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Leiden Indo-European

Etymological Dictionary Series
Edited by

Alexander Lubotsky


Etymological Dictionary of Greek


Robert Beekes

With the assistance of

Lucien van Beek






This publication has been made possible by the financial support of the Netherlands
Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Beekes, R. S. P. (Robert Stephen Paul)
Etymological dictionary of Greek / by Robert Beekes ; with the assistance of
Lucien van Beek.
p. cm. - (Leiden Indo-European etymological dictionary series; v. 1011-2)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-90-04-17418-4 (hardback: alk. paper) 1. Greek language- Etymology­
Dictionaries. 1. Beek, Lucien van. n. Title.
PA422.B44 201O

ISSN: 1574-3586
ISBN Set: 978 90 04 17418 4
ISBN Volume One: 978 90 04 17420 7
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Pre-Greek loanwords in Greek



Abbreviations and symbols............................................................................................... xlv
The Greek etymological dictionary A-A


.................... .......................................................



The Greek etymological dictionary M-O'





......................................... . ......... ......... .......


. .

. .

...................................................................................... ... . ... . ...................



.................... .............................................................................................. ............




Whoever takes up the task of writing a new etymological dictionary of Greek, has to
depart from the existing dictionaries. The present dictionary, too, owes a great deal
to previous work in the field, especially to the excellent dictionaries of Hjalmar Frisk
and Pierre Chantraine.
Apart from compiling the first comprehensive etymological dictionary of Greek
in the English language and incorporating the most recent scholarly literature on
Greek etymology, there were a number of other reasons why a new dictionary
seemed to be a desideratum. In the preface to his dictionary, Frisk expressed doubts
on three points: 1. the laryngeal theory; 2. Mycenaean; and 3. the Pelasgian theory on
the Greek substrate language. Ironically, it is precisely on these three points that
substantial progress has been made in the last decades, so that we can now be much
more confident in these areas.
1. Frisk felt uneasy about the laryngeals. In the preface (p. vi) he wrote: "Fur die
griechische Etymologie fallt sowieso die Laryngaltheorie (... ) nicht schwer ins
Gewicht". I have been acquainted with the problems of the laryngeal theory since the
start of my academic career (see my dissertation, Beekes 1969), and I vividly
remember how the chaotic spectrum of theories and hypotheses discouraged many
people in the beginning.
Since the 1980'S, the situation has changed dramatically. When Bammesberger's
Die Laryngaltheorie appeared (Bammesberger (ed.) 1988), there had already been
general consensus on the main rules of development of the laryngeals in Greek and
in other Indo-European languages. It is absolutely clear now that the development of
the laryngeals is essential for understanding Greek etymology. Chantraine's
Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque (DELG) often does not give
reconstructions with laryngeals either; as a consequence, many of the etymologies
still defended in his dictionary are clearly untenable within the framework of the
laryngeal theory. It must be admitted, however, that many of these deficiencies have
been remedied in the Supplement (DELG Supp.), which often contains very helpful
2. The study of Mycenaean has by now become an integral part of Greek studies.
The Mycenaean material was already accepted by Chantraine and incorporated into
DELG. I have tried to include all Mycenaean data with a reasonably certain
interpretation, provided that these data have a bearing on the etymological
interpretation of classical Greek. Personal names are generally excluded from the
discussion, as their interpretation is often too uncertain to base any conclusions on.
The task of incorporating Mycenaean data was not too difficult, since we have the
excellent Diccionario Micenico (1985-1993) by Aura Jorro at our disposal. Although



the Mycenaean material is limited, it is of great importance and should always be
taken ito account. The exact attestations of the Mycenaean words are usually not
cited, as they can easily be traced in Aura Jorro's dictionary.
3. It is now clear that the Pelasgian theory, which started from the assumption
that there was an Indo-European substrate in Greek, has been a completely
unfruitful and wrong approach. Although Frisk doubted this theory, he nevertheless
conSistently referred to Pelasgian throughout the dictionary. This is a pity, because
the theory has yielded no positive results. Chantraine often used the vague terms
'acheen' or 'mediterraneen', without clearly identifying Greek substrate words in this
In the present dictionary, no reference to the Pelasgian theory is made anymore.
Instead, I have extensively used Furnee's 1972 book, who meticulously studied the
substrate material and concluded that we are dealing with loanwords from a single
non-Indo-European language. Unfortunately, this work has been neglected or
rejected by most scholars without due argumentation. In order to explain the
principles of Furnee's work and to present his conclusions, as well as my own
findings from recent years, I have written a special introduction to Pre-Greek (as I
call the substrate language), see pp. xiii-xlii. Throughout the dictionary, much
attention is paid to the Pre-Greek material, and one of my main goals was to
generate a collection of substrate words which would be as complete as possible. I
intend to publish a separate work, containing all certain or probable Pre-Greek
etyma, in the coming years.

The dictionaries of Frisk and Chantraine are different in their orientation. Whereas
Chantraine is more oriented towards the philological study of Greek (as follows
from the subtitle Histoire des mots), Frisk focuses on the Indo-European side of
Greek etymology. In fact, it may be fair to say that Frisk to some extent tried to
produce not an etymological dictionary of Greek only, but of Greek and Indo­
European at the same time. The main focus of the present dictionary is also
etymology, rather than philology.
I started working on the project in 2002. At first, the idea was to produce an
updated English translation of Frisk in the framework of the Indo-European
Etymological Dictionary project. While largely maintaining the philological part of
the entries, I modernized old reconstructions, added new ones from the literature,
and rejected older etymologies in the light of the substrate theory. Furthermore,
many new entries have been incorporated, most of them glosses by Hesychius, which
were gleaned from DELG, from Furnee's book and from the new 2005 edition of
Hesychius (part Ill, II-L:).
Gradually, I have come to the conclusion that a much more rigorous approach
was necessary: there is simply too much irrelevant and dated literature in Frisk's
dictionary, and many of his pre-Iaryngealist reconstructions are now useless. Also,
research interest in Indo-European studies has shifted considerably over the course
of decades. It was therefore decided to completely reorganize the etymological
treatment of the entries.



The rigorous editing of the etymological sections of the dictionary was done by
Lucien van Beek. He integrated my own views with traditional etymologies and
recent insights. In those cases where a word can now be proven to be of Pre-Greek
origin, part of the old reasoning has sometimes been retained in order to illustrate
the flaws in the traditional approach, according to which practically every word is
bound to have an Indo-European etymology.
Structure of the entry

After the lemma, grammatical information is given between square brackets, for
instance, 8UpOflaL [v.] 'to lament, bewail', or £YKUTU [] 'intestines'. If it is
unknown (for instance, in a gloss), this may be indicated with a query.
The grammatical information is followed by the meaning of the word. For most
of the glosses, an English translation has been provided. Although this is a major
break with tradition in Classical Studies, I consider it to be convenient for specialists
in other Indo-European languages than Greek. Of course, in many cases a gloss can
be ambiguous, but I hope to have been suffiCiently prudent in the translations.
At the end of the first paragraph, I give the origin of the word (in abbreviated
form) between two arrowheads. The abbreviations must be understood as follows:
There is a good Indo-European (IE) etymology. The IE root is
reconstructed, and in most cases also the formation represented by the
Greek etymon. If there are no cognates, but the Greek word looks Indo­
European, a reconstruction has sometimes been proposed, too.
An Indo-European etymology exists for the entry concerned, but it is not
entirely convincing.
The word was coined in the more recent (pre)history of Greek, and
consists of one or more (pOSSibly) inherited elements; however, the
formation as a whole was certainly not inherited from IE.
The word certainly belongs to the Pre-Greek substrate language. The
reason for this decision may be indicated with (V), which means that
there are formal variants, or with (S) if the word contains a suffix
characteristic for Pre-Greek.
The word may be Pre-Greek (see above on (V) and (S)).
A loanword. The donor language is indicated in abbreviated form, e.g.
<!{LW Sem.� a loanword from Semitic.
A loanword from (one of) the European substrate language(s). Such
words are not reconstructible for PIE, but share similarities with words
from other European language families (Germanic, Italo-Celtic, Balto­
Slavic) that must be due to substrate influence.
<!{ONOM� An onomatopoeic word.
No good etymology exists, or the etymology is unknown.



The philological information is subdivided into sections in order to make the
presentation more transparent:




Inflectional forms and phonological variants.
Dialectal forms. Mycenaean is mostly given in the (approximate)
phonological transcription.
.COMP Compounds (only the most common or etymologically relevant
compounds are given).
ETYM Etymological discussion .



The Proto-Indo-European reconstructions

The reconstructions in this book follow some conventions which deviate from
common usage. Let me mention the most important ones:
a) PIE had no phoneme *a. Whenever *a appears in a reconstruction, the stage of
language should always be understood as post-PIE.
b) In lE reconstructions, vocalization of resonants and laryngeals is as a rule not
indicated, since the consonantal and vocalic allophones were not phonologized in
the proto-language. Thus, for the PIE pre-form of �a(vw , I write *gWm-ie!o-.
Whenever vocalization is indicated, i.e. *gw1jl-ie!o-, this is understood to be a post­
PIE development.
c) I follow Kortlandt's theory of Balto-Slavic accentuation, and adopted his
reconstruction of (pre-)glottalized consonants for PIE (see, for instance, on £KaTOV
and Tt£VT�KOVTa).
d) It should be noted that the term 'prothetic vowel' is used in this dictionary to
indicate the vowel (mostly a-) that may or may not be present in Pre-Greek substrate
words. In inherited words, a facultative prothetic vowel is not reconstructed any
more since it contradicts the laryngeal theory.
Bibliographical references

Within the limited amount of time available for this project, it proved impossible to
modernize all references and to check all reference works. It was necessary,
therefore, to make certain strategic choices. It was decided to concentrate on the
etymologically relevant publications and to adjust the philological treatment of the
material only sporadically.
The second editions of reference works, such as Lejeune's Phonetique historique
(1972) and Risch's Wortbildung (1974) have been systematically consulted. I have
generally maintained references to Chantraine Formation, as this book contains a
very concise and precise overview of the different suffIxed nominal formations in
In contrast to Frisk's dictionary, references to works on specific morphological
topics have been left out. For instance, for a derivation in -mJvT], Frisk often refers to
Wyss's 1954 book. Other such works, to which the reader can refer, are: Redard 1949



(-LTT]<;), B06hardt 1942 (-£u<;), Fraenkel 1910 (agent nouns), Benveniste 1948 (agent
and action nouns), and, more recently, Leukart 1994 (suffIx -nl<;, -a<;).
Furthermore, references to the dictionaries of individual languages have largely
been omitted. Most references to Walde-Hoffmann (Latin), Vasmer (Russian),
Fraenkel (Lithuanian), etc. are superfluous in a Greek etymological dictionary. It is
understood that the reader who wants to know more about the cognates in a given
branch will find his way to the relevant dictionaries. References to Mayrhofer's
KEWA have been retained in some instances, because it often contains more details
than the EWAia. The LIV2 has proven to be a very important work of reference for
all verbal roots, even if I very often disagree with details of their analysis.
References to Stromberg's Pjlanzennamen and Fischnamen have been maintained,
as well as to Thompson's Glossary of Greek fishes. Unfortunately, it has not been
possible to adjust all references concerning Greek religion to recent works such as
Burkert 1985.
Regarding the epigraphic material, no systematic check has been made of the

A new etymological dictionary of a language like Greek cannot be written in a few
years by just one person, without the help of others. Many people helped me on
various stages of the project.
First of all, I am greatly indebted to Lucien van Beek for editing, correcting and
proofreading the whole volume containing about 7500 entries over the course of
more than two years. Several others assisted him in this work, sacrificing many
weeks of their spare time: Alwin Kloekhorst, Guus Kroonen, Michael Peyrot, Tijmen
Pronk, and especially Michiel de Vaan. Needless to say, it is I who remain
responsible for all views expressed in this dictionary, and for any mistakes in it.
I am very grateful to Alexander Lubotsky, who proofread a large part of the
dictionary, and spent a lot of time and effort in formatting the manuscript. Dr.
Velizar Sadovsky (Vienna) has been so kind to write many macros for generating
indices and bibliography and to proofread some parts of the manuscript. I am
indebted to Dr. Thomas Olander (Copenhagen) for solving various font problems.
I would like to thank the students of our department - Kristen de Joseph, Marijn
van Putten, Simon Mulder and Alain Corbeau - for technical assistance. Kristen de
Joseph further copy-edited the manuscript. Marijn van Putten and Simon Mulder
helped compiling ilie bibliography.


