transport Association (IATA) It works in close liaison with the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and the Council of Europe. Airworthiness Requirements Board to advise the CAA on matters of design. 1949 Civil Aviation Act Ratified the Chicago convention and all previous laws governing the administration of Civil Aviation . The old ARB became the Airworthiness Division (AWD) of the CAA. efficient and sustainable European air transport system. 1987 Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) The enlarged and renamed Joint Aviation Authorities is extended to cover operations. Enforce the ANOs dealing with conditions of operating and flying in the UK. 6 Joint Airworthiness Authorities (JAA) Joint Airworthiness Authorities formed by several European countries including UK as an associated body of ECAC. construction and maintenance concerned with the issue and renewal of C of As. Originally formed in 1919 as a primarily european oranisation. airport licences etc. During recent reorganisation it's responsibilities have fallen to the Safety Regulation Group (SRG) of the CAA. 1971 Civil Aviation Act The three major provisions of this Act were to establish the: • • • ARB Order Gave power to the Air Registration Board for the: • 1970 Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) to take over from the ARB and control and regulate civil aviation in the UK. Gave authority for the Privy Council and Minister to: • Make orders – (Air Navigation Orders) ANOs.

Certification of non-EU operators.Continued 2003 European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) An Agency of the European Union tasked to: Establish and Maintain a high uniform level of civil aviation safety in Europe. Its mission is to carry out certain executive tasks related to aviation safety. Provide technical expertise to the European Union by assisting in the drafting of rules for aviation safety and providing technical input to the conclusion of the relevant international agreements. it is also likely to play a key role in the safety regulation of airports and air traffic management systems. production and maintenance.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Legislation – Regulatory Framework . While national authorities continue to carry out the majority of operational tasks . such as the certification of aeronautical products and organisations involved in their design. also promoting the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation. In the long-term. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 7 .the Agency ensures common safety and environmental standards at the European level. The aviation inductry benefits from common specifications. The Agency expects to take over these tasks by late 2007 or early 2008. cost-efficient services and a single point of contact. The European Aviation Safety Agency is the centrepiece of the European Union's strategy for aviation safety.such as certification of individual aircraft or licensing of pilots . Licensing of crews in the member states. Current responsibilities include: • • • • Rulemaking Inspections Safety and Environmental Approval and Data The European Commission recently proposed to extend the Agency's responsibilities to further important areas of safety regulation: Rules and procedures for civil aviation operations.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g For Your Notes 8 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

Like the Air Navigation Order. This is done through Statutory Instruments. Subordinate.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g British Legal System Overview A Bill is usually drafted under the supervision of a Minister of the Crown. They all contain a note that explains their scope and purpose. An Order in Council is a type of Statutory Instrument issued by the monarch on advice from the Privy Council. Acts of Parliament cannot always cover every rule or regulation for every detail of the subject they deal with. The Civil Aviation Act is an example. They often relate to the regulation of professions or professional bodies. In order to prevent the need for an Act of Parliament every time a detail needs to be updated or added to. They are. the Cabinet and specialist committees set up. the Air Navigation Regulations are Statutory Instruments. the 'tools' which are used to apply the law. however. subordinate to the Order. secondary or delegated legislation are the descriptions given to the vast body of rules. The Air Navigation Order is just such an order. to whom authority is given to make these changes. and introduced into the House of Commons or House of Lords by a member of Parliament. regulations and bye-laws created by subordinate bodies under specific powers delegated to those bodies by Parliament. orders. If it passes through all its stages of discussion and debate it receives the Royal Assent and becomes an Act of Parliament or ‘Statute’. They are used when an ordinary Statutory Instrument would be inappropriate. Statutory Instruments are issued by Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. an Act can give the Government the power to do this at a later stage. The laws made through these powers are Secondary or Delegated Legislation. CIVIL AVIATION ACT AIR NAVIGATION ORDER AIR NAVIGATION REGULATIONS BRITISH CIVIL AIRWORTHINESS REGULATIONS JOINT AVIATION REQUIREMENTS EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 9 . Statue Law is comprised of Acts of Parliament and subordinate (derived) legislation made under the authority of the parent Act. usually the Secretary of State or Minister. The powers of the Statutory Instruments have the full force of law. They allow changes to be made without the need for a new bill and they name the person. Statutory Instruments are usually drafted in the legal department of the Ministry that presented the Bill to Parliament.

the control of air traffic.1982 The primary aviation legislation in the United Kingdom is the Civil Aviation Act. and for connection purposes. The Act also provides for the constitution of a 'body corporate' called the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). the operation of aerodromes and the provision of assistance and information. Part III of the Act contains provision for making an 'Order in Council' which is refered to as the Air Navigation Order (ANO) and describes its contents. development and production of civil aircraft. Transport and the Regions (DETR) to enforce civil aviation legislation. enacted in 1982.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Civil Aviation Act . So far. the licensing of the provision of accommodation in aircraft. Any breach of any of its requirements is a criminal offence. The Act is an Act of Parliament and can only be amended by Parliament. It replaced the 1971 Act. The Act provides for offences against the provisions of the ANO to be prosecuted. The CAA has been given responsibility by the Department of the Environment. the promotion and safety in the use thereof. carrying out and encouraging measures for: • • • • the development of civil aviation. The act ratifies the Chicago Convention and providesa legal basis for IACO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP’s) in UK law. the safety of air navigation and aircraft (including airworthiness). the certification of operators of aircraft and the licensing of air crews and aerodromes. the designing. such functions as are conferred on it by Air Navigation Orders (ANO) with respect to the registration of aircraft. United Kingdom aviation safety legislation is part of the criminal law. and providing for the prosecution of persons committing offences on foreign aircraft while in flight to the United Kingdom. there has only been one amendment (July 1996). To this effect. research into questions relating to air navigation. 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . the provision of air navigation services. and such other functions as are conferred on it by virtue of the Act or any other enactment. The functions of the CAA are provided for in Article 3 of the Act and include: • • The Act charges the Secretary of State with the general duty of organizing. involving Article 92 of the Act. • the functions conferred on it by the Act with respect to the licensing of air transport. the CAA’s Aviation Regulation Enforcement and Investigation Bureau (AREIB) employs a team of officers to investigate alleged offences and where appropriate prosecute offenders in the criminal courts. It contains 110 articles in five parts and sixteen schedules dealing with the application of some of the sections.

The parts are: Part I Part II Part III Part IV Part V Part VI Part VII Part VIII Part IX Part XI Registration And Marking Of Aircraft Air Operators’ Certificates Airworthiness And Equipment Of Aircraft Aircraft Crew And Licensing Operation Of Aircraft Fatigue Of Crew And Protection Of Crew From Cosmic Radiation Documents And Records Movement Of Aircraft Air Traffic Services General EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 11 . It interprets the clauses and sections of the Act in more detail and although it is also written in ‘officialese’. amendment …………. However. The ANO is amended by an Act of Parliament. the CAA has been given a discretionary power to impose requirements on the basis of being satisfied as to the competence of any applicant for a certificate or a licence.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g The Air Navigation Order (ANO) Since this is an Order in Council then it is subordinate to the Act. If a need for an amendment should arise. You will always find the amendment state included in the title reference given in the opening pages. The information in the Order is arranged as follows: • • • Parts Articles Schedules 14 168 15 Overall they set out what we may loosely term the rules under which all types of aircraft must be operated. To ensure that the applicant has satisfied the CAA requirements. it is more adaptable as a working reference document than the Act. the CAA develops and proposes changes to the legislation but does not have the power to actually amend the legislation. The current order is dated ……………. British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR) or European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) These are listed in numerical sequence on the pages of Section 1 of the Order. it has set out detailed requirements in CAPs.

that a Regulation is subordinate to an Order in Council. – ANR14 sets out in detail mandatory reporting. The ANR's amplify and clarify the ANO and lay down values for regulated restriction such as noise levels. for example. 12 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Aerodrome facilities and Repairs and Replacements which may be done by pilots. Weight and Performance of aircraft. The relationship between the ANO. This is CAP393. For the benefit of those concerned with the day to day matters relating to air navigation. aircraft performance etc. Noise and Vibration at aerodromes. Periodic amendments are also published. The official versions of both the ANO and ANRs .The ANO Articles are expanded in certain areas by the Schedules. Schedule 3 sets out in detail A and B Conditions. ANR’s are subordinate to the ANO.which are known as Statutory Instruments in legal terms . for example. the Schedules and the ANR ANO and Schedules .are published separately by Her Majesty's Stationary Office (HMSO). ANO and ANR . ANO Article 3 refers to ‘B Conditions’ as per Schedule 3.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Navigation Regulations (ANR's) It can be see from the legislative sequence. Therefore.The ANR amplifies and explains certain Articles of the ANO as considered necessary by the CAA. They contain details of establishing regulations on such aspects as load sheets. Radio and Navigational equipment to be carried in aircraft. ANO Article 142 refers to mandatory reporting. the CAA publish a loose-leaf amendable version which combines both the order and the regulations.

and doctors skilled in all branches of aviation medicine. through government appointment. Licences for aircraft of 5700 kgs MTOM and above are issued under EASA Part-66. The CAA is the National Aviation Authority (NAA). surveyors conversant with the latest design and manufacturing techniques. For the certification of maintenance on aircraft below 5700 kgs. which is financially self supporting . To monitor the activities of this complex and diverse industry. that licensed aerodromes are safe to use and that air traffic services and general aviation activities meet required safety standards. It’s main responsibilities are the execution of the articles and regulations of the ANO. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 Specific responsibilities include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Commercial Aviation General Aviation Harmonising European Standards Flight Operations CAA/SRG Support to Government Passenger Safety UK Register of Civil Aircraft Aircraft Maintenance Structures. The CAA is divided into four Groups: • • • • Safety Regulation Group Economic Regulation Group Directorate of Airspace Policy Consumer Protection Group The group most commonly encountered by engineers is the Safety Regulation Group Safety Regulation Group (SRG) The role of the Safety Regulation Group is to ensure that UK civil aviation standards are set and achieved in a co-operative and cost-effective manner. operated and maintained. test pilots able to evaluate all aircraft types. The SRG must satisfy itself that aircraft are properly designed. which provides a common and mutually acceptable standard across NAA member countries. The NAA is the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) representative office within the Member State. aerodrome operations and air traffic control specialists. They have a wide range of skills.Maintenance Engineers This part of the SRG department is responsible for the licensing of Aircraft Maintenance Engineers and the approval of training courses under EASA Part-147. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 13 . the CAA is a public authority. manufactured. that airlines are competent. the SRG employs a team of specialists. that flight crews. experts in flying training. UK National licences will continue to be issued under BCAR Section L. aircraft maintenance surveyors. leisure and recreational aviation activities.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) As previously described. flight test examiners. air traffic controllers and aircraft maintenance engineers are fit and competent. including pilots qualified to fly current airliners. Materials & Propulsion Aircraft Airworthiness Aircraft Design & Manufacturing Flight Crew Licensing Engineer Licensing Medicals Human Factors Air Traffic Control Services Aerodrome Licensing & Inspections Incident Reporting Research International Consultancy & Training Services Personnel Licensing .

The Order and Regulations CAP393 This work sets out the provisions of the Air Navigation Order and regulations made thereunder.Airworthiness Procedures where the CAA has Primary Responsibility for Type Approval of the product. It also contains a number of other relevant regulations. The BCAR requirements may be retained as they still apply to some aircraft on the UK Civil Register AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . 14 C of A Air Operators’ Certificates Company Approvals Engineer’s Licences etc. Aerodrome Aeronautical Charts Air Traffic Services Air Transport System Aircraft Maintenance Aviation Safety CAA Forms CAA Location Maps Design and Production Engineer Licensing Environment Flight Crew Licensing Flight Operations General Aviation Medical Official Record Series Passenger Protection Research Satisfactory compliance with these requirements is required for the issue of such things as: • • • • BCARs are published as leaflets in sections: The principal publications of interest to engineers are: • • • • Air Navigation . Section A . It is published as an amendable loose leaf document. Air Navigation .Airworthiness Procedures where the CAA DOES NOT have Primary Responsibility for Type Approval of the Product. Other BCAR leaflets have been superceded by EASA EC216/2003 and subsequent Implementing Rules and their annexes.CAAIPs Mandatory requirements for Airworthiness CAP 747. CAP 553 Section B .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g CAA Publications The Civil Aviation Authority produces a variety of publications under the following catagories: British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCARS) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • This set of documents interpret legislation given in Part III of the ANO and contain details of minimum requirements which must be met in all the areas of airworthiness for which the CAA has responsibility.The Order and Regulations British Civil Airworthiness Requirements BCARs Civil Aircraft Airworthiness Information and Procedures . CAP 554 Proposed amendments and additions are prepared by the CAA and issued in a series of BCAR papers.

Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aircraft EASA Part-25 Large Aeroplanes EASA Part-26 Additional Airworthiness Requirements for Operations EASA Part-27 Small Rotorcraft EASA Part-29 Large Rotorcraft EASA Part-36 Aircraft Noise EASA Part-66 Certifying Staff Maintenance EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisations EASA Part-147 Approved Maintenance Training/ Examinations EASA Part-APU Auxilliary Power Units EASA Part-AWO All Weather Operations EASA Part-E Engines EASA Part-MMEL-MEL Master Minimum Equipment List/Minimum Equipment List EASA Part-P Propellers EASA Part-VLA Very Light Aeroplanes EASA Part-TSO Joint Technical Standard Orders EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 This is a set of leaflets which give general information on a variety of matters concerned with civil aircraft during manufacture. They do not refer to any particular aircraft or engine type. Civil Aircraft Airworthiness Information and Procedures . Some countries (including the UK) have adopted certain codes as their sole national code. These have now been withdrawn and replaced by Generic Requirements and Information Leaflets. Their status is that they are recognised by the Civil Aviation Authorities of the participating countries as an acceptable basis for showing compliance with their national code (BCARs in the UK). overhaul.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g CAA Publications EASA Administrative and Guidance Material Further EASAs may be added as they are adopted and superceed BCARs and JARs. Airworthiness Notices (CAP 455 withdrawn) Airworthiness Notices are issued by the Civil Aviation Authority to circulate information to all concerned with the airworthiness of civil aircraft.CAAIPs CAP 562 Joint Aviation Requirements (JARs) These are published on behalf of the Joint Aviation Authorities. Those adopted by the UK by September 2002 are listed below: EASA Part-1 Definitions and Abbreviations EASA Part-21 Certification Procedures for Aircraft and Related Parts EASA Part-22 Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes EASA Part-23 Normal. operation and procedures. This includes the Joint Implementation Procedures as well as Temporary Guidance Material and Interim Policies. maintenance. they should be regarded as advisory in nature and the manufacturers manuals and documentation should be consulted for detailed information. specialised equipment or component parts. The Generic Requirements can be found in CAP 747 and Information Leaflets in CAP 562 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 15 . repair. As such. This material is published to provide further information regarding the various EASA activities. Utility.

At this stage the Authority will become a “Candidate Member” and will have access to meetings. expressing its willingness to commit itself to the terms and commitments in the Arrangements. the JAA Committee recommends the JAA Board to grant full membership If deemed necessary by the fact-finding team. In phase 2. however. A report is prepared and sent to the JAAC Chairman when considered satisfactory. after a satisfactory conclusion. The Authority can then formally apply to the Chairman of the JAA Board (JAAB) for membership. the JAA standardisation team visits will be arranged. and no right or obligation to automatic recognition of the approvals issued by its own authority or those of other states. Membership takes effect when the 1990 “Arrangements” are signed. There are 40 member countries in the JAA today. The JAA Committee submits its report to the JAA Board and. for some countries. after signing the JAA Arrangements. to a report to the Chairman of the JAA Committee (JAAC). consistent with the Arrangements. be very prolonged. Central JAA arranges a visit to the Authority by a so called fact-finding team. The current procedure. leading. but: • • no voting rights. This process could. which consists of representatives of the JAA Committee and Central JAA. At present the JAA comprises of 25 full members and 11 candidate members. It is felt. 16 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . which currently consists of 42 member countries. subject to a twothird majority vote. starts with a familiarisation visit by a “candidate” Authority to Central JAA.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g General Organisation of the JAA Membership Membership is open to members of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC). etc. “Two-Phase” membership of the JAA The JAA has a two-phase membership system. the applicant Authority can sign the Arrangements. that such a process is essential to safeguard the high standards and credibility of the JAA.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g General Organisation of the JAA AZERBAIJAN REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA ARMENIA* ICELAND ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA* ECAC 42 MEMBERS ALBANIA* BOSNIA & HERTZEGOVINA BULGARIA CROATIA FORMER YUGOSLAVIA REP of MACEDONIA* REP of MOLDOVA* MONACO NORWAY ROMANIA SERBIA & MONTENEGRO SWITZERLAND TURKEY UKRAINE* POLAND PORTUGAL SLOVAK REPUBLIC SLOVENIA SPAIN SWEDEN UK EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AUSTRIA BELGIUM CYPRUS CZECH REPUBLIC DENMARK FINLAND FRANCE GERMANY GREECE HUNGARY IRELAND ITALY LUXEMBOURG MALTA NETHERLANDS AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 JAA 40 MEMBERS EUROCONTROL 35 MEMBERS EU 25 MEMBERS * = CANDIDATE MEMBERS 17 .

and Commuter Category Aeroplanes EASA CS-25 Large Aeroplanes EASA Part-26 Additional Airworthiness Requirements for Operations EASA CS-27 Small Rotorcraft EASA CS-29 Large Rotorcraft EASA Part-36 Aircraft Noise EASA Part-66 Certifying Staff Maintenance EASA CS-APU Auxiliary Power Units EASA CS-AWO All Weather Operations EASA CS-E Engines EASA-FCL 1 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplane) EASA-FCL 2 Flight Crew Licensing (Helicopter) EASA-FCL 3 Flight Crew Licensing (Medical) EASA-FCL 4 Flight Crew Licensing (Flight Engineers) EASA-MMEL/Master Minimum Equipment List MEL/Minimum Equipment List EU-OPS 1 Commercial Air Transportation (Aeroplanes) EU-OPS 3 Commercial Air Transportation (Helicopters) EASA CS-P Propellers EASA-STD 1A Aeroplane Flight Simulators EASA-STD 1H Helicopter Flight Simulators EASA-STD 2A Aeroplane Flight Training Devices EASA-STD 3A Aeroplane Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainers EASA-STD 3H Helicopter Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainers EASA-STD 4A Basic Instrument Training Devices CS-ETSO Joint Technical Standard Orders CS-VLA Very Light Aeroplanes EASA IR's AMC's and CS's NPA's will progress to harmonise with FAA and FAR's . on 1 July 1979 in the UK. Not all EASAs are adopted similtaneously by the member states and those that are adopted may not be enforced retrospectively. EASA Part-147 EU-OPS 1 Note: Within the EASAs. The most important ones to Aircraft Maintenance Engineers are: • • • • • • • • EC 216 2003 EC 1702 and 2042 of 2003 EASA Part 21 EASA Part M EASA Part-66. For that reason. For instance. the EASAs have the same legal standing as the BCARs they replace. once adopted. and replaced BCAR Section D. "This Code prescribes airworthiness standards. while EASA Part-25 Large Aeroplanes was adopted.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Requirements Opposite is a list of EASA Requirements published as of September 2003. it is proposed to set up the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) under the European Commission.. Due to differences in the legal systems..". In the UK. The EASA would assume responsibility for the EASAs and enforce them through European Union law. the same is not true in all European countries and the EASAs are regarded as recomendations. 18 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . EASA Part-1 Definitions and Abbreviations EASA Part-11 And Related Procedures EASA Part M Continuing Airworthiness Management EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisations EASA Part-147 Approved Maintenance Training/ Examinations EASA Part-21 Certification Procedures for Aircraft and Related Products and Parts EASA CS-22 Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes EASA CS-23 Normal. the BCAR requirements are still valid for aircraft already in service at that date. not requirements in some. While the British Government and the CAA support these proposals. the wording often refers to them as "codes". they become Requirements of the ANRs and are thus legally enforable. e.. That is. Aerobatic. EASA Part-145..g. there are many legislative hurdles to overcome. as a regulatory body with powers of pan-european enforcement. Utility.

35 plus EASA Part-66 subcategory B1 and B2.35 plus EASA Part-66 category C. appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part-145..A.30 states that.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Requirements EU-OPS 1 is the document which contains the requirements for Air Operator Certificate Holders. which will be reduced by the EASA member Authority when satisfied that … EASA Part–147 approved training …… has been received”.A. the training programmes for the various catagories of EASA Part-66 approved staff and the examination process. ". components and parts used for Commercial Air Transport. Also..35 plus EASA Part-66 category A to carry out minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect rectification.. for continued airworthiness and the requirements for the maintenance of aircraft is covered by Part 145 and EU-OPS. In addition such EASA Part-145 approved maintenance Organisation may also use appropriate task trained certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part-145.A..Maintenance is the document which details the requirements for certifying staff including the issue of aircraft maintenance licence and type training. EASA Part-66. EASA Part-145. EU-OPS 1 Commercial Air Transportation (Aeroplanes) Subpart M is now prescribed under Part M. It is. “Certifying staff must meet a minimum civil aircraft maintenance experience requirement appropriate to the EASA Part– 66 aircraft maintenance licence sought..A..A.. engines. applicable to the operation of any civil aeroplane for the purpose of commercial air transportation by any operator whose principal place of business is in a EASA Member State". EASA Part-147 Approved Maintenance Training/Examination is the document which describes the requirements for an approved training organisation. EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisations is the document which prescribes the requirements for an organisation involved in the maintenance of aircraft.A. EASA Part-66 Certifying Staff .” EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 19 .. “… appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part-145.875 General' states. In addition such EASA Part-145 approved maintenance Organisation must have appropriate aircraft type rated staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part145.." EASA Part-M for Maintenace of Large Aircraft for all EU member states and has been adopted by the JAA.30 states that approved maintenance organisations performing line maintenance on aircraft must have. 'EU–OPS 1.35 … plus EASA Part-66 subcategory B1 and B2 to support the category C certifying staff". “In the case of aircraft base maintenance. "An operator shall not operate an aeroplane unless it is maintained and released to service by an organisation appropriately approved/accepted in accordance with EASA Part–145.

and put down in form of EASA Decisions. Like AMC/GM they are put down as Decisions and are non-binding. A comprehensive explanation on AMC in form of questions and answers can be found here. BASIC REGULATION REGULATIONS Initial Airworthiness Continuing Airworthiness Part-21 Part-M Part-FCL DEF GEN II Part-145 Conversion of national licenses Part-ARO ATS III Part-66 Licenses of non-EU states Part-ORO MET IV Part-147 Part-MED Part-CAT AIS V Part-CC Part-SPA CNS VI Part-ARA VII Part-ORA Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 of 5 October 2012 laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to air operations pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1035/2011 of 17 October 2011 laying down common requirements for the provision of air navigation services Air Crew Air Operations ANS common req. SERA ANNEXES I FULL TITLES Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012 of 03/08/2012 laying down implementing rules for the airworthiness and environmental certification of aircraft and related products. parts and appliances. as well as for the certification of design and production organisations Commission Regulation (EC) No 2042/2003 on the continuing airworthiness of aircraft and aeronautical products.Rulemaking Regulations Structure Each Part to each implementing regulation has its own Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material (AMC/GM). and on the approval of organisations and personnel involved in these Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 of 3 November 2011 laying down technical requirements and administrative procedures related to civil aviation aircrew pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council Part-ACAS Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1034/2011 of 17 October 2011 on safety oversight in air traffic management and air navigation services Commission Regulation (EU) No 805/2011 for air traffic controllers’ licences and certain certificates pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1332/2011 of 16 December 2011 laying down common airspace usage requirements and operating procedures for airborne collision avoidance Rules of the air (RoA) Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 923/2012 of 26/09/2011 laying down the common rules of the air and operational provisions regarding services and procedures in air navigation . the respective AMC/GM will be added later. For SERA and ANS implementing regulations. These AMC and GM are amended along with the amendments of the regulations. respectively their parts. Furthermore. Certification Specifications are also related to the implementing regulations. These AMC/GM are so-called ‘soft law’ (non-binding rules). parts and appliances. ATM/ANS safety oversight ATCO Licensing Airspace usage req.

The EASA has established contact and cooperation not only with the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Transport Canada but also with the Interstate Aviation Committee of the CIS. the JAA (now EASA) and the FAA made a commitment to harmonise. which committed them to cooperate in all aspects related to the safety of aircraft. The work on harmonisation of other airworthiness requirements is progressing with a few significant differences remaining. the Brazilian Civil Aviation Authority. EASA . DGACs etc. still retain. full responsibility for the Standards and Recommended Practices defined in each ICAO Annex. Airworthiness requirements for small aeroplanes (EASA/FAR-23): for small rotorcraft (EASA/FAR27): for large rotorcraft (EASA/FAR 29) have achieved a high level of harmonisation. to the maximum extent possible.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Relationship with other Aviation Authorities As most of the countries in the world are among the 185 nations contracting to the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). or in parallel with. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 · · Design and manufacture. Flight crew licensing.will be responsible for ALL NON EU Member States that accept EASA Requirements. Later Transport Canada joined this activity. certificates and licences. The Airworthiness Authorities of some nonEASA nations have adopted or accepted the EASA requirements either in place of.will be responsible for ALL EU Member States. Consequently. the CAA still retains full responsibility for the issue of all UK approvals. CAAs. This enables some Organisations in non-JAA nations to apply for and hold JAA approvals. and their National Aviation Authorities are all bound by the same ICAO Annexes. FAA requirements or their own national code. even though they may have been issued against a requirement issued by the EASA The Authorities for states awaiting acceptance are known as candidate member Authorities and usually apply EASAs although the licences and approvals issued may not be recognised by EASA member Authorities. as contracting states to the ICAO. and many others. Noise and emissions from aircraft and aircraft engines. the Australian Civil Aviation Authority. their governments have a forum for discussion of aviation matters. JAAT and JAAL . where appropriate. operation and maintenance of civil aircraft and related products and parts. the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau. for their state. the UK’s Civil Aviation Authority and other European National Aviation Authorities signed an Arrangements Document referenced “Cyprus 11 September 1990”. This leads to a common set of principles and aims for the various aviation authorities whether they be FAAs. · The individual EASA member National Aviation Authorities. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 21 . the FAR and EASA requirements and associated material regarding: As previously stated. In 1992.