A. Introduction
B. Phonology

1. The phonemic system of Pre.-Greek
2a. Characteristic sounds or sound groups: 1. au; 2. �; 3. �O ; 4. yo; 5. yv; 6. ov; 7. KT; 8. KX; 9 flY; 10. DU;
11. mp; 12. pO; 13. pKV; 14. pv (po, Vo); 15. a; 16. a�; 17. ay ; 18. OK, aT; 19. aT A; 20. Te; 21. <pe; 22. Xfl,
Xv; 23. '1'-; 24· w; 25. geminates
2b. How to recognize words as Pre-Greek?
3. Prothetic vowel
4. s-mobile
5. Consonant variation
5.1. Voiceless I voiced I aspirated stop; 5.2. Prenasalization; 5.3. Nasalization; 5.4. Labial stops I m I 1J
(a.TI, �, <p I fl; b.TI, �, <p I (F); c. fl I (F)); 5.5. Stops interchanging with 0(0) , with stop + oh or with a
+ stop; 5.6. Velar I labial I dental stops: labio-velars; 5.7. Dentals I liquids; 5.8. Simple I geminate; 5.9.
0- I zero; 5.10. K-, T- I zero; 5.11. V-, A- I zero; 5.12. Metathesis, shift of aspiration; 5.13. Secondary
phonetic developments; 5.14. Other variation.
6. Vowel variation
6.1. Single vowels, timbre; 6.2. Long I short; 6.3. Single I diphthong; 6.4. Rising diphthongs?
6.5. Secondary vowels (or syncope).
C. Morphology

1. Reduplication
2. SuffIxes
2.1. Introduction; 2.2. Survey of the suffIxes; 2.3. The material: -a�-(0-), -ay-, -ayy-o-, -ao-, -ae-o-,
-m-IE(L)-, -m(F)- o-, -m�-o-, -me-, -mv-, -mp-Coo), -aK-, -a A(A)- o-, -afl�-o-, -aflv-o-, -afl-o-, -av-o-,
-av-, -avo-, -avop(-o)-, -aveh-, -avv(-o)-, -a�-, -aTI-O-, oap, -ap-, -aa-a/o-, -aaa-o-, -aT-, -aup-a/o-,
-ax-, -a'l'-, -yo-, -yp-, -eo-, -e�-a, -eLP-O-, -eA-a/o-, -eAA-a/o-, -efl-O-, -eflv-(o-), -evv-a, -ep-a/o-,
-eT-O-, -wp-, -WT-, -T]�-a/ o-, -T]e-(o-), -T]K/X-, -T]A- o-, -T]v, -T]v-, -T]P, -T]P-, -T] a(a)-a/ o-, -T]T-(O-), -T]H-,
-T]'I'- o-, -e- o-, -ep - a/ o-, -L�-, -Lyy/K/X-, -Lo-, -Lova, -Le-, -Le-, -LK-, -LK-, -LA-, -LA-, -LAA-a/o-, -Lflv-a/o-,
-Lv-a/o-, -Lv-(o-), -LVO-, -LVe-(O-), -L�-, -LTI-O-, -La-a/o-, -LaK-O-, -LT-a/o-, -LX-, -KV-, -fl-O-, -V-, -�-, -OTI-,
-op-, -oaa-a, -O TT-a, - ouA-O-, - oup -, -oua(a) -a, -TIV-, -TIT-, _po, -py-, -po-, -pv-, -aK-, -0-0, -00-, -aT-,
-aTpov, -T-O-, -T T-, u� , -uyy-, -uo-, -uova, u e , -UL-a, UK , -UK-, -uA-, -ufl-, -ufl�-' -uflv-, -uv-, -UVO-,
-uveh-, -UVV-, -u�-, -UTI-, -up-, -up-, -ua-, -UT-, -uX-, - <pe-, -<p-o-, -WK-, -wA-, -wfl-, -WV-, -WTI-, -wp-,
-0000-) -WT-.




3. Word end
3.1. in vowel (a. -a; b. -L, -L�; C. -u, -U�; d. -W�;
3.3. in -�, -'I' (a. -�; b. -'1'); 3.4. in -v; 3.5. in -a�.


e. -w,


-W�); 3.2. in -p (a. oap;

b. -LP;


-op ;

d. -wp) ;

D. The unity of Pre-Greek

E. Pre-Greek is non-Indo-European

A. Introduction
The substrate language of Greek will be called 'Pre-Greek' in this dictionary; this is a
translation of the German ten;n 'das Vorgriechische'. No written texts exist in this
language, but it is known from a considerable number of loanwords in Greek.



The study of Pre-Greek has had an unfortunate history. In the past century, it was
called 'Pelasgian' and considered a dialect of Indo-European. This idea fascinated
scholars, and research concentrated on this proposal. But the whole idea was clearly
wrong, and by now, it is generally agreed that the substrate was non-Indo-European.
Therefore, the term 'Pelasgian' can no longer be used. Frisk already had strong
doubts about the Pelasgian theory, but nevertheless, he often mentioned the
proposals of its adherents. Since all work following this line has turned out to be
useless, I decided to make no mention of the theory anymore in the dictionary.
When Frisk completed his dictionary in 1972, Furnee's book 'Die wichtigsten
konsonantischen Erscheinungen des Vorgriechischen', which was his dissertation
written under the supervision of F.B.J. Kuiper, had just appeared. It was an
elaboration of Kuiper's 1956 study on Greek substrate words, which opened a new
chapter in the research of the field. Furnee rejected the Pelasgian theory, too (see
especially op. cit. pp. 40-55).
Furnee's book met with fierce criticism and was largely neglected. In my view, this
was a major mistake in Greek scholarship. True, some of his identifications are
improbable, and his repeated claim that certain forms were expressive leads
nowhere. What remains, however, is that he studied a great number of relevant
forms and drew obvious conclusions from them. Pre-Greek words often show a type
of variation which is not found in inherited words. It is self-evident that this
variation must be studied, and this is what Furnee did. It has turned out (as Kuiper
had already shown) that this variation shows certain recurrent patterns and can be
used to recognize Pre-Greek elements.
. Furnee's book is not easy to use: every form is discussed at three or four places,
each time in a different context, so that it may be difficult to find out what his point
really is. On the other hand, his treatment is very careful, and there hardly any
obvious mistakes. I found a number of cases which he had not recognized (e.g.
mwX6c;), but this does not change the fact that his book was the best collection at the
time. Furnee worked on it for twenty years, and even now it is the only hand-book
on the subject. The short overview which follows below is based on Furnee's material
and on my own research of more than thirty years.'
Furnee went astray in two respects. First, he considered almost all variation to be
of an expressive character, which is certainly wrong: it is evident that the variation
found is due to the adaptation of words (or phonemes) of a foreign language to
Greek. We shall see below that many variants can be understood in this way.
Secondly, Furnee was sometimes overzealous in his search for inner-Greek
correspondences. Many of Furnee's discoveries are brilliant (see s.v. 80PUKVLOV for
an example), but sometimes he went too far: not every alternation necessarily points
to Pre-Greek origin. The author can hardly be blamed for his enthusiasm. He was
exploring new ground, and it can only be expected that he sometimes overplayed his

Since Kuiper was my supervisor as well, I was acquainted with the book from the very beginning (see
my review in Lingua 36, 1975).



Several scholars were baffled by Furnee's proposals and hence rejected the whole
book altogether. His method, however, was correct and I have only filtered out the
improbable suggestions. In many cases, of course, we cannot be absolutely certain,
but this cannot be an objection. Except for a very small number of cases, Furnee's
material does consist of Pre-Greek words. His index contains 4400 words, and
taking into account that many of these words concern derivatives and variants, as
well as a few Indo-European words, I estimate that Furnee's book discusses some
1000 Pre-Greek etyma.2
In general, I have given only a few personal names and toponyms, and no
material of this kind from outside Greece and Asia Minor. The comparison with
Basque or Caucasian languages has not been considered in this dictionary, as this is
not my competence; it is likely that there are such connections, but this must be left
to other scholars.
My suggested reconstructions are not essential. One may ignore them and just
consider the variation itself. These variants are often explained as incidental
phenomena (assimilation, influence of other words, etc.), and such explanations may
be sometimes correct, but if we know that some variants frequently occur, we will
have to consider Pre-Greek origin. Existing etymological dictionaries often seem to
avoid the conclusion that a word is a substrate element. It is remarkable that
Chantraine was quite aware of the problem in his Formation, but in his dictionary he
often withdrew his earlier evaluation (which in my view was correct). It looks as if
substrate elements were not welcome there.
The relationship with Anatolian languages is a separate problem. A Greek word is
often called a loan from an Anatolian language, while it may just as well be borrowed
from the Pre-Greek substrate. It is generally accepted, on the basis of toponyms, that
there was a language which was once spoken both in Greece and in western Asia
Minor.3 In most cases, however, it is impossible to distinguish between substrate
words and loans from Asia Minor (the latter are from a later date). A word may have
been adopted through commerce, as often happens between two neighboring
countries, or starting from the time when Greeks settled in Asia Minor, probably as
early as the 15th century. From a methodological point of view, I think it is better to
consider such words as Pre-Greek, and to define them as loanwords from an
Anatolian language only when there is reason to do so. Still, it is clear that we may
often make mistakes here. A case in point is TOAUTtTj 'clew, ball of wool ready for
spinning'. The word is clearly related to Luwian and Hitt. taluppali- 'lump, clod'.
The Greek word is typical of Pre-Greek words: the structure CaC-up- (with a
appearing as 0 before u) and the absence of an Indo-European etymology (Melchert
Orpheus 8 (1998): 47-51 is not convincing) imply that the word is Pre-Greek or Pre­
Anatolian. On the other hand, 'clew' is not a word that is easily brought from
overseas; it is an everyday word that the speakers of Greek and Anatolian must have
, Note that Furnee often adduces' new material that is not mentioned in the current etymological
dictionaries, mostly glosses froin Hesychius.
3 A point for further study is to establish how far to the east such related names can be found. It is my
impression that these names can be found as far south as Cilicia.



picked up not far from home. I completely agree with Furnee's interpretation (3533)
that the word was brought to Greece by settlers from Anatolia who spoke the
language, which, from another perspective, we call Pre-Greek. In other words,
TOAUTIT] is a loan from an Anatolian language, but this (probably non-Indo­
European) language was also spoken in large parts of Greece before the Greeks
(speaking an Indo-European language) arrived there.
It is essential to realize that substrate words are a frequent phenomenon. One may
regret this (for instance, from the Indo-Europeanist point of View), but this is
irrelevant; the existence of Pre-Greek words is simply a fact that has to be accepted.
To me, it is fascinating that in this way we can learn something about the oldest
language of Europe (including Anatolia), of which we otherwise have no evidence.
The 'Pelasgian' theory has done much harm, and it is time to forget it. The latest
attempt was Heubeck's 'Minoisch-Mykenisch' (discussed by Furnee 55-66), where
the material was reduced to some ten words; the theory has by now been tacitly
B. Phonology

The phonemic system of Pre-Greek

Voiceless, voiced and aspirated stops may interchange in Pre-Greek words, without
any apparent conditioning factors. This fact shows that voice and aspiration were
not distinctive features in Pre-Greek.4 On the other hand, the Linear B signs
(graphemes) for rjo, rja and tja show that palatalization probably was distinctive.
This is confirmed by the sign pte (e.g. in ra-pte-re Jhrapteresl with the agent suffix
-ter-), which must go back to an earlier pe. In the Pre-Greek material, such a
phoneme may underlie examples like 8CtTITU. One may wonder whether Kpoaa6cp80v
points to p > pt, which was realized with aspiration. Further, the signs two, twe, dwo,
dwe, nwa, swa, swi, point to labialization as a distinctive feature, i.e. tWo, tWe, dWo, dWe,
nWa, sWa, sWi. Note that palatal and labial forms of graphemes are found both with
resonants and stops, which is a phenomenon alien to Indo-European languages. The
existence of labiovelars is confirmed by qa-si-re-u
�aO"lAEUC;, etc. (see further
Beekes Glotta 73 (1995/6): 1 2f.) We may thus posit the follOWing systems:




4 Of course, it could be due to the fact that a different distinction was present in Pre-Greek (like fortis /
lenis, found in most Anatolian languages), but no obvious distribution pointing in this direction can be
discerned in the material.
5 Note that I distinguish between palatals of Pre-Greek origin, which are indicated by a superscript y
(e.g. k>,), and palatovelars ofIndo-European origin.



Of course, it is possible that one or more of the posited phonemes did not occur in
Pre-Greek (e.g., mY is a rare sound in the languages of the world).
We can now use this insight in explaining the surfacing Greek forms. Thus,
McpvT] 1 l5auxv(u)- can now be explained from a Pre-Greek form *dakwn-.6 In the
former form, the labiovelar yields a labial stop cp. In the latter, it is rendered by -uX-,
with anticipation of the labial feature, while the labiovelar turns up as a velar, possib­
ly by dissimilation from uklV• Again, note that aspiration is not phonemiC in Pre­
Greek. It is very important to note that we cannot predict how a Pre-Greek form will
surface in Greek: sometimes a stop turns up as an aspirate, sometimes as a voiced
stop (e.g. aiTIuc; 1 ucpap, see B 5.1. below). As a consequence, it may happen that there
is a large number of variants, but it may also be that there are no variants at all.
As a second example, we may also understand aux�v 1 Lesb. uflCPT]v from a pre­
form *ankwen. The latter form is directly understandable, with cp from the labiovelar.
The first form went through *anwken or *awnken, giving aux�v with loss of the nasal
(a development known from Armenian). Perhaps, a scenario *akwen > aux�v is also
possible, with a prenasalized form *ankwen (> uflCPT]v) beside *aklVen.7 Such
interpretations may be wrong in individual cases, but this is no reason not to try. On
the other hand, variation that is strange from an exclusively Indo-European point of
view becomes understandable in this way, starting as we do from a limited set of
The existence of palatalized phonemes in Pre-Greek may explain a number of
other developments. Thus, I assume that a geminate AA may continue Pre-Greek *1>'.
We know that lE *ly gave AA in Greek, but if a variant with single A coexists, we are
warned. For example, the name A.XLAAEUC; has a variant A.XLAEUC; with one A. And
although the latter only occurs in Homer, this fact points to Pre-Greek origin. The
variant was preserved because it was metrically convenient, it was not created for
metrical purposes. Of course, the fact that there was more variation at an earlier date
is what we expect. As far as the other palatalized resonants are concerned, anY may
have given atv, arY may have given alp (or also ELp with coloring of the vowel, see
section C2 below on the suffIxes), etc. We have -aLp-, -aLV- but no *-aLA- in Pre­
Greek words. This is confirmed by the fact that geminate AA is very frequent (Fur.
387), whereas geminate pp, vv and flfl are much less frequent, or even rare.
In a similar fashion, *asY may have yielded either -aLa- or -ua-, cf. KCt�aLaOC;,
which has a v.l. KCt�aaoc;. In rendering such a foreign word, the palatalization may
have been represented at one time, and may have been neglected at another. This
6 Although I assume that voice was not distinctive in Pre-Greek, I do write d- in this case, because only
8- surfaces in Greek. We must avoid losing information present in the Greek forms. Thus, my notation of