These certifying staff will have their qualifications endorsed in the EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence but such privileges will be limited to certifying under the control of the particular Civil Aviation Authority in accordance with National legislation. 22 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . It should therefore be understood that when existing maintenance certifying staff are converted to EASA Part–66. to continued satisfactory performance. Harmonisation with the United States remains the goal but in the meantime the Federal Aviation Administration has issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for FAR Part 66 which will bring FAR Part 66 closer to the EASA Part–66 standard. For full details always refer to the current issue of EASA Part-66 Sections 1 and 2 and the Appendices. to facilitate the export and import of aviation products. and key items from the Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative /Explanatory Material (AMC and IEM) section as applicable in the UK. In addition there is common agreement that flight and maintenance personnel should be trained and qualified to a common standard to assist Industry in obtaining suitable staff and permit easy movement of such staff across the borders of JAA Countries.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 The following is a plain English interpretation of EASA Part-66. comprehensive and detailed aviation requirements (referred to as the Joint Aviation Requirements (EASAs )) with a view to minimising Type Certification problems on joint ventures. and make it easier for maintenance and operations carried out in one country to be accepted by the Civil Aviation Authority in another country. Despite the limitations existing certifying staff will retain their existing authority to release to service. limitations may be applied to such staff if they do not meet the full EASA Part–66 standard. The term CAA has been used in place of National Aviation Authority for clarity. The EASA are recognised by the Civil Aviation Authorities of participating countries as an acceptable basis for showing compliance with their national airworthiness codes. the detailed content is at variance with FAR Part 66. EASA Part-66 is intended to provide a single standard for future maintenance certifying staff throughout the JAA countries and as such has been issued with no national variants. subject of course. Whilst this EASA has been numbered to align with FAR Part 66 of the United States of America because the subject matter is the same. EASA Part-66 Foreword The national Civil Aviation Authorities of certain countries have agreed common. The Civil Aviation Authorities may also use this EASA as a basis for the qualification of certifying staff to issue certificates of release to service in the non commercial air transport sector.

Orange Paper Amendments are incorporated into the printed text by means of a ‘Change’. these procedures are such that amendment of EASA Part–66 can be proposed by the Civil Aviation Authority of any of the participating countries and by any organisation represented on the Joint Steering Assembly. The EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence issued to them may contain technical limitations where the holder is not appropriately qualified to EASA Part-66 standard. may continue to exercise these privileges. Broadly. These show an effective date and have the same status and applicability as EASA Part–66 from that date. EASA Part–66 is limited to those certifying staff responsible for issuing the CRS for aeroplanes and helicopters with a maximum take off mass of 5700 kg and above. as appropriate. The application of EASA Part-66 to aeroplanes and helicopters below 5700 kg. they may not add other basic categories/sub-categories of qualification to that authorisation unless they satisfy the appropriate additional requirements of EASA Part–66. amended and corrected text is enclosed within heavy brackets. The Civil Aviation Authorities have agreed they should not unilaterally initiate amendment of their national codes without having made a proposal for amendment of the EASA Part-66 in accordance with the agreed procedure. Nothing however prevents a JAA candidate member Authority from issuing a certificate.e. licences and approvals on the basis of standardisation audits.. EASA Part-66 General EASA Part–145 requires appropriately authorised certifying staff to issue a Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) on behalf of the EASA Part–145 approved maintenance organisation when satisfied that all required maintenance has been completed. Personnel authorised to exercise certification privileges in accordance with CAA regulations valid before the effective date of EASA Part–66 (i. BCAR Section L). but this does not change any existing certification privileges. The remainder of the text in EASA makes reference to EASA member Authorities . They may extend the scope of their authorisation to include new aircraft types subject to compliance with CAA regulations valid before the effective date of EASA Part–66. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 23 . auxiliary power units and propellers. However. licence or approval on the basis of a EASA even though it may not be mutually recognised by the EASA member Authorities. Amendments to the text in EASA Part–66 are usually issued initially as ‘Orange Paper’ Amendments. within the time limits stated below. Certifying staff responsible for issuing the CRS must be qualified in accordance with the appropriate requirements of EASA Part–66.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Future development of the requirements for EASA Part-66 will be in accordance with the agreed amendment procedures. only the EASA member Authorities have agreed mutual recognition of certificates. Certifying staff qualified in accordance with previous CAA regulations must be issued a EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence based upon the old qualification without further examination.This is intended to reflect the fact that whilst all the Civil Aviation Authorities subscribe to the concept of common EASAs etc. when the person satisfactorily sits the relevant EASA Part-66 conversion examinations. will be considered in the future. New. The technical limitations will be deleted. airships and aircraft components including engines.

The CAA is the Authority for the UK. Note: The aircraft maintenance licence alone does not permit the holder to issue certificates of release to service in respect of aircraft used for commercial air transport. ‘Organisation procedures’ means the procedures applied by the EASA Part–145 approved maintenance organisation and published in it’s maintenance organisation exposition. confirming that the person to whom it refers has met the EASA Part–66 knowledge and experience requirements for any aircraft basic category and aircraft type rating specified in the document. Applicability EASA Part–66 prescribes the requirements for the qualification of personnel authorised by a EASA Part–145 approved maintenance organisation to issue certificates of release to service in accordance with EASA Part–145. These personnel are required to hold a valid. the aircraft maintenance licence holder must in addition hold a EASA Part–145 certification authorisation issued by a EASA Part–145 approved maintenance organisation.50. which means that any approval certificate or licence issued in accordance with the EASA’s by such an Authority will be recognised and accepted by all other such Authorities. ‘EASA member Authority’ means an Authority who is a full member of the JAA. compliance is required with all the requirements for the appropriate basic category or categories (described later). type rated. JAR–66 was first issued on 03 April 1998 and became effective on 01 June 2001. but it should be remembered that an aircraft type rating is one of the prerequisites for a EASA Part–145 certification authorisation. To issue a CRS for such aircraft. The aircraft maintenance licence will be endorsed with the relevant basic category/categories and where appropriate any aircraft type ratings granted. Definitions For the purpose of EASA Part–66. and a valid EASA Part–145 certification authorisation which grants certification privileges to the individual.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Effectivity Note: The EASA member States are listed in an Appendix of EASA Part-66. EASA Part–66 Aircraft Maintenance Licence which attests to their knowledge and experience. the following definitions will apply: ‘Aircraft maintenance licence’ means a document issued as evidence of qualification. Note: The EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence can be issued without any aircraft type ratings. After 01 June 2001 any person required to be approved in accordance with EASA Part–66 must be in compliance with it. Note: EASA Part–145 contains additional requirements to qualify for certification authorisation. Any person who is required to convert a National qualification to a EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence must do so within 5 years of that date. For the EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence. 24 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . ‘Certification’ means the issuance of a CRS.

Certifying staff must not be less than 21 years of age and must be able to read. Note: The issue of the EASA Part–145 certification authorisation is carried out by the EASA Part–145 approved maintenance organisation after establishing compliance with appropriate paragraphs of EASA Part–66 and EASA Part–145. write and communicate to an understandable level in the language(s) in which the technical documentation and organisation procedures. An applicant who meets the appropriate requirements of EASA Part–66 and has paid any charges prescribed by the CAA is entitled to the EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence. The EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence is issued by the CAA but the process of preparing the licence for issue may be delegated to an appropriately approved EASA Part–145 maintenance organisation. In all cases. are written. communicate at such a level as to prevent any misunderstanding when exercising the privileges of their authorisation. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 25 . make written technical entries and any maintenance documentation entries.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Application and Issue Eligibility An application for issue or amendment of a EASA Part-66 aircraft maintenance licence must be made on the correct form and submitted to the EASA member Authority. read and understand the company procedures. necessary to support the issue of the CRS. the level of understanding needs to be compatible with the level of certification authorisation granted. which can be understood by those with whom they are normally required to communicate. The level of knowledge should be such that the applicant is able to: • • • • read and understand the instructions and technical manuals in use within the organisation.

2 A3 and B1. The certification privileges are restricted to work that the authorisation holder has personally performed. where applicable.1 A2 and B1. within the limits of tasks specifically endorsed on the authorisation. the appropriate type ratings. Category A is sub-divided into subcategories relative to combinations of aeroplanes. Line maintenance certifying mechanic authorisation permits the holder to issue CRS certifications following minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect rectification. Category B2 certifying staff can qualify for any A subcategory as can any avionic mechanic subject to compliance with the appropriate A sub-category requirements.3 A4 and B1. and holding a valid aircraft maintenance licence with. Certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part–66. Base maintenance certifying engineer. will be eligible to hold a EASA Part– 145 certification authorisation in one or more of the following categories: Category A: Category B1: Category B2: Category C: Line maintenance certifying mechanic. turbine and piston engines. as specified in EASA Part–145. up to and including the weekly check or equivalent. helicopters. Line maintenance certifying technician – avionic.4 26 Aeroplanes Turbine Aeroplanes Piston Helicopters Turbine Helicopters Piston AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 Category B1 certifying staff authorisation automatically permits certification in the appropriate A subcategories. Note: The Category A and B1 subcategories are: A1 and B1. Minor scheduled line maintenance means any minor check.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Categories and certification privileges Category A Certifications are made in accordance with the procedures of the EASA Part–145 approved maintenance organisation and within the scope of the authorisation held. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Line maintenance certifying technician – mechanical.

Category B1 is divided into subcategories relative to combinations of aeroplanes. The basis for this certification is that the maintenance has been carried out by competent mechanics and both Category B1 and B2 staff have signed for the maintenance under their respective specialisation. The holder will need to be qualified as Category A in order to carry out simple mechanical tasks and be able to make certifications for such work.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Category B1 Category B2 Line maintenance certifying technician – mechanical authorisation permits the holder to issue CRS certifications following line maintenance. Category C Base maintenance certifying engineer authorisation permits certification of scheduled base maintenance by the issue of a single CRS for the complete aircraft after the completion of all such maintenance. Defect rectification involving test equipment which requires an element of decision making in its application . Category C personnel who also hold category B1 or B2 qualifications may perform both roles in base maintenance. The principal function of the Category C certifying staff is to ensure that all required maintenance has been called up and signed off by the Category B1 and B2 staff before issue of the CRS. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 Category B2 is not sub-divided and covers aeroplanes. including aircraft structure. helicopters.cannot be certified. is also included in the privileges. other on-board test systems/equipment or by simple ramp test equipment. helicopters with turbine and piston engines. Line maintenance certifying technician – avionic authorisation permits the holder to issue certificates of release to service following line maintenance on avionic and electrical systems. turbine and piston engines. Like Category A. Replacement of avionic line replaceable units. providing the serviceability of the system can be established by a simple self-test facility. requiring simple tests to prove their serviceability. powerplants and mechanical and electrical systems.other than a simple go/no-go decision . AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 27 .

Such experience may be combined with approved training so that periods of training can be intermixed with periods of experience rather like the classic apprenticeship.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Basic knowledge requirements Experience Requirements Certifying staff must demonstrate. air taxi organisations. the minimum civil aircraft experience for Category C certifying staff qualified by holding an academic degree in a technical discipline from a university or other higher educational institute accepted by the CAA is three years on a representative selection of tasks directly associated with aircraft maintenance including six months of observation of base maintenance tasks. in base maintenance supporting the Category C certifying staff. a level of knowledge acceptable to the CAA. a combination of both. Full or partial credit against the basic knowledge requirements and associated examination will be given for any other technical qualification considered by the CAA to be equivalent to the EASA Part–66 knowledge standard. whereas Category B1 and B2 must demonstrate a complete level of knowledge in the appropriate subject modules. by examination. or. See EASA Part-66 Appendix 1 for details of Module contents and knowledge level requirements. for Category A three years and for Category B1 or B2 five years. Category C certifying staff must meet the relevant level of knowledge for B1 or B2. or. Certifying staff must meet a minimum civil aircraft maintenance experience requirement appropriate to the EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence sought. Alternatively. The levels of knowledge are directly related to the complexity of certifications appropriate to the particular EASA Part–66 Category which means that Category A must demonstrate a limited but adequate level of knowledge. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . This may be reduced by the CAA when satisfied that either EASA Part–147 approved training or other appropriate technical training has been received. etc. in subject modules appropriate to the EASA Part–66 Category for which an aircraft maintenance licence is issued or extended. The experience must be practical which means the experience of being involved in maintenance tasks on aircraft which are being operated by airlines. 28 The minimum civil aircraft maintenance experience required before possible reductions is. The point being to gain sufficient experience in the environment of commercial maintenance as opposed to only the training school environment. The minimum civil aircraft maintenance experience for category C is three years qualified as a B1 or B2 certifying staff in line maintenance.

The training would include the use of tools and measuring devices. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 29 . c. 3 years recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of training considered relevant by the CAA as a skilled worker. in a nonaviation technical trade.g. or. Failure to carry out this action will invalidate any EASA Part–145 certification authorisation issued on the basis of the aircraft maintenance licence and may require recent aircraft maintenance experience and/or the resit of some examinations before re-issue of the licence. 1 year recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of a EASA Part–147 approved basic training course. but additional experience of civil aircraft maintenance will be required to ensure understanding of the civil aircraft maintenance environment. acceptable to the CAA. For all certifying staff. A skilled worker is a person who has successfully completed a course of training. or. 2 years recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of a EASA Part–147 approved basic training course. repair. c. in a nonaviation technical trade. The CAA will decide for each particular case. For Category B1 or B2 certifying staff the following experience options apply: a. 2 years recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of training considered relevant by the CAA as a skilled worker. 3 years recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft for an applicant having no previous relevant technical training. b. electrical or electronic equipment. 5 years recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft for an applicant having no previous relevant technical training.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Regarding reductions. at least 1 year of the required experience must be recent maintenance experience on aircraft typical of the category/sub-category for which the EASA Part– 66 aircraft maintenance licence is sought. involving the manufacture. for Category A certifying staff the following experience options apply: a. Aircraft maintenance experience gained outside a civil aircraft maintenance environment (e. overhaul or inspection of mechanical. b. or. Military or governmental) will be accepted by the Authority when it is satisfied that such maintenance is equivalent to that required by EASA Part–66. Continuity of the Aircraft Maintenance Licence The EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence holder must submit the licence to the issuing Authority at least once every 5 years for review. or.

Certifying staff must be able to produce their licence if requested by an authorised person within 5 days. Extension to include other aircraft types requires training to a minimum “general familiarisation” level (ATA 104 Level I). EASA Part–145 certification authorisations may only be granted following the satisfactory completion of the relevant Category A aircraft task training carried out by an appropriately approved EASA Part–145 or EASA Part–147 organisation. 30 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Category B1 and B2 certifying staff are required to hold an appropriate aircraft type rated EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence prior to the grant of a EASA Part–145 certification authorisation on a specific aircraft type. Equivalent Safety Cases Category C certifying staff are required to hold an appropriate aircraft type rated EASA Part– 66 aircraft maintenance licence prior to the grant of a EASA Part–145 certification authorisation on a specific aircraft type. when satisfied that a situation exists not covered by EASA Part–66. from any requirement in EASA Part–66. must be satisfactorily demonstrated by an examination. Certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part–66 will be issued with an aircraft maintenance licence by the CAA as evidence of one of the qualifications necessary for the grant of a EASA Part–145 certification authorisation. Ratings will be granted following satisfactory completion of the relevant B1 and/or B2 aircraft type training approved by the CAA or by an appropriately approved EASA Part–147 maintenance training organisation. The CAA may exempt any person required to be qualified in accordance with EASA Part–66. the holder may not.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Type/Task Training and Ratings Evidence of Qualification Category A certifying staff are required to hold an appropriate EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence prior to the grant of a EASA Part–145 certification authorisation on a specific aircraft type. make B1 or B2 certifications on these types. however. as required above. Such exemption and supplementary condition(s) must be agreed by the EASA member Authorities to ensure continued recognition of the person. Completion of approved aircraft task and/or type training. and subject to compliance with any supplementary condition(s) the CAA considers necessary to ensure equivalent safety. Ratings will be granted following satisfactory completion of the relevant category B1 or B2 aircraft type training (ATA 104 Level III) approved by the CAA or by an appropriately approved EASA Part–147 maintenance training organisation. In the case of a Category C person qualified by holding an academic degree the first relevant aircraft type training must be at the category B1 or B2 level.

in addition to the above. suspension or variation of the EASA Part-66 aircraft maintenance licence are contained in EASA Part-66 Guidance Material. • In any case where the CAA has determined that the safe operation of the aircraft is adversely affected the Authority may. as appropriate. Negligent maintenance. until the procedure detailed above is complete. For the CAA to consider a person to be not a fit and proper person means that there is clear evidence that the person has knowingly carried out or been involved in one or more of the following activities. Carrying out maintenance or issuing a CRS when adversely affected by alcohol or drugs. below. • • Before revoking or limiting the EASA Part–66 aircraft maintenance licence or directing the EASA Part-145 approved maintenance organisation the CAA must first give at least 28 days notice to the affected party or parties in writing of its intention so to do and of the reasons for its proposal and must offer the affected party or parties an opportunity to make representations and the Authority will consider those representations. The issue of a CRS knowing that the maintenance specified on the CRS has not been carried out or without verifying that such maintenance has been carried out. provisionally suspend the EASA Part-66 aircraft maintenance licence without prior notice • EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 • • • Obtained the EASA Part-66 aircraft maintenance licence and/or the EASA Part-145 certification authorisation by falsification of submitted evidence. Failed to carry out requested maintenance combined with failure to report such fact to the organisation that requested the maintenance. suspend or limit the EASA Part66 aircraft maintenance licence or direct the EASA Part-145 approved maintenance organisation to revoke.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-66 Revocation. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 31 . suspend or limit the EASA Part-145 certification authorisation if the Authority is not satisfied that the holder of the licence and authorisation is a fit and proper person to hold such licence and authorisation subject to the conditions. Suspension or Limitation of the EASA Part-66 Aircraft Maintenance Licence The CAA may. Falsification of the maintenance record. revoke. The procedures for handling representation regarding revocation. Failed to carry out required maintenance resulting from own inspection combined with failure to report such fact to the organisation for whom the maintenance was intended to be carried out. on reasonable grounds after due enquiry.

AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisations The following is a plain English interpretation of EASA Part-145. Amendments to the text in this EASA Part-145 are usually issued initially as ‘NPA’ Notice of Proposed Amendments. will be in accordance with the agreed amendment procedures. of the EASA for Approved Maintenance Organisations (EASA Part-145). licence or approval on the basis of a EASA even though it may not be mutually recognised by the EASA member Authorities. amended and corrected text is enclosed within heavy brackets.. these procedures are such that amendment of EASA Part-145 can be proposed by the Civil Aviation Authority of any of the participating countries and by any organisation represented on the Joint Steering Assembly. The Civil Aviation Authorities of EASA are therefore committed to early amendment in the light of experience. and key items from the Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative /Explanatory Material (AMC & IEM) section as applicable. The EASAs are recognised by the Civil Aviation Authorities of participating countries as an acceptable basis for showing compliance with their national airworthiness codes. and where appropriate content. however. The Civil Aviation Authorities have agreed they should not unilaterally initiate amendment of their national codes without having made a proposal for amendment of the EASA Part-145 in accordance with the agreed procedure. These show an effective date and have the same status and applicability as EASA Part-145 from that date. This is intended to reflect the fact that whilst all the Civil Aviation Authorities subscribe to the concept of common EASAs etc. and make it easier for maintenance carried out in one European country to be accepted by the Civil Aviation Authority in another European country. Nothing. EASA Part-145 has been issued with no National Variants and as a result in several areas does not contain the detailed compliance information which some Civil Aviation Authorities and Industry organisations would like to see. It was agreed by the authors of EASA Part-145 that it should be applied in practice and the lessons learnt embodied in future amendments. FAR Parts-43 and 145 of the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States of America have been selected to provide the format. 32 Future development of the requirements for this EASA including the above commitment. Appendix 8 provides information relating to which EASA Part-145 paragraph contains the intent of the relevant FAR Parts 43/145 paragraph and vice versa. The remainder of the text in this EASA makes reference to EASA member Authorities. to facilitate the export and import of aviation products. prevents a JAA candidate member Authority from issuing a certificate. Broadly. licences and approvals on the basis of standardisation audits. EASA Part-145 Foreword The Civil Aviation Authorities of certain European countries have agreed common comprehensive and detailed aviation requirements (referred to as the Joint Aviation Requirements (EASAs)) with a view to minimising Type Certification problems on joint ventures. For full details always refer to the current issue of EASA Part-145. only the EASA member Authorities have agreed mutual recognition of certificates. New.

when used for Commercial Air Transport. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 Where an existing sub-paragraph has been amended. NOTE: A maintenance Organisation approval may be granted for maintenance activity varying from that for an aircraft component to that for a complete aircraft. minor engine maintenance. The sub-contractor may carry out limited line maintenance.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 EASA Part-145 General An aircraft. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must have a procedure for the control of sub-contractors. Pre-amendment text should therefore be retained at least until the compliance date has been superseded.g. it is essential to understand that compliance with the pre-amendment text is still required until superseded by the compliance date for the amended text unless the Organisation chooses to comply with the amended text before the compliance date for the amended text. No Organisation may certify for release to service an aircraft component intended for fitment to an aircraft used for Commercial Air Transport unless approved or accepted in accordance with EASA Part-145. alternatively. Effectivity JAR-145 was first issued on 30 July 1991 and became effective on 1 January 1992 although it’s introduction was phased in between then and 31st December 1994. or working under the quality system of an appropriately approved or accepted EASA Part145 maintenance Organisation to work as a subcontractor. No Organisation may maintain such an aircraft component unless either appropriately approved or accepted in accordance with EASA Part-145. maintenance of other aircraft components or specialised services. approved by a non-JAA aviation authority and accepted by a EASA member authority (e. 33 . or working under the quality system of an appropriately approved or accepted EASA Part145 maintenance Organisation. or any combination of the two. NOTE: A EASA Part-145 approval is not required for the pre-flight inspection. the CAA) to meet the EASA Part-145 requirements. EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisations which are also certificated under FAR Part 145 should produce two lists of contracted or sub-contracted maintenance organisations and their capabilities. NOTE: A non-approved Organisation working under the quality system of an approved or accepted EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisation as a sub-contractor is limited to the work scope permitted by the EASA Part-145 procedures of the approved Organisation and may not carry out a base maintenance check of an aircraft or a complete workshop maintenance check or overhaul of an engine or engine module. may not fly unless a certificate of release to service (CRS) has been issued by an Organisation for any maintenance carried out on it or on any aircraft component intended for fitment to an aircraft. It has since been amended and compliance dates are given for the various amendments. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 FAR Part 145 is more restrictive on the subject of sub-contractors. No Organisation may certify for release to service an aircraft used for Commercial Air Transport unless it is either approved in accordance with EASA Part-145 or. No Organisation may maintain a commercial transport aircraft unless appropriately approved or accepted in accordance with EASA Part-145.

‘Maintenance’ means any one or combination of overhaul. ‘Aircraft’ means an aeroplane. ‘Certifying staff’ means those personnel who are authorised by the Approved Maintenance Organisation in accordance with a procedure acceptable to the EASA member Authority to certify aircraft or aircraft components for release to service. ‘Location’ means a place from which an Organisation carries on activities or wishes to carry on activities for which a EASA Part-145 approval is required. repair. helicopter or airship. ‘Accountable manager’ means the manager who has corporate (and particularly financial) authority for ensuring that all maintenance required by the customer can be financed and carried out to the standard required by the EASA member Authority. In the UK this is the CAA and may be referred to as the ‘Authority’ in these notes.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Definitions For the purpose of EASA Part-145 the following definitions shall apply: ‘Accepted in accordance with EASA Part-145’ means an organisation operating under the authority of a Non-EASA member Authority. modification or defect rectification of an aircraft/ aircraft component. 34 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . ‘Inspection’ means the examination of an aircraft/ aircraft component to establish conformity with an approved standard. replacement. but found by a EASA member Authority to meet the requirements of EASA Part-145. inspection.50 Certificates of Release to Service (CRS) within the limitations stated in such authorisation on behalf of the EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisation. ‘EASA Part-145 certification authorisation’ means the authorisation issued to certifying staff by the Approved Maintenance Organisation and which specifies the fact that they may sign EASA Part145. ‘EASA member Authority’ means the national aviation authority of any member state which is a full member of the JAA as listed in the Appendices. ‘Approved by the EASA member Authority’ means approved by the EASA member Authority directly or in accordance with a procedure approved by the Authority. The accountable manger is not necessarily knowledgeable on technical matters as these responsibilities may be delegated. ‘Commercial Air Transport’ means the carriage of Passengers/Cargo/Mail for remuneration. ‘Approved standard’ means a manufacturing/ design/maintenance/quality standard approved by the EASA member Authority. ‘Aircraft component’ means any assembly/item/ component/part of an aircraft up to and including a complete powerplant and/or any operational/ emergency equipment. ‘Approved Maintenance Organisation’ means an Organisation currently approved under EASA Part-145.

is assured. ‘Overhaul’ means the restoration of an aircraft/ aircraft component by inspection and replacement in conformity with an approved standard to extend the operational life. ‘Organisation’ means either an Organisation registered as a legal entity in any jurisdiction whether or not within the territories of the States that have joined the Joint Aviation Authorities. It does not include defect rectification. ‘Maintenance Organisation Exposition ‘ (or MOE) means the document(s) that contain the material required by EASA Part-145 to show how the Organisation complies with it. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 35 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 ‘Maintenance data’ means any information necessary to ensure that the aircraft or aircraft component can be maintained in a condition such that airworthiness of the aircraft. ‘Quality policy’ means the overall intentions and direction of an Organisation as regards quality. ‘Repair’ means the restoration of an aircraft/ aircraft component to a serviceable condition in conformity with an approved standard. ‘Pre-flight inspection’ means the inspection carried out before flight to ensure that the aircraft is fit for the intended flight. as approved by the accountable manager. or serviceability of operational and emergency equipment as appropriate. ‘Modification’ means the alteration of an aircraft/ aircraft component in conformity with an approved standard. Such an Organisation may be located at more than one location and may hold more than one EASA Part-145 approval. or a natural person.

in whole or in part. Satellite facilities and line stations outside the full member States may be included in the approval providing they are listed in the MOE and the EASA member Authority is satisfied with the procedures to control these facilities. The approval. if applicable. when granted. 36 An applicant who meets the requirements of this EASA Part-145 and has paid any charges prescribed by the EASA member Authority is entitled to a Maintenance Organisation Approval. outside these territories will only be granted approval in respect of those location outside the territories if the EASA member Authority is satisfied that there is a need for an approval to maintain aircraft/aircraft components at that location and when in compliance with EASA Part-145. in whole or in part. Alternatively. The form must be completed by the accountable manager and. The EASA Part-145 approved MOE must specify the scope of work deemed to constitute approval. within the territories of the Joint Aviation Authorities full member States will be granted approval in respect of any such location within those territories when in compliance with EASA Part-145. by the nominated person responsible for quality issues. Extent of approval The grant of approval is indicated by the issue of an approval certificate to the Organisation by the EASA member Authority . An Organisation which is located. An Organisation which is located. subject to the Organisation being in compliance with published JAA maintenance special conditions to ensure equivalence to EASA Part-145. The alternative ‘accepted’ Organisation may be required to show a need before being accepted. the EASA member Authority may accept such an Organisation on the basis of an approval granted by an Authority that is not a member or full member of the Joint Aviation Authorities. will apply to the whole Organisation headed by the accountable manager.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Applicability Application and issue This EASA prescribes the requirements for issuing approvals to organisations for the maintenance of aircraft and aircraft components and prescribes the general operating rules for approved maintenance Organisations. The approval certificate will specify the extent of the approval. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . An application for maintenance Organisation approval or for the amendment of an existing maintenance Organisation approval must be made on a form (JAA Form 2) and in a manner prescribed by the EASA member Authority and submitted with the required number of copies of the maintenance Organisation’s exposition (MOE) or amendments to it.