Pre-Greek forms is heuristic to a certain degree, and not always consistent with the phonemic system I
tentatively reconstruct here.
7 On prenasalization, see B5.2. below. As an alternative, an Indo-European etymology starting with the
root *h,emt- 'to tie, betroth', can be offered; see the dictionary (althoughI prefer the analysis given here).



phenomenon was the main cause of variation in Pre-Greek forms. The
interpretation is further confirmed by the parallel development of labialized
consonants. Thus, I suppose that arW resulted in -a(u)p- (see the section on the
suffIxes). In this way, we may understand KaAaupo'\l beside KOAOpO�OV from a pre­
form kalarw-op-. Another form which shows the remarkable interchange a/au is
apaoxuOe<; I aupoaxu<;. Here one might assume a pre-form *arwask-at-. Note that the
labial element would at the same time explain the 0 as a variant of a in both cases. A
similar mechanism must be at the basis of the etymon aAo�, aiJAa�, dlAa�, EUAaKCt,
which is hopeless from an Indo-European point of view. I assume that all forms go
back on Pre-Greek *alw-ak-. It gives aUAaK- through anticipation, aAoK- through
coloring. In this way, the first two forms, which are best attested, are directly clear.
Further, au/wlw interchange frequently, which explains dlAa� and EUAuKa; OAOK- is
not problematic either, as both la/'s were colored to [0] by the labialized resonant.
Only the Homeric accusative dlha is hopeless: it is the only form that has no vowel
between A and K, and therefore may be due to some accident of the tradition. This is
a problem that has not been solved yet.
I do not know whether a diphthong is allowed in suffrxes of the structure VC, cf.
the forms in -aLFo<;. Structurally, one could think of _ayw_, or even -awY-, but such
sounds are rather rare in the languages of the world. An instance of -aL- due to a
palatalized consonant is e�alcpvT)<; I e�arclvT)<; I acpvw (a brilliant combination by Fur.
158, etc.), which must contain -ap- (the palatalization was ignored in the last form).
Comparable to the development in e�arclvT)<; is KVW'\I I KIVWrc£TOV, from kln- with I
representing palatalization, cf. Beekes 2008. Likewise, I assume that mvuTo<; beside
rcVUTO<; points to *pnut-. Perhaps, we must interpret atwrcuw as *sYop- because of
Euawrcla. An interesting case is Alfllv9E<;· £AflIV9E<;, for which I assume *JYm- beside
*alYm- with prothetic a (see B3 below on the prothetic vowel).
A palatalized consonant could color a to e. A good example is Kl>TCapo<;, KUrcaLP0<;,
but also KurcEpO<;, Kl>TC£LpO<;, where we have all possible variants due to the palatalized
consonant. Compare further Ku�apvol next to KU�£LpOL. Likewise, we have (aKEhl<;
next to (EKEhl<; 'KOAOKUVTaL', where the interchange occurs after ( from earlier
palatalized fY. 8Lcpgepa beside 8L'\Iupa may have had -pfY-; £A(A)0'\l next to aA(A)u�T)<;
goes back to *aJYap-, with the common variation a / 0 before a labial. A clear example
is AaatTo<; with, next to it, AEatTO<; and AUaTaL, AUaTaUpo<;. It may be interpreted as
representing PG *lasYt-.
Kuiper Lingua 21 (1968) : 269-277 pointed out that the substrate language had
labiovelars. He especially pointed to 9aAuKp0<; next to e9uAV'\Ia, 9UArcW. I added a
few remarks in Beekes Glotta 73 (1995/6) : 12f. From Mycenaean, we have a-to-ro-qo
(av9pwrco<;) and qe-to (rcI90<;), Mo-qo-so (Mo'\lo<;), qi-si-pe-e (the dual of �lcpo<;).
Further there is A-i-ti-jo-qo (gen. Ai910rco<;), ocp9aAflo<; with the variants OKTaAAO<;
and omIA(A)o<;, which cannot be explained from Indo-European. Instead of �lcpo<;,
we would perhaps expect **'\I1cpo<;. So the developments are largely as those of Greek,
but not completely.
Pre-Greek probably had a Iyl and a Iw/. Initial ya- presumably often lost its y-,
but it may sometimes be represented by ia- as in '(afl�o<;, 'Iaawv. The ending -ula



may have been -uy-a (a Pre-Greek y may have had a different development from y in
inherited words). In the same way, -ala may derive from PG *-ay-a with a variant
-Ela, cf. I1T)vEAOrcEla. Perhaps, the y disappeared in some cases, giving yala beside ya
(see below on the suffrx -aL- I -E(I)-).
Initial w- was often lost (ava�), but wa- may also have been rendered by oa-, as in
'Oa�o<; beside Cret. Fa�o<;. The same holds for 'OlAEu<;, which has been considered to
be identical with the root of 'IAo<;) . We find ua- (which became ua-) in UUKIV90<;,
Cret. FUKlv90<;. Fur. 377 assumes a prothetic u- in the latter word, but this seems
improbable to me. Another example may be ua/£Ao<;. The differences are probably
due to the date at which the word was borrowed and depend on whether the Greek
dialect concerned still had a F at that time. Another treatment can be found in the
word for 'truffle', for which we find OUITOV, OlOVOV (also -w-), U8vov (also -w-), or
hov. These are probably all renderings of *wit-. (Fur. 184 again assumes a prothetic
vowel, PT- I OpT-, which does not seem to be the right solution. He further assumes
a variation *wit- I wut-, which also seems improbable to me, though the variation I I
u is attested.) Rather, u- is a form of OL-, with the -0- changed under influence of the
-1- (cf. Lejeune 1972: 174, and note that Greek did not allow -UI- before consonants; of
course, 01 became U in Boeotian in the 3rd c. BC; variation 01 I U is found in more
Pre-Greek words). This case nicely shows that variation in Pre-Greek words is due to
different rendering of the sounds of a foreign language, and therefore has to be taken
seriously. �puKaAov· porcaAov (H.) probably attests a development *wrak- > �paK­
(as Fur. 147 remarks on KaAaup0'\l: "Die landlaufige Etymologie <connecting> percw
... ist wohl ohne weiteres aufzugeben."). aopoa· rcaALOupou dOo<; 'sorb-apple' (H.)
continues *sorw- (cf. Lat. sorbus, Fr. sorbier, Fur. 230).
It seems that there was no initial aspiration in Pre-Greek. Furnee has a few words
with a-, e- (one or two with 1-; none with 6-, �-, w-). Several of these are doubtful;
best is alflaCYlu (alflol). One might conclude th,at the language had no h. This would
agree with the fact that aspiration is not a distinctive feature in the stops. However,
this conclusion is remarkable for �pw<;, "EAAT)vE<; and "HcpaLaTo<;, which we expect to
be Pre-Greek words (but note that Myc. a-pa-i-ti-jo does not have a2-). Of course,
aspiration may have been added secondarily in Greek in individual cases, cf. the
variation in acp9a I acp9a and eAEowvT) I eAEOwvT), which is a variant of OEAEOWVT).
However, Prof. Ruijgh pointed out to me that Mycenaean had toponyms (a2-ra-tu­
wa) and personal names (a2-ku-mi-jo) with initial h-; it also occurs in inlaut (pi-a2-1a,
ko-ri-a2-da-na); C£ further e-ma-a2 (/Hermahasl 'Hermes').
Originally, I thought that Pre-Greek only had three vowels: a, i, u. The Greek
words concerned often have E and 0, but this would not be surprising, as the three
vowels have a wide phonetiC range, and the phoneme lal may have sounded like [e]
or [0] in many environments. The main reason for me to assume this simple three­
vowel system was the fact that the system of suffrxes has a, i, u, but not e, o. We have
-ay-, -Iy-, -uy-; prenasalized -ayy-, -Iyy-, -uyy-; likewise -a9-, -19-, -u9-; and
prenasalized -av9-, -lv9-, -uv9-, but no forms with -Ey(y)-, -oy(y)-, etc. The only
(but as a variant of oAuv90<;), and
cases I noticed are 'P�aKov90<; and oAov90<;
flT)AOAOV9T) with a variant flT)A( oA)uv9T) .



Recently, I have become more inclined to assume a system with the usual five
vowels, because there seems to be a distinction between ilie two variations U I £ and
U I 0, on the one hand, and a stable, not interchanging u, on the other. This would
point to a system with a, e and o. On the other hand, it is diffIcult to explain why the
suffixes do not show the same variation that we find in the root vowels.
It is essential that the palatalized and labialized consonants colored an adjacent U
to £ and 0, respectively. On the effects of palatalized consonants see Beekes 2008: 4655. Fur. 340 has a rule U > 0 before 0, w, U (e.g. KUAUPOC:; I KOAUPOC:;); this can now be
understood as the o-like realization of lal before high rounded vowels in the
following syllable (see 15 .3 - 2) .
So, e and 0 originally were variants of the phoneme la/. It is difficult to establish
whether they had already become full phonemes in Pre-Greek. A good illustration of
the case is the name of Apollo. In Hittite, Appaliunas renders Apollon- (see Beekes
JANER 3, 2003) . We know that Greek originally had A1t£AA-, with -£- arising from
-a- before the palatalized P. The -0- developed only later in Greek, but I assume that
the Hittite form still shows the -a-. The Pre-Greek form was ApaPun-.
I have long doubted (and still doubt) whether there was phonemic vowel length
in Pre-Greek. Greek substrate words quite often only have a form with a long vowel.
Vacillation is sometimes found, as in 8plVUKTj beside 8pivu� (see B 6.2), and note
6Pplf.LOC:; beside Pplf.LOc:;, Pplf.LTj. Quite a different argument is the following: axupov
and 1tlLUPOV both mean 'chaff; it is therefore probable iliat they contain the same
suffix -up-; but in the first word the u is short, while it is long in the second.
Note that Tj often represents a (ya8uAAlC:; I yTj8-), and as our knowledge of the
relevant dialects is rather limited, we often simply do not know whether Tj represents
an older a or e. If we had not had Dor. oloapoc:;, we would not have known that it
contains an old a. Also, A�f.Lvoc:; represents Aaf.Lvoc:;. There are well-known Pre-Greek
words with Tj < *e, like 01t�AatOV.
I assume two diphthongs, ai and au. If there were no e and 0, we do not expect
other diphthongs. A diphthong w is rare (Fur. 353 Anm. 5; I found some 12 instances
in the whole of Furnee's material); it interchanges with UU. Fur. 339 Anm. 2) calls £l
"(in mehreren Fallen) nur eine Nebenform von at". Also, Ol is rather rare, and we
may find ou more often, but mostly interchanging with other vowels (see the remark
on the suffIx -oup-). See further section B6.1 on vowel variation.
Regarding the accentuation, I noted vacillation in: appuf.LlC:; I -f.Llc:;; UiyWAlOC:; I -lOC:;;
axupoc:; I -oc:;; axwp I axwp; KOpUOOC:; I Kopu06c:;; KOPUOUAOC:; I KOPUOUAAOC:;; f.LEOlf.LVOC:; I
f.L£Olf.LVOc:;; OlKUOC:; I 0lKUOC:;; UplOXOC:; I UplOOOc:;. Note also the almost identical forms
such as AUKU\jIOC:; I AUKO\jlOC:;. This does not imply that the language had no clear
stress: the Greeks who adopted a word could simply have been uncertain about it.
The phenomenon may, however, be important heuristically: such variation is very
rare in inherited words.
2a. Characteristic sounds and sound groups

In Pre-Greek words, we find some sounds or clusters that are rare in PIE words. In
brackets, I give the variants.