The working environment must be appropriate for the task carried out and in particular special requirements observed. light. to ensure that environmental and work area contamination is unlikely to occur. Hangars are not essential for line maintenance. Unless otherwise dictated by the particular task environment. Secure storage facilities must be provided for aircraft components. planning and technical records. Space must also be provided for maintenance staff to study and complete documentation and maintenance records. This includes hangar space for base maintenance and workshops for component overhaul. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 37 . Specialised workshops and bays must be segregated as appropriate. tools and material. but access is advisable for defect rectification and protection from inclement weather. ensuring in particular. the management of quality. The conditions of storage must be in accordance with the manufacturers instructions to prevent deterioration and damage of stored items. dust etc. the working environment (heat. Access to storage facilities must be restricted to authorised personnel. protection from the weather.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Facility requirements Facilities must be provided appropriate for all planned work. material. equipment and tools. equipment. Office accommodation must be provided appropriate for the planned work including in particular.) must be such that the effectiveness of personnel is not impaired. noise. Storage conditions must ensure segregation of serviceable aircraft components and material from unserviceable aircraft components.

a line maintenance manager. a workshop manager and a quality manager (depending on the size and structure of the organisation). with responsibility for monitoring the EASA Part-145 quality system including the associated feedback system. However. 38 The competence of personnel involved in maintenance and/or quality audits must be established and controlled in accordance with a procedure and to a standard acceptable to the EASA member Authority . Personnel qualified prior to 31 December 2003 in accordance with any national standard recognised by the EASA member Authority may continue to carry out or control NDT tests after 31 December 2003. Those personnel qualified in EASA Part-66 subcategory B1 may carry out or control colour contrast dye penetrant tests. they must qualify for such non-destructive test in accordance with European standard EN 4179. must be nominated. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must have a maintenance man-hour plan showing that the Organisation has sufficient staff to plan. Such person(s) must ultimately be directly responsible to the accountable manager who must be acceptable to the Authority. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . inspect and quality monitor the Organisation in accordance with the approval. if they intend to carry out or control an NDT test for which they were not qualified prior to 31 December 2003.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Personnel requirements A senior person or group of persons acceptable to the EASA member Authority . In addition the Organisation must have a procedure to reassess work intended to be carried out when actual staff availability is less than the planned staffing level for any particular work shift or period. This senior person must have direct access to the accountable manager to ensure that the accountable manager is kept properly informed on quality and compliance matters. Personnel who carry out or control a continued airworthiness non-destructive test (NDT) of aircraft structures or aircraft components must be appropriately qualified for the particular NDT technique in accordance with the European standard EN 4179. The accountable manager must nominate a senior person as described above. whose responsibilities include ensuring that the Approved Maintenance Organisation is in compliance with EASA Part-145 requirements. Personnel who carry out any other specialised task must be appropriately qualified in accordance with the existing national standard recognised by the Authority as an appropriate standard. supervise. perform. although the EASA member Authority may accept an equivalent standard for any EASA Part-145 approved/accepted maintenance Organisation located outside the member States. Typically these will be a base maintenance manager.

must have. continued compliance is required with the current national aviation regulations of the EASA member Authority that granted or proposes to grant EASA Part-145 approval. The availability of Category A certifying staff does not replace the need for EASA Part-66 Category B1 and B2 certifying staff to support the Category A certifying staff but the EASA Part-66 Category B1 and B2 staff need not always be present at the line station during minor scheduled line maintenance or simple defect rectification. the EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisation may also use appropriate task trained certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part-145 and EASA Part-66 Category A to carry out minor scheduled line maintenance and simple defect rectification. In addition the Approved Maintenance Organisation must have appropriate EASA Part-66 Category B1 and B2 personnel to support the Category C certifying staff. • The Approved Maintenance Organisation may in the following circumstances use certifying staff qualified as specified below subject to compliance with the conditions stated for each circumstance. Published JAA additional conditions. • For a repetitive pre-flight airworthiness directive which specifically states that the flight crew may carry it out. In the case of aircraft base maintenance. subject to the EASA member Authority in conjunction with the JAA Maintenance Division being satisfied that such regulations result in a standard of qualification comparable with EASA Part66. the Organisation may use certifying staff qualified in accordance with the national aviation regulations of the State in which the Organisation is based subject to the Authority in conjunction with the JAA Maintenance Division being satisfied that such regulations result in a standard of qualification comparable with EASA Part-66. • For a non-JAA State or non-EASA member State based EASA Part-145 maintenance Organisation approved by a EASA member Authority. Until such time as EASA Part-66 specifies a requirement for certifying staff of aircraft components. • For limited line maintenance carried out by another Organisation under the quality system of an Approved Maintenance Organisation at a non-JAA/non-full member State location. will need to be satisfied to ensure equivalence. In addition. Published JAA additional conditions. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 39 . Until such time as EASA Part-66 specifies a requirement for certifying staff of aircraft under 5 700 kg maximum take-off mass. the Organisation may use certifying staff qualified in accordance with the local national aviation. where specified. will need to be satisfied to ensure equivalence. appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part-145 and EASA Part-66 Category C. continued compliance is required with the current national aviation regulations of the EASA member Authority that granted or proposes to grant EASA Part-145 approval. where specified. the Approved Maintenance Organisation may issue a limited EASA Part-145 certification authorisation to the aircraft commander and/or the flight engineer subject to being satisfied that sufficient practical training has been carried out to ensure that the commander or flight engineer can accomplish the airworthiness directive to the required standard. • In the case of aircraft line maintenance.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Any Approved Maintenance Organisation maintaining aircraft with a maximum take-off mass of 5 700 kg and above. appropriate aircraft type rated certifying staff qualified in accordance with EASA Part-145 and EASA Part-66 Category B1 and/or B2. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must maintain a register of any such EASA Part-66 subcategory B1 and B2 qualified support staff.

This is subject to the EASA Part-145 maintenance Organisation obtaining and holding on file evidence of the experience and the licence. The Authority will require any such maintenance that could affect flight safety to be rechecked by the contracted Approved Maintenance Organisation. 40 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 In the unforeseen case of an aircraft being grounded at a location not having an appropriately approved or accepted EASA Part-145 maintenance Organisation. the Approved Maintenance Organisation contracted to provide maintenance support may issue a ‘one-off’ EASA Part-145 certification authorisation to a person with not less than 5 years maintenance experience and holding a valid ICAO aircraft maintenance licence rated for the aircraft type requiring certification. All such cases must be reported to the EASA member Authority within 7 days of the issuance of such certification authorisation.

if applicable. The record must include those with limited or one off EASA Part145 certification authorisations. Continued validity of the EASA Part-145 certification authorisation is dependent upon continued compliance with EASA Part-145 as applicable.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Certifying staff The Approved Maintenance Organisation must ensure that certifying staff have an adequate understanding of the relevant aircraft and/or aircraft component(s) to be maintained together with the associated Organisation procedures before the issue or re-issue of the EASA Part145 certification authorisation. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must establish a programme for the continuation training and a procedure to ensure compliance with the relevant parts of EASA Part-145 as the basis for issue of EASA Part-145 certification authorisations to certifying staff. qualification and capability to carry out their intended certifying duties in accordance with a procedure acceptable to the EASA member Authority before the issue or reissue of a EASA Part-145 certification authorisation. Certifying staff must be able to produce their EASA Part-145 certification authorisation to any authorised person within a reasonable time. when satisfied that the staff are in compliance with EASA Part145. The manager or person responsible for the quality system must also remain responsible on behalf of the Approved Maintenance Organisation for issuing the certification authorisations to certifying staff. Certifying staff must be provided with a copy of their EASA Part-145 certification authorisation. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must issue a EASA Part-145 certification authorisation that clearly specifies the scope and limits of such authorisation to those staff that it nominates as certifying staff on it’s behalf. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 41 . The Approved Maintenance Organisation must maintain a record of all certifying staff which must include details of any EASA Part-66 aircraft maintenance licence held. all prospective certifying staff must be assessed by the Approved Maintenance Organisation for their competence. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 With the exception of the ‘one off’ EASA Part145 certification previously described. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must ensure that all aircraft release certifying staff are involved in at least 6 months of actual aircraft maintenance experience in any 2 year period. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must ensure that all certifying staff receive sufficient continuation training in each 2 year period to ensure that they have up to date knowledge of relevant technology. The copy may be in either a documented or electronic format. Relevant aircraft and/or aircraft component(s) means those aircraft and/or aircraft component(s) specified in the particular EASA Part-145 certification authorisation. a procedure to ensure compliance with EASA Part-66. all training completed and the scope of their EASA Part-145 certification authorisation. For the purpose of this statement ‘involved in … actual aircraft maintenance’ means the person has worked in an aircraft maintenance environment and has either exercised the privileges of the EASA Part-145 certification authorisation and/or has actually carried out maintenance on at least some of the aircraft type systems specified in the particular EASA Part145 certification authorisation. Organisation procedures and human factor issues. The manager or responsible person may nominate other persons to actually issue the EASA Part-145 certification authorisations in accordance with a procedure acceptable to the EASA member Authority . plus.

AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Any applicable data. such as but not limited to. maintenance standard practises issued by any non-JAA authority. aircraft component or process specified in the approved maintenance Organisation’s approval class rating schedule and any associated capability list. For the purposes of EASA Part-145 applicable maintenance data is. institute or Organisation and recognised by the EASA member Authority as a good standard for maintenance. operational directive or information issued by the JAA or the EASA member Authority . any applicable data. procedure. equipment and particularly test equipment must be controlled and calibrated to standards acceptable to the EASA member Authority at a frequency to ensure serviceability and accuracy. issued by an Organisation under the approval or authority of a non-JAA authority or nonEASA member authority. • • • • • 42 Any applicable requirement. issued by an Organisation under the approval of the EASA member Authority including type certificate and supplementary type certificate holders and any other Organisation approved to publish such data by the said Authority. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must hold and use applicable current maintenance data in the performance of maintenance including modifications and repairs.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Equipment. tools and material Maintenance data The Approved Maintenance Organisation must have the necessary equipment. Any applicable airworthiness directive issued by a non-JAA authority or non-EASA member authority where said authority is the original type certificate authority. tools and material to perform the approved scope of work. such as but not limited to. Unless specified otherwise by the EASA member Authority . where said authority is the original type certificate authority. such as but not limited to. Where necessary. airworthiness directive. Applicable means relevant to any aircraft. maintenance and repair manuals. tools. Records of such calibrations and the standard used must be kept by the approved maintenance Organisation. Any applicable standard. maintenance and repair manuals.

the Approved Maintenance Organisation must show that either it has written confirmation from the operator/customer that all such maintenance data is up to date. In this case the Approved Maintenance Organisation must establish a procedure to ensure correct completion of the aircraft operators workcards or worksheets. or make precise reference to the particular maintenance task(s) contained in such maintenance data. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must ensure that all applicable maintenance data is readily available for use when required by maintenance personnel. Whether approved or not in accordance with this sub-paragraph. Maintenance instruction means an instruction on how to carry out the particular maintenance task. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must provide a common workcard or worksheet system for use throughout relevant parts of the Organisation and must either transcribe accurately the maintenance data described above onto such workcards or worksheets. Such approval is not required for an Approved Maintenance Organisation that only carries out repairs in accordance with the approved type certificate holders published repair data or any other EASA member Authority approved repair data. Workcards and worksheets may be computer generated and held on an electronic data base subject to both adequate safeguards against unauthorised alteration and a back-up electronic data base which is updated within 24 hours of any entry made to the main electronic data base. the Approved Maintenance Organisation must establish a procedure to ensure that appropriate action is taken in the case of damage assessment and the need to use only approved repair data. An Approved Maintenance Organisation must be appropriately approved as required by EASA Part-M to classify repairs as minor or major and to approve minor repair design data. or it has work orders specifying the amendment status of the maintenance data to be used. or it can show that it is on the operator/customer maintenance data amendment list. their workcard or worksheet system may be used if required. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 43 . In the case of operator/customer controlled and provided maintenance data.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 The Approved Maintenance Organisation may only modify maintenance instructions in accordance with a procedure specified in the maintenance Organisation’s MOE where it can be shown that such modified maintenance instruction results in equivalent or improved maintenance standards and subject to the type certificate holder being informed. The Approved Maintenance Organisation may not carry out the engineering design of repairs and modifications by modifying maintenance instructions. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must ensure that maintenance data controlled by the Organisation is kept up to date. Where the Approved Maintenance Organisation provides a maintenance service to an aircraft operator/customer.

When a EASA Part-145 maintenance Organisation approved to maintain the aircraft is unable to complete all maintenance required by the aircraft operator. within the aircraft operators limitations. Such aircraft components must be removed by the specified time unless an appropriate release certificate has been obtained in the meantime. A CRS must contain basic details of the maintenance carried out. whether the maintenance took place as line or base maintenance. This is made on the authorised release certificate/airworthiness approval tag JAA Form One. of the Approved Maintenance Organisation and certifying staff individual issuing such the certificate. A CRS is necessary before flight upon completion of any defect rectification. including approval reference. NOTE: 44 An aircraft component which has been maintained off the aircraft requires the issue of a CRS for such maintenance and another CRS in regard to being installed properly on the aircraft when such action occurs. whichever is the sooner. A CRS must not be issued in the case of any non-compliance known to the Approved Maintenance Organisation which could endanger flight safety. taking into account the availability and use of the maintenance data specified above. A CRS is necessary upon completion of any maintenance on an aircraft component whilst off the aircraft. subject to the aircraft operators agreement and the component having a suitable serviceable tag and being otherwise in compliance with all other JAR-OPS 1 or 3 Subpart M and EASA Part-145 requirements. the date such maintenance was completed and the identity.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Certification of maintenance A certificate of release to service (CRS) is necessary before flight upon completion of any package of maintenance scheduled by the approved maintenance programme (AMP) on the aircraft. while the aircraft operates flight services between scheduled maintenance. The CRS must be issued by appropriately authorised certifying staff on behalf of the Approved Maintenance Organisation when satisfied that all maintenance required by the customer/owner of the aircraft or aircraft component has been properly carried out by the Approved Maintenance Organisation in accordance with the procedures specified in the MOE. then such fact must be entered in the aircraft CRS before issue of the certificate. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . When an aircraft is grounded at a location other than a main line station or main maintenance base due to the non-availability of an aircraft component with the appropriate release certificate. it is permissible to temporarily fit an aircraft component without the appropriate release certificate for a maximum of 30 flight hours or until the aircraft first returns to a main line station or main maintenance base.

the retention period will be that required by JAR-OPS 1 (3) Subpart M and not that specified above. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must retain a copy of all detailed maintenance records and any associated maintenance data for two years from the date the aircraft or aircraft component to which the work relates was released from the approved maintenance Organisation. Reports must be made as soon as practicable but in any case within three days of the Approved Maintenance Organisation identifying the condition to which the report relates.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Maintenance records Reporting of unairworthy conditions The Approved Maintenance Organisation must record all details of work carried out in a form acceptable to the EASA member Authority . together with a copy of any specific approved repair/modification data used for repairs/modifications carried out. NOTE: Where an aircraft operator contracts an Approved Maintenance Organisation to keep the aircraft operator’s certificates of release to service and any associated approved repair/modification data. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 Reports must be made on a form and in a manner prescribed by the EASA member Authority and contain all pertinent information about the condition known to the Approved Maintenance Organisation. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must report to the EASA member Authority and the aircraft type certificate holder any condition of the aircraft or aircraft component identified by the EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisation that could seriously endanger or hazard the aircraft. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must provide a copy of each CRS to the aircraft operator. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 45 . Where the Approved Maintenance Organisation is contracted by a JAR-OPS operator to carry out maintenance. the Approved Maintenance Organisation must also report to the JAR-OPS operator any such condition affecting the operator’s aircraft or aircraft component.

• • 46 Independent audits in order to monitor compliance with required aircraft/aircraft component standards and adequacy of the procedures to ensure that such procedures invoke good maintenance practices and airworthy aircraft/aircraft components. that ensures proper and timely corrective action is taken in response to reports resulting from the independent audits established above. The Approved Maintenance Organisation must establish a quality system that includes.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Maintenance procedures and quality system The Approved Maintenance Organisation must establish a quality policy for the Organisation to be included in the MOE. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . In the smallest Organisations the independent audit part of the quality system may be contracted to another Approved Maintenance Organisation or a person with appropriate technical knowledge and proven satisfactory audit experience acceptable to the EASA member Authority . The Approved Maintenance Organisation must establish procedures acceptable to the EASA member Authority to ensure good maintenance practices and compliance with all relevant requirements in EASA Part-145 which must include a clear work order or contract such that aircraft and aircraft components may be released to service in accordance with EASA Part-145. and: A quality feedback reporting system to the person or group of persons responsible for quality issues previously described and ultimately to the accountable manager.

A list of other Organisations (e. containing the following information: • • • • • • • • • • • A statement signed by the accountable manager confirming that the MOE and any referenced associated manuals defines the Approved Maintenance Organisation’s compliance with EASA Part-145 and will be complied with at all times. A list of certifying staff. An Organisation chart showing associated chains of responsibility of the senior person(s) specified above. When the accountable manager is not the chief executive officer of the Approved Maintenance Organisation then the chief executive officer must countersign the statement. subcontractors). to which the Approved Maintenance Organisation provides an aircraft maintenance service. A list of line stations. The duties and responsibilities of the senior person(s) specified above including matters on which they may deal directly with the EASA member Authority on behalf of the approved maintenance Organisation. A general description of manpower resources. A general description of the facilities located at each address specified in the approved maintenance Organisation’s approval certificate. The MOE amendment procedure. if appropriate. The notification procedure for Approved Maintenance Organisation changes. A specification of the approved maintenance Organisation’s scope of work relevant to the extent of approval. A list of contracted approved maintenance Organisations.g. The Organisations quality policy. The non-management information specified above. may be kept as separate documents or on separate electronic data files subject to the management part of the exposition containing a clear cross reference to such documents or electronic data files. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 NOTE: • • • • • The details above constitute the management part of the maintenance Organisation exposition. whilst a part of the MOE. if appropriate. The approved maintenance Organisation’s procedures and quality system.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE) The Approved Maintenance Organisation must provide a Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE) for use by the approved maintenance organisation. The MOE and any subsequent amendments must be approved by the EASA member Authority. A list of JAR-OPS operators. if appropriate. who work under the EASA Part-145 approval. capable of supporting minor maintenance. The title(s) and name(s) of the senior person(s) responsible for quality issues accepted by the EASA member Authority. if appropriate. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 47 .

the approval certificate. The facilities. The EASA member Authority may prescribe the conditions under which the Approved Maintenance Organisation may operate during such changes unless the EASA member Authority determines that the approval should be suspended. material. Changes to the Approved Maintenance Organisation The Approved Maintenance Organisation must notify the EASA member Authority of any proposal to carry out any of the following changes before such changes take place to enable the EASA member Authority to determine continued compliance with EASA Part-145 and to amend. equipment. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Apart from changes in personnel not known to the management beforehand. these changes must be notified at the earliest opportunity: • • • • • • The name of the Organisation. if necessary.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Privileges of the Approved Maintenance Organisation Limitations on the Approved Maintenance Organisation The Approved Maintenance Organisation may only carry out the following tasks as permitted by and in accordance with the EASA Part-145 MOE: The Approved Maintenance Organisation may only maintain an aircraft or aircraft component for which it is approved when all necessary facilities. Additional locations of the Organisation. The accountable manager. tools. Maintain any aircraft or component for which it is approved at any location subject to the need for such maintenance arising either from the unserviceability of the aircraft or from the necessity of supporting occasional line maintenance subject to the conditions specified in a procedure acceptable to the EASA member Authority and included in the MOE. Any of the senior persons responsible for quality issues. • • • • • 48 Maintain any aircraft or aircraft component for which it is approved at the locations identified in the approval certificate and/or in the MOE. maintenance data and certifying staff are available. work scope and certifying staff that could affect the approval. procedures. The location of the Organisation. Issue certificates of release to service in respect of the above on completion of maintenance. material. Maintain any aircraft or aircraft component for which it is approved at a location identified as a line maintenance location capable of supporting minor maintenance if the MOE both permits the activity and lists the locations. equipment. Arrange for maintenance of any aircraft or aircraft component within the limitations previously described for which it is approved at another Organisation that is working under the quality system of the Approved Maintenance Organisation. tooling.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Continued validity of approval Unless the approval has previously been surrendered. Such supplementary condition(s) must be agreed by the EASA member Authorities to ensure continued recognition of the approval. • The payment of any charges prescribed by the EASA member Authority. suspended. revoked or expired by virtue of exceeding any expiry date that may be specified in the approval certificate. The EASA member Authority will consider those representations. Failure to pay entitles the EASA member Authority to suspend. • The Approved Maintenance Organisation remaining in compliance with EASA Part145 and. the EASA member Authority must first give at least 28 days notice to the holder in writing of its intention so to do and the reasons for its proposal and must offer the holder an opportunity to make representations. suspending. • The EASA member Authority being granted access to the Approved Maintenance Organisation to determine continued compliance with this EASA Part-145 and. • Equivalent safety case The EASA member Authority may exempt an Organisation from a requirement in EASA Part145 when satisfied that a situation exists not envisaged by a EASA Part-145 requirement and subject to compliance with any supplementary condition(s) the EASA member Authority considers necessary to ensure equivalent safety. suspension. the continued validity of approval is dependent upon. limiting or refusing to renew a EASA Part-145 approval certificate. suspend. The EASA member Authority may exempt an Organisation from a requirement in EASA Part145 on an individual case by case permission basis only subject to compliance with any supplementary condition(s) said EASA member Authority considers necessary to ensure equivalent safety. Where the EASA member Authority has determined that the safe operation of an aircraft could be adversely affected. superseded. • Before revoking. on reasonable grounds after due enquiry. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 49 . the EASA Part145 approval certificate without prior notice until the above procedure is complete. limit or refuse to renew the EASA Part-145 approval certificate if theEASA member Authority is not satisfied that the holder of the approval certificate continues to meet the requirements of EASA Part-145 subject to the following conditions. the EASA member Authority may provisionally suspend. revoke. in part or in whole. Revocation. but does not automatically render the approval invalid. limitation or refusal to renew the EASA Part-145 approval certificate The EASA member Authority may.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Approval Certificate 50 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Approval Certificate EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 51 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Approval Certificate 52 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part-145 Approval Certificate EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 53 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g JAR-OPS 1 JAR-OPS 1 Commercial Air Transportation (Aeroplanes) is divided into two sections. no later than 1 October 1999 unless otherwise indicated. customs and police services. Section 1 is divided into subparts and contains the requirements with alpha-numerically referenced headings and paragraphs. Flight Crew Cabin Crew Manuals. and to associated positioning and return flights . 38. It does not apply: • • • to aeroplanes when used in military. Section 2 is broken down in the same way and cross referenced. Subpart B gives details of the General requirements and the Operator ’s responsibilities for the safe operation of an aeroplane. and Section 2 Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretive/Explanatory Material (AMC and IEM). Logs and Records Flight and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air Security JAR–OPS Section 1 Subpart A provides details of the applicability of JAR–OPS 1. TGL No. JAR-OPS 1 Section 1 is divided into these subparts: Subpart A Subpart B Subpart C Subpart D Subpart E Subpart F Subpart G Subpart H Subpart I Subpart J Subpart K Subpart L - Subpart M Subpart N Subpart O Subpart P Subpart Q - Subpart R Subpart S - Applicability General Operator Certification and Supervision Operational Procedures All Weather Operations Performance General Performance Class A Performance Class B Performance Class C Mass and Balance Instruments and Equipment Communication and Navigation Equipment Replaced by EASA Part M. Common Language to be used by all flight crew. Minimum Equipment Lists. 54 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Accident prevention and flight safety programme. to flights immediately before. Quality System. Crew responsibilities. or immediately after an aerial work activity. It contains details of how the requirements may be complied with and interpreted. The requirements in JAR–OPS Section 1 are applicable: • • For operators of aeroplanes over 10 tonnes Maximum Take-Off Mass or with a maximum approved passenger seating configuration of 20 or more. Regulations and Procedures. Section 1 Requirements. Laws. during. to parachute dropping and firefighting flights. For example it prescribes requirments on: • • • • • • • Operational Directives. Subpart A describes who the JAR is applicable to. etc. For operators of all other aeroplanes.