1. au: Of course, uu does occur in PIE words, but only when it derives from *h2eu
(mostly in initial position) or eh2u. Examples: PAUUO£C:;, PPUUKUC:;, ypUUKUAUC:;,
KUVUUaLpOV, KUOUUpU, LPUU�uvu; Auppuuv06c:;.
2. �: As is well known, *b was rare in PIE. In Pre-Greek words, it seems to occur
relatively often. Examples: apAupOl, apupPTjAOC:;, appuATj, aLuppuKLOC:;, PUPPlAOC:;,
80pupoc:;, KlPUAOC:;. It is frequently found word-initially. Of course, p may also go
back to a Pre-Greek labiovelar (i.e. labialized velar): e.g. PU01A£UC:;, Myc. qa-si-re-u.
3. p�: The cluster is possible in PIE words, but it is rare (see on p sub 2. above).
Examples: apo£AAov, apoTjpu, apoTjC:;, ,(poTjC:;, UULO-KUPOUAOC:;, KlPOTjAOC:;, KUPUPOU;
4. y& Cf. Fur. 3185. There is nothing against PIE *gd, but it is infrequent. Of
course, the group is reminiscent of po. Examples: ayouc:;, af.LuyOCtATj, YOOU1tEW (cf.
KLU1tEW), '(yoTj, KPlYOUVOV, AUyOTj.
5. yv: Example: iyvuc:; (iKVUc:;). On Xv, <pv, see the section on the suffIxes.
6. �v: The sequence is rare in IE words. Examples: aKlovoc:;, aAU1tUOvOC:;, apuXlovU,
A£1tUOVOC:; (AU-), Ol1tUOVOC:;; 'APlUOVTj.
7. KL: The group is regular in PIE, but in Pre-Greek it is found with variants; see
B5.5. Examples: apluKLoV, PUKLat, OlKLU.
8. KX: The group can hardly be of IE origin, but it is not frequent. I noted PUKXUp,
ACtKXU, OUKXUP, OUKXUC:;; BUKX0C:;, BplUKXOC:;, BUKXlC:;. The group -KX- is the geminate of
X. Cf. on 1t<p, L8.
9. �v: The group is certainly possible in PIE words, but it is also frequent in
Pre-Greek. Examples: af.L<pl-KEA£f.LVOV, FOlf.LVOC:;, ,(uf.Lvoc:;, pUOUf.LVlULTjC:;, KpTjf.LVOc:;,
AUf.LVU, AWpUf.Lvov, f.LEplf.LVU, poouf.Lvoc:;, OlyUf.LVOV, OlOplf.LVOV; ALUf.LVlOC:;.
10. ou: The diphthong is perfectly IE, but it is found several times in Pre-Greek. I
do not think that Pre-Greek had a diphthong -ou-, but it may have arisen from e.g.
-arw-, which often surfaces as -oup-. Examples: O£VOOUKTj, OKlOUpOC:;, oLpou80c:;,
LUYXOUpoc:;, LOU<POC:;, <puvooupoc:;, <pOUOKOC:;, XAOUVTjC:;.
11. 1t<P: The group can hardly be of PIE origin, but it is rare in Pre-Greek words,
too. Like in the case of KX, it is the geminate of <po Examples: apXl�U1t<PTjC:; (?); L:U1t<pw
12. p& On a morpheme boundary, the group is possible in PIE. Examples from
Pre-Greek: ayEpou, KU1tUPO£UOat, KUpOUf.LUATj.
13. pKV: A rare group, perhaps there is even no reason to speak of a group.
Examples: apupKvu, P£PKVlc:;.
14. pv (variants po, vo): Examples: Kl01pVlC:; (-vo-), aXEpou (-vu), OKU1tEpOU. See
the section on the suffIxes.
15. A ° occurs both word-initially and between vowels, where it has disappeared
in most inherited words. Initial: OUpUHU, OUYUPlOV, OUVU1tLlV, OUVOUAOV,
ouppu<p8£iv, O£KOUU, 0lpuvTj, OlyUf.LVOV. Intervocalic: ayuouAAlC:;, ayxouou (eyx-),
u'i8ouo(o)u, uif.Lu01u, U'(OUKOC:;, aA£loov, opoooc:;. After resonant: aAooc:;, PUAOUf.LOV,
Y£AOOV, yEV01f.LOC:;, f.Lup011t1toc:; (-U1t1toc:;).



16. O'�: The group is hardly known from inherited words (o�£vvul-u is
problematic). Examples: ao�oAo<;, 810�Tj, 'Ao�no<;. -o�- may continue Pre-Greek
_sgW_: Myc. ti-qa-jo may stand for IthisgWaiosl elo�a10<;.
17. ay: Again, this group is hardly known from lE words. It may sometimes
continue -tYg-, as in Cq.lU0y£ACt, AOy£AaTa<; (see 5.5). Examples: CtAlOY£W, uOylvTj,
cpuoyuvov, Ctoyuv8Tj<;, 1tloyl<;.
18. O'K, aT: These groups are well known from lE, but mostly in word initial
position. See section B5.5. Examples: �£OK£pOl, �U0TU�, KUOT£POl, AUOTUy£l.
19. O'TA: Though the cluster contains nothing that could not be lE, it occurs more
often in substrate words. Examples: aOTAlyy£<;, 0TA£yyl<;.
20. Te: The group can hardly be of PIE origin. In Pre-Greek, it is a variant of TT
and 00 (see 5.5). Sometimes, it is clearly the geminate of 8: AT81<; beside A8�vTj.
Further examples: iTS£AU, KOT8u�0<;, IIn8uAoL
21. cpe: The cluster is possible in inherited words. Example: vUOKucp80v.
22. X!l, XV: Rather rare in lE; Fur. 110 assumes that the nasal caused the aspiration.
Examples: 8uuXfl0<;, 8uuxvu-, OUUXflOV.
23. Frisk gives some seventy lemmas with '/1-. Many words are clearly Pre-Greek,
and there are no convincing Indo-European etymologies. That many of these words
are of substrate origin is also clear from the fact that there are variants with 0-.
Apparently, Pre-Greek did not have any difficulty with ps-, as Greek has so many
words with '/1-. Originally, I thought that all words with 'i'- were Pre-Greek, but this
thesis cannot be maintained. Among the non-substrate words, 'iJUAAU originally did
not have *ps-, and 'i'- for cp8- is secondary (see Lejeune 1972: 39); the verb 'i'�w may
well be non-lE.
24. w: Of course, W is perfectly lE, but it also occurs in Pre-Greek words.
Examples: CtflUKpWTl<;, av8pw1To<;, Ctvwvl<;, Ct1TOCPWAlO<;, Ctppw8£w, CtOKUAW1TU<;,
FMKwv8u<;, Ct0flWA£lv, �UAAWT�, KMowPl<;, AWPUflVOv.
25. Geminates (see also B5.8 on single I geminated consonants): Indo-European
had no geminates. Of course, geminates arose in Greek, but they are not very
frequent. I doubt whether Pre-Greek had geminates, but several occur in Pre-Greek
words (Brixhe 1976: 95 states that there were no geminates in this language). As
Pre-Greek had palatalized phonemes, I wonder whether [Y was (often) represented by
AA in Greek. In a similar vein, perhaps nY might be represented as vv, and rY as pp,
but this needs further investigation. For 00 and TT see B5.5. Unclear are 88, KK, 1T1T,
and flfl (a palatalized mY is a rare sound). Some further examples:

StopS8: 88: a88at, Ci88t�
KK: CtKKUAO<;, �£A£KKO<;, AUKKO<;(?)
1T1T: aypl1T1To<;, AOU1T1tl<;
TT: �ITTuKo<;, AUTTU, KUTTO<;, flUTTU�O<;, fl£TT£<;, fl1TTo<;; IIlTTuKo<;.
Liquids: AA: CtAAU�Tj<;, CtAA01TlTj<;, CtfllAAUKUV, �UAAWT�, �8£AAU, �lAAlV, 1TUT£AAU
flfl: KA£flflu<;
vv: Ctyuvvu, �A£VVO<;, Ylvvo<;, AUXUVVU; L'lIKTuvvu

We also have to recall the instances OfKX, mp, Ta (see above).



pp: CtppU�UKU, �IPPTj, �lPPO�, KUppOV
Sibilant 00: u'(8ouo(o)u, acpPloou, yloou.
2b. How to recognize words as PrecGreek?

This appears to be relatively easy. A first indication is that a given word has no lE
etymology. Often, there is variation which is impossible to explain in Indo-European
terms. Therefore, the discussion of these variants is essential. Then, there are
numerous suffixes that are typical for Pre-Greek (see the list below). The meaning
may also provide an indication. The words concerned are often names of plants or
animals, or part of viticulture. Frequently, the words are sexual terms.
If we have some of the above features, it is quite clear that we are dealing with a
Pre-Greek word. The origin of the word is then indicated �PG� in the dictionary. In
many cases, we do not have enough data and can only suspect that the word might
be Pre-Greek (the origin is then indicated as �PG?�).
3. Prothetic vowel

Pre-Greek had a prothetic vowel, e.g. CtOKUAUCP0<; beside KUAUCP0<;' In most cases, the
vowel is Ct-. The numbers (Fur. 368ff.) are as follows: U ± 90, 0 10, £ 5, l 3, U 0, Tj 6, at 2.
Note that, generally speaking, U may interchange with 0, £, and at. Indeed, we have
cases where prothetic 0 interchanges with u, and the same holds for £ (e.g. £iKA- I
UiKA-, £'i'lU I Ct'i'lU). Although not all other cases can be explained away, it seems that
the phenomenon originally only concerned u. Examples: CtyuauAA1<; I YTj8uAA1<;;
CtKlpl<; I K1PPl<;; CtKOPVOl I KOPV0'i'; CtXpu8ufluAU I Xpuflu801Aat; CtVUplTTj<; I VTjplTTj<;;
CtOKUAU�O<; I (O)KUAU�WTTj<;; Ctxuvw'i' I KUVW'i'.
4. s-mobile

A large number of words shows an initial 0- before a consonant, which is absent in
practically identical variants. It occurs before a stop or m (so not before r, 1, n); the
stop is mostly voiceless, sometimes aspirated; see Fur. 390f. Examples: Y£A£VO<; I
0X£AlVO<;, (O)KlOUcpTj, KlK£pO<; I OKlyKO<;, (0)Kop8uATj, �UTUAO<; I 01T-, 1T£A£80<; I 01T-,
CPUTTUYTj<; I 01T-, 8plyKO<; (TplyX0<;) I 0TPlYXO<;, T01T£lOV I OTU1T1T£lOV, (0)fl�plV80<;,
(O)flUpatvu. A prothetic vowel may appear before an s-mobile (Fur. 3908):
CtOKUAU�O<; I OKUAU�WTTj<; I KUAU�U<;, Ctocpupuyo<; I ocpupuyo<; I cpupuy�, CtOKUAUCP0<; I
5. Consonant variation
5.1 Voiceless I voiced I aspirated stop

Furnee's conclusion was that 'Pre-Greek' was a non-Indo-European language, with
no recognizable cognates. This implies that the phonemic system may have been
different from that of Indo-European. Thus, he found that the stops show variation
between voiced, voiceless and aspirated, so that there presumably was no phonemic
distinction between voice and aspiration in the language. As there is no reason to
assume that this is a recent phenomenon, it strongly suggests that the language was
non-Indo-European. For example, mwxo<; belongs to a root ptiik- I p tok- also seen
in mw�, -KO<;. Since such a variation is hardly understandable in Indo-European



terms, the word must be Pre-Greek. Furnee's discussion of this variation runs from
p. 115 till p. 200. Even if we allow for some mistakes, it is clear that there is abundant
evidence for this phenomenon.
5.2 Prenasalization

Before a stop, a nasal may be present or not in Pre-Greek words. E.g. Kaxpue; /
Kuyxpue;, KOpU<p� / Kopuflpoe;, aUAaPll / aUAaflPll, etc. The phenomenon is extremely
frequent, but its precise origin is not known (prenasalized consonants?).
5.3 Nasalization

A consonant is replaced by a homorganic nasal: Kl8u<p£U£lV / KlVU<p£U£lV, <PAll8<:ovTu /
5·4. Labial stops /

m / l}
There are three interchanges: labial stop / fl labial stop / F and fl / F'
Labial stop / ,.. (Fur. 203-227). Examples: appVAll / lipfluAU; papplTOe; /
papfllTOe;; KUfllV8le; / KUplV8le;; AUKapUe; / AUKaflue;; flUaTU� / PUaTU�; aKoAUfloe; /
aKoAUpOe;; <papfluKov / <poppuv-ra; a<papuyoe; / aflapuyoe;.

Labial stop / F (Fur. 228-242). Examples: T€811nu, 8anoe; / 8uuflu; KOpUAOe; /
KuuuA6e;; Kuaaupae; / Kuauupu; Kpaflpoe; / KpUUpOe;.

,.. / F (Fur. 242-247). A difficulty here is that Greek did not preserve a F in most
cases, so that we often just find zero, and the F can only be reconstructed. This gives
rise to a certain degree of uncertainty. Perhaps, we have to reckon with the
possibility of a development 1j > b. Examples: Puauflvl-aTlle; / Puauv-lue;; KplflvOV /
KPlVOV; flE8tflvoe; / F£8lflvoe;; alyuflvoe; / alyuvoe; (also alyuvvOe;). The evidence
comprises 8 or 9 words in - flvoe;. It is found six times word-initially: e.g. fl�AOV /
�AOV; flov8uA£UW / 6v8uA£UW; note flEpO\jl / Mpo\jl (e'lpo\jl), where the latter forms
could continue *a-F£po\jl / *e-F£po\jl with a prothetic vowel. Note further Kuufloe; /
KUflllXu, which perhaps continues *KuF-ufl-, *Kufl-llK-.
5.5 Stops interchanging with a(G), with stop +

a/T or with G + stop
This kind of variation is quite complicated. I distinguished no less than 10 (or even
15) different types9• They may be represented as follows (C = consonant):
l. C / Ct
2. C / Cs
3. C / sC
4. Ct ! Cs
5. Ct ! sC
6. Cs / sC
7. Cs / ss
8. sC / ss

a. labials
n / nT
n / \jI
(n / an)
m / \jI
(\jI / an)

U aa

b. velars
K / KT
K / aK
KT / �
KT / aK
(� / aK)
aK / aa

9 Since the word 'i'LTn'tKLov / 7lLCnaKLOv 'pistachio' is probably an oriental loanword, there are no good
examples for an interchange aa / aT.