A person nominated as a post holder by the holder of an AOC must not be nominated as a post holder by the holder of any other AOC.Operator Certification and Supervision Before any company can operate an aeroplane for the purpose of commercial air transportation. trained and checked in accordance with Subpart N and Subpart O as appropriate. aircraft. In the UK. Nominated post holders must have managerial competency together with appropriate technical/operational qualifications in aviation. Maintenance. It's aircraft must also be registered in the same country unless otherwise agreed. this is issued by the CAA in accordance with JAR. It must satisfy the Authority that it is able to conduct safe operations and the AOC will be varied. in particular. The number of ground staff is dependent upon the nature and the scale of operations. The team must include an Accountable Manager with the authority to ensure that all the activities can be financed and carried out to the required standard.OPS Subpart C. and it may not hold an AOC issued by another Authority unless otherwise agreed . The operator must satisfy the Authority that the organisation and its management team are suitable for the scope of the operation. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 55 . JAR-OPS requires that the Operator has it's principle place of business or registered office in the same state as the issuing Authority. passenger or cargo. it must hold an Air Operators Certificate (AOC). including their names. a minimum of two people must cover these four areas. The operator must make arrangements to ensure continuity of supervision in the absence of nominated post holders. All of the nominated post holders must be acceptable to the Authority. Crew Training and Ground Operations. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 An operator must have a sound and effective management structure in order to ensure the safe conduct of air operations. Operations and ground handling departments. Crew members The operator must employ sufficient flight and cabin crew for the planned operation. must be contained in the Operations Manual and the Authority must be given notice in writing of any intended or actual change in appointments or functions. The operator must give the Authority full access to it's organisation. must be staffed by trained personnel who have a thorough understanding of their responsibilities within the organisation.and facilities and also to it's EASA Part-145 maintenance provider. Nominated post holders A description of the functions and the responsibilities of the nominated post holders. unless acceptable to the Authorities concerned. Persons nominated as post holders must be contracted to work sufficient hours to fulfil the management functions associated with the scale and scope of the operation. Ground Staff In small organisations one person may hold several of these posts but for operators employing 21 or more staff. suspended or revoked if the Authority is no longer satisfied.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Operators Certificate (AOC) JAR-OPS 1 Subpart C . Other roles must be filled by persons with delegated responsibility for the management and supervision of: • • • • Flight Operations.

(i) establish and maintain an adaquate organisation. it will not remain valid unless the Operator of the aeroplanes has: • • • a standard Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) issued by a JAA member state under IACO Annex 8 preferably inaccordance with EASA-21. that its aircraft are suitably equiped and its crew are adequately qualified for their safe operation. It must also comply with the maintenance requirements of JAR-OPS Subpart M. Office services must be capable. the storage and display of essential records. a maintenance system approved by the authority in accordance with Subpart M satisfied the Authority that it has the ability to. Documentation. The operator must make arrangements for the production of manuals. (ii) establish and maintain a Quality system in accordance with JAROPS Subpart B. without delay. and any other commitments arranged so that they can discharge their supervisory responsibilities. The Operator must maintain operational support facilities at its main operating base. of distributing operational instructions and other information to all concerned. (iv) comply with the maintenance requirements prescribed in Subpart C. those concerned with operational control. now EASA Part M. and flight planning by crews. Accommodation facilities An operator must ensure that working space available at each operating base is sufficient for personnel pertaining to the safety of flight operations. retains responsibility for the maintenance of proper standards. The supervision of crew members and ground staff must be exercised by individuals possessing experience and personal qualities sufficient to ensure the attainment of the standards specified in the operations manual. The duties and responsibilities of these supervisors must be defined. that it has arranged suitable ground handling facilities. It must ensure that every flight is conducted in accordance with 56 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . The Authority may require one or more demonstration flights to be operated as if they were normal commercial air transport flights to satisfy itself that the above requirements have been met. a nominated post holder must be given the task of ensuring that any contractor employed meets the required standards. (v) comply with all other requirements of Subpart C. The Operator must produce an Operations Manual in accordance with JAR-OPS Subpart P and submit it to the Authority. Supervision The number of supervisors to be appointed is dependent upon the structure of the operator and the number of staff employed. The Authority will not issue an AOC. amendments and other documentation. Consideration must be given to the needs of ground staff.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Operators Certificate (AOC) An operator contracting other organisations to provide certain services. In such circumstances. the Operations Manual. and once issued. (iii) comply with required training programmes.

Application for renewal must be submitted at least 30 days before the end of the existing period of valididty.g. The AOC will contain: • • • • • • the official name and business name. the names of the key post holders with their qualifications and experience. Type(s) of aeroplane(s) authorised for use. The initial application for an AOC must be made at least 90 days before the intended operation. Authorised areas of operation.: • CAT II/CAT III (including approved minima) • MNPS • ETOPS • RNAV • RVSM • Transportation of Dangerous Goods. the name of the Accountable Manager. • • • • • • • • Name and location (principal place of business) of the operator. the Operations Manual. the Operators aeroplane maintenance programme. Description of the type of operations authorised. address and mailing address of the applicant. The Operator must notify the Authority of any changes to the information submitted with the application. Date of issue and period of validity. the technical specifications of any contracts with a EASA Part-145 Approved Maintenance Organisation if applicable. upon variation and renewal and for each aeroplane type to be operated: • • • • • the Operator's Maintenance Management Exposition. Except under exceptional circumstances. the following information is also required with the initial application. at least 10 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 57 . Special limitations. the aeroplane technical log. a description of the proposed operation. With regard to the Operators maintenance system. a description of the management organisation. Registration markings of the authorised aeroplane(s) except that operators may obtain approval for a system to inform the Authority about the registration markings for aeroplanes operated under its AOC. Application for a variation must be made 30 days prior to the operation. the number of aeroplanes. and Special authorisations/approvals e.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Air Operators Certificate (AOC) The Operator must provide the following information on the initial application for the Air Operators Certificate: days notice of a proposed change of a nominated post holder must be given.

or parts thereof. such as cargo manifest. Details of the filed ATS flight plan. on each flight. Aeroplane Technical Log containing at least the information required in JAR–OPS. relevant to the type and area of operation. The Aircraft Radio Licence. usability and reliability must be assured. The Authority may permit the information detailed above. deportees and persons in custody. The original or a copy of the Air Operator Certificate. handicapped persons. Any other documentation which may be required by the States concerned with this flight.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Documents to be Carried Onboard JAR-OPS 1 Subpart B stipulates the documents to be carried on the aeroplane on each flight: • • • • • • The Certificate of Registration. passenger manifest etc. Appropriate NOTAM/AIS briefing documentation. and Forms to comply with the reporting requirements of the Authority and the operator. An acceptable standard of accessibility. in addition to the documents and manuals listed above. Notification of special categories of passenger such as security personnel. Appropriate meteorological information. Mass and balance documentation as specified in JAR–OPS Subpart J. inadmissible passengers. Notification of special loads including dangerous goods including written information to the commander as prescribed in JAR–OPS. Also each flight crew member shall. The Certificate of Airworthiness. to be presented in a form other than on printed paper. are carried on each flight: • • • • • • • The operator shall ensure that the current parts of the Operations Manual relevant to the duties of the crew are carried on each flight and those parts of the Operations Manual which are required for the conduct of a flight are easily accessible to the crew on board the aeroplane. and The original or a copy of the Third party liability Insurance Certificate(s). the current Aeroplane Flight Manual must be carried in the aeroplane unless the Authority has accepted that the Operations Manual prescribed in JAR–OPS contains relevant information for that aeroplane. carry a valid flight crew licence with appropriate rating(s) for the purpose of the flight. Also. The original or a copy of the Noise Certificate (if applicable). • Operational Flight Plan containing at least the information required in JAR–OPS. the following information and forms. Current maps and charts and associated documents as prescribed in JAR–OPS. • • • Copies of many of these documents are reproduced further on in thses notes. 58 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . if not considered as crew. The operator shall ensure that.

if this is impracticable. Copies of the relevant part(s) of the aeroplane technical log. or. Mass and balance documentation if required. and Special loads notification. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 59 . Route specific NOTAM documentation if specifically edited by the operator. and The information is retained until it has been duplicated at the place at which it will be stored in accordance with JAR–OPS. at least for the duration of each flight or series of flights: • • • Information relevant to the flight and appropriate for the type of operation is preserved on the ground. The same information is carried in a fireproof container in the aeroplane. This information includes: • • • • • A copy of the operational flight plan where appropriate.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Information Retained on the Ground The operator shall ensure that.

and placards required for the safe operation if there are unusual design. or an acceptable combination must be provided to convey information on the maximum and (where applicable) minimum operating limits. the instrument. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . or near.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Placards and Markings The aeroplane must contain the specified markings and placards. there must be means to maintain the correct alignment of the glass cover with the face of the dial. when markings are on the cover glass of the instrument. disfigured. operating. Colour coding must comply with the following: Each marking and placard prescribed must be displayed in a conspicuous place. Each normal operating range must be marked with a green arc or green line. and may not be easily erased. or obscured. Each take-off and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line. approach. A placard showing the maximum airspeeds for wing-flap extension for the take-off. not extending beyond the maximum and minimum safe limits. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately. a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero reading to the lowest reading obtainable in level flight. minimum safe operating limit must be marked with a red radial or a red line. and landing positions must be installed in clear view of each pilot unless the associated instrument has been colour coded or provided with a limit indicating device. • • Instrument Markings For each instrument. whichever is greater. if applicable. instrument markings. or 5% of the tank capacity. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon. A placard showing the calibration of the magnetic direction indicator in level flight with the engines operating must be installed on. and any additional information. Each calibration reading must be in terms of magnetic heading in not more than 45° increments. and Each engine or propeller speed range that is restricted because of excessive vibration stresses must be marked with red arcs or red lines. 60 • • Each maximum and. For each powerplant instrument either a placard or colour markings. and each instrument marking must be clearly visible to the appropriate crew member. or handling characteristics.

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Aircraft Placards and Markings
Control markings

Miscellaneous markings

Each cockpit control, other than primary flight
controls and controls whose function is obvious,
must be plainly marked as to its function and
method of operation.

Each baggage and cargo compartment, and
each ballast location must have a placard stating
any limitations on contents, including weight, that
are necessary under the loading requirements.
However, under-seat compartments designed
for the storage of carry-on articles weighing not
more than 20 pounds need not have a loading
limitation placard.

Each aerodynamic control must be marked
under the requirements of JAR-25. For instance
the Trim control indicator must be clearly marked
with the range within which it has been
demonstrated that take-off is safe for all centre
of gravity positions approved for take-off.
For powerplant fuel controls, each fuel tank
selector control must be marked to indicate the
position corresponding to each tank, and to each
existing cross feed position. If safe operation
requires the use of any tanks in a specific
sequence, that sequence must be marked on,
or adjacent to, the selector for those tanks. Each
valve control for each engine must be marked
to indicate the position corresponding to each
engine controlled.

For fluid filler openings, fuel fillers must be
marked at or near the filler cover with the word
‘fuel’, the permissible fuel type, and, for pressure
fuelling systems, the maximum permissible
fuelling supply pressure and the maximum
permissible de-fuelling pressure. Oil filler
openings must be marked at or near the filler
cover with the word ‘oil’. Augmentation fluid (e.g.
Water and Methanol) filler openings must be
marked at or near the filler cover to identify the
required fluid.

Each emergency control (including each fuel
jettisoning and fluid shutoff control) must be
coloured red.
Each visual indicator required by JAR-25 for
landing gear, must be marked so that the pilot
can determine at any time when the wheels are
locked in either extreme position, if retractable
landing gear is used.

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Aircraft Placards and Markings
Emergency Exits
Each passenger emergency exit, its means of
access, and its means of opening must be
conspicuously marked. The identity and location
of each passenger emergency exit must be
recognisable from a distance equal to the width
of the cabin. Means must be provided to assist
the occupants in locating the exits in conditions
of dense smoke.
There must be a passenger emergency exit
locator sign above the aisle (or aisles) near each
passenger emergency exit, or at another
overhead location if it is more practical because
of low headroom, visible to occupants
approaching along the main passenger aisle (or
aisles). One sign may serve more than one exit
if each exit can be seen readily from the sign.
A sign must be provided on or adjacent to each
bulkhead or divider that prevents fore and aft
vision along the passenger cabin to indicate
emergency exits beyond, and obscured by the
bulkhead or divider.
Each door that must be used in order to reach
any required emergency exit must have a
suitable placard stating that the door is to be
latched in the open position during take-off and
landing.
The location of the operating handle and
instructions for opening exits from the inside of
the aeroplane must be shown on or near the
exit by a marking that is readable from a distance
of 30 inches.

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All large passenger emergency exits with a
locking mechanism released by motion of a
handle, must be marked by a red arrow with a
shaft at least three quarters of an inch (19 mm)
wide, adjacent to the handle, that indicates the
full extent and direction of the unlocking motion
required. The word OPEN must be horizontally
situated adjacent to the arrow head and must
be in red capital letters at least 1 inch (25 mm)
high. The arrow and word OPEN must be
located on a background which provides
adequate contrast.
Each emergency exit that is required to be
operable from the outside, and its means of
opening, must be marked on the outside of the
aeroplane. The marking must include a 2-inch
coloured band outlining the exit. Each outside
marking including the band, must have colour
contrast to be readily distinguishable from the
surrounding fuselage surface. The contrast
must be such that if the reflectance of the darker
colour is 15% or less, the reflectance of the
lighter colour must be at least 45%. ‘Reflectance’
is the ratio of the luminous flux reflected by a
body to the luminous flux it receives. When the
reflectance of the darker colour is greater than
15%, at least a 30% difference between its
reflectance and the reflectance of the lighter
colour must be provided.
In the case of exits other than those in the side
of the fuselage, such as ventral or tail cone exits,
the external means of opening, including
instructions if applicable, must be conspicuously
marked in red, or bright chrome yellow if the
background colour is such that red is
inconspicuous. When the opening means is
located on only one side of the fuselage, a
conspicuous marking to that effect must be
provided on the other side.

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Aircraft Placards and Markings
Safety equipment
Each safety equipment control to be operated
by the crew in emergency, such as controls for
automatic life raft releases, must be plainly
marked as to its method of operation. Each
location, such as a locker or compartment, that
carries any fire extinguishing, signalling, or other
lifesaving equipment must be marked
accordingly.
Stowage provisions for required emergency
equipment must be conspicuously marked to
identify the contents and facilitate the easy
removal of the equipment. Each life raft must
have obviously marked operating instructions.
Approved survival equipment must be marked
for identification and method of operation.

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EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance
An operator shall not operate an aeroplane
unless it is maintained and released to service
by an organisation appropriately approved/
accepted in accordance with EASA Part–145
except that pre-flight inspections need Part–145
organisation.
This Subpart prescribes aeroplane maintenance
requirements needed to comply with the
operator certification requirements in JAR–OPS.

Maintenance responsibility
An operator shall ensure the airworthiness of the
aeroplane and the serviceability of both
operational and emergency equipment by:

EASA Part- M is divided into subparts A-I.

The accomplishment of pre-flight
inspections;
The rectification to an approved standard
of any defect and damage affecting safe
operation, taking into account the
minimum equipment list and configuration
deviation list if available for the aeroplane
type;
The accomplishment of all maintenance
in accordance with the approved
operator ’s aeroplane maintenance
programme;
The analysis of the effectiveness of the
operator ’s
approved
aeroplane
maintenance programme;
The accomplishment of any operational
directive, airworthiness directive and any
other continued airworthiness requirement
made mandatory by the Authority.
Until formal adoption of JAR–39, the
operator must comply with the current
national aviation regulations; and
The accomplishment of modifications in
accordance with an approved standard
and, for non-mandatory modifications, the
establishment of an embodiment policy.

The operator shall ensure that the Certificate of
Airworthiness for each aeroplane operated
remains valid in respect of:


The requirements stated above;
Any calendar expiry date specified in the
Certificate; and
Any other maintenance condition specified
in the Certificate.

The requirements specified above must be
performed in accordance with procedures
acceptable to the Authority.

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When an operator is not appropriately approved in accordance with EASA Part-145.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance Maintenance Management The operator must either be appropriately approved in accordance with EASA Part–145 to carry out the requirements specified in JAR– OPS or. Also in the case of aeroplane component maintenance. together with all amendments. the contract. The Authority does not require the commercial elements of a maintenance contract. is the nominated postholder referred to in JAR-OPS. such a contract details the functions specified in JAR-OPS. The Nominated Postholder for Maintenance should not be employed by a EASA Part-145 approved/accepted Organisation under contract to the Operator. Aeroplane base and scheduled line maintenance and engine maintenance contracts. the maintenance can be contracted to an appropriate EASA Part–145 approved/accepted organisation. The person. together with all amendments. The operator must employ a person or group of persons acceptable to the Authority to ensure that all maintenance is carried out on time to an approved standard so that the maintenance responsibility requirements prescribed in JAROPS are satisfied. must be acceptable to the Authority. when the Authority is satisfied. the contracted organisation is a JAR-OPS Operator of the same type of aeroplane. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 65 . arrangements must be made with an appropriately approved organisation to carry out the requirements specified in JAR-OPS. or senior person as appropriate. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 The operator may have a contract with an organisation that is not EASA Part-145 approved/ accepted. the contract may be in the form of individual work orders to the Maintenance Organisation. is acceptable to the Authority. provided that : • • • • for aeroplane or engine maintenance contracts. all maintenance is ultimately performed by EASA Part-145 approved/accepted organisations. unless specifically agreed by the Authority. The Nominated Postholder for Maintenance is also responsible for any corrective action resulting from the quality monitoring function of JAR-OPS. The arrangement must normally be in the form of a written maintenance contract between the operator and the JAR-145 approved/accepted maintenance organisation detailing the functions specified in JAR-OPS and defining the support of the quality functions of JAR-OPS. the contract may be in the form of individual work orders to the Maintenance Organisation. The Authority does not require the commercial elements of a maintenance contract. and defines the support of the quality functions of JAROPS. In the case of an aeroplane needing occasional line maintenance. including engine maintenance.

66 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . The programme will be required to include a reliability programme when the Authority determines that such a reliability programme is necessary. including frequency.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance Aeroplane Maintenance Programme An operator must ensure that the aeroplane is maintained in accordance with the operator’s Aeroplane Maintenance Programme (AMP). The operator ’s aeroplane maintenance programme and any subsequent amendment must be approved by the Authority. of all maintenance required to be carried out as specified in the Approved Maintenance Schedule (AMS). The programme must contain details.

The current maintenance statement giving the aeroplane maintenance status of what scheduled and out of phase maintenance is next due except that the Authority may agree to the maintenance statement being kept elsewhere. All outstanding deferred defects that affect the operation of the aeroplane. The current aeroplane certificate of release to service. TECH LOG MAINTENANCE REVIEW STATEMENT EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 67 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance Technical Log An operator must use an aeroplane technical log system containing the following information for each aeroplane: • • • • • The aeroplane technical log system and any subsequent amendment must be approved by the Authority. and Any necessary guidance instructions on maintenance support arrangements. Information about each flight necessary to ensure continued flight safety.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance TECH LOG SECTOR DEFECTS PAGE TECH LOG ALLOWABLE DEFERRED DEFECTS PAGE 68 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance TECH LOG DAMAGE RECORD AND DAMAGE CHART 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 A B C D E F G M N O EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 69 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g For Your Notes 70 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g EASA Part M – Aeroplane Maintenance Maintenance Records The operator shall ensure that the aeroplane technical log is retained for 24 months after the date of the last entry. The operator shall ensure that a system has been established to keep. The time and flight cycles as appropriate. and Details of current modifications and repairs to the aeroplane. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 71 . the following records for the periods specified: • • • • • • All detailed maintenance records in respect of the aeroplane and any aeroplane component fitted to it – 24 months after the aeroplane or aeroplane component was released to service. propeller(s) and any other aeroplane component vital to flight safety – 12 months after the aeroplane has been permanently withdrawn from service. The current status of airworthiness directives applicable to the aeroplane and aeroplane components – 12 months after the aeroplane has been permanently withdrawn from service. of equivalent work scope and detail. since last overhaul of the aeroplane or aeroplane component subjected to an overhaul life – Until the aeroplane or aeroplane component overhaul has been superseded by another overhaul of equivalent work scope and detail. An operator shall ensure that when an aeroplane is permanently transferred from one operator to another operator the records specified above are also transferred and the time periods prescribed will continue to apply to the new operator. The total time and flight cycles as appropriate. in a form acceptable to the Authority. The current aeroplane inspection status such that compliance with the approved operator ’s aeroplane maintenance programme can be established – Until the aeroplane or aeroplane component inspection has been superseded by another inspection. of the aeroplane and all life limited aeroplane components – 12 months after the aeroplane has been permanently withdrawn from service. engine(s).

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Occurrence Reporting
The requirements for reporting airborne and
ground based accidents and occurrences are
stated in JAR-OPS, EASA Part-145 and BCARs.
The following is a summary of this information.
Terminology
Incident - An occurrence, other than an
accident, associated with the operation or
maintenance of an aircraft which affects, or
could affect the safety of operation.
Serious Incident - An incident involving
circumstances indicating that an accident nearly
occurred.
Accident - An occurrence associated with the
operation or maintenance of an aircraft in which:

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a person is fatally or seriously injured
the aircraft sustains damage or structural
failure which adversely affects the
structural strength, performance or flight
characteristics of the aircraft; and would
normally require major repair or
replacement of the affected component;
except for engine failure or damage, when
the damage is limited to the engine, its
cowlings or accessories; or for damage
limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas,
tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents or
puncture holes in the aircraft skin: or
the aircraft is missing or is completely
inaccessible.

The Operator must establish procedures for
reporting incidents, both internally and to the
Authority when required.
While the aircraft is operational (under the
command of the flight crew) the commander or
the operator of an aeroplane shall submit a report
to the Authority of any incident that endangers
or could endanger the safety of operation. The
commander shall also ensure that all known or
suspected technical defects and all
exceedances of technical limitations occurring
while he was responsible for the flight are
recorded in the aircraft technical log. If the
deficiency or exceedance of technical limitations
endangers or could endanger the safety of
operation, the commander must in addition
initiate the submission of a report to the Authority.
Ground found occurrences and incidents during
maintenance must also be reported through the
Operators procedures and systems and, if they
are of an airworthiness nature, must be reported
to the Authority. Any person finding such an
airworthiness occurrence has a duty to ensure
it is reported to the Authority.
The Operator must have procedures and staff
in place to respond to any occurrences reported,
and take timely corrective action and/or pass
them on to the Authority when required. They
must also be able to respond the any
recommendations or orders made by the
Authority in relation to these occurrences.

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Certification Requirements (EASA CS-25)
All aircraft must be Type Certified to ensure they
meet the minimum requirements for safe
operation. These requirements or airworthiness
standards vary depending on the type of aircraft.
CS-23 gives the requirements for “Normal, Utility,
Aerobatic and Commuter Category Aeroplanes”,
CS-25 for “Large Aeroplanes”, CS-27 for “Small
Rotorcraft” and CS-29 for “Large Rotorcraft”.
It should be noted that the airworthiness
requirements for Engines, Propellers and
Auxiliary Power Units, which must be separately
Certified, are found in CS-E, CS-P and CS-APU
respectively. CS-23, -25, -27 and -29 give the
airworthiness requirements for the aircraft with
all the equipment installed.
The procedures for Certification are found in
EASA Part-21 Certification Procedures for
Aircraft and Related Products and Parts.
The following description is based on CS-25
Large Aeroplanes.
CS-25 prescribes airworthiness standards for
the issue of type certificates, and changes to
those certificates, for Large Turbine-powered
Aeroplanes.
Each person who applies for such a certificate
or change must show compliance with the
applicable requirements in this Code (CS-25).
It is divided into 8 Subparts plus appendices:
Subpart A
Subpart B
Subpart C
Subpart D
Subpart E
Subpart F
Subpart G

-

Subpart J -

General.
Flight.
Structure.
Design and Construction.
Powerplant.
Equipment.
Operating Information and
Limitations.
Gas Turbine Auxiliary Power
Unit Installations.

Subpart B – Flight describes the requirements
for:

General including weights and balance,
centre of gravity and loading;

Performance for stall speed, takeoff,
landing, braking distances, en-route flight
and single engine climb and flight;

Controllability and Manoeuvrability
including longitudinal, lateral, directional
and speed control;

Trim;

Stability including longitudinal, lateral,
directional and dynamic stability;

Stall including characteristics and
warnings;

Ground Handling Characteristics including
stability and control when taxiing and in high
wind and;

Miscellaneous Flight Requirements such
as vibration and buffeting, high speed
characteristics and flight in rough air.
Subpart C – Structure, describes the strength
requirements, load limits and safety factors for:
Flight Loads generally;

Flight Manoeuvre and Gust Conditions
including speed, manoeuvre and
turbulence load limitations;

Supplementary Conditions including
Engine and APU torque and side load
limits, and pressurised compartment
loads;

Control Surface and System Loads for
normal operations, ground gust conditions
and unsymmetrical loads;

Ground Loads including landing gear,
rebound, braking, taxiing and ground
handling, jacking and tie-down provisions;

Emergency Landing Conditions including
ditching;

Fatigue Evaluation and damage tolerance
and;

Lightning Protection.

Subpart A – General describes the applicability
of the JAR.

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Certification Requirements (JAR-25)
Subpart D - Design and Construction states
that the aeroplane may not have design features
or details that experience has shown to be
hazardous or unreliable. The suitability of each
questionable design detail and part must be
established by tests. Design and Construction
requirements are specified for:

General including materials, fabrication
methods, fasteners, accessibility, damage
and failsafe factors;

Control Surfaces and their installation and
hinges;

Control Systems including stability
augmentation, automatic and poweroperated systems and trim systems;

Landing Gear including shock absorption,
retraction, wheels, tyres, brakes and
steering;

Personnel and Cargo Accommodations
including pilot compartment, it’s doors ,
windows and controls, cabin doors, seats,
placards, stowage compartments, and
floors;

Emergency Provisions including ditching,
emergency exits, lights and markings, and
evacuation;

Ventilation and Heating including fresh air
and heating system;

Pressurisation and;

Fire Protection including extinguishers,
flammability of materials, cabin and cargo
compartment design.