K / aa
T / aa
9. t / ss
10. t / st
T / aT
The analysis of these variants is not easy, and I mainly present the data here. A
question that needs to be explained is why exactly s or t are involved in the given
The most complicated instance is 5b, where we find KT/aK. In fact, the most
complicated phenomenon contains most information, and can be solved best. In this
case, one expects a cluster with k, i.e. a consonant before or after the k. One of the
two expected clusters must have undergone metathesis. As Greek did undergo a
metathesis TK > KT (and no metathesis of aK or �), we may assume that precisely this
phenomenon was operative here. Thus, for an earlier stage we may reconstruct an
interchange aK/n. This interchange can be easily explained by assuming a
consonant, probably unknown to Greek, which resulted either in a or in T. In my
interpretation, this must have been a palatalized dental, i.e. /F/. For instance,
afluaYEAu / afluy8aAll was probably *amutYgala, represented first as *amusgala or
*amudgala, the latter yielding *amugdala. A less clear example is Asklepios, who was
called A(l)aKAumoe; or A(l)yAumOe;. It could be that the name was *AtJklap-, giving
*A(i)sklap- or *A(i)dglap-. In the latter form, metathesis did not operate because
**Agdlap- was not tolerated in Greek; the dental was then simply lost. Needless to
say, it often happens that only one variant is found. The strange feature or phoneme
may also be dismissed altogether, as in 8lK£lv next to 8laKOe; and 8[KTUOV.
One might suppose that all variants in this group are due to a palatalized dental,
but this is not evident, as consonant clusters are rather rare, and as there are no
suffixes beginning with a consonant (except n, r, etc.). We may be unable to
determine what exactly happened in each case.
Type 4 is treated by Fur. 2633• Since Pre-Greek did not distinguish voice and
aspiration in stops, these often vary; so if we speak of kt or KT, this also includes
realization as X8, such as in flopox80e; below. If we consider the variation with labials,
as in pt/ps, it is clear that we are dealing with a labial followed by a dental. The dental
could also appear as s, so it is clear that the phoneme concerned was a palatalized
dental, which I note /F/. This means that we are dealing with a group ptY• In the same
way, with a velar we have ktY•
The example 8t<p8EpU next to 8t\jlapu is well-known and clear. Furnee further
gives yvuflmoue;· XUAlVOUe; (H.) beside YAufl\jlOl' XUAlvol aTofluTOe; (H.) and
compares mlAov with Dor. \jIlAOV. His example 6moe; 'cooked' next to o\jlOv is less
Among the forms with a velar, there is no problem with flopox80e; / flopo�oe;. The
best known example is 'Ep£x8£ue; (also 'Eplx8£ue;) next to Ep£xa£e; on Attic vases. I
have no opinion on 'Eplx8ovloe;; it may be a Graecisized form, and in this case it is
unimportant for Pre-Greek. See further the ethnonyms L'luTuA£-mol, L'lllAo-mlle;,
fUAll-\jIol, Au8£-\jIOl and Tpuvl-\jIOl. Other forms are less clear.
8c. C / ss



There may have been series with three forms, with kt I ks, pt I ps and also k or p. I
can only mention 'ApaXEloC; I Apu�'lC; next to 'Apayoc;, and perhaps, next to 8l<pElepa I
8l,\,upa, the verb M<pw (together with &'\'-), for both cf. Fur. 263.
Above, we assumed that a labial or a velar could be followed by a palatalized
dental !tY/. If this is right, we can also postulate that this consonant (labial or velar)
was followed by a normal dental. Of course, this yielded pt and kt. I assume that the
second consonant of this group (the dental) could have been dropped, which yielded
single p or k. This explains the type TI (r)oAEfloC; (Fur. §so) and � p oYXoc; (with
prenasalization) beside �poXEloc; (Fur. §Sl).
I will shortly review the 10 (15) types (I call the labials la, etc., the velars 1b, etc.).
la. TIT may represent a single phoneme pY, as we saw in Bl. Examples: (Fur. 31Sff.):
YVUTI- I yvum- (yvuTIn-); KOAUfl�Ulva I KOAu �8U1va; Kl�aAoc; I Kl�8'lC;; AUTI'l I Auma;
without variants note Kp oaao<pElov, aappu<pElelv.
lb. KT is most probably explained like sb, discussed above (so 1b is a part of sb).
Examples (Fur. 319ff.): iipaKlC; I apuKT'lv; floyew I floXElew; TIEAEKUV I aTIeAEKTOC;;
aKaKla / KUKTOC;.
2a. '\' may result from *ptY. It is remarkable that there is no 2b. K I �, as � is
unproblematic in Greek.lO
3a. TI I OTI, b. K I OK: Both may represent *tYp, tYk. Examples: Ella�'l I Ell�lc; (Fur.
2922), �eKoc; I �eaKEpOl; '(XAa I '(aKAUI; flUKEAAa I fluaK'l (�uaK'l); flUKOC; I fluaKoC;;
<pUKEAOV I <puaKwAoc; (Fur. 29Sff.).
4a. TIT I '\', b. KT I � were discussed above and may continue *ptY, ktY; they may
belong together with 2a. Examples: 8l<pElepa I 8l,\,upa (Fur. 263 Anm. 3); xaAu�8lKOC;
I XUAU'\'OC; (Fur. 318, 324); flopoXEloC; I flOPO�OC; (Fur. 263 Anm. 3).
5b. KT I OK was discussed above. Examples: afluayeAa I afluy8CtA'l (Fur. 301 Anm.
2); 81aKoc; I 81KTU(OV) (Fur. 279, 319).
6a. '" I OTI, b. � I OK. Fur. 393 simply considered the interchange as due to
metathesis, which, of course, is possible. *sp, *sk may represent *fYp, tYk. Examples
(Fur. 393): aaTIlvElLOv I a,\,lvEllov; 6a<puc; I '\'DUI; '(aX1ov I i�uC;; <pouaKoc; I <po�OC;.
7b. � I 00. If � represents *ktY, the k may have disappeared in other cases (which
did not give �) after which *tY became aa. Examples: KPl�OC; I Kplaaoc; (Fur. 13059);
al�8a I �lfl�a (Fur. 317); Tpau�ava, Tpw�avov I Tpauaavov (Fur. 28672); i�UA'l I iaUA'l
(iaaeAa, iTEleAa); OUA1�'l C; I '08uaaEuc;.
Sb. OK I 00 can be explained parallel to 7b: *tYk > aK or, with loss of the k, *tY > aa.
Example (Fur. 300): uplaxoc; I u p laao c;.
9a. T I 00. This is the well-known element that yielded aa I H. Furnee does not
discuss it under this heading, because he gives only one phoneme ('letter') and its
variants; for instance, he discusses aK I KT under K I KT. The situation is also different
here, as we are able to discern a distribution among the Greek dialects, and attribute
the different renderings of these loanwords to dialectal developments. Still, the fact
remains that a foreign element was rendered in different ways, as with all other


I have some difficulty with Furnee's section XI (Fur. 323-329). My conclusion is that a variation C /
although some instances remain difficult to explain otherwise.

Ca cannot be proven,


. xxvii

phenomena discussed here. Fur. 253 has the heading T, 8, El I a(a), (. I think this
should be reformulated as T (8, El), H (TEl) I a (�), aa, i.e. T with its usual variants 8, El;
or the geminated H (with its expected variant TEl, which is the Greek form of
geminated ElEl), interchanging with a or aa. If the � was [sdl , it does not fit in well. As
to its interpretation, it could represent single *tY, which was rendered H or aa, or
single a, T (the variant � would then fit in, but one would also expect a variant a-r).
Examples (Fur. 2S3ff.): KlHOC; I Klaaoc;, KPOTlOV I Kpoaao<pElov, fluPTlv'l I flupalv'l,
TEUTAOV I aEuTAov, T1A<p'l I alA<p'l, yu80C; I yu�ac;, aaflWAelV I a8flWA�.
I think that the phoneme rendered by aa, Att. H (called the foreign phoneme or
Fremdphonem) was a palatalized velar, which I write as kY, cf. Beekes JIES 37 (2009):
191-197. This would be parallel to the development of inherited velar + yod, which
gave aa, Att. H, as in <puAuaaw, <pUAUHW. This interpretation is confirmed by
EluAaaaa, EluAaHa, where we have a variant 8aAuyxav· EluAaaaav (H.). Here we see
that after the nasal (prenasalization is well known in Pre-Greek), the palatal feature
of the consonant was dropped. This resulted in a velar (here realized as an aspirate).
The variant shows that we may be dealing with a velar in cases of aa I H. We can
also compare KOAu fl�Ulva beside KOAu �8U1va, which had pY; again we see that the
palatal feature was lost after the inserted nasal.
There is a third representation. We know that the name of Odysseus was
'OAuaaeu-, 'OAUHEU-. This means that it probably had a palatalized velar, *kY. But we
also find OUAl�EUC; (Ibyc. ,apud Diom. Gr. p. 321 K, Hdn. Gr., Plut.), a form which was
at the basis of Latin Ulixes. This form was taken from a Western Greek dialect,
probably Doric. Therefore, a third representation of the foreign phoneme is -�-.
lOa. T I OT may be from *tYt giving a-r or, with loss of the t, *tY > aa. Examples
(Fur. 301ff.): �aAAwT� I �aAAaual lov; flUTPUAAOC; I flUa-rPUAAOC;; flUTlC; I fluaTa�;
TIaT1A'l I TIaaT1A'l.
As we saw, it is very difficult to determine what exactly happened in each case; on
the other hand, it is clear that almos.t all variation can be understood if we start from
just a few assumptions.
5.6 Velar I labial I dental stops: labiovelars

There is limited evidence for variation between velar and labial, between velar and
dental, and between labial and dental, and between all the three classes (Fur. 388ff.).
W e find:

K I TI, � Kh, 8 TIh
X / <p / El
X / <p
<p / El

y/ �/8

It is remarkable that the variants mostly agree in voice I aspiration. Since examples
of this phenomenon are not particularly numerous, this may be an indication that
the words concerned are not of Pre-Greek origin, but due to borrowing from a
different substrate, for instance. Examples:

y I �: �puKaAov I POn:aAOV; yHTIW I �AeTIW; XUAlC; I <paAlKpov
K I T: aaKuv8'lC; I aaTuv8'l C;



Y / 0: YUAaTllov / aoaATollov
n / T: panalV£l / paTalV£l
p / 0: aUIlPaAov / aUvOaAov
cp / 8: yvucpal / yvu80e;
y / P / 0: yEcpupa / pEcpupa / O€cpupa.
It is tempting to assume labiovelars to explain these cases, but some cases may have a
different origin (thus, ppuKaAov / ponaAov could be due to dissimilation in the first
variant). On the existence of labiovelars in Pre-Greek, see above on the phonemic
5.7. Dentals / liquids

There are some instances of variation between dentals (including n) and liquids (1,
r). This variation is incidental. Examples (Fur. 387f.):

0 / A: apAapOe; / poapol (Fur. 33027), McpVT] / AUCPVT], 'Oouaa£ue; / 'OAuaa£Ue;. Cf.
Myc. gen. da-pu2-ri-to-jo /daphurinthoio/ / AapuplV80e;, KaAuIllv8a / Myc. ka-da-mi­
ta. The interchange 0 / A and the fact that Linear B has signs for da, de, di, etc.
(which Lejeune explained by assuming a specific, unusual sound d) might point to a
dental fricative le.
8 / A: 8uma / AaHa
v / A: VLTpOV / ALTpOV


h. 0 / p: alpoa / �IIlPPaL
v / p: PA�XVOV / PA�XPOV

A / p: a�T]ple; / a�T]Ale;, Kplpavoe; / KAlpavoe;, Kpwlla� / KAwlla�.

5.8. Simple / geminate
Except for a few isolated cases, we find this interchange in v / vv, but more notably
in A / AA. On T / H and a / aa see above sub 5.5. Cf. Fur. 386£. Examples:

v / vv: aVT]80v (also T) / avvT]80v (also T); TT]Il£vle; / T�p£vva. In this context, note the
suffIx -uvV-.
A / AA: paA(A)�v; 8UALe; / 8uAAle;; anEA£80e; / anEAAT]�l; llaKEAT] / lluK£AAa (this
probably derives from PG *-al.Ya-). Note yda(a)ov, auplaa / auplaaa, and the case of
A8�vT] / AT81e; / ATTlKOe;.
5.9. (J- / zero
We discussed a / zero before consonant under s-mobile above, section B4.
An -s- from Pre-Greek is normally maintained. The only instances that I know of,
where it may have disappeared, are (cf. Fur. 241): auplXOe;, aUplaaoe; / UplXOe; (also
-laKoe;, -laxoe;, -laaoe;); aupuAAae; / UpUAAT]e;; aay�vT] / Cypr. ayuvcl; amuT] / inua.
Perhaps 'EAAue; beside L:£AAol belongs here, too. Another instance could be amov,
which is cognate with Lat. pirum which points to -pis-.

K-, T- / zero
There are instances where a velar or a dental may be absent in initial position (Fur.
391, and 13159). Dentals may also be absent in inlaut. Examples:




K / zero: KuvoapOe; / av8pa�, KaAlvO€ollaL / aAivow, KOYXVaL / 0YXVaL, Kav8�AloV /
y / zero: ylvvoe; / ivvoe;, but this form may be a late development. As an explanation, one could think of a uvular q.
T / zero: Tuyxoupoe; / ayxoupoe;, T�yavov / �yavov, Tlcpuov / '(cpuov (with l in LSJ);
o / zero: OeA£OWVT] / £A£OWVT] (also t-).
Loss of a dental in inlaut: vETwnov / vlwnov, i80uAie; / '(ouAle;, aaloapoe; / aalapoe;.
V-, A- / zero
v- and A- can also be absent (Fur. 391f): vucp8a / acp8a (also a-). AaL\/IT]pOe; / ai\/lT]poe;,
Aalln�vT] / an�vT], AaTIl£v£la / aTIl�v, Perhaps, it concerns palatalized nY, lY, which
are pronounced very 'light'.