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Subpart E – Powerplant defines the
requirements for:

General including the installation of the
engines, propellers, reverser systems and
operating characteristics;

Fuel Systems including storage, supply,
flow and pressure;

Fuel System Components including
pumps, valves, lines and filters;

Oil Systems including tanks, pumps, lines
and filters;

Cooling;

Air intake Systems;

Exhaust Systems;

Powerplant Controls and Accessories
including engine, propeller and reverser
controls, and ignition systems;

Powerplant Fire Protection including
firewalls and zones, shut-off, detection and
extinguisher systems and extinguishants.
Subpart F – Equipment describes the
requirements for the function and installation of:

General including flight and navigation
instruments, powerplant instruments;

Instrument Installations including
arrangement and visibility, warning, caution
and advisory lights, pitot and static
systems, and automatic pilot system;

Electrical Systems and Equipment
including components and distribution
systems;

Lights including instrument lights, landing
and position lights, and anti-collision lights;

Safety Equipment including ditching
equipment, ice protection and public
address systems;

Miscellaneous Equipment including
electronic equipment, vacuum, hydraulic
and high pressure pneumatic systems,
protective breathing equipment and oxygen
systems, cockpit voice and flight data
recorders;
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detection and extinguishing systems. Oil System including lines. charts. Markings and Placards Additional requirements are given for Essential APUs.Gas Turbine Auxiliary Power Unit Installations describes the requirements for: • • • • • • • • • General including installation and operating characteristics.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Certification Requirements (JAR-25) Subpart G . fittings and valves. Cooling. Equipment. i. VRA Weight.Operating Information and Limitations describes the requirements and limitations such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • The Appendices provide graphs. fittings. centre of gravity and weight distribution Powerplant limitations Auxiliary power unit limitations Minimum flight crew Markings and placards Aeroplane flight manual Operating procedures Subpart J . diagrams and additional information to aid the interpretation of the requirements contained in the various Subparts. Intake Systems including de-icing.e. Controls and Accessories. Maximum operating limit speed Manoeuvring speed Flap extended speed Landing gear speeds Rough air speed. Operating Limitations. Exhaust Systems. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 75 . Fuel System and Components including lines. antiicing and screens. valves radiators and drains. those which may be used in flight for emergency purposes. Fire Protection including firewalls.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g For Your Notes 76 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

when available. • The product has novel or unusual design features relative to the design practices on which the applicable airworthiness code is based. Designation of Applicable Requirements An application for an aircraft engine. the operating characteristics. or in its Type Certificate Data Sheet of the State of Design. has shown that unsafe conditions may develop. The special conditions contain such safety standards as the Agency finds necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established in the applicable airworthiness code. and the proposed operating limitations. if the related airworthiness code does not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for the product. the Authority will apply such alternative procedures as are necessary to provide equivalent confidence in the findings of compliance with requirements.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Type Certificates (EASA Part-21Subpart B) The following pages are extracted from: EASA Part-21 Certification Procedures for Aircraft and Related Products and Parts. or Experience from other similar products in service or products having similar design features. Any Special Conditions prescribed in accordance with Part-21. • Airworthiness Codes • The Agency shall issue in accordance with Article 14 of the basic Regulation airworthiness codes as standard means to show compliance of products. or The intended use of the product is unconventional. (i) Otherwise specified by the Authority. named special conditions. Application for a Type Certificate An application for a Type Certificate must be made in a form and manner acceptable to the Authority. when the Authority may agree to accept an application from a person who does not hold and has not applied for an appropriate Design Organisation Approval. including the proposed operating characteristics and limitations. of the engine or propeller. specific to indicate to applicants the conditions under which certificates will be issued. or propeller are: The applicable EASA/JAA Requirements that are effective on the date of application for that certificate unless. The applicable requirements consist of those defined in its Data Sheet. or (ii) Compliance with later effective amendments is elected or required. An application for an aircraft Type Certificate must be accompanied by a three-view drawing of that aircraft and preliminary basic data. because: • • In the latter case. Such codes shall be sufficiently detailed and EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 The applicable requirements for the issue of a Type Certificate for an aircraft. Eligibility The National Aviation Authority (CAA in the UK) will only accept an application for a Type Certificate submitted by a person holding an appropriate Design Organisation Approval. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 77 . parts and appliances with the essential requirements of Annex I to the basic Regulation. Special conditions The Agency shall prescribe special detailed technical specifications. or propeller Type Certificate must be accompanied by a general arrangement drawing. for a product. plus the additional requirements referred to in Part-21. and Airworthiness Directives of the State of Design. except where a product is of simple design. a description of the design features. aircraft engine.

BCARs) in the absence of a comprehensive set of EASA rules. or File for an extension of the original application and comply with the applicable airworthiness codes that were effective on a date. the proposed change is. In the case where a type-certificate has not been issued. if: • • • The applicant has obtained an appropriate Design Organisation Approval. unless an applicant shows at the time of application that its product requires a longer period of time for design. the declaration of this paragraph must be made according to the provisions of Part-21 Issue of a Type Certificate: aircraft. and testing. (2) Any airworthiness provisions not complied with are compensated for by factors that provide an equivalent level of safety. power. Compliance with applicable requirements The applicant for a Type Certificate must show compliance with applicable requirements. (1) The product to be certificated meets the applicable requirements. The applicant must declare that he has shown compliance with all applicable requirements. Changes requiring a new Type Certificate Any person who proposes to change a product must make a new application for a Type Certificate if: • • 78 The Authority finds that the proposed change in design. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . or obtained the Authority’s agreement to an alternative procedure under Part-21. It is shown in a manner acceptable to the Authority that. In the case of an aircraft. within the time limit established the applicant may: • • File a new application for a type-certificate and comply with all the provisions applicable to an original application. not earlier than the date which precedes the date of issue of the type-certificate by the time limit established for the original application. or weight is so extensive that a substantially complete investigation of compliance with the applicable requirements is required. to be selected by the applicant. configuration. the applicant shall also comply with any other amendment that the Agency finds is directly related. The applicant has submitted the declaration that he has shown compliance with all applicable requirements. development. and (4) The Type Certificate holder is prepared to comply with Part-21 responsibilities. Where the applicant holds an appropriate Design Organisation Approval.g. (3) No feature or characteristic makes it unsafe for the uses for which certification is requested.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Type Certificates (EASA Part-21 Subpart B) An application for type-certification of large aeroplanes and large rotorcraft shall be effective for five years and an application for any other type-certificate shall be effective for three years. aircraft engines and propellers Without prejudice to other provisions of national laws applicable (e. or it is clear that a type-certificate will not be issued. power limitations (engines). (1) In the number of engines or rotors. and the Agency approves a longer period. speed limitations (engines). (2) To engines or rotors using different principles of propulsion or to rotors using different principles of operation. the Authority issues a Type Certificate for an aircraft or an aircraft engine. and. If an applicant elects to comply with an amendment to the airworthiness codes that is effective after the filing of the application for a type-certificate. or propeller.

Inspection and Tests The applicant must allow the Authority to make any inspection and any fight and ground test necessary to check the validity of the Declaration of Compliance submitted by the applicant and to determine that no feature or characteristic makes the product unsafe for the uses for which certification is requested. propeller or part thereof presented to the Authority for tests. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 79 . each applicant must have made all inspections and ground and fight tests necessary to determine: • • That the design complies with the airworthiness requirements relevant to the tests performed. The Airworthiness Limitations section of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness as required by the applicable requirement. propeller. and (iii) That the manufacturing processes.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Type Certificates (EASA Part -21 Subpart B) Type Design Furthermore. the determination of the airworthiness of later products of the same type. and Any other data necessary to allow by comparison. necessary to define the configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the Applicable Requirements. propeller. or part thereof. and a listing of those drawings and specifications. Each Type Design shall be adequately identified. construction and assembly adequately conform to those specified in the Type Design. (ii) That parts of the products adequately conform to the drawings in the Type Design. aircraft engine. The applicant must submit a statement of conformity to the Authority for each aircraft. and No change may be made to an aircraft. Before tests are undertaken. aircraft engine. (i) That materials and processes adequately conform to the specifications in the Type Design. • • No aircraft. aircraft engine. For the test specimen. aircraft engine. or part thereof may be presented to the Authority for test unless compliance has been shown for that aircraft. or part thereof between the time that compliance is shown for that aircraft. propeller. unless otherwise authorised by the Authority: The Type Design consists of: • • • • The drawings and specifications. aircraft engine. or part thereof and the time that it is presented to the Authority for test. Information on materials and processes and on methods of manufacture and assembly of the product necessary to ensure the conformity of the product. propeller.

Responsibilities The manuals have to be approved by the authority. to the Authority. on request.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Type Certificates (EASA Part-21 Subpart B) Flight Tests Transferability Flight testing for the purpose of obtaining a Type Certificate shall be conducted in accordance with conditions for such flight testing specified by the Authority. its parts and appliances are reliable and function properly. and provide copies. and For aircraft to be certificated under EASA Part-21. to determine whether there is reasonable assurance that the aircraft. shall be held by the Type Certificate holder at the disposal of the Authority and shall be retained in order to provide the information necessary to ensure the continued airworthiness of the product. The applicant must make all flight tests that the Authority finds necessary: Availability To determine compliance with the applicable certification requirements. the operating limitations. The Type Certificate holder for an aircraft. maintain and update master copies of all manuals required by the applicable type certification requirements for the product. including inspection records for the product tested. has demonstrated his ability to qualify under the criteria of EASA Part-21. he shall continue to meet the qualification requirements for eligibility under EASA Part-21. or a termination date is otherwise established by the Authority. For aircraft incorporating turbine engines of a type not previously used in a type certificated aircraft. drawings and test reports. revoked. and. aircraft engine. as they will form part of the AMM. Record keeping Each holder of a Type Certificate shall undertake the responsibilities in EASA Part-21 for this purpose. All relevant design information. on request. the flight test must include at least 300 hours of operation with a full complement of engines that conform to a type certificate. suspended. to the Authority. the applicable requirements with which the Authority records compliance. Transfer of a Type Certificate may only be made to a Person that is able to undertake the responsibilities in EASA Part-21. The holder of a Type Certificate shall make the certificate available. for this purpose. except gliders and except aeroplanes of 2730 kg or less maximum certificated weight. 80 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . and any other conditions or limitations prescribed for the product in the applicable requirement. the type certificate data sheet. For all other aircraft. Type Certificate Manuals The Type Certificate is considered to include the type design. • • Duration A Type Certificate is effective until surrendered. or propeller shall produce. at least 150 hours of operation are required.

(1) All parts of the Type Design and the approved Manuals affected by the change. or other characteristics affecting the airworthiness of the product. A “minor change” is one that has no appreciable effect on the weight. reliability. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 • • By the Authority. as specified in EASA Part-21.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Changes to the Type Certificates (EASA Part-21 Subpart D) Classification of Changes in Type Design Minor changes Changes in Type Design are classified as minor and major. balance. An application for approval of a change to a Type Design must be made in a form and manner acceptable to the Authority and must include: • • A description of the change identifying. through the use of procedures that have been agreed with the Authority. and (2) The requirements with which the change has been designed to comply in accordance with EASA Part-21. Minor changes in a Type Design may be classified and approved either: Application An applicant for approval of a major change must: • Submit to the Authority substantiating data together with any necessary descriptive data for inclusion in the Type Design. and must be adequately identified. or By an appropriately approved design Organisation. Identification of any re-investigations necessary to show compliance of the changed product with the applicable requirements. structural strength. • Declare that he has shown Compliance with applicable requirements and must provide to the Authority the basis on which such a declaration is made. operational characteristics. All other changes are ‘‘major changes”. All changes (major and minor) must be approved in accordance with EASA Part-21 as appropriate. • Show that the changed product complies with applicable requirements. Major changes AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 81 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g For Your Notes 82 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

the applicant has entered into an arrangement with the Type Certificate holder: The Type Certificate holder has advised he has no technical objection to the information submitted. • • Eligibility The Authority will only accept an application for a Supplemental Type Certificate submitted by a person holding or having applied for an appropriate Design Organisation Approval. Except for major changes submitted by an STC holder who is also the Type Certificate holder. Transferability Transfer of a Supplemental Type Certificate may only be made to an Organisation which is able to undertake the responsibilities of EASA Part21 and for this purpose has demonstrated its ability to qualify under EASA Part-21. and The Type Certificate holder has agreed to collaborate with the Supplemental Type Certificate holder to ensure discharge of all responsibilities for continued airworthiness of the changed product through compliance with EASA Part -21. or the Authority’s agreement to alternative procedures. Changes to that part of a Product covered by a Supplemental Type Certificate • Minor Changes. in addition to complying with EASA Part-21 the applicant has satisfied the Authority that The applicant has obtained an appropriate Design Organisation Approval. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 Where. An application for an STC must include the descriptions and identification required by EASA Part-21. together with a justification that the information on which those identifications are based is adequate either from the applicant’s own resources. Minor changes to that part of a product covered by an STC must be classified and approved. • Major Changes. or through an arrangement with the Type Certificate holder. under EASA-21. Application for a Supplemental Type Certificate An application for a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) must be made in a form and manner acceptable to the Authority. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 83 . each major change to that part of a product covered by an STC must be approved as a separate STC.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Supplemental Type Certificates(EASA Part-21 Subpart E) Applicability Procedural requirements for the approval of major changes to the type design such as change of engine type or addition of a main deck cargo door are covered under the Supplemental Type Certificate procedures. Issue of a Supplemental Type Certificate The Authority issues a Supplemental Type Certificate if.

changes to those variations of the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness shall be made available to all known operators of a product incorporating the Supplemental Type Certificate and shall be made available. suspended. to any person required by another EASA to comply with any of those Instructions. on request. to any other person required by another EASA to comply with any of the terms of those Instructions. prepared in accordance with the applicable requirements. and furnish copies of these manuals to the Authority on request. or propeller. on request. on request.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Supplemental Type Certificates(EASA Part-21 Subpart E) Responsibilities Instructions for Continued Airworthiness Each holder of a Supplemental Type Certificate shall make the certificate available. 84 In addition. aircraft engine. shall furnish at least one set of the associated variations to the Instructions for Continued Airworthiness. and update master copies of variations in the manuals required by the applicable type certification requirements for the product. and undertake the responsibilities: The holder of the Supplemental Type Certificate for an aircraft. revoked. Implicit in the collaboration with the Type Certificate holder. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . or a termination date is otherwise established by the Authority. Manuals The holder of a Supplemental Type Certificate shall produce. to the Authority. to each known owner of one or more aircraft. aircraft engine. maintain. or upon issuance of the first Certificate of Airworthiness for the affected aircraft. upon its delivery. and thereafter make those variations in Instructions available. whichever occurs later. or propeller incorporating the features of the Supplemental Type Certificate. necessary to cover the changes introduced under the Supplemental Type Certificate. • • Specified in EASA Part-21. Duration A Supplemental Type Certificate is effective until surrendered.

placards. when applicable. and maintenance standard of the aircraft. Availability Each aircraft for which the Authority has issued a Certificate of Airworthiness shall upon request be made available for inspection by the Authority. The manuals. Application An application for a Certificate of Airworthiness must be made in a form and manner acceptable to the Authority. certificate has been issued in accordance with EASA Part-21. Each application must include: • For new aircraft. Transferability In case of change of ownership of an aircraft. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 85 . Eligibility Any owner (or the agent of the owner) of an aircraft may apply for a Certificate of Airworthiness for that aircraft. modification. Amendment or modification A Certificate of Airworthiness may be amended or modified only by the Authority. with a loading schedule. listings. (ii) The Flight Manual when such material is required by the applicable Airworthiness Requirements for the particular aircraft. for each aircraft in accordance with the applicable EASA. provided the aircraft remains on the same register. with a loading schedule. (ii) A Weight and Balance report. the Certificate of Airworthiness is transferred together with the aircraft. when applicable. when required by the applicable Airworthiness Requirements for the particular aircraft. for each aircraft in accordance with the applicable EASA. • For used aircraft. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 Classification Standard Certificates of Airworthiness are certificates issued for aircraft for which a type. (i) A Weight and Balance Report. (iii) Historical records to establish the production. the statement required by EASA Part-21. (i) A Statement of Conformity or. and instrument markings and other necessary information required by applicable EASAs must be presented in a language acceptable to the Authority. for an imported aircraft.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Certificates Of Airworthiness (EASA Part-21 Subpart H) Applicability Language This Subpart prescribes procedural requirements for the issue of Certificates of Airworthiness. (iii) The Flight Manual.

applicable in the absence of a comprehensive set of EASA rules. or termination by order of the Authority of a Certificate of Airworthiness. revoked. upon presentation of the documentation required by EASA Part-21 together with. upon request. the Authority issues a Certificate of Airworthiness for New aircraft. or Evidence that. Issue of Standard Certificates of Airworthiness Without prejudice to other provisions of national laws. and to applicable Airworthiness Directives. revoke or terminate a Certificate of Airworthiness. either: • Upon suspension. and for Used aircraft. and any applicable Supplemental Type Certificate. or a termination date is otherwise established by the Authority. and (iii) The Authority finds that the aircraft conforms to the Type Design and is in condition for safe operation. revocation. suspended. a Certificate of Airworthiness is effective within any period specified therein. and provided the aircraft remains on the same register.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Certificates Of Airworthiness (EASA Part-21 Subpart H) Duration The Authority may suspend. (i) The aircraft conforms to a Type Design approved under a Type Certificate. an effective Certificate of Airworthiness issued by a EASA Authority. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . as long as the maintenance is performed in accordance with the applicable EASA requirement. Unless sooner surrendered. 86 • At the time of transfer. and (ii) The aircraft has been inspected in accordance with the appropriate EASA. and relating to that aircraft. A Certificate of Airworthiness is invalid when the Type Certificate under which it is issued is suspended or revoked under EASA Part-21. upon presentation of the documentation required. be surrendered to the Authority. it shall.

Application Each application for a Design Organisation Approval must be made in a form and manner acceptable to the Authority and must include an outline of the information required by EASA Part21. and To ensure that its responsibilities are properly discharged in accordance with. The applicant must show that the Organisation has established and can maintain a Design Assurance System for the control and supervision of the design. and adequacy of. and the Terms of Approval requested to be issued under EASA Part-21. and (ii) The Terms of Approval issued under Part-21. comply with the applicable requirements. (i) The appropriate regulations of Part21. or the design change thereof. or for a JTSO Authorisation.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Design Organisation Approval (EASA-21 Subpart J) Applicability Design Assurance System This Subpart prescribes procedural requirements for the approval of design organisations designing products or changes to products and rules governing the holders of such approvals. The applicant must specify the manner in which the Design Assurance System accounts for the acceptability of the parts or appliances designed or the tasks performed by partners or subcontractor according to methods which are the subject of written procedures. • from the holder of a Type Certificate or equivalent that has been issued by a National Authority other than according to Part-21. Requirements for Issue • • • To ensure that the design of the products. This monitoring must include a feed-back system to a person or a group of persons having the responsibility to ensure corrective actions. for a Supplemental Type Certificate. The Authority issues a Design Organisation Approval when it is satisfied that compliance has been shown with the applicable requirements of Subpart JA. and of design changes. or • for the purpose of obtaining the privilege to classify changes and/or repairs and approve minor changes and/or minor repairs. This Design Assurance System must be such as to enable the Organisation: Eligibility The Authority will only accept an application for a Design Organisation Approval under Part-21 Subpart J: • in association with an application for a Type Certificate. the documented procedures of the system. The Design Assurance System must include an independent checking function of the showings of compliance on the basis of which the Organisation submits compliance statements and associated documentation to the Authority. of products covered by the application. To independently monitor the compliance with. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 87 . • for the purpose of obtaining the privilege to approve major repairs or to obtain approval of major repairs.

the categories of products and the specific products or changes (or repairs) thereof for which the design organisation holds a Design Organisation Approval. and must contain. the handbook must include a statement of how the applicant will be able to give. and copies of amendments shall be supplied to the Agency. 88 Terms of Approval are issued as part of a Design Organisation Approval. the assurance of compliance required. which must be regarded as a change of significance. Change to the Terms of Approval The applicant must furnish a statement of the qualifications and experience of the management staff and other persons responsible for making decisions affecting airworthiness in the Organisation. directly or by crossreference. Changes in Design Assurance System After the grant of a Design Organisation Approval. Each holder of or applicant for a Design Organisation Approval must allow the Agency to make any inspections and any flight and ground tests necessary to check the validity of the compliance statements submitted by the applicant under Part-21. descriptions and information on the design activities and organisation of those partners or subcontractors. either directly or by cross-reference. must be approved by the Authority. Except for a change in ownership of the Organisation. Application for a change to the Terms of Approval must be made in writing to the Agency The applicant must comply with the applicable requirements of Subpart J. as necessary to establish this statement. the Organisation. and must therefore comply with Part-21.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Design Organisation Approval (EASA-21 Subpart J) Data Requirements Transferability The applicant must furnish a handbook to the Agency which must describe. An application for approval shall be submitted in writing to the Agency and the Design Organisation shall show. that it will continue to comply with Part-21 after implementation. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . for all parts and appliances. Terms of Approval The handbook shall be amended as necessary to remain an up-to-date description of the Organisation. to the satisfaction of the Agency on the basis of submission of proposed changes to the handbook. and the functions and duties that the Organisation is approved to perform in regard to the airworthiness of products. This lists the types of design work. including investigations of partners and/or subcontractors. Investigations Each holder of or applicant for a Design Organisation Approval shall make arrangements that allow the Agency to make any investigations. a Design Organisation Approval is not transferable. Each change to the Terms of Approval must be approved by the Agency. the relevant procedures and the products or changes to products to be designed. and before implementation of the change. necessary to determine compliance with the applicable regulations in Subpart J. Where any parts or appliances or any changes to the products are designed by partner organisations or subcontractors of the applicant. each change to the Design Assurance System that is significant to the showing of compliance or to the airworthiness of the product.

compliance documents submitted by the Organisation for the purpose of: • • • Obtaining a Type Certificate or approval of a major change to a Type Design. Approve minor changes to Type Design (and minor repairs) under procedures agreed with the Agency. Obtaining a Joint Technical Standard Order (JTSO) Authorisation under Part-21 may be accepted by the Agency without further verification. and issue such changes. within his Terms of Approval: Duration A Design Organisation Approval remains valid until: • • • • Surrendered by the holder of the Design Organisation Approval. under procedures agreed with the Agency. or Suspended or revoked by the Agency. Approve the design of major repairs to products for which he holds the Type Certificate or the Supplemental Type Certificate.” Approve documentary changes to the Aircraft Flight Manual under a procedure agreed with the Agency. [xyz]. suspend or revoke a Design Organisation Approval if it : • • • Finds that the Organisation does not comply with the applicable requirements. (NAA). or A termination date otherwise established by the Authority. • • • The Authority may restrict.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Design Organisation Approval (EASA Part-21 Subpart J) The holder of a Design Organisation Approval may. or The end of a specified duration. Privileges Subject to Part-21. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 89 . or Finds evidence that the Design Assurance System cannot maintain satisfactory control and supervision of the design of products or changes thereof under the approval. • • Classify changes to Type Design (and repairs) as “major” or “minor” under a procedure agreed with the Agency. JA. Issue information or instructions containing the following statement under procedures agreed with the Agency: “The technical content of this document is approved under the authority of (NAA). or Is prevented by the holder or any of its partners and/or subcontracts to perform the investigations. or Obtaining a Supplemental Type Certificate. DOA nr.

• Determine that the design of. 90 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . • Except for minor changes or repairs approved under the privilege of Part-21. comply with applicable requirements and have no unsafe feature.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Design Organisation Approval (EASA Part-21 Subpart J) Responsibility of Holder of Design Organisation Approval The holder of a Design Organisation Approval shall: • Maintain the handbook in conformity with the Design Assurance System. • Ensure that this handbook is used as a basic working document within the Organisation. submit to the Authority statements and associated documentation confirming compliance with the above. or changes (or repairs) thereof. • Submit to the Authority information or instructions related to required actions under Part-21 to ensure compatibility with related Airworthiness Directives. Products. as applicable.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 91 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION UNITED KINGDOM CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY 92 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) NOISE CERTIFICATE EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 93 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) DAMAGE RECORD SHEET AND DAMAGE CHART 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 A B C D E F G M N O 94 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) RADIO INSTALLATION APPROVAL EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 95 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) RADIO STATION LICENCE 96 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) INSURANCE CERTIFICATE EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 97 .

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) CIVIL AIRCRAFT LANDING PERMIT 98 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

BAe 125-700B G . Farnborough Airport. E2:0401 CERTIFICATE OF MAINENTENANCE REVIEW EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 99 . GU14 6XA CERTIFICATE OF MAINTENANCE REVIEW AIRCRAFT TYPE: REGISTRATION: CONSTRUCTION No.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) FARNBOROUGH AVIATION SERVICES Ltd ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Business Aviation Centre. Approval Stamp Signed : Name : A.N. Hants. Other Date: THE NEXT MAINTENANCE REVIEW IS DUE : th 29 October 2001 28th February 2002 For Minor Maintenance Status refer to the Supplementary Inspection Record Sheets in the front of the Aircraft Technical Log Book.BJDJ 257142 'Certified that a maintenance review of this aircraft and such of its equipment as is necessary for its airworthiness has been carried out in accordance with the requirements of the Air Navigation Order for the time being in force'.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Aircraft Certification (Documents) CERTIFICATE OF MAINENTENANCE REVIEW JAR-OPS WAIVER 100 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .

and all associated systems and installations. the schedule specifies periods at which each shall.). as appropriate. cleaned. The Approved Maintenance Schedule contains details of all the procedures by which it is proposed that the Airworthiness of an aircraft will be preserved on a continuing basis. The maintenance requirements are dictated by an Approved Maintenance Schedule produced for each aircraft type. lubricated. its engine and auxiliary power unit (A.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Maintenance Planning Approved Maintenance Programme Approved Maintenance Schedule (A. instruments. At the end of the specified time such components must be removed from the aircraft and replaced by new or overhauled items. Certain components are given a limited ‘life’ on an aircraft. The AMS covers each part of the aircraft. The Manufacturer or Constructor produces a recommended AMS. The type and degree of inspection is also stated. adjusted. tested and inspected or replaced. Note: The difference between a Maintenance Schedule and a Maintenance Manual is that the Schedule says What is to be done and When.M.) An Approved Maintenance Programme (AMP) is a plan for the regular and systematic maintenance of Civil Aircraft and components. For all these items. propellers. equipment.P. The Approved Maintenance Schedule specifies routine inspection and maintenance work to be carried out during a series of maintenance checks on an aircraft. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 101 . accessories. components. be checked. while the Manual describes How each operation is to be carried out.S. electrical and radio apparatus.U. at intervals defined as a number of flying hours completed or as a number of days elapsed (elapsed calendar time).

102 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Aerial Work Category and Private Category. Part 6 . For aircraft below this weight the Operator has the choice of either following the same procedure or using the generic Light Aircraft Maintenance Schedule (LAMS). Part 4 . public health or similar purposes.Structural Inspection Programme.S. Part 2 .Lists all Maintenance Significant Items (M.Component Tasks . CAA Approval Certificates.Routine Maintenance Requirements This part of the Schedule comprises all the routine maintenance work and includes servicing. Part 7 .I. • aeroplanes and rotorcraft not exceeding 2730 kg certified in the Transport Category (Passenger).S. A typical A. Contains all workshop scheduled and unscheduled tasks. Part 1 .Ramp Maintenance .Corrosion Prevention Control Programme – Lists CPCP inspection and maintenance tasks. functional checks and lubrication requirements. • all aircraft flying for the purpose of public transport or dropping or projecting any material for agricultural. Mandatory – Lists all the Mandatory tasks from Parts 2 – 5. Check Cycle. list of applicable aircraft registrations. comprises the following parts: In respect of aircraft registered in the UK. produced by the CAA.730 kg the Maintenance Schedule used may be drawn up by either the Manufacturer or the Operator but must be submitted to the CAA for approval.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Approved Maintenance Schedule For aircraft with a maximum total weight authorised (MTWA) exceeding 2. Transport Category (Cargo).) components.M. the requirement for maintenance in accordance with Maintenance Schedules approved by the CAA applies to: Part 3 .Aircraft Inspection Requirements – Zonal and Highlight inspections.General information – Introduction. Inspection standards etc.Lists the Transit and Ramp check tasks. Part 5 .

whichever is sooner 190 hours 540 hours 99 days 190 days 24 months 48 months 8 years from new. A typical Check Cycle for the Boeing 747-400 is shown below. Like the AMS itself it may be developed by the operator to satisfy their particular operational requirements. thereafter 10 years M2 FIRST M1 M1 I2 I2 I1 S2 S2 S2 0 I1 S2S2 S2 2 S2 S2 S2 4 I2 I1 S2 S2 S2 6 S2 S2 S2 8 I1 S2 S2 S2 10 S2 12 S2 S2 S2 14 S2 S2 S2 S2 16 18 YEARS S2 S2 S1 R3 0 S2 S1 R3 3 R3 6 S1 R3 9 R3 12 R3 15 18 MONTHS R2 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 = TRANSIT CHECK = RAMP CHECK = SERVICE CHECK = INTER CHECK = MAJOR CHECK R3 R2 R1 T R S I M R1 R1 R1 T 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 HOURS EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 103 . Major 2 NEP After every flight To be completed at each London Transit (LHR or LGW) 50 hours or 7 landings. thereafter 5 years 13 years from new or 5 years from first Major. but the trend is towards using the Manufacturers recommended cycle as the standard. Ramp Check 1 Ramp Check 2 Ramp Check 3 Service Check 1 Service Check 2 Inter 1 Inter 2 Major 1 The Never Exceed Periods (NEPs) for each check may be specified in calendar time (years. months and days) flying time (thousands of hours) or cycles (flights or landings) or a mixture of all three.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Approved Maintenance Schedule Check Transit Check London Transit Check Cycle The Check Cycle in Part 1 of the AMS is the timetable of maintenance checks designed to ensure continuing airworthiness of the aircraft.

At the next Inter check the repair will be carried out when it can be contained within the ‘downtime’ of the aircraft.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Approved Maintenance Schedule Maintenance Checks As we have seen. Inter checks about a week and Major checks 4 to 6 weeks. Of course. This is the most common cause of maintenance overruns. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . but typically for a large transport aircraft a Transit check will take less than an hour. For instance a structural crack discovered during a Service Check may require a longer period of time to repair than is available during the check. Any additional inspection will be added to the aircraft Tech Log with instructions for the check period so it can be signed off at the appropriate intervals. It will be assessed against criteria found in the Structural Repair Manual and. Service checks 1 or 2 days. the scheduled tasks to be performed in each check are dictated by the AMS. The planned length of each check varies. depending on the size and age of the aircraft. it will be classed as an Allowable Deferred Defect (ADD). availability of spares and materials and availability of manpower. if found to be acceptable for further service. Additional non-AMS tasks such as Special Checks. Each check in the hierarchy includes the appropriate tasks from the previous check. 104 The repair of non-critical defects found during a check may deferred to a more appropriate length of check. modifications and non-airworthiness items will be added. If. The SRM may specify that a temporary repair and/or periodic inspection is required to assure continued airworthiness. however. deferment is not an option and rectification must be performed before release back to service. the actual time taken will depend on factors including faults and defects found during the check. Ramp checks 2 or 3 hours. the defect is of a serious nature. For example the Ramp Check 2 contains all the tasks of the Ramp 1 plus some additional ones.

based on ATA100. These provide a degree of automation and may use Gant Charts to display the targets or ‘milestones’ to be achieved during the check. Modifications. the check documentation must be produced. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 For small aircraft and components in workshops. configuration changes and non-airworthiness tasks (e. for a Major Check on a large aircraft this would be a daunting task! In most organisations. It may be expedient to carryout some tasks early to avoid a special maintenance input which would disrupt the airline schedule. or programming cleaning and rectification tasks in the same area at the same time. The items in the task or job database are often referenced using the Aircraft Maintenance Task Oriented Support System (AMTOSS). which the major manufacturers now use to identify specific tasks in the Maintenance Manual. Again. servicing parts and materials. parts to repair known defects (ADDs) and perform modifications.) are prioritised and scheduled into a logical order to prevent repetition and conflict. The planned work. The planners will assess the time that will be required to perform the planned maintenance and add a contingency factor for the repair of faults and defects found during the check. However. however. computer systems are used to plan and sequence the check tasks.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Maintenance Planning It is the job of the Maintenance Planning organisation or department to ensure that the requirements of the Maintenance Programme are satisfied and thus ensure that both airworthiness and operational requirements are met. there is no point opening and closing the engine cowlings for each separate task on the engine. Special Checks. it may be possible to get a ‘variation’ (extension of time limit) form the CAA or Approved Organisation and defer some maintenance to a more convenient check. In small organisations the Planning Department may also be responsible for ensuring sufficient manpower is available and also that the aircraft is released from service for maintenance. In some organisations computers systems are used to display tasks and permit ‘on-line’ certification upon completion. ‘cosmetic’ changes etc. it is possible to use Job Cards or Work Sheets and manually arrange them into the correct order. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 105 . For instance. This is a coding system. Deferred Defects. the guidelines for granting such concessions are stringent and must be strictly applied to ensure continued safety. this may be done manually but most organisations will use a computer database of referenced tasks to produce the relevant Job Cards or Work Sheets.g. the manufacturer may produce a Maintenance Planning Data (MPD) document which sets standard man hour times for scheduled tasks Consideration must also be given to AMS work which is due to be performed close to a planned check. Similarly. In large organisations. Once the content and sequence of the check have been confirmed. including AMS tasks. It may also be a function of the Planning Department to ensure the facilities required to complete each check are available. the tools and equipment to carry out the tasks and the technical information the engineers will need. This is done using previous experience but to assist in the planning. separate departments will have these responsibilities and the Planners must liase with them. lifed parts and components scheduled for replacement. This includes hangar space.

CAA appropriately approved design organisations must keep a Civil Modifications Record giving details of each modification approved. at least. unless notified otherwise by the CAA. The modification should be entered in the aircraft records including. Such modifications are classified as Mandatory Modifications and are summarised in the CAA publication entitled ‘Mandatory Aircraft Modifications and Inspections Summary’. inspected and tested where necessary. For aircraft of foreign origin. In some cases the work of incorporation of a modification may be supervised by an Organisation in foreign country in which the airworthiness standards are acceptable to the CAA. particulars must be given to the CAA so that the modification may be classified as a Minor or Major modification according to the nature and extent of the investigation in connection with approval. for aircraft of MTWA exceeding 2730 kg. in conformity with the specifications. 106 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . the Modification Record Book. Modifications must be such that the design of the aircraft. mandatory modifications promulgated under the authority of the National Aviation Authority of the country of origin are. complies. it may require such a modification to be incorporated as a condition of the validity of the Certificate of Airworthiness. At an early stage in the design of a modification of United Kingdom origin. or by an appropriately licensed aircraft maintenance engineer. with the requirements which were applicable at the time the aircraft type was originally certified. These changes may be required due to deficiencies found in service or changes in operating requirements. Whoever supervises the work must be satisfied that it has been carried out. when modified. Such modifications prescribed by the CAA are summarised in the CAA publication entitled ‘Foreign Airworthiness Directives’. mandatory for aircraft registered in the United Kingdom. If the CAA considers that a modification is necessary to ensure continued airworthiness of a particular type of aircraft. Some may be carried out on the production line but most are incorporated during the service life of the aircraft.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Modification Procedures Modifications are changes made to the aircraft after issue of the Certificate of Airworthiness. All work undertaken in the incorporation of a modification must be supervised either by an Organisation approved by the CAA to make certifications in respect of such incorporation. drawings and instructions relating to the approved design before a Certificate of Compliance is issued.

g. The total fee for approval of Major modification is based on the cost of the investigations and the applicant will be notified in writing of any additional costs which are payable during the course. may approve and embody Minor modifications which must be recorded in the ‘Civil Modifications Record’. when the modification is satisfactory. of the CAA investigations. The AD 261 number must be entered on the CRS. the registration marks and type of aircraft to which it applies and list the relevant drawing and specification numbers. where the modification is approved. or on completion. Embodiment of the modification has to be in compliance with the Requirements. 'MAJOR' MODIFICATION EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 107 . states that it is acceptable for incorporation in a particular aircraft or type of aircraft subject to compliance with the conditions of the AAN. Maintenance Manual. where applicable. This form will give brief details of the modification. the issue of CAA Form AD 261 to the applicant.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Modification Classes Minor Modifications Major Modifications A Design Organisation approved by the CAA to provide reports and make certifications in respect of such work. to be made to the aircraft approved manuals. It will also give details of the amendments. will signify CAA approval. in consequence of the incorporation of the modification. e. The Airworthiness Approval Note (AAN) which is issued to the applicant. The CAA. Application for the approval of a Major modification must be made to the CAA on CAA Form AD 282 which should be sent to the Aircraft Projects Department of the CAA. In cases where the design of the Minor modifications is not undertaken by an approved Design Organisation. may require a Certificate of Design from an approved Organisation before approving a Major modification. The AAN number must be entered on the Certificate of Release to Service (CRS).

The applicant for issue of a United Kingdom Certificate of Airworthiness shall obtain from the aircraft constructor information similar to that required under (a). to comply with the Requirements. Following the constructor’s modification record in the book. b) Constructed outside the United Kingdom. relevant to commencement for these aircraft. the owner or operator must record modifications or repairs which are embodied during the life of the aircraft. it also contains details of all those major repairs which have significantly altered the design. at the time of certification. Commencing and Maintaining the Modification Record Book New Aircraft Initially Registered in the United Kingdom: a) Constructed in the United Kingdom. additional to the basic design. Modifications made to the aircraft which affect modifications already listed in the Record Book Major repairs. Contents of the Modification Record Book The following shall be recorded in the Modification Record Book: • • • 108 Modifications made to those parts of the aircraft on which airworthiness depends. at the renewal of the C of A and when the aircraft is sold or leased. This Record Book is a statement of the modification history of the aircraft to which it relates in respect of modifications to those parts on which airworthiness depends and modifications made to the aircraft which affect modifications already listed. The Modification Record Book contains a statement of the modifications embodied by the aircraft constructor which are additional to the basic design at the time of certification of the aircraft. The Book must be up to date at the time of issue of the Certificate of Airworthiness. The constructor shall make available the information necessary to comply with the requirements. by stating the modifications embodied. which have significantly altered the design affecting the airworthiness of the aircraft AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . It does not apply to engines and propellers where suitable modification records are maintained in their own log books.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Modification Record Book A Modification Record Book must be kept for all aircraft with MTWA exceeding 2730 kg on the United Kingdom register. The Modification Record Book is considered an addition to the aircraft log book.

EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 The wording of documents (e. Modification Bulletins. cycles. together with ‘CAA Additional Directives’ are summarised in the CAA publication ‘Foreign Airworthiness Directives’. Service Bulletins. will be classified as mandatory by the CAA in consultation.g. then the latter modification becomes an acceptable alternative to the previous one and shall be shown in the Company’s modification system and associated documentation. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 109 . Technical News Sheet) used to notify mandatory modifications and inspections shall be approved by the CAA or foreign airworthiness authority and the documents shall be certified and published and distributed by the appropriate constructor’s approved organisation. The modification and inspections from UK manufacturers are summarised in the CAA publication. operators and organisations undertaking overhaul/maintenance on aircraft. ‘Mandatory Aircraft Modifications and Inspections Summary’. with the approved Organisation. where appropriate.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Mandatory Modification and Inspections Modifications and inspection. Owners. and the compliance date limiting flying hours. considered essential for airworthiness. Mandatory modifications and inspections promulgated by foreign airworthiness authorities or manufacturers are. adopted by the CAA for application to the particular type of aircraft in the United Kingdom and these. When a change is made to a component which has already been the subject of a mandatory modification and this produces a new or modified component which achieves all the objectives of the previous mandatory modification. Mandatory modifications and inspections are promulgated in manufacturers’ Service Bulletins or equivalent documents. or details of when the prescribed action must be taken. should ensure that the constructor of each type of aircraft is informed of their names and addresses to facilitate distribution of the documents which notify mandatory modifications and inspections. will be decided. where appropriate. In making this decision the degree of urgency and availability of modified parts will be taken into account.

the work shall have been inspected and tested where necessary. the following may be required by the CAA: • • The aircraft weighed and the Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule amended or replaced by a revised Schedule. e. or a copy of the CAA Form AD 261 for a Minor modification. The aircraft shall be made available to enable the CAA to inspect it. results and work arising from the mandatory inspection. In the case of Minor modifications approved under CAA Form AD 261 procedure the applicant shall submit details of the proposed amendments to the CAA for approval. Full particulars of the work done to incorporate the modifications. Certification and Documentation Work undertaken in incorporating a modification. the Crew Manual. be forwarded to the local area office of the CAA. arising from the incorporation of a Major or Minor modification in an aircraft shall be made in accordance with the requirements. or details. 110 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . or the Maintenance Schedule. by a foreign organisation not approved by the CAA. Overhaul and Repair Manuals. the release documentation shall include a copy of the original Airworthiness Approval Note of a major modification. i. shall be supervised by an organisation approved by the CAA for the purpose. the Flight Manual. Before a Certificate of Release to Service.e. or its foreign equivalent is issued. unless agreed otherwise by the CAA.g. the Certificate or Manual shall. A Certificate of Fitness for Flight issued and the aircraft tested in flight to schedules approved by the CAA. Depending on the nature of the modification. Service Bulletin for a mandatory inspection. where appropriate and attached. A CRS shall be completed. quoting the reference number of the appropriate document. or by an appropriately licensed aircraft maintenance engineer. Manuals and Records Amendments to Manuals. suitable arrangements shall be agreed with the CAA Safety Regulation Group. Maintenance. Airworthiness Approval Note for a Major modification. in conformity with the specifications. shall be entered in the appropriate log book. as necessary. When the work is to be carried out on an aircraft registered in the United Kingdom.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Modification Work. drawings and instructions relating to the modification or mandatory inspection. Where it is necessary to amend the particulars in the Certificate of Airworthiness or Flight Manual. When appropriate. or in carrying out a mandatory inspection.

It summarises mandatory actions that are required to be complied with by UK Operators in respect of aircraft. etc. CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives for all other aircraft are published in Foreign Airworthiness Directives Volume III updated at monthly intervals. is listed alphabetically according to the name of the manufacturer. it is necessary to make reference to both Foreign Airworthiness Directives and to the Mandatory Aircraft Modifications and Inspections Summary. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 Each volume (actually published by the FAA) is sub-divided into three parts: Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 - Aircraft Engines and Propellers Equipment and Instruments Volume III .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Airworthiness Directives CAA Emergency Airworthiness Directives (AD) Used to notify mandatory modifications and inspections where the degree of urgency is such that it is not practical to use normal channels. propellers and equipment related to Foreign Airworthiness Directives Volumes 1 and 2 (i. CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives (CAP 473) This publication is applicable to aircraft. Operators are reminded that for total accountability of a complete aircraft which has foreign constructed engines and equipment installed. on the UK Register reference should be made to the CAA publication Foreign Airworthiness Directives (CAP 474).e. For similar information in respect of foreign built aircraft. instruments and equipment of United Kingdom design. is published by the Civil Authority. aircraft radio stations. Mandatory Aircraft Modifications & Inspections Summary The Mandatory Aircraft Modification and Inspections Summary (CAP 476). propellers. of US manufacture over 5700 kg MTWA CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives are specific requirements prescribed by the CAA for foreign constructed aircraft on the United Kingdom Register and are additional to the requirements made mandatory by the Authority of the Stare of Manufacture. May be applied to both British constructed aircraft and those built abroad.. engines.A summary of Airworthiness Directives. Arrangement This is published in 3 volumes. Arrangement The Summary is divided into three parts as follows: Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 - Aircraft Engines and Propellers Instruments and Equipment In each part. A CAA AD may vary the contents or application of a Foreign Airworthiness Directive. engines.Aircraft etc.Aircraft etc. or their equivalent. etc. US construction) are printed on coloured paper to distinguish them from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Directives. engines. of US manufacture under 5700 kg MTWA Volume II . the aircraft or engine. Volume I . (See next section). propellers and equipment for aircraft of all weights constructed other than in the USA. Applicable to aircraft. which have been established as a mandatory by the Airworthiness Authority of the State of Manufacture. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 111 .

Operators of aircraft on the United Kingdom Register are expected to take action to comply with the mandatory instructions received from Constructors/ Manufacturers without waiting for their inclusion in the Summary. operators of United Kingdom manufactured aircraft and equipment should ensure that their names and addresses are known to the appropriate Constructor/Manufacturer and that any change is notified promptly. The CAA requires compliance with all relevant foreign and CAA Additional Airworthiness Directives prior to the issue of Certificates of Airworthiness. are modifications and inspections referred to in the Air Navigation Order as those required by the authority to be completed as a condition for the United Kingdom Certificate of Airworthiness to remain in force. In addition to the inspections and modifications listed in the Mandatory Aircraft Modification and Inspections Summary. by consultation between the CAA and the Constructor/Manufacturer . Standing The modifications and inspections included in the Summary. Service News Letters or equivalent that are of mandatory status for aircraft on the United Kingdom Register of Civil Aircraft are agreed prior to publication. To assist the Constructors/Manufacturers in the distribution of mandatory information. when these aircraft are operated on the United Kingdom Register. are strongly advised to secure compliance with the instructions that have been classified as mandatory by the CAA. Directives published subsequent to C of A issue must be complied with at the period specified in the Directive concerned. are also mandatory for the foreign constructed product to which they are applicable. It is the responsibility of the Constructor/ Manufacturer to distribute mandatory information to all known Operators of the Aircraft and to all Airworthiness Authorities to whom those operators are responsible. Where reference is made to Mandatory Life Limitations appearing in the ‘Maintenance Schedule’ this refers to the Manufacturer’s Recommended Maintenance Schedule. The Constructor/ Manufacturer’s material contains a statement that the modification/inspection has been classified as mandatory by the CAA.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Mandatory Aircraft Modifications & Inspections Summary For products of United Kingdom construction/ manufacture. owners or 112 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . changes to the Mandatory Life limitations published by the Constructor/ Manufacturer are included which are mandatory for applicable aircraft on the United Kingdom Register of Civil Aircraft. unless notification by the CAA is made to the contrary. The CAA is progressively publishing the source information of Mandatory Life Limitations for all aircraft. those Bulletins. Operators of affected aircraft types on registers other than that of the United Kingdom and the Authorities to whom these Operators are responsible. Compliance in accordance with the Air Navigation Order Foreign Airworthiness Directives which have been classified as mandatory by the Airworthiness Authority of the State of Manufacture. engines and equipment in this document.

The store may also hold tooling and equipment for use in the maintenance area and these must be segregated from the parts. The details are entered in the Approved Stores Register and the material or part allocated an Approved Stores Serial Number (ASS No. to prevent items being removed or added in contravention of the regulations. prior despatch to the Bonded Store.) on it’s documentation. operational areas and at line stations. may be ‘batched” to enable their identity to be traced back to the incoming Approval Certificate or Authorised Release Certificate (EASA Form One or FAA Form 81303). All items inspected/overhauled/repaired/or modified from an approved Workshop will be authorised by a Certificate of Release to Service (C. When such conformance has been established. The Approval Certificates or EASA Form Ones and equivalents are filed for a minimum period (normally 5 years). Colour coding and shelf life of the material is administered and temporary protective treatment applied. In large Maintenance Organisations devolved stores may be located around the manitenance base.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Stores Procedures Parts. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 113 . have come from an approved supplier and are free from transit damage. The suppliers of these materials and parts must be organisations approved by the CAA for that purpose. if not individually identified by Serial number.). equipment and materials conform to these specifications and are preserved in a serviceable condition. Materials or parts which are stocked for reasons other than aeronautical purposes.R. that they have evidence of prior inspection. equipment and materials used on civil aircraft are fabricated from materials conforming to specifications acceptable to the CAA and in accordance with drawings produced by the Approved Design Organisation. It should only be accessible to authorised staff. To ensure that these parts. they must be receipted and held securely in an Approved Stores system. Bonded Store A Bonded Store is one provided for materials and parts which have been proved to conform to specification and are serviceable and approved for aircraft use. but in any case should not be destroyed while the material represented is still held in stock. if necessary. Separate storage facilities must be provided for unserviceable components. the materials or parts. These are Bonded Stores and must meet all the stated requirements.S. Quarantine Stores A Quarintine Store is one provided for materials and parts until such time as they are proved to conform to the specification and/or drawing requirements. do not have approved documentation or are unserviceable must not be placed in the Bonded Store. It must be secure.

determined from the average usage rate and suppliers lead time. It must have a system to locate items. These should be issued in rotation and the lives tracked to ensure continued serviceability. batch number. In many instances the manufacturer will specify the temperature and relative humidity in which the products must be stored.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Stores Accommodation An organisation shall satisfy the CAA that suitable facilities are provided for any work associated with the approval required in a Quarantine Store and that the inspection staff have sufficient equipment and accommodation for the effective performance of their duties. Stock should be segregated to prevent some materials having a detrimental effect on others. It also provides a means of monitoring and controlling stock quantity. their quantities and ‘use by’ dates and usage details. must be kept in a freezer. well ventilated and maintained at an even.. When required. Part Number and Serial Number as applicable) are recorded to ensure it is possible at any time to trace that material or part to the incoming Approval Certificate or JAA Form One. The store will usually be equipped with racks for large items and bins or drawers for smaller parts. Some units may contain lifed materials and these must also be tracked. however. All items will have a set reorder level. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . The integrity of this system is. 114 Most large companies use a computerised stores system. temperature and relative humidity should be checked at regular intervals. Aircraft spares held in Approved Stores must be in a serviceable condition at all times and the premises must be clean. A log or register should be maintained to record the ASS numbers of the contents of the freezer. Flammable materials must be stored in a fire proof cabinet or ‘Dope Store’ outside the main building as appropriate. In this way it is also possible to trace which aircraft specific parts or batches are fitted to should a defect become apparent at a later date. paints and rubber components have a Storage Limiting Period. dry temperature to minimise the effects of condensation. Upon issue of an approved material or part for fitment to an aircraft (normally via presentation of a requisition) the material or part details (ASS No. dependant on the stock issue transactions being correctly carried out and the supplier lead times being met. The computer system will signal when the reorder level is triggered and may even generate the order documentation. This allows them to find the location of items in devolved stores around the organisation and reduce the duplication of stock holdings. Certain items. to ensure that stock does not run out. such as resins and resin impregnated composite materials. Also some materials such as lubricants.

Position Controlled . as applicable. It is the responsibility of the engineer to ensure the parts they fit are applicable to the aircraft they are being used on and to record the ASS or Release number on the work documentation. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 115 . These components are only issued against a requisition.Position Number Allocated .System Life History .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Clasification of Parts The parts held in a store may be classified as Consumable or Rotable. Consumables are used while they remain serviceable and discarded when they become damaged. Again it is the responsibility of the engineer to ensure the parts they fit are applicable to the aircraft they are being used on and to record the Serial number.Tracked On and Off Aircraft .One unit to each Tracking Tag . • R3 Non-serialised .One unit per Tracking Tag.Tracked On and Off Aircraft and subject to monitoring . • R2 Serial Numbered . Low value consumables may be 'Free Issue' items. Rotables are items which can be serviced or repaired and returned to a serviceable condition (rotated through the system).Tracked Off Aircraft Only.Not Position Controlled System Life History .Tracked Off Aircraft Only. These classifications affect the way the components are tracked in the stores system. on the work documentation. issued on demand. Rotable items can be further defined as: • R1 Serial Numbered .Position Number Allocated .One unit per Tracking Tag. They include Aircraft General Spares (AGS) items such as bolts and washers which may be reused and split pins and locking wire which can only be used once. greases and paints. • R4 Non-serialised . Part number and/or ASS or Release number.One or more units per Tracking Tag (batch tagged) . It is the responsibility of the stores staff to monitor stock holding and record issue quantities. while expensive items will only be issued against a requisition. and materials such as oils.

registration. replacements. of course. For instance the maintenance organisation of a large airline may make. or (EASA Part-145 aircraft and components) ‘Certifies that the work specified except as otherwise specified was carried out in accordance with EASA Part-145 and in respect to that work the aircraft/aircraft component is considered ready for release to service.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Certification and Release Procedures Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) A Certificate of Release to Service shall be issued after overhauls. the requirements of the customer and.’ or (FAA components at approved Repair Station) ‘The component identified above was repaired and inspected in accordance with current instructions contained in the ATP/ Drawing identified above and current regulations of the Federal Aviation Regulations and is approved for return to service’. repaired or modified away from the aircraft must have a CRS issued for the work done and another for it’s installation on the aircraft. The type of the CRS will depend on the nature of the work carried out. repairs. Parts which are overhauled. dated and stamped for all the work that has been completed. It is signed. The certificate shall be worded in the following manner : (BCAR aircraft and components) ‘The work recorded above has been carried out in accordance with the requirements of the Air Navigation Order for the time being in force and in that respect. A CRS shall be issued by the holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer’s licence and suitable type authorisation or a person approved or authorised by the CAA. the approvals held by the Maintenance Organisation. Depending upon the application of the Certificate.50. 116 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . component type. details of the aircraft type. the aircraft/ equipment is considered fit for release to service’. The Certificate of Release to Service shall contain particulars of the work done or the inspection completed and the Organisation and place at which the work was carried out. modifications and mandatory inspections have been carried out on an aircraft which is registered in the United Kingdom and has a Certificate of Airworthiness in force. and certifications for third party customers to FAR-145. certifications for maintenance work on aircraft not covered by EASA Part-145 to BCAR A6. certifications of repair part manufactured under it’s Design Approval to BCAR A8. part number and serial number shall be recorded as applicable. • • • • certifications of the routine maintenance on it’s own aircraft to EASA Part-145.

EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 117 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Certification and Release Procedures Retention of Record Whenever work has been carried out on an aircraft engine or propeller. Each task will be separately certified. will be entered directly into the Tech Log. Upon completion of the check the documentation package must be inspected to ensure it is all present and correctly certified. The documentation is then filed for reference. Components fitted to an aircraft. Tasks such as defect rectification. performed on the ramp. the certification being. a CRS for that task. This documentation is referenced and recorded in the aircraft documentation then filed. a CRS detailing that work shall be made by an appropriately authorised person and entered in/attached to the Log Book. Checks carried out in a hangar or on the ramp will normally be detailed on serialised Job Sheets or Cards. whether new or overhauled will have documentation which includes a Certificate of Release to Service. Details of all component changes are also recorded in the check documentation. in effect. and a CRS for the whole check will be made in the aircraft’s Technical Log.

This may be as a legacy of non-licence based Authorisation privileges held prior to the introduction of Part-66 (often referred to as ‘grandfather rights’) or incomplete conversion from a BCAR based licence to a Part-66 one. 118 Full Maintenance Authorisation The appropriately Authorised Cat.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Authorisations The extent of any individual’s Authorisation is reflected on the certificate issued by the Organisation’s Quality Manager. Base Maintenance Certification Authorisation The appropriately Authorised Cat. B licence holder may issue a CRS for all tasks within the scope of the licence held (B1 or B2). AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . C licence holder may issue a final CRS for Base Maintenance checks. Any other tasks can be signed or stamped as Completed but must then be Certified by an appropriately Authorised person Certain staff may hold restricted Authorisations. Part-66 provides for three levels of licence: Category A – Category B – Category C – Line Maintenance Certifying Mechanic Line Maintenance Certifying Technician Base Maintenance Certifying Engineer Category B is further divided into B1 Mechanical and B2 Avionics. These will normally include Line Maintenance check routine tasks up to the weekly check (Ramp 1). In Base Maintenance areas the Job Sheet/Card certifications are ‘Implied’ CRSs and contribute to the final CRS. A licence holders working in a Base maintenance environment. A licence holder may issue a CRS for limited or simple tasks as defined in the organisation’s Exposition. It is the responsibility of the Authorisation holder to ensure that they continue to work within the scope and limitations of the Authorisation. Non-licensed staff or those working on aircraft types for which they do not hold an authorisation may still certify tasks which have been Delegated to them and are indicated as such on the documentation. The licences are not type specific and Authorisations granted in relation to them will only apply to aircraft types upon which the engineer has received additional training. The use of these Authorisations is largely dependant on the policy of the Maintenance Organisation under which they are granted but the following paragraphs give a description of a typical company system. Delegated work tasks are simple tasks which cannot prove to be critical or catastrophic in the event of failure and which can be verified easily by subsequent checks and inspections during the course of the maintenance input. Limited Maintenance Authorisation The appropriately Authorised Cat. They may also include simple rectifications and component changes. The arrangements will be detailed in the company’s Part-145 Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE) and approved by the national Aviation Authority. The Authorisation is based on the Part-66 (or equivalent) licence held. There may be provision for Cat.

recommended tooling. When Certifying on documentation an Authorised person contributes to the issue of a Certificate of Release to Service by another Authorised person. i. provides the airworthiness assurances required. Similarly individual or implied Certificates of Release to Service completed by Authorised persons contribute to the issue of a ‘Final Certification of Release’ CRS by another Authorised person. test equipment which is currently calibrated.e.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Certification In signing/stamping for any work carried out the Authorised person is indicating that it has been completed to an airworthiness standard. by authorised methods. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 119 . This system. using approved materials. and is certified by an appropriately authorised person. accepting both individual and collective responsibility. that all work tasks performed have been completed in accordance with authorised documentation. and where applicable.

may identify and list such points and apply to the CAA to have the list incorporated in the aircraft maintenance documents. Where vital points have been identified and included in the maintenance documents for the aircraft. result in loss of aircraft and/or in fatalities. the operator need then carry out duplicate inspections following disturbance of the listed points only. including the flight. For aircraft the MTWA of which exceeds 5700 kg which are manufactured in accordance with a Type Certificate issued prior to 1st January 1986 and no such identification and listing of vital points has been provided. Definitions of the terms used are: Duplicate Inspection . attitude. Control System .An inspection first made and certified by one qualified person and subsequently made and certified by a second qualified person. adopt an arrangement similar to that described above except that the proposals need cover only the control systems and duplicate inspections need to be carried out on the listed points only. If none of the above arrangement described above has been agreed by the CAA. 120 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Duplicate Inspection In certain circumstances is has been deemed necessary for two CRS certifications to be made for an inspection task. For example flight deck window installation may be clasified as a Vital Point. which are manufactured in accordance with a Type Certificate issued prior to 1st January 1986 and no such identification and listing of vital points has been provided. Applicability For aircraft manufactured in accordance with a Type Certificate issued on or after 1st January 1986 the vital points shall be identified and listed in the maintenance documents. an operator may.A system by which the flight path. For aircraft the MTWA of which does not exceed 5700 kg. an operator with the necessary Design Approval or otherwise. i. with the agreement of the CAA. engine and propeller controls. Vital Point . such as the disturbance of control systems. where a fault could have catastrophic consequences.e. such points shall be subject to duplicate inspection following initial assembly or any disturbance. the related system controls and the associated operating mechanisms. or propulsive force of an aircraft is changed. Provided such a list is accepted by the CAA. This is known as a Duplicate Inspection and is specified for critical maintence tasks.Any point on an aircraft at which single misassembly could lead to a catastrophe. the need for duplicate inspection of all control systems will remain.

. free and correct directional movement........... Note: Certification responsibilities in relation to the Air Navigation Order. affecting Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineers and members of approved organisations are given in CAA Airworthiness Notice No..... Second Inspection Date..A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Duplicate Inspection Procedures General It may not be possible to inspect the complete vital point/control system when assembled in the aircraft due to routing the controls through conduits or boxed-in sections and the pre-sealing of various units. A duplicate inspection of all vital points/control systems in an aircraft shall be made after initial assembly. B..... EASA Part66 B1 and B2 • Members of an approved organisation. The duplicate inspection shall be the final operation to establish the integrity of the vital point/control system when all the work has been completed.. First Inspection Date.. repair.. as nearly as possible........Time...... In these cases the persons certifying the duplicate inspection shall be satisfied that a duplicate inspection has been made previously on the units and covered sections and that the sealed units are acceptable for the particular use..... D and X ..... follow immediately after the first part.. 3 Certification It is recommended that the certification of the duplicate inspection be in the following form: Certified If a vital point/control system is disturbed after completion of the duplicate inspection.. modification or adjustment which affects the vital points/control systems. the second part of the duplicate inspection may be completed by a pilot or flight engineer licensed for the type of aircraft concerned.......... that part which has been disturbed shall again be inspected in duplicate before the aircraft flies... Vital points/control system subject to duplicate inspection must not be disturbed or readjusted after the first certified inspection and the second part of the duplicate inspection must... Persons qualified to make the first and/or second part of a duplicate inspection are as follows: • Aircraft engineers appropriately licensed in Categories A.. and before the first flight after overhaul...Time. replacement... EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 121 .. Such tests as are considered necessary shall be completed to determine that these particular units and sections have full...... C. Should a minor adjustment of the vital point/ control system be necessary when the aircraft is away from base.. who are considered qualified to make such inspections by the Chief Inspector.....

the high degree of safety demanded of commercial air transports means that some seemingly small faults will prevent the aircraft from flying. Special inspections and additional work requirements (raised by Alerts and Service Bulletins) are also unpredictable but usually have an incorporation or complete by date to allow some flexibility. This can have a knock-on effect throughout the schedule and is a particular problem for small carriers. the aircraft must be maintained in accordance with the Approved Maintenance Programme (AMP) to ensure continued airworthiness. The design of modern aircraft and their systems introduces a level of redundancy which enables them to operate despite many of these faults. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . As we have seen. However. despite their stringent maintenance programmes. This is done in close liaison with the Aircraft Maintenance Planners. This includes controlling the availability of Flight Crew. On these occasions it will be necessary to cancel the service if there are no spare aircraft available. Ground Crew. The Operations Planners will reschedule the operation to cope with these events. airport infrastructure and aircraft. 122 These faults together with accidental damage caused during service (such as catering truck strikes) are unforeseeable and thus cannot be planned into the operating schedule.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Interface with Aircraft Operation Most airline companies have an Operations Planning and Control department. The check cycle provides the means to carry out the scheduled AMP maintenance so the Operations Planners must ensure that the aircraft are in the right place at the right time for these checks to be performed. charter airlines and low cost carriers who have limited resources. aircraft are still prone to occasional malfunction. This can then be planned with cooperation between the Maintenance and Operations planners to the minimise the impact on the operation. tasked with developing an operating schedule and ensuring that it can be met. As complex machines.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Maintenance Inspection The objectives of inspection are to detect and determine any condition which could impair airworthiness or cause an unacceptable economic penalty if not corrected prior to the next specified inspection. They will also provide data for the control and development of the Aircraft inspection and maintenance programme. Is in a condition which requires a report or recording. The word “Check” is used to describe a task to ensure that a condition conforms to prescribed limits. • • Is. Will remain serviceable until the next scheduled inspection of that detail. at the time of inspection. system. component. component or detail to be inspected The level of inspection to be applied The frequency of inspection The conditions to be observed The judgement to be applied to inspection findings. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 123 . The word “Inspect” is used to describe a task which requires a judgement. system or area inspected: Inspection standards are defined in terms of: • • • • • • The area. As a part of each ‘Inspection’ the Certifying Engineer shall make a judgement on whether the detail. system or area. component. free from any observed defects likely to affect airworthiness.

A Mandatory inspection to determine structural fatigue introduced at a threshold in the life cycle of high life aircraft in addition to Routine Inspections and RSI’s. are to be reported to the Aircraft manufacturer and to the CAA. Access requirements for a CPCP Inspection are subject to special rules. 124 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Transit or Ramp Check A Routine Inspection or Check carried out during turnaround or overnight stop. All positive SSI findings are to be reported to the Aircraft manufacturer and to the CAA. Acceptable Deferred Defect (ADDs. Highlight Inspection A Routine Inspection of an area. All RSI findings. are reportable to the organisation’s Technical Services Branch Structures Department. including “No change from previous finding”. Hard landing.). Zonal Inspection A Routine Inspection of a specified AMS Zone to detect damage. system. NOTE: Any of the above inspections may be declared Mandatory by the CAA. Routine Inspection/Check Any Inspection or Check specified in the AMS and forming a part of a Maintenance Check. All corrosion findings above a specified level are reportable to the organisation’s Technical Services Branch Structures Department and to the Aircraft manufacturer. Variable Frequency Inspection An inspection to monitor the condition of structure in which defects have been detected.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Clasification of Inspections Scheduled Inspection A Scheduled Inspection is any inspection specified in the Approved Maintenance Schedule (AMS) for an aircraft. Corrosion Prevention & Control Programme (CPCP) Inspection An inspection to detect structural corrosion and to determine requirements for the Mandatory corrosion control programme. Reportable Structural Inspection (RSI) Alternatively known as an Age Exploration inspection. Non-Scheduled Inspections Special Checks /Additional Work Requirements May include an Inspection or Check specified to satisfy a unique requirement. not normally repeated. to ensure airworthiness or to provide information. An inspection for structural deterioration carried out as part of a Mandatory sampling programme. including nil defects. discrepancies and general condition as specified in the AMS item. component or detail as specified in the AMS to detect damage. e. discrepancies and general condition. May include an Inspection or Check specified to ensure airworthiness or to provide information. Conditional Inspection/Check As required after an incident.g. All Variable Frequency Inspection findings. normally in the airport terminal area. Supplemental Structural Inspection (SSI) Alternatively known as a Fleet Leader inspection. Special Checks may implement a Mandatory requirement.

Work Requirement. leaks and other discrepancies. Special Check. are detected. Extension of Inspection Area Whenever a defect is found the area of Inspection shall be extended as required to ensure that the full extent of the defect is identified. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 125 . Surveillance Inspection: A visual inspection in a good light of a specified area to detect damage or discrepancies in structure. leaks and other discrepancies. system and powerplant installations and components. General Visual Inspection: A visual inspection to detect obvious damage. A certifying engineer may require the removal of equipment or soundproofing. component. component or location to detect damage or discrepancies. A certifying engineer may require additional lighting or access equipment to be provided and will use inspection aids such as mirrors as required to perform an adequate inspection. The inspection levels defined below are specified to ensure that defects which could impair airworthiness or cause an unacceptable economic penalty if not corrected prior to the next scheduled inspection. to detect obvious damage. system or detail to be Inspected or Checked is described in the AMS. may use hand lenses and may require NDT validation as required to perform an adequate inspection. nothing shall prevent a Certifying Engineer from requiring additional access to carry out a Detail Inspection to determine the full extent of a defect or to investigate an indication of a potential defect. A particular viewing location may be specified. cleaning and access requirements will be specified. component and lining removal. Panel. Access and component removal requirements for a Corrosion Programme (CPCP) Inspection are subject to rules detailed in the relevant section of the AMS. The inspection is performed in the prevailing environment using a hand torch as required. Access equipment may be required to permit an adequate investigation of apparent defects. All Other Inspections/Checks The area. Component Removal Removal of components is not required for inspection unless so specified. control surface position. However. A certifying engineer may require the aircraft to be placed under cover and additional lighting or access to be provided if this is necessary to perform an adequate inspection.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Scope of Inspection Zonal Inspection The limits of the area to be Inspected are defined by Zone number and the access provided by the specified removal of access panels and components as defined by the AMS. system detail. Detailed Inspection: A thorough visual inspection in good light of a defined structural detail. Special Detailed Inspection An inspection of a specified location or detail using a Non Destructive Inspection technique to detect a specific type of damage or discrepancy. Walkround Inspection: A visual inspection from the ground. EO or ADD and/or on the associated work documents.

scoring and cracking Pulled or missing rivets. access panels and fairings. control surfaces. General • External evidence of damage • Dirt or debris likely to contaminate or inhibit the proper functioning of a system. radomes and ducting: • • Cracking. anchor nuts and receptacles. delamination. The inspection requirement of Non-scheduled Inspections/Checks will always be fully defined. system bodies or casings. fairings. seat framing. • Cables: Evidence of fraying. fouling. alignment. An AMS item may contain supplementary information to further define the inspection requirement. etc. general metal parts including pipes. over full range of movement. oilcanning. • Serviceability and security of fasteners. bolts. as appropriate. tubes. wear and flattening. positioning and condition of electrical bonding. resin crazing. kinking. on all inspections and corrected as necessary. Reinforced plastic structural parts. ducting. Condition of corrosion inhibiting compound.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Scope of Inspection What To Look For The following conditions will be observed and evaluated. 126 Metal structure. scoring. fairings and panels. • Broken seals and/or foreign bodies indicating failure. retain corrosive fluids. dents. • Aerodynamic Cleanliness: Fit of doors. connections. crushing. air or system leaks. cause excessive wear. connections and locking devices • Condition of fasteners and fastener holes if parts are detached • Security. failure of welds and spot welds Obstruction of drain paths Corrosion and deterioration of protective treatment. incorrect maintenance or unauthorised access • Spillages and accumulations of fluid or ice • Obstruction of drainage or vent holes or overflow orifices • Evidence of fuel. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . screws and fasteners Condition of fasteners and fastener holes if parts are detached Separation of structural bonding. rods and levers and avionic and instrument racking and panels. discharge or overheating. • Correct seating and sealing of assemblies. friction. cracking and wear around fasteners and degradation due to electrical discharge Fluid contamination Control System Components: • Range of movement. locking devices and electrical bonding • Legibility of notices. bowing • Security of attachments. galley and toilet structures: • • • • • • • • Evidence of chafing and wear Distortion.

twisting. crazing and delamination • Cockpit: Overheating Rubber.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Scope of Inspection Windows • General: Transparency. seals. Electrical Motors. • Cuts. discoloration. Actuators. cleanliness. kinking. pitting. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 127 . correct bedding and adequate spring tension. Relays. Batteries • Corrosion. Solenoids and Contactors (Additional requirements if covers are removed) • General: Cleanliness. Furnishings and Seat Belts • Cleanliness. fabric. chafing. security and cleanliness • Attachment of terminals. cracking. security and condition of stitching. wear. condition of case and vent system. loss of flexibility and adequate free length • Contamination by fluids and corrosion inhibiting compounds. Alternators. Generators. spilt electrolyte. and plastic pipes. cable insulation and coverings. overheating. burning and security of contacts and fluid contamination • Motors: Brush wear and freedom in retainers.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Quality Control/Quality Assurance Quality In its broadest sense. Every member of staff is responsible for ensuring that the part of the process that they control is operated to the requirements of the MOE and Quality Policy. the Quality Department employed Inspectors to make an ongoing assessment of the Quality Standards in each work area of an organisation and pass or reject work accordingly. Each member of staff must satisfy the Quality Department that they can perform their work to these requirements before authority to certify that work is granted. it must be designed and built into it. environment and society. quality is a degree of excellence: the extent to which something is fit for its purpose. answerable to the CAA for the safety and Quality issues within the organisation. In the narrow sense. In quality management. product or service quality is defined as conformance with requirements. quality is defined as the totality of characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs. In the past. However. or simply a degree of customer satisfaction. The policy under which this department operates is stated in the EASA Part-145 Maintenance Organisation Exposition (MOE). 128 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Therefore nowadays. BCARs and ISO9001/ BS5750 also lay Quality responsibilities on the organisation. EASA Part-145 dictates that all Maintenance Organisations must have a Quality department. a Company’s Quality Systems are built on the principle that quality is everybody’s responsibility. in order to satisfy customers. In the aviation industry. freedom from defects or contamination. requirements and achieve continuous improvement. Quality can not be ‘inspected’ into a product or service. Quality is also rapidly embracing the nature or degree of impact an organisation has on its stakeholders. one of the key Quality requirements is that of safety.

Quality Control (QC) and Quality Improvement (QI) tasks. The definitions of the first two are frequently blurred while the tasks involved all three are often interdependent. that its product or services will satisfy the quality requirements. incidents and non-compliances. or guarantee. Quality Assurance (QA). • establish and implement an evaluation programme to review the engineering maintenance standards of subsidiaries. • provide effective systems of independent quality assurance to meet business needs and regulatory requirements. by which corrections and controls are put in place to restore the level of QA. • implement quality policy across the organisation and ensure that Quality issues are actively considered in decision making across the company . quality or compliance related deficiencies in the processes and the organisation. the following definitions may be applied. subcontractors and suppliers in accordance with the regulatory requirements. Quality Control: the techniques and activities used to monitor and verify that the quality standards and requirements are met. Raise any observed non-compliance or poor standard to the attention of the manager of the area concerned. The department’s key responsibilities will be to: • • provide an effective system of Maintenance and Safety Approvals to meet business needs and regulatory requirements. and develop corrective and/or preventative actions to remedy any safety. • investigate accidents and occurrences.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g The Quality Department The Quality Department is responsible for quality management and is usually made up of several teams working within each of the key areas of the Maintenance Organisation to ensure it remains in compliance with all the necessary airworthiness regulatory requirements. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 These Quality Management responsibilities can be divided into three areas. Quality Assurance: the planned actions by which the organisation can demonstrate with confidence. provide quality assurance to the engineering community by putting mechanisms in place to ensure the organisation remains in compliance with all applicable airworthiness requirements. with a time scale for remedial action to be completed. However. Quality Improvement: the actions in response to accidents. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 129 .

Additional Audits may be carried out by CAA auditors or EASA MAintenance Standardisation Team (MAST) . Product Sample – These are normally carried out by a manager or person of similar status within the department. 130 Continuous Improvement Monitoring – This allows staff and customers to report discrepancies with facilities. Some discrepancies will drive changes to the QA procedures. Air Safety Reports (ASR) – Similar to the GFOR but raised by the flight crew. The procedures and adherence to them as well as the product themselves are sampled and any discrepancies are reported to the Quality Department. In fact in some organisations it is known as the Quality Assurance Department. Unscheduled Audits may also be carried out in response to problems. These solutions may require Quality approval. The Audits are scheduled on a cycle to ensure all areas within the organisation are regularly examined. and to make suggestions for Quality improvements. Quality Control As defined. These will be developed and introduced by the Quality manager for the area concerned. GFORs which are meet the Mandatory Occurrence Report (MOR) criteria must be forwarded to the CAA. Some of these will be of interest to the Quality Department. documentation. This is done through a Quality Monitoring Process (QMP) which has a number of elements including: Quality Audits – Periodic reviews of the systems and activities associated with airworthiness and quality performance within the approved organisation by an independent team of Quality auditors. Significant ASRs also have MOR status and are passed to the CAA. Quality Improvement Many of the findings of the QC monitors and audits will be fed back to the area’s management for local resolution. Component Reliability Reports – Generated by aircraft type and/or component type. it can be seen that a robust staff Authorisation process plays a big part in assuring that the requirements and standards are met. these are analysed for fault trends. Ground Found Occurrence Reporting (GFOR) – The means for reporting technical matters which impact on airworthiness. procedures and services. As an example. equipment.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Quality Management Quality Assurance Within the context of an aircraft Maintenance Organisation it can be seen that many of the Quality Departments responsibilities have a QA dimension. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . The results are circulated within the organisation and a report may be sent to the CAA as part of the Company Approval. the main QC functions of the department are information collection. Some of these will be of interest to the Maintenance Organisation’s Quality Department.

coupled with increased maintenance requirements. To be authorised to operate ETOPS flights with older aircraft. However. hydraulic motor generator. floatation devices. dual fuel crossfeeds. make ETOPS operations extremely reliable. Twin engine aircraft are not normally allowed to operate more than 60 minutes single engine flying time from a suitable airfield. additional cargo compartment fire bottles. A suitably approved aircraft can operate routes taking it up to 207 minutes single engine flying time (with 240 minutes proposed) from an airfield making both transatlantic and transpacific flights viable. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 The aircraft manufacturer will normally apply for ETOPS approval during the type certification process for new aircraft. These aircraft modifications. Even when ETOPS approved the aircraft may not be operated in this way unless the Operator is also approved. this rule can be alleviated for operators who can demonstrate adequate reliability. but existing ones will require modification. and standby navigation systems. the manufacturer or airline must modify the airframe and propulsion systems with various backup systems.g. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 131 . e.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Additional Maintenance Procedures Extended range Twin engine OPerations (ETOPS) All Maintenance Organisations which support twin engine aircraft operating over large expanses of ocean must have an Extended range Twin engine OPerations (ETOPS) policy or procedure and approval.

The prescribed IFSD should be maintained. The airline is normally granted ETOPS in increments of 75 minutes. to safely complete the flight as dispatched or make a diversion (in the case of an engine failure). e. flight control.simultaneous engine and pressurisation failure at the ETP (Equal Time Point or midway) between ETOPS alternates (critical fuel scenario). AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . 15% fuel burn for anti-icing equipment. The initial approval for ETOPS is granted in cautious increments to allow airlines to build in-service experience and expertise in operating over extended-routes with a particular airframe/engine combination. The scenario assumes failure of one-engine and the pressurisation system at the ETP.000 feet is required. the air carrier must operate the extended range fleet for at least one year. the authority would reevaluate the air carrier’s ability to operate safely under ETOPS. hydraulic. the airline must operate within 75 minutes of suitable alternates while over the ocean. During this period. flight instruments. A critical fuel scenario is used to determine the maximum amount of fuel needed to complete a diversion to an ETOPS alternate at the ETP. in still air conditions). To create an added safety margin some fuel contingencies are required: 5% fuel for weather forecasting errors.g. and additional fuel burn for APU use. and immediate drift-down to 10. After 12 months of 75 minute ETOPS. propulsion system instruments. if an APU is the required power source in diversion scenario. pneumatic. 120 minute ETOPS may be granted if the airframe-engine combination have performed safely.05 shutdowns per 1000 hours (with continuous improvement towards a 0. maximum IFSD (in-flight shutdown rate) of 0. 132 ETOPS Dispatching Special considerations must be followed in order to operate an aircraft along a route with enough options and fuel.02/1000 hours. MEL (Minimum Equipment Lists) for ETOPS certified aircraft must be developed which assure that the aircraft has adequate redundancy to continually perform on extended range routes. 207 minutes may be applied for. if the IFSD increases. These back-up systems should include: electrical.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Additional Maintenance Procedures An air carrier initially seeking ETOPS approval must apply for a waiver to the regulations which apply to the Operator. fuel. 180 minutes and 207 minutes. On ETOPS flights. or ETPC scenario . and auxiliary power-units (APU). engine start and ignition. In the UK approval is granted by the CAA against requirements stated in CAP 513. IFSD). 120 minutes. These maximum diversion times are to a suitable alternate airfield at the one-engine cruise speed (during standard conditions. which account for forecast weather along the intended route (and on diversion routes at oneengine inoperative cruise levels). communications. the departure fuel loading required is the largest amount of the following: Non-ETOPS flight (normal fuel reserves).02/1000 hours. ice protection. To gain approval for 180 minutes ETOPS. An airline seeking ETOPS approval must first show that it is capable of operating safely for one year under the 75 minute ETOPS rule. navigation. with an IFSD of approximately 0. The fuel/oil supply required on ETOPS flights must be calculated according to regulations. If this is satisfactory. The 12-month trial period may be reduced if the air carrier has pervious experience operating the same airframe or engine type in domestic operations.