5.12. Metathesis, shift of aspiration

There are instances of metathesis. It mostly concerns p, sometimes A. The consonant
jumps to the other side of the vowel or the consonant: KlpaOe; / KplaaOe;, Kpl�Oe;;
TEPlllv80e; / TpElll80e;. Cf. T£PIlIAaL / Tp£IlIAaL; apm� / anpl�; KEopona / KEpoona;
vu8pa� / vup8T]�. In most cases, it cannot be determined what the original configur­
ation was. In a case like i::ppwe; / £upwe;, where p may stand for (or continue) F, I
would think that the F was anticipated. It may concern an original rW.
The cases of an / \/I and aK / � are discussed in 5.5 above.
Shift of aspiration is found in some cases: 8plyKoe; / Tplyxoe;, a8payEvT] /
avopuxvT]. In the case of cpuwT] / nu8vT] the metathesis seems to have occurred in the
later history of Greek (Beekes 2003).
5.13 Secondary phonetic developments
1. We may assume secondary phonetic developments, either in Greek or perhaps
already in the original language. One might consider:

po- > PA-: poapol / apAapOl. For this case, cf. 5.7b 0 / A.
po > pp: PO€AAlOV / PpEAALOV (Fur. 308)
yo- > 0-: yoounoe; / oounoe;
ov- > yv-: ovocpoe; / yvocpoe;
KIl- > 11-: KIlEA£8pov / IlEAa8pOV
\/1- > an-: \/I£VOUA- / anovOUAT]? See 5.5.6 above.
\/1- > a-: \/IEcpae; / adcpa; \/IIHaKoe; / aIHaKoe;; cf. '¥ancpw, L:ancpw.
2. a > 0 before u in the following syllable. The a was probably pronounced a little
higher before the u, and was realized as [a], which resulted in o. Examples: a�ouYYla
> 6�UyylOV, KaAupT] > KOAUPOe;, *aKapap- (KupaPOe;) > aKopopuAOe;, OOPUKVlOV for
* o (a)puKv-.
5.14 Other variation

There are a few instances of isolated and puzzling variation. I mention just one, the
word for 'night', where we have \/IEcpae;, KVEcpae;, ovocpoe;, �ocpoe;. I think that in some
of these cases, the solution may be found in a cluster. Carian, for example, allows an
initial cluster kbd-. Such clusters would have been simplified in Greek. In an
inherited word, we have the parallel of Lat. pecten, Gr. KT£Ie;, which is supposed to



continue *pkt-. If we assume a cluster *kdn- in our example, it may have been
reduced to kn- or, with loss of the first consonant, to dn-. Thus, the process is the
same as the reduction yo- > 0-, see 5.13 above. Such variant simplifications are typical
for loanwords. In this way, we could connect two of the words; but I see no way to
connect the other two.
6. Vowe! variation
6.1 Single vowels (timbre)

The vowels show many variants. I will discuss them in the following order: first a,
then e and 0; and within each of these groups first the short vowel, then the
diphthongs, then the long vowel (and the long diphthongs, but these hardly occur).
Note that a variation x I y is not repeated under y.
the vowel a.
a I e has 80 occurrences in Furnee's material (347). Examples: ayxouaa I
eyxouaa, apuao<; I epuao<;, yaALv80L I YEALv8OL, (aKeh[<; I (eKeh[<;, Ka[aTa I
KmE-ra<;, KaflTCo<; I KEflTCOp, KaXpu<; I KEYXP0<;, aavou� I aevOouK'l.
lb. a I o. This interchange also occurs frequently. Fur. 339 mentions that he found 80
instances. Examples: u�ouyy[a I 6�UYYLOV, uppw8Ew I 6ppWOEW, ypa�LOv I
yo�p[m, �TC[aAo<; I �TC[oAo<;, Ka�a� I Ko�aKTpa, KaAu�'l I KOAu�o<;, AUKa'/f0<; I
lC. a I m (Fur. 336ff.). Examples: uKpmcpv�<; I uKpaTCv�<;, uaUCP'lAo<; I aiaucpLo<;,
AaYfla-ra I Aa[Yfla-ra. The L here is due to the following palatalized consonant.
Id. a I au (Fur. 30237). Examples: KavauaTpov I KaVa<HpOv, flvaaLov I flvauaLov; aAo�
I aDAa�. In the last example, the u is probably due to the following labialized
phoneme lw.
le. a I w: KAa8o<; I KAwva�.
If. m I H (Fur. 352 Anm. 4, 339 Anm. 2). Examples: Kmp[a I KHp[a, KUTCmpo<; I
KUTCHpO<;, Ama[ I Aelm. Both m and eL are due to the following palatalized
19. au I w (Fur. 353 Anm. 5). Examples: AauKav['l I AWKav['l, TCETaupov I TCETWpOV;
aDAa� I eUAaKa.
lh. au I w, o (Fur. 30132). Examples: Kaaaupa(<;) I Kaawp[<;, 8aufla I 8wfla, aauaa� I
aWaLKe<;, �auKaAov I �WKO<;, KaAaup0'/f I KOAAWpO�OV I KOAAOpO�OV.
li. a I m (Fur. 338). Examples: A�8apyo<; I Aa[8apyo<;, A'lKaw I AmKa(w, TC�yavov I
lj. <;t I a. Examples: A<;t8o<; (AD8LOv) I 11.6.80<; (A�8Lov).



e I a: see under a.
2b. e l L (Fur. 355ff.). Examples: �A[Tu� I �HTue<;, E�[aKo<; I i�[aKo<;, OETCa<; I Myc.
dipa, eVTu�ov I '(VTU�O<;, KeAAov I K[AAL�, KLAA[�a<; I KeAA[�a<;, KUTWO<; I KUTLao<;,
Hacpo<; I A[aTCo<; (cp). The e was not phonologically distinguished from i, and they
were phonetically close.
2C. elL I u (Fur. 35455). Example: Kexpafl0<; I K[XPafl0<; (KLYKpafla<;) I KuXpafl0<;.
2. the vowel




e I W (Fur. 115). Example: apy£To<; I apKw80<;.
eL I m: see m.
2f. H I 'l (Fur. 339 Anm. 2). Examples: KeL8LOV (xe[nov) I K�8LOV, XHpaflo<; I X'lpaflo<;.
2g. w I e: see e I w.
2h. w I au: see au.
2i. e I 'l (Fur. 35842). Examples: evu <H po v I �VU<HpOV, flEpflepo<; I flEPfl'lpa, '/faKeAov I
�aK'lAov, fl�OW I flEOW (flE(W); II'lAayove<; I IIeAayove<;.
2j. 'l I L (Fur. 171"4). Examples: �A�Tov I �A[Tov, aK�vo<; I aK[vap, '/f'lflu8LOV I


the vowel o.
0 I a: see a.
3b. 0 I L (Fur. 19137). Examples: aKov o<; I aKLvo<;, i�p[KaAOL I 6�p[KaAa, 'OvoyALv I
3C. 0 I u (Fur. 358ff.). Examples: oAov80<; I oAuv80<;, aKoAo�pEw I aKoAu�po<;, aKuT'l
I -KoHa, KUOWVLOV I KOOWVW, KupaEa<; I Kopa[<;, TCpuTavL<; I TCpoTavL<;, TOTCelOV I
aTUTCTCelov. 0 and u were phonetically very close, and not distinguished
phonologic-ally (cf. on elL).
3d. 0 I ou (Fur. 359). Examples: �pOKO<; I �pOUKO<;, KOAoTEd I KOAouTw (also -Au-,
3e. 0 I W (Fur. 279). Examples: yvoTEpa I yvwTEpa, KOAAWpO�OV I KOAAOpO�OV,
cpaa[wAo<; I cpaa[oAo<; (also -ouAo<;), wpuyye<; I opu�, -yo<;; waxo[ I oax'l'
3f. OL I u (Fur. 127). Example: xpaflaoolAm I uxpaOafluAa (uKpafluAa).
3g. OL I o u (Fur. 358). Examples: KOAouT[a I KOAOLT[a (KoAOTEa), '/f0UOLOV I '/fo[8'l<;?
3h. ou I U (Fur. 12029). Examples: KTUTCO<; I yOOUTCEW, Kpouvm I ypuvo<;.
3i. ou I W (Fur. 133). Examples: flwKaoflm I flouK�(eL; AOuTC'l<; I AW�'l� (Fur. 148).
3j. W I 'l. Example: 8pwva� I uv8p�v'l.
3k. W I U (Fur. 30235). Examples: (WyLO<; I (UYYLO<;, uaawTCo<; I iaaUTCo<;, Aw�euw I
31. 0 I e. Example: yopyupa I yepyupa



L I u. There is some variation between L and u, but I do not know how to interpret
it. Examples (Fur. 364ff.): aiauflvaw I aiaLflvaw; uv8p[aKo<; I av8puaKov; �[0'lv I
�uoo[; �PLKO<; I �pUKO<;; (uyaaTpov I a[YLaTpov; KLVWTC£TOV I KuvouTCe<;; KU�eaL<; I
K[�LaL<;; flapalTCTCo<; I flapuTCTCo<;.


u I e. Example: yupya8o<; I yepya80<;.

The behavior of the diphthongs may be summarized as follows:
and (vice versa) eL I m
aul w, w
w l au
OL I u, ou
ou I u, OL, w
All this variation is understandable in terms of adaptation of a three-vowel system.



/ short:
One may doubt whether Pre-Greek had a distinction of long and short vowels (see
Bl). We do find 'l and w, however, but not very often, and the latter has several
variants. On the other hand, the variations W / 0 and 'l / £ are not very frequent
(although in this case also the difference in timbre may have been important,
depending on the Greek dialect). Variation between long en short L and u is frequent,
especially in suffIxes: y�8uov / yu8La, KU�£<JL<; / K[�'l<JL<;, 8i�L<; / 8[�L<;, Kp[IlVOV /
Kpillvov, 8piva� / 8pLVUK'l; '!''lllu8LOv / '!'LIlU8LOv, O'1tOV
K&pa�o<; / Kapull�Lo<; (cf. K'lpa<p[<;), <p£vaK[�w / 1t'lV'lK[�W 'deceive'; ny'lv(-) /
ny£v(-); yvoTtpa / yvwTtpa.
There is some evidence for short vowel + CC alternating with long vowel + C: e.g.
IlUKO<; / lluO'Ko<;; AuplO'a / AupLO'O'a; see B 1 on - L�, -u�.
6.2. Long

6.3. Single vowel / diphthong:
There are several instances where a diphthong varies with a Single vowel. They can
be found above (6.1). Most frequent is a / UL, but this is due to the effect of a
following palatalized consonant. We further find a / au, £ / £u, and ou / u and OL / u.
In two cases we find diphthong alternating with a long vowel: UL / a, £L / 'l. Examples
were given above.
6.4. Rising diphthongs?

Relatively frequent in Pre-Greek words are sequences of a more closed vowel
followed by a more open one, sequences that are not found in lE. They would be
rising diphthongs if they formed one syllable, but in fact we may have to do with two
syllables. Examples are:
-w-: O'£aywv (<JL-, O'u-)
-La-: �aTLUK'l' 8[aO'o<;, 8p[all�0<;, O'[aAov, <pLUA'l, <pLap6<;. Note <JLaywv (0'£-, au-)
-LU-: iuy�
-ua-: �puaAL�wv, yuaAov (yu£-), Kuall0<;, 1tUaAo<;, 1tuavov, O'uayp[<;
-u£-: yutALOV (yuaAov), 1tU£AO<; (1tua-)
Remarkable, too, is the sequence -wu- in m vu(y) �, Ilwu<;.
6.5. Secondary vowels (or elision)

Sometimes, words show a vowel that is absent in nearly identical forms. It mostly
concerns vowels between a stop and a resonant. It is often not clear whether the
presence or the absence of a vowel is secondary. See Fur. 378-385. Examples: �puYXLa
/ �apuyXLa; OOPUKVLOV for *OpUKV- in O'Tpuxv-; O'Ktp�oAO<; / O'Ktpa<po<;; Kvu�a /
(O')K6vu�a; O'K6pooov / O'K6poov; Tov80pu�w / Tov8pu�w; Apmu[a / 'Ap1tULa; KVW'!' /
KLVW1tHOV / KUVOU1t£<;; Kopu�avT£<; / Kup�avT£<;.



C. Morphology
1. Reduplication

Some forms seem to have reduplication, though we often cannot demonstrate this.
Most frequent is partial reduplication, where only the first consonant and a vowel
are repeated. The vowel is mostly £ or L.
Examples: �t�pa�; �t(Il)�po<;; yuyyallov; yaYYA[ov; yayypa[va; y[yapTov;
y[yYAull0<;; K[KU�O<;; O'tO'u<po<; / �[au<po<; (cf. O'o<po<;); 1l£lla[KuAov (also IlL-); V£Vl'lAO<;;
O'tO'£AL(<;); O'[aupa (also -upva); 1l£Il�pu<;(?); perhaps K[Kull0<;; KlXPall0<; (also K£-, KU-,
KLyK-); o£vopuw. Also the names KtKPO,!,; IImup'l80<;; TLTap�<JLo<;; AtA£y£<;. With
prenasalization we find T£v8p'lowv, T£v8p�v'l (cf. av8p'lowv, 8pwva�). In these
examples, I neglect the fact that there may (or may not) be prenasalization.
Other reduplication vowels are found in: AaAaIlL<; (cf. AalAa'!'), KOKPU<;, perhaps
also Y'ly�AL�.
Intensive reduplication in: 1l6Pllopo<; (lloPllupala), Ilapllapuy'l.
More difficult to judge are ytAyL<; next to aYAi<; (perhaps from *Y£-YA-, a-YA-),
KtpKa next to aKpL<; (if from *K£-KP-, a-Kp-). Also M£Il�Alapo<; beside BAlapo<; (cf.
1l£Il�pu<;), M£Il�AL<; = MtAo<;, also MLllaAAl<;.
A completely different type is perhaps found in allulla�u<; (cf. alla�l<;), and
perhaps also allaIlL8uo£<;.
2. Sufftxes
2.1 Introduction

It appears that most suffIxes have the same structure. They contain a consonant; if
this is a stop, it can be prenasalized, i.e. -�- or -Il�- ' -8- or -v8-, etc. The stop has its
usual variants, like � / 1t / <p, etc., although mostly one of these is predominant. The
suffIx usually starts with one of the vowels of the language, mostly a, L, u (we find £
or 0 only rarely, e.g. oAov80<; beside oAuv80<;). Thus, we may find e.g. ayy - Lyy uyy; av8 - Lv8 - uv8, etc.
A different structure is present in suffIxes containing -v- (mostly followed by a
vowel) directly after the root-final consonant: e.g. KUOVO<;, mO'uKva, 1l0AUXvov,
<p£vaKvl<;, O'a-rapvl<;. In this way, the groups -pv-, -ov-, -KV-, -Ilv- in Pre-Greek words
probably originated. In the case of -Ilv-, we often find a vowel again: -allv-, -Lllv-,
-UIlV-. The groups -Ilv- and -pv- are especially frequent. They are very important, as
they are found in Etruscan, which for the rest shows little agreement with Pre-Greek;
-Ilv- is found as far as in Cappadocian (see Beekes BiOr 59 (2002): 441f.). Perhaps,
the groups -avv-, -LVV-, -uvv- arose in this way, too.
Other consonants are found in suffIx-initial position, too: e.g., -p-, -0-, -y-, rarely
-A-. Examples: ,!,uopo<;, KupL8pa, 1tavaypl<;, <puAaKp0<;; O'Ka1ttpoa; Aa8apyo<;; OVLyALV.
It is often possible to determine to which series the Pre-Greek consonant
belonged. Thus, -ULV- could render -anY-, while -a/Y- seems to have resulted in -aAA­
(or -£AA- with coloring of the vowel). Likewise, -£LP- could r:epresent -arY-. This
thesis would be nicely supported by the segment -aup-, if this represents -arW- (e.g.
aupoO'xuo£<; beside apaO'xuo£<;, if this form had * -arW-) . Cf. B1 above.



Another type of suffix has a followed by a dental: KCtvaa80v (-aTpov), AataTPOV or
another stop Ev8puaKov, Q1JPoaxCt<;, Kavvap[aKa; these forms may have been partly
adapted to Greek suffixes (-TpOV). See below on the suffix -aT-.
A form such as -WT- is deviating; we do not often find a diphthong before the
consonant. Does it stand for *-aut- from -atw? Cf. -aiy- in EAatOV, where we may
suspect ayW or awY (but it may be part of the root). See further section B1.
Not seldom do we find a long and a short vowel with a suffix (= consonant), e.g.
L8 - l8, UK - UK. In the case of up, one might again think of urY > uir, although rY is a
rare phoneme (like mY).
2.2 Survey of the suffIxes

In principle, we find one of the three vowels of the language followed by a
(prenasalized) consonant: a, i, u + (mlp, (olT, (olK. The groups actually found are, in
Greek letters (forms in brackets are rare or less frequent):














So, we do not find: 1. VNn and 3. VN<p, 7. VNK, 9. VNX (except for oaAayxav).
In the same way, we find vowel + C. The consonant may have the normal
variation: plain, voiced, aspirated. A palatalized consonant could color a preceding
and/or a following lal to [e] , which may also appear as n. This phenomenon is often
seen in languages with palatalized consonants, such as Russian and Irish. Thus, we
find -arY- represented as -atp- (-np- is also possible). A palatalized -[Y- may be
rendered as a geminate -AA-.
If a labialized consonant followed or preceded an a, this vowel may have been
perceived as (an allophone of) 101. For example, -arW- may be represented as -aup-,
with anticipation of the labial element, but also as -oup-, in which case the a was
The suffixal consonant may be geminated; as there is frequent variation between
single and geminated consonants in the language, there possibly was no opposition.
Vowels could be either short or long; in suffixes, a long vowel was quite frequent.
A long Lt was sometimes represented as w.
2.3 The material

The examples are mostly taken from Furnee, to whom I refer for details. Words can
also be checked in the present dictionary. Variants are given in brackets. I added
geographical names (TN) from Fick 1905, and some more material, with references.
1. -ap-(0-) (Fur. 107): uypCtKapo<;, UA(A)CtPfj<;, UaKCtAapo<;, uTT£Aelap0<;, KCtvvapo<;,
KOAAap0<;, Jl£a(a) apov, AaTpapo<;, JlCtTTapo<;. TN KaTTCtpLO<; (Rhodes, Fick 47),
KCtaTapo<; (Caria).
2. -ay-: apnay- (cf. Chantraine 1933: 397ff.), ACtTa�, Ol'j pa�.
3. -ayy-o-: a<pCtpayyo<;.
3a. -ayx-: oaACtyxav.



4. -ao-: upaaxCt8e<;, JleJlppCt<;, anupCto-.
5. -a8-0-: uanCtAa80<;, yupya8o<;, aTr1Jpa8OL. TN 'Y PVCt8LOV (Epidauros).
6. -at-I-e(L)- before a vowel: There are words in -ata I -e(L)a, such as ypuJl£a I
ypuJlela (also ypuJlcia) I ypuJla[a (note the hesitation in the accentuation). I
suggest that the suffix was -ay-Ca), which was pronounced as [-teya] or [-eya] (we
saw that n often varies with at). The speakers of Greek identified the suffix with
Gr. -at- or -eL-, but the -y- could also be lost. In this way the three variant forms
can be explained. Further examples are KOAOLT£a I KOA(0)uT£a, Kopxup£a
(KOpKoopua in H. is probably an error); KwoeLa I Kwoea (note the short a), beside
KwoULa I Kwo[a (these are not entirely clear to me, but cf. AJlCt8ULa I AJlCt8na).
Furthermore, *-ay-a is likely to be the same suffix as -£[(1 which makes feminine
names, e.g. AJlCtA8na, IIfjveAOneLa, 'I<pLJl£ona (note that in Myc. Ipemedeja, the
-j- is preserved, cf. Ruijgh 1957: 1553). Of course, many place names end in -eLa:
KaoJle[a, KaAaupna, Kepuvna, M[ona, LKeAepoe[a, AepCtona, etc.
The final was often adapted to -a[ii after the dominant type, which is derived
from the adjectives in -a'io<; (see Chantraine, Form. 91): type uvaYKa[fj; cf.
ppUKTa[a, oLpKa[a, mpa[a.
We also find -eta used in nouns: oaupela, �aAe[a, KOuAUpCtTna.
Nouns with -£0- are very rare; we find: YWAeo<;, eLAeo<;, KOAeov, VLKUA£OV,
au<peo<;(?), <pwAeo<;. It may further be found in 'OK£avo<; < *-kay-an-, note the by­
forms 'OYfjv, 'Oyev-.
Beside -ata, -£la, we may expect thematic -at-O-; we find it e.g. in O[pKatOV,
an�AatOV, ,/,L<palov; ypa,/,a'io<;, *aKapapato<; (reconstructed by Fur. 169).
7. -at(F)-o- (see Fur. 23322, 25532): Partly from -atFO-; it is often impossible to
establish whether a form had a -F- or not. See also 6. above. Examples: uKuAalov,
upato<;, payalo<;, paAatOV, O[pKatOV, EAatOV (Myc. era3 / rawo), JlCtTatO<;, Jlwaa'iov,
a[patov; AXatF0<;. TN AaTunCtAata (Fick: 58).
8. -atp-o-: TN IIeppatpo[ (Thess.).
9. -at8-: TN LUJlat8a (Thess.), IIepat8ci<; (Arc. deme), KeAat8el<; (Thess. deme),
Kuvat8el<; (Arc. deme).
10. -atV- (Fur. 171"7): aKatVa, -ov, POA[TatVa, YCtyypatva, KOAupOatVa (also -uJlp-),
Kopu<patVa, Jlupatva, aJlupatva, Tp[atVa.
11. -atp-(0-) represents -arY-: Kunatpo<; (also -eLpov, -fjpL<;, -epo<;), JlCtxatpa.
12. -aK- (Fur. 15 8 64): UPUpTCtKfj, aDAa�, panCtKfj, 86va� I owva� I oouva�, 8pLVCtKfj
(8plva�), 8wpa� (also -fj�, -iiKO<;), KauvCtKfj, 8UACtKfj, Tr1aTCtKfj, <pCtpJlaKov. TN
ZCtpii�, -fj� (Lac.).
13. -aA(A)-o- (Fur. 25428, Beekes 2008): upupaAAo<;, aiy[8aA(A)0<;, KopuoaA(A)o<;
(also -6<;), nCtpOaAo<;. TN KaaTaAla (Phoc. source), <DCtpaiiAo<;, LTLJJl<piiAO<;
14. -aJlp - o - (Fur. 184): ol8upaJlpo<;, 8p[aJlpo<;, ,(aJlpo<;, KapCtJlpa<;, a�paJlPo<;.
15. -aJlv-o-: o[KTaJlvov, pCtoaJlvo<;, a<p£voaJlvo<;. TN L£oaJlVo<; (Crete).
15. -aJl - o - : apTaJlo<;. TN K[a(a)aJlo<; (Cos), II£pyaJlov, KwyaJlo<; (Lydia), KuaJlov
(Kydon.), yopaJlo<; (Kydon.).



16. -av-o-: TN 'Iup8avo<; (HN Crete, Elis), ATIL8avo<; (HN Thess.), 'HpL8avo<; (HN),
A v8avo<; (Fick: 18).
17. -av-: y£vnav�.
18. -av8-: aayuv8Tj<;.
19. -av8p-: y£Aav8pov. TN T�Aav8po<; (Fick 51) , TUllav8(p)0<; (Pamph.), MUlav8(p )0<; (Fick: 53), C!>oA€yav8po<;.
20. -avS/T- (Fur. 19135; 2167" -aVT- unless otherwise stated): aAl�a<;, aaKuvSTj<;
(aKuvSa<;), KLAAl�a<; (but K£AAl�aT-), 6Kpl�a<;, <puAavS/To<;, l\�avT£<; (Fick: 69,
etc.), M€AavS/T-, IldpavS/T-, [[yavT£<;, Kopu�avT£<;. TN Ba�puvnov (Chios).
21. -avv-: TUpavvo<;.
22. -a�- (cf. -L�-, -o�-): ulla�a, aTpu<pa�u<;, aa�u�a<; (also -KT-), TN KupTupna�ov
23. -an-o- (Fur. 23531) : upvano<;, yauaano<;, Ilovano<;. TN MwaaTILo<; (Crete, Fick:
24) .
24. -ap (Fur. 13475), mostly neuters: '(KTap, Ku8ap, V€KTap, aKlvap, oii<pap; adj.
lluKap; animo oap, Mllap (gen. - PTO<;), cf. Myc. dama beside duma.
25. -ap- (Fur. 25736) : uaKapo<;, �aaaupa, yu8apo<;, ylyyAapo<;, KlaSapo<;, Kuaaapo<;,
Awxupa, <puAapa. Also al8apo<;? TN l\mapa (Crete, Lycia), IlCnapa (Lycia),
M€yapa (Fick: 75) , AAAapla (Crete).
26. -aa-alo- (Fur. 15i7): Kupnaao<;, Kallaao<; (Ku�ULao<;), nuyaaa. TN Kup�aaa
(Crete), Il�8aaa (Mess.), Ilayaaal (Thess.).
27. -aaa-o-: TN 'PUTLaaao<; (Crete), Kpuaaao<; (Crete), MUKuATjaao<;, Ta<pLaaao<;
(Fick: 32) .
28. -aT-: anuTTj, �AaKuTTj. TN KalpaTo<; (Crete), MlAaTo<; (Crete, Pick: 27).
29. -aup-alo- (this may continue -arW-): (a)<pavpo<;, <pAavpo<;, (a)llaupo<;, uyAaupo<;,
STjaaupo<;, Kaaaupa (-a<;), AUaTaUpo<;, n€Taupov (£u). TN 'Enl8aupo<;.
30. -ax-: �oTpaxo<;, KUIl�axo<;, a£Aax0<;.
30a. -a'/l-: AUKa'/l0<; aKLv8a'/l0<;.
31. -y8-: perhaps unpLy8a [adv.] .
32. -yp- (cf. on -p-): navaypl<;, auaypl<;.
33. -£8-: TN T€v£80<;, A€�£80<;, perhaps in AaK£8alllwv.
34. -£�-a: see below sub 73. on - La-.
35. -£LP-O- (may continue -erY-, -arY-): a'(Y£Lp0<; Kun£Lpov, aU�£Lpo<; (aan€p8Tj<;);
36. -£A-alo- (cf. the next): alluay€Aa, aa<p68£Ao<;, �PlK£AO<;, 8pu'/l£Aa, (tTIL)�U<p£AO<;,
iTS€Aa, KU�£Aa, perhaps 8uan£lln£Ao<;.
37. -£AA-a/o- (cf. 36.) : aKpoan£AAo<;, �uT£AAa, �8€AAa, nUT£AAa, n€AAa.
38. -£11-0- (Fur. 15142) : iUA£Il0<;, KoaA£llo<;, n(T)oA£Il0<; (if not lE), S£A£�OV.
39. -£Ilv-(0-) (Fur. 15144): ull<pL-K€A£llvov, KapT£llvl8£<;. TN L€A£IlVO<; (Pick: 95) .
40. -£vv-a (I wonder whether nY could give vv): T� �£vva. Cf. �A€vvo<;. Cf. Lat. (from
Etruscan) (doss-)ennus, Porsenna.
41. -£p-a/o-: 8L<pS€pa, aaK€pa (also -Tjpa), KaaalT£po<;. TN 'OA£pO<; (Crete).
42. -£T-O- (Fur. 1154) : KUL£TO<;, Kaln£To<;, lluan£Tov, v€n£To<;, TTjAuy£TO<;? TN 3un€TTj
(Att.), TaUY£To<;.