Scheduled maintenance on primary systems and critical tasks are staggered or performed by independent work teams to prevent the duplication of Maintenance Induced Error. Fluid consumption rates recorded in the Tech Log for trend analysis purposes. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 133 . This will be used to monitor the reliability of the aircraft. Replacement components must be approved to ETOPS standard. Any significant events or occurrences are reported to the CAA. This will include activities described below.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Additional Maintenance Procedures ETOPS Maintenance The operators ETOPS Manual will contain details of the maintenance procedures employed to support the approval. Aircraft of the same type used for non-ETOPS routes may have either ETOPS or non-ETOPS parts fitted. Some operators have found that maintaining all their aircraft to ETOPS standards increases the dispatch reliability considerably. Authority to fit nonETOPS components to ETOPS aircraft may be granted but must always be accompanied by an ADD in the Tech Log and the part replaced as soon as possible. component failure rates and trends.. Engine Health Monitoring is used as a predictive tool to reduce the In Flight Shut Down rate and improve reliability. Data Collection and Analysis for engine. airframe and system defects.

from 2000ft to 1000ft above Flight Level (FL) 290 (29000ft). no damage outside the SRM limits is permitted in the RVSM critical areas of the fuselage (as identified in the AMM and SRM). Newer aircraft have been designed and built with this in mind and older aircraft have been modified to satisfy the requirements.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Additional Maintenance Procedures Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) To enable greater flexibility in the use of transoceanic air corridors. Minimum RVSM Compliance requirements for the critical systems are: The RVSM Critical Systems are: • Autopilot altitude hold • ATC Transponder • AirData • Altitude Alert • • • • • In addition. Where a system failure is reported and an RVSM critical component is replaced by an RVSM approved part. 1 ATC Transponder system. 1 Autopilot Altitude Hold system. no further action is required other than that specified in the maintenance manuals. These changes in vertical separation minima were made possible by improvements in the accuracy of altitude measuring equipment. 1 Altitude Alert system. The aircraft may be returned to RVSM compliance provided the defect can be positively identified and rectified If the defect cannot be positively identified an altitude monitoring flight must be performed. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . BITE is an acceptable method of testing after an LRU change providing it fully meets the requirements for clearing the reported defect. No damage outside the SRM limits in the RVSM critical areas. In 2002 this was extended to European airspace and will eventually become the global norm. Static system leak checks are not a requirement if a quick disconnect is disconnected and reconnected during an LRU change. Each aircraft type must be approved for RVSM operation. the vertical separation criteria were reduced in 1997. Certain maintenance procedures must be followed to ensure continued RVSM compliance. 134 2 Primary Air Data systems. Note: Where RVSM and non RVSM parts are available the IPC identifies which part is RVSM approved. providing this is shown as an acceptable method in the affected aircraft’s maintenance manual and only one system has been broken down. Failure to meet any of the above dispatch requirements or use of non-RVSM approved spares will mean the aircraft being downgraded to NON-RVSM compliant.

For nonmandatory inspections the nominated Level 3 holder will prepare procedures and instructions for the techniques in which they are qualified. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) NDT staff may work with radioactive materials and sources of ionising radiation. oil samples and hydraulic fluid samples. These and all aerospace requirements must be reflected in the Maintenance Organisation’s procedures. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 135 . however a Level 1 holder may be authorised to certify inspections which have a clear rejection criteria and require no interpretation. particles found in filters. Interpretation of the results and recommendations of action from these findings will be made by EHM staff. Certification will be made on the aircraft documentation. While the requirements for EHM staff are less stringent than for NDT personnel. The CAA recognises the scheme of Personnel Certificate for Non-Destructive Testing (PCN) administered by the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing as a suitable qualification. The manufacturer or design organisation may issue instructions and specify techniques to be used for mandatory inspections. Both have their own procedures to ensure the health and safety of the staff involved and the correct application of the techniques. The Maintenance Organisation must have a qualification and Authorisation procedure in accordance with European Standards EN473 or EN4179. The procedures and specifications followed by these staff and recommendations for authorisation will be made by a qualified and experienced senior staff member. they must still be specially authorised to use the various techniques and make recommendations upon their findings. so they are governed by both national and international regulations. The assessment and certification of inspections will normally be performed by a Level 2 holder. Engine Health Monitoring is another specialist activity and usually includes the microscopic inspection of particles removed from engine Magnetic Chip Detectors (MCDs) and the spectrographic analysis of these particles. The standards require the department to be run by an accountable manager qualified to PCN Level 3 (or equivalent). This will be determined by the nominated Level 3. and will clearly state the technique and procedure used and the result found.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Additional Maintenance Procedures Specialist Inspection Techniques Engine Health Monitoring (EHM) This is a term sometimes used to refer to the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and Engine Health Monitoring (EHM) activities.

in accordance with instructions in relevant manuals. During the workshop visit. shop findings and other sources of data pertinent to determination of continued airworthiness. Airborne Indicating Detection Systems (AIDS). pilot reports. maintenance log entries.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Control of life limited components Three life processes are recognised as applicable for the primary maintenance of aircraft. It should not. Otherwise. These are. therefore. The fundamental purpose of the process is to remove an item before its failure in service. By monitoring the level and type of contaminant. After test. The prescribed action normally includes servicing. to an appropriate standard in order to determine whether it can continue in service (for another scheduled interval). analysed and interpreted on a continuing basis as a means of implementing correct procedures. Other basic elements of a Condition Monitoring programme may include data on : unscheduled removals. sampling inspections. may be used for Condition Monitoring. Performance tolerance and wear or deterioration limits should be contained in the Operator’s Maintenance Manual. aircraft Built In Test Equipment (BITE). the condition of the engine can be assessed and a recommendation of engine change be made just prior to failure. In other words it is a statistically controlled process The data collection and ATA chapter analysis allow portrayal of information upon which judgements relative to the safe condition of the airplane can be made. Flight Data Recorder (FDR). 136 An example is the Engine Health Monitoring process where oil samples and magnetic chip detector (MCD) debris for each engine are regularly collected and submitted for spectrographic analysis. the life of the unit is set to zero. be interpreted as a ‘fit it and forget it’ philosophy. overhaul. bench checks. Hard Time (Hard Life) This is a preventative process whereby known deterioration of an item is limited to an acceptable level by the maintenance actions carried out at time related periods (normally flight hours). It is one in which information on items gained from operational experience is collected. On Condition This is also a preventative process but one in which the item is inspected or tested at specified periods. Wear/deterioration curves for components in the On-Condition category must be progressive and not of catastrophic nature. mechanical reliability reports. Conditioning Monitoring This is not a preventative process. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . functional checks. Airplane Information Management System (AIMS). Quick Access Recorder (QAR) and other equipment for ground check out of system performance. Therefore. so that the item concerned is either replaced or restored to such condition that it can be released for service for a further specified period. evaluation programmes based on reports completed by flight and/or cabin crews. An example is the Air Starter Motor which will be removed for servicing after a prescribed period or number of cycles. worn parts will be replaced and damage rectified. Having neither hard time nor on condition elements. partial overhaul and replacement. the determination of suitability for continued operation for another check interval cannot be made.

g. e. Conditioning Monitoring is the controlling activity of the programme. a decision to remove the component will not only be determined at fixed intervals but also on the basis of the condition of the component in service (as evidenced by the system monitoring processes). The Engineering Maintenance Programme and the ambient environment of the operation of the component will affect the workshop restoration costs and consequent value of the asset. or hours expected to be flown before the next shop visit. In addition the life of a component can be reduced as a result of inputs from an Airworthiness Authority or a Manufacturer normally by Airworthiness Directive (A. such as engines. which are frequently on lease. to items as prescribed in an Approved Maintenance Schedule. allied to progress in engineering technology and the provision of safeguards which are based on the philosophy known as System Philosophy. A properly managed Programme will contribute not only to continuing airworthiness. before requirement for a workshop visit will also be ‘condition monitored’. The programme is quite a sophisticated one and is adopted for the maintenance of the larger types of Transport Aircraft and where such aircraft are introduced into service under what is termed Maintenance Review Board procedure. 4000 flying hours. elapsed time measured from aircraft chocks-off to chock-on Flight cycle a one-way trip between aircraft lift-off and touchdown Block to block . This is particularly pertinent for high value components. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 137 . To provide significant and timely information by which improvements in reliability may be achieved through changes to the programme or to practices for implementing it. it has to be established by an Operator even for single aircraft.D. Furthermore the work package for the component workshop visit is not rigid. but also to improvement of fleet reliability. The Programme has two basic functions: • • To provide a summary of aircraft fleet reliability (by means of a statistical reliability element) and so reflect effectiveness of the maintenance being carried out. Once the component is released serviceable from the workshop it will have a certain life expectancy which can be quantified either in terms of hours flown since the last shop visit.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Control of life limited components Condition Monitored Maintenance (see CAAIPs Pt 1 Leaflet 1-7) Component flight hours and cycles are defined as: This is a special maintenance programme that formalises the application of the three primary maintenance processes just described. and to reduced overall costs.a one-way trip from the original terminal to the destination terminal A component with a ‘hard life’ of say. to better long-term planning. but will vary according to the incoming condition of the component and its outgoing utilisation. Flight hours - It’s introduction was greatly influenced by changes in aircraft design philosophy.) action. An explanatory handbook on the subject of Condition Monitored Maintenance is published by the CAA (CAP 418).

These will ensure the life of an aircraft component is not exceeded. and provided there is provision in the Approved Maintenance Schedule. there is scope for a possible nominal extension of a component life by the Quality Assurance department.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Control of life limited components Within an Operator’s Management Exposition the Quality Manual will usually define the method of control for life limited components. In exceptional circumstances. A typical extension value might be 5% or 100 hours. This process will vary between different Operators. The information from the component cards or the computer programme will enable the Operator’s Planning department to schedule the component removal to a convenient aircraft hangar input. 138 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . using component cards which are updated on a regular basis to a more sophisticated computerised tracking system which will automatically give real time status of life limited component lives. with the Airworthiness Authority being informed of the escalation. There is an agreed maximum number of component escalations per aircraft permitted. from a simple log Book tracking of life limited components.

It will not necessarily include those items which are essential for safety under all conditions. Such documents have been in regular use by many operators and have been referred to by a variety of names such as 'Allowable Deficiency List' (ADL) and 'Despatch Deviation Manual' (DDM) The MEL cannot be less restrictive than the MMEL and may have to be more restrictive to reflect operators’ circumstances and capabilities.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Minimum Equipment List The Authority carries out its obligations under the terms of the Air Navigation Order by authorising the use of Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL’s). an operator may choose to include additional torches. to the satisfaction of the CAA. The MMEL is applicable to an aircraft type but does not take into account the operating circumstances of individual operators of that type. Aircraft with an MTWA exceeding 2730kg. so that an aircraft with unserviceable equipment may be dispatched. it is strongly recommended that. Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL) In order to establish whether or not it is acceptable to despatch an aircraft with unserviceable equipment it will be necessary for each operator to prepare and seek CAA agreement to their own Minimum Equipment List (MEL). an equivalent document is acceptable to the CAA.e. An MMEL is not an exhaustive list of all equipment items required by law to be carried. Although production of an MMEL is not one of the conditions for the issuance of a CAA Type Certification or Certificate of Airworthiness. A JAA MMEL or. e. will have a CAA Approved Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL). i. in accordance with Article 16. permitted flight under certain limitations.g. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 139 . Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL). specifies the means for an operator to produce the MEL. life cots etc. the MMEL is prepared during the certification process and is completed before entry into service. An operator may include in an MEL any additional items that are required to be carried. for new aircraft types. CAP 549 Master Minimum Equipment Lists (MMEL) and Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL) The purpose of CAP549 is to define and explain the policy of the Civil Aviation Authority in regard to Master Minimum Equipment Lists (MMEL) and Minimum Equipment Lists (MEL) CAP549 provides guidelines for aircraft manufacturers on the preparation of an MMEL and. where an approved MMEL has not been produced for a particular aircraft type. The MMEL will deal with items of equipment which may safely be permitted to be unserviceable under certain conditions.

the MMEL will be published by the manufacturer and carry a CAA approval statement. The JOEB shall exist as a body for as long as the aircraft type is operated. The certification process for new aircraft which are jointly certificated by the JAA requires the establishment of a Joint Operations Evaluation Board (JOEB). The JOEB will organise a review of the draft MMEL by the appropriate JAA specialists. by the Manufacturer/ Type Certificate holder. representatives of the Manufacturer/Type Certificate Holder. Aircraft Certificated by the JAA MMEL amendment proposals shall only be made to the JOEB Chairman. or by the manufacturer or operator(s). the CAA will take due account of such lists and will normally restrict any changes to those items affected by UK legislation or those on which the CAA applies a different policy. AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . Voluntary amendment of an MEL may be carried out when: • • The MMEL is amended so as to become less restrictive or. New Aircraft – Foreign Manufacture – UK Certificated For new aircraft of foreign manufacture which are certificated by the CAA. When finalised and formally approved by the CAA.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Minimum Equipment List New Aircraft – UK Manufacture – UK Certificated The manufacturer should produce an initial draft of the proposed MMEL in consultation with the CAA. This draft will then be reviewed by a committee chaired by the CAA . where an MMEL has already been issued and approved by the Airworthiness Authority of the country of manufacture. The JOEB consists of representatives of the JAA and may also possibly include. 140 Amendments To The MMEL and MEL UK Manufactured Aircraft – UK Certificated Proposals to amend the MMEL may be initiated by the CAA. a Supplemental Type Certificate holder or a Competent Authority. provided the proposed change is no less restrictive than the MMEL. by invitation. when required by the CAA in the light of experience. As required by the operator. This MMEL will then be approved by the JOEB chairman on behalf of the JAA. Mandatory amendment of an MEL Is required when: • • the MMEL is amended so as to become more restrictive or. Amendment proposals initiated by manufacturers or operators must be accompanied by a technical justification which should include any essential changes to the associated operational and/or maintenance procedures. New Aircraft – Certificated by the JAA Joint Operations Evaluation Board (JOEB). the JOEB.

A i r c r a f t

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Approved Technical Publications (ATP's) - Introduction
Technical manuals enable you to carry out your
maintenance functions in a correct and proper
manner. They are a constant source of
information to you as an Aircraft Maintenance
Engineer, so it is most important that you
understand their layout and function.
Before we begin, it may be appropriate to
consider the reasons why these manuals have
been published. Imagine all aircraft
manufacturers printing their own aircraft
manuals without consultation with other
manufacturers, The Engineer would have no idea
where to begin to look for information relating to
a particular subject if all manuals were different.
It would result in total confusion!

Publication

Abbreviation

Aircraft Maintenance Manual
Wiring Manual

WM

System Schematics Manual

SSM

Structural Repair Manual

SRM

*Illustrated Parts Catalogue

IPC

Component Maintenance Manual

CMM

Illlustrated Tool and Equipment Manual

TEM

Service Bulletin
ATA 100: Air Transport Association of
America; Specification 100

AMM

Weight and Balance Manual

SB
WBM

Non-Destructive Testing Manual

NDT

This specification standardised all aircraft
manufacturers' manuals into one simple format
for use world-wide. What it did for the Aircraft
Engineer was to enable him, no matter which
aircraft he was maintaining, to find relevant
information on a particular subject with ease.
The confusion was removed!

Power Plant Build-up Manual

PBM

Aircraft Recovery Manual

ARM

Fault Reporting Manual

FRM

Fault Isolation Manual

FIM

ATA 100 can best be summed up by quoting from
the Specification:-

Engine Manual

EM

This Specification established a Standard for the
presentation of technical data, by an aircraft,
aircraft accessory, or component manufacturer.
In order to standardise the treatment of the
subject matter and to simplify the users' problem
in locating instructions, a uniform method of
arranging material in all publications has been
developed.

*Precede by "Aircraft" or "Engine".

All aircraft manufacturers now conform to this
requirement.
Publications covered by this Specification may
be referred to by using abbreviations. Standard
abbreviations to be used are as follows:

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Example Breakdown of a Maintenance Manual
Each type of manual has its own ATA 100 layout.
Certain aspects, such as chapter subjects, are
common, while others, like page numbering, are
specific to the type.

Chapters 5 -12
“Aircraft General” (whole aircraft)

Chapters 51 - 57
“Structures Group”

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.

Time Limits/Checks
Dimension & Areas
Lifting & Shoring
Levelling & Weighing
Towing & Taxying
Parking & Mooring
Placards & Markings
Servicing

Chapters 20 - 49
“Airframe System Group”
(inc. Electrics & Avionics)
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
45.
49.

142

Std Pract Airframe
Air Conditioning
Auto Flight
Communications
Electrical Power
Equipt/Furnishings
Fire Protection
Flight Controls
Fuel
Hydraulic Power
Ice & Rain Protection
Ind/Recording Systems
Landing Gear
Lights
Navigation
Oxygen
Pneumatic
Vacuum
Water/Waste
Electrical/Electronic Panels &
Multi Purpose Components
Central Maintenance System
Airborne Auxiallary Power

Structures
Doors
Fuselage
Nacelles/Pylons
Stabilisers
Windows
Wings

Chapters 60 - 65
“Propellor/Rotor Group”
60. Std Pract-Prop/Rotor
(Helicopters)
61. Propellers
65. Rotors(Helicopters)

Chapters 70 - 83
“Power Plant Group”
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
91.

Std Practices-Engine
Power Plant
Engine
Eng Fuel & Control
Ignition
Air
Engine Controls
Engine Indicating
Exhaust
Oil
Starting
Turbines
Water Injection
Accessory Gear Boxes
Charts

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ATA 100 Series - Numbering System
Although we have looked at the general
arrangement of chapters in accordance with ATA
100 Series, each chapter is further broken down
into sections and subjects, each of which is
numbered in a three part numbering system.

The first number of the three part numbering
system identifies the chapter number of the
major system to which the subject belongs.
The second number is the section number that
serves to identify all of the information pertaining
to a system, sub system or group of
assemblies.
The third number is the subject number that
serves to identify a specific unit or component
within a subject.

Chapter
Flight Controls

Section
Elevator and Tab Control System

Subject
- 0 For complete system information
- 14 or higher number for individual
component (unit) coverage

ATA 100 NUMBERING SYSTEM

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144 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . If the Effectivity reads 'all' then the subject information relates to all types of equipment or aircraft irrespective of any other serial numbers. This number normally identifies the aircraft serial number or manufacturer's number that the subject refers to.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g ATA 100 Series .Effectivity One important point to bring to your attention is that the lower left portion of the page has an Effectivity Number.

200 Trouble Shooting. Adjustment / Test. The specification requires that the text and illustrations be presented in a form which is also suitable for the training of maintenance personnel. 201 . Maintenance Practices. Depending on the extent of the work to be carried out in each case. or they may be treated individually in additional page blocks of 100 from 301 to 900. function. configuration. The purpose of this block is to explain the location. good trouble shooting is done by a rationalised process of elimination and not by guesswork. Inspection/Check. 101 .100 Description and Operation. Topic In the maintenance of any type of aircraft. Removal/Installation. this block of page groups is set out in the form of charts having three basic headings: 1. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 145 . To make this effective. Cleaning/Painting and Approved Repairs. Isolation Procedure and 3.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Presentation Standards (ATA 100) Each subject is divided into page groups in blocks of 100 assigned as follows:1 .300. Possible Causes. operation and control of a complete system. Correction Servicing Removal/Installation Adjustment/Test Inspection/Check Cleaning/Painting Approved Repair Page Blocks Pages 301-400 401-500 501-600 601-700 701-800 801-900 The ‘three element number’ together with the page number will appear on each page at the bottom. 2. The purpose of this block is to describe: Servicing. the procedures may be combined into one topic.

It is therefore important to practice using them at the earliest opportunity. the manufacturer or approved company has to work to a Component Maintenance Manual. This manual uses the same ATA 100 coding system. we must have some means available to isolate and identify components or aircraft parts. there is a need to go deeper into aircraft structural repairs. It can be said that most components and structures should have Part Numbers stamped on them. So. The information in the manual relates to the particular aircraft configuration that is operated by the company. Using the same format as Aircraft Maintenance Manuals. many components of a mechanical nature require to be removed from the aircraft and sent away either to a support bay or back to the manufacturer for overhaul. maybe due to environmental problems or just age these markings do get removed. functionally check and repair all systems installed in the aircraft. As this is only basic information. This is accomplished by the use of the Structural Repair Manual. This is achieved by using the Illustrated Parts Catalogue. Maintenance Manuals The Maintenance Manual contains all the necessary information to enable Aircraft Engineers to service. However. To accomplish this task. however. troubleshoot. It includes information that is necessary for the Engineer to perform maintenance tasks or minor adjustments to the components on the flight line or in the hangar. Illustrated Parts Catalogue Because of the complexity of aircraft systems and structures. the Aircraft Maintenance Manual gives guidance to the Engineer in respect of minor repair procedures to the aircraft's structure. It includes cut-aways and exploded diagrams with each individual part numbered. As previously mentioned. This manual presents component breakdown of structure and equipment in dissembly sequence. Component Maintenance Manual These manual are compiled by the component manufacturer or approved company to overhaul their own components away from the aircraft. 146 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Maintenance Manuals and Parts Catalogue The Maintenance Manual and Illustrated Parts Catalogue will be the most used of all manuals in a line/hangar environment. the instructions contained in the Component Maintenance Manual enables an experienced Engineer to rebuild and fully test overhauled components removed from the aircraft. we need to identify components for removal or replacement. We have so far discussed the Maintenance Manual and seen that it refers to aircraft systems and components fitted to the aircraft.

It also contains information relative to: • Material identification and substitution • Corrosion control Riveted repairs • Descriptions of procedures that must be carried out • Lists of riveted fastener installation • Fastener codes It also lists appropriate protective treatments which must be carried out after all the repair work has been completed.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Structural Repair Manual The Structural Repair Manual contains details of repair materials to be used for structures which are subjected to field repairs. typical repairs generally applicable to the structural components of the aircraft that are likely to be damaged. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 147 . that is.

Each copy of each revision is issued under a covering letter (known as a Letter of Transmittal) which details the revision number. and the manual pages to be removed and pages to be added by the revision. it is necessary for these changes to be incorporated in the relevant manuals. required to review their manuals at certain periods for the purpose of issuing revisions and amendments to all registered holders of manuals. Manufacturers’ Service Departments are. These should be conveniently situated to enable use with the relevant microfilm.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g Revision and Amendment Revision and Amendments to Manuals Where changes have been made affecting maintenance. a temporary revision or amendment is published for inclusion in the relevant manual. a ‘list of effective pages’ is also provided for each manual so that the holder may check that a manual is current. is issued together with the list of effective permanent pages. e. and "Alerts" should be held in the appropriate "Manual Supplement". "Temporary Revisions". All Approved Technical Publications must be produced and amended in accordance with British Civil Airworthiness Requirements. when it is planned to incorporate a change covered by a Service Bulletin. also printed on yellow paper. therefore. In cases where it is necessary to issue essential information in the shortest possible time. A list of effective temporary revision pages.g. In manuals conforming to ATA Specification No. overhaul and repair as. When the revisions have been incorporated. Chapter A5-3 or Chapter B5-3 as appropriate. In the case of ATP's held on microfilm. 148 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 . for example. their numbers and issue dates are entered on a ‘Record of Revisions’ page at the front of each manual. issue date. 100. These revisions or amendments are printed on yellow paper and they remain in the appropriate chapters of manuals until they are replaced by pages issued through the normal revision service. by the issue of Service Bulletins.

as follows: Category 1 2 3A 3B 3C DH Mtrs (Ft) 60 (200) 30 (100) 15 (50) RVR Mtrs (Ft) 800 (2. The ground installation performance categories must not be confused with the ILS operational approach categories which are defined in terms of Decision Height (DH) and Runway Visual Range (RVR) by ICAO. This is known as the Marker System and consists of three low powered beacons that radiate signals vertically upwards. · · Category 1 Category 3 Accurate guidance down to and along the surface of the runway. The lower the minima. the distance at specific intervals in NMs or feet from the runway threshold. duplicated or triplicated systems with auto-throttle. to the left or to the right of the centre line. autokick off drift and automatic roll-out guidance for Cat 3 operation. the pilot and/or the autopilot requires the following information: · the aircraft’s position relative to the extended centre line of the runway in the horizontal plane.e on. i. The actual figures depend in part on the ICAO performance category of the ground installation. above or below.000 feet. known as the Inner. EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 149 . capable of generating the guidance signals for manual or automatic precision approaches and automatic landing.200) 200 (700) 30 (150) ZERO The ground installation is not the only component essential for operations down to the minima associated with the different categories.600) 400 (1. The airborne components vary in complexity and capability from a simple ILS meter for Cat 1 approaches to computer controlled .000 and 3. This is known as the Localiser System and has a reception range of approximately 25NMs from the runway threshold at between 2. ILS provides guidance down to the pilots critical/ decision height i.e the height below which the pilot must have visual contact with the runway or abort the landing. This is known as the Glide Slope System and has a reception range of approximately 10NMs from the runway threshold at an altitude of 2.000 feet. · Accurate guidance down to 200 feet above the ILS reference point. complex and costly the airborne systems must become. · · the aircraft’s position in the vertical plane relative to the ideal descent path i. Category 2 Accurate guidance down to 50 feet above the ILS reference point.e on. as follows: For precision approaches and automatic landings. the more reliable.A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g All Weather Operations Introduction Performance Categories The ILS is an Approach and Landing aid. Middle and Outer markers.

A i r c r a f t M a i n t e n a n c e L i c e n c e T r a i n i n g All Weather Operations RUNWAY EXTENDED RUNWAY CENTRE LINE GLIDEPATH 150 AVIATION LEGISLATION APRIL 2012 EASA PART-66 MODULE 10 .