42a. -W- as in nom. -£u<;: �aaLA£u<;; several PNs like AXLA(A)£U<;, '08uaa£u<;.
43. -wp-: see -aup-.
44. -WT- (Fur. 173, 1817) : �aaKWTal, KpaTWTal.
45. -Tj�-a/o-: KUpTj�O<;. TN Kuv8Tj�a, T€v8Tj�a, ToppTj�o<; (all in Lydia).
46. -TjS-(0-): TN IlmupTjSo<;, LWUPTjSO<; (Fick 67) , KLKUVTjSO<; (Pagas.), IlupvTj<;,
-TjS- (Att.). Cf. -as-.
47. -TjK-, -TjX- (Fur. 199, 2457°) : �� PTj�, Mv8Tj�, AW�Tj�, n�ATj�, TpU<pTj�, <P�ATj�; KUIlTj� /
48. -TjA-O- (Fur. 1155): a�poKTjAO<;, a�up�TjAO<;, aau<pTjAo<;, �UKTjAO<;, KU�TjAO<;,
Kl�8TjAO<;, V£VlTjAO<;, TPUXTjAO<;, <puaTjAo<;.
49. -�v (Fur. 172"8): aTIl�v, aTTay�v, aux�v (ufl<PTjv), �aA(A)�v, 80SL�V, taa�v,
Kaflaa�v (-aao<;), KU<p�V, a£Lp�v, aWA�v, Tay�v, n��v, perhaps a8�v. TN eTjp�v
(Crete, Fick: 25), TpOL��V, Apa8�v (Crete).
50. -Tjv-: yAa�p�vTj.
51. -TjP: anlvSTjp; AiyAaTjp? TN IloSTjp£u<; (Crete), KUSTjpa.
52. -Tj P- (Fur. 204'°): u�8Tjpa, uv8Tjpa, ai'/lTjp0<;, aaKUATj poV, aaKTjpu (-€pa); ill�Tj PL<;,
KunTj pL<;, A£�Tjpl<;.
53. -Tja(a)-a/o- (cf. -aaa-): TN MupnTjaaa (M Paros), MUKaATjaao<; (Boeotian, Fick
80) ; Ap8TjTTO<; (Att.),'YflTjTTO<; (Att.).
54. -TjT-(O-) (Fur. 172"8): aA(A)u�Tj<;, KUVTj<;, A€�Tj<;, lluaSATj<;, TunTj<; (Myc. tepa).
Perhaps also UV(V)TjTOV (also -SOY, -aov)? TN MaaTjTa (Fick 71) .
55· -TjTT-: see -Tjaa-.
56. -Tj'/l-o-: TN A,(8Tj'/lo<; (Euboea), faATj'/l0<; (Thracia).
57. -S-o- (see Chantraine 1933: 368, and cf. -vSo<;): �p€vSo<;, KavSo<;, an€A£So<;,
58. -Sp-a/o-: KupLSpa, llupaSpov; HN Al�TjSpa. On -aSpov see Fur. 30339:
Kuv(v)aSpov, anUAaSpov. Cf. on -aTp-ov.
59. -I�-: tpuSI�Tj.
60. -Iy-: llaaTIy-, n£fl<pLy-.
61. -Lyy/K/X-: UaTALyya<;, �punyyol, EAflLYYO<;, SplyyO<; (also - LYK-, -LYX-), SWIlLy�,
-yyO<;, OALyyO<;.
62. -I8- (cf. -Lv8-, Fur. 3247) : �aA�l<;, y£AYl<;, KTjAl<;, KpTjnl<;, a<ppayl<;.
63. -L8-va (probably a combination of two suffixes, cf. on -v-): apuXL8va (cf. upaKo<;,
64. -IS-, -LS- (cf. -Lv8-): UYAL<;, -IS-, aiYLSaAo<;, aiyLSo<;, YUALSOL, �AlSLO<;, KUALSO<;.
65. -LK- (cf. -LX-, Fur. 226102): KUALKOV, KupvLKa, A€(l)KpLKa, IlUplKTj (later "[), VWpLKOV,
65a -IK-: C!>OlVLK£<;.
66. -LA-, -IA-: aiYlAw'/I, KovlATj, fl€aTILAOV, llaplATj, lluaT1ATj, (a)naTlATj (-IA-)
naaTlATj, aTpo�IAO<;. TN LKav8lATj (Cos).
67. -LAA-a/o-: upyLAAO<;, uIlLAAa, upLAAa, UaLAAa, pO�LAAO<;.
68. -Lllv-a/o- (Fur. 2467') : 1l€8LIlVO<; (also -l-), ll€pLllva, al8pLllvov.
69. -Lv-a/o-: UKLVO<;, anoALvov, (�a)�uKLvOV, yoaaUTILvov, Konvo<;, 6�lva. TN
MupLva (Lemnos), LIKLvo<; (Cyclades).



70. -lV-(0-): KUlllvov, TtU'rlvTj, PTj-rIVTj, aEAlvov, CPO�lVO':;, CPOpIVTj. TN LaAaIlLv-.
71. -lVO- (cf. -lv8e and -lO-, -l-r-): KU�lVOl':;, uAlvoov. TN Kpaualvowv (R), TIUplVOO':;
72. -lv8-(0-) (c£ -lVO-): alYlv80.:;, cwTtlv8LOV, Aa�uplv80.:;, Allllv8£.:;. TN K�PlV80.:;
(Euboea), KOplV80.:; (Fick 74).
72a. -l�-: KO-rl�l':;, KUVI�£l':;, aOpvl�a.
72b. -lTt-O-: TN EU plTto.:; .
73 · -la-alo -: upmaa (-£(a), Ku-rlao .:;. TN Auplaa, K£Oplao.:;, KTjcplao.:; (-lao.:; = -laao.:;,
Fick 25, 61).
73a. -laK-O-: aA8laKov, l�laKo,:;, llaplaKo,:;, uplaKo,:; (and variants).
74· -l-r-alo- (cf. -lO-, -l8-, Fur. 163): �Up�l-rO':;, �oA(�)l-rOV, Tt0pcpl-rOV. TN Lu�pl-ra
75· -lX- (cf. -lK-): Up<JlX0':;.
76. -KV- (probably a combination of -v- with a preceding consonant; see sub 78 on
-v-): u�apKva, OOPUKVLOV, mauKva, CPlOUKVTj.
77· -11-: TN Au-rll0':; (Caria), TIu-rIl0':;.
78. -v- (Fur. 13265), where a preceding velar may become aspirated: apuxvTj, oauxva-,
KEPKVO':;, KUOVO':;, KUAIXVLOV, Tt£AIXVTj, aa-rapvl':;, u-rvov I uovov, 'I'uovo,:;;
Ku�apvo.:; . TN Ku8vo.:; (Cyclades).
79 -o�- (cf. -l�-): Ilopo�o,:; (also -X8-).
80. -OTt- (Fur. 1 07) , often there is a variant with -a�-: £1..(1..)0'1', KaAaup0'l', -Tto,:;
(-Ocpl':;), KOAAO'l', aKuA0'l'. TN KopoTtTj (Thess.), Ka<J<JloTtTj (Core.).
81. -op- (see also the section on word end): uxopa (-upa), AETtOpl':;.
82. -oaa-a, -OH-a: TN E pllwvoaaa (Chios), A(LOHTjVO':; (Lydia).
83. -ouA-: cpaalouAo,:; (-wAo,:;) ?
84. -oup- (may contine - a rW-) : '(vooupo.:;, KU�OUpO':;, AlyyouPlov (also 1..0 -, AU-) ,
TtaAloup0':;, Ttuvooupa, auyoupov, -ruyxoupo.:;. TN AUKoaoupa (Are., the oldest
town of all; Pick: 93).
85. -oua(a)- (Fur. 19755): uyxouaa (also £-), a'Leoua(a) a (also alowaaa) , Kuoouaa.
TN AKloouaa, KTjAouaa (M K�Awaaa).
86. -TtV- (this may rather be a suffix -v- after a root): 8£puTtvTj, 0IlTtvTj.
87. -m- (this suffIx probably consisted of one phoneme P): Ilapumov,
TtEaau(ll)mov, auvaTtTlv.
88. -p- (Fur. 12437; 21562): �uAaypo.:;, y�Alypo,:;, alypat; 'Ioaypo.:; (= Lye. idakre?). See
also the suffIxes -pv-, -py- and -yp-.
89· -py-: Au8apyo.:; (also -at-, -Tj-).
90. -po-: TN Kuapoa (Caria).
91. -pv- (Fur. 48'26, 21562): aKapvuv (aKupva�), KU�£pVUW, AlTt£PVEW (also Alcp-),
aKETtapvo.:; . We also find variants without -v-: alaupva I alaupa, KU�£pvuw I
KUIl£P�Vat, aaTapvlo£,:; I aa-rapl8e.:;, KI<Jlpvl':; I Kla<Jlpl':;. Therefore, the cluster
probably arose by addition of the suffix -V-. Note that -rn- is found in Etruscan
and already in Cappadocian (Fur. 48126). See also the suffix -p-. TN <DaMaapva
(Crete), AEpva, AAlKUpVa (Aet.).

97. VTjTtU-rlO' Etruscan and Cappadocian): aiaullvuw. TN TIplavao.. KU�atao. TN KUPUllat (Crete). lOU�... -u�-: £v-ru�ov. KUTtUplaao. (Athos). -UK-: OOlOU�.:. TN Kupu<JTo. llupauTtTto.. !llK-ruvva.. 116.. -u-r-: mvu-ro. (also . on -uv-. 98.(see also the suffIx -uvv-): �o8uvo. aTt�Auyy-. Cf.. KPW�UATj.. aKoAu�o. Nlaupo.:. -aa-).PRE-GREEK LOANWORDS IN GREEK xxxix 92.. Ttlauyyo. -a. 119.:. --r-: uacpaA-ro..:.:. -Ul-a: uyula... £vua-rpov (also �-). 125. 124. 25427.(Fur. TN EAupo. . ol'l'a. -ua-): uAao. 96. Aupullva (Locr. AUcpupov. auvou�.(cf. 107. alyullvo.. K�PU�. Myc. OUKTUAo. (Crete). 'ApTtUla. . -uvv-: alYuvvo. 101. cpupao . -u�-: TN 'OA6 cpu�o. alyla-rpov. OETtaa-rpov (also 1.:..:. TtTjAallu. uxupa (also -opa).(on -U<JTpOV see . (EcpUP0':.:.. -H.:.:.:. oAuv80.:. -uA-: (a)KopouATj. 8opu�0.:. M8upo.. 109. 112. -Ull�-: 'Leull�o. -roAUTtTj . -uv8 I -r-): B£P£KUVOat.. TN AaYlVUTtu-rOV (Crete).:. (uya<J-rpov. KOAull�o. 106.:.:.:. cpupuy�.:. Myuvo.. (-X-.(cf. Ill.:. 123. -ucp-: KEAucpo. 117. Ko pu06. -a-rp. 122.:. 102. c£ 6X80l�O. TN P l-r/8ullva (Crete).(cf.:. A£Ttaa-r�. 95.. (older uaawTto. on -aa-. -00':.. Fick 18..:. 104.).(see 5.)..:.:. KapuK(K)Tj. ' " . <DEp£cpaHa. -UO-: allu. TN Kalluvolo.<JTp ov) : upuao. -UAA-: LI�uAAa.:. KU'l'a (Kull'l'a).:.:.:. -UK-: UIlTtU�. 120. Kav8uATj.. (Rhodes). 110. -uvv-). (also -11-) .:.:. avuyupo. Ttl-rUpOV. -ua.. also KlVOUTj. KO'l'a (K0'l'la). o iaUTtTj. 24). 6vupl(e-rat. -uA. <JlyuvTj (cf. (also -aa-). aKoAu�pa (-o�-). -ull-: YEpaullov.. B £P£Kuv8/-rat . 94. TN fop-ruv (Crete). -uyy-: Mpuy�. 115. -u8-: ayvu.:.:. 24366 on -umn. -uv. 99.:.. TN Klvoula (Crete.. -u8-.:. llauKupov.. -8EAullvo. lV-rU�O':...:. 8£lll<JT. 100. cf.). -<JT-: aAu�aa-ro. temitija I timitija).. -uvo.. <Data-ro..:.. yEcpupa.:.:. -up-: a�aupo. (+88). in several cases this does not seem to be a suffix. (also aTt-).ou�-) . Iluao... Tlpuv.(Fur. -uX-: �o (a)-rpuxo. -aa-: KUTtaa<Jl':. -uv8/-r -: �oAuv80v.(cf. -UKO':.:. 93· -aK-: uplaKo. aUplaaa. acpovouATj (also aTt-). TtATjlluPl':. alAAu�o.. 105. Ellu. aaTupo. KOAAU-rO':. TtAa-ruvla-ro..:. but rather the end of a root. IllllalKuAov (also 11£-) ' acpovouAo. -UTt-: '(aauTto. 114. -ullv. -uova: TN KaAuovu (Cos).. TN ZUKuv80... 113. 205'4): ap�uATj.:. ucpAaa-rov . (Cos). AaL(a)-rpov. TN Napu� (Locris).:. (also 6vo-).). -8p-): aAu�aa-rpov.. perhaps AU'l'a. aKapoulluK-ro.. (Crete).:.:. TN MoauXAov (Lemnos). -aa: There are several words in -aa: 8E'I'a.:. (Crete). mao.:.:. TtpOKOHa.:. XAaIlU':. u-rpaK-ro. TEyupa (Boeotia).5 on H I aa): KUPlHo l. 108. A�Ku80. 121. -up-: uyKupa. -la-.. KwoUla. 103.:. Y1YYAull0':...:.. 118. Fur.. TN KapoalluATj (Mess.

O£PlCPOC. -u: cf. Kpall�wTov. -U. Examples of Pre-Greek words in -I: (aKn. Kl�WTOC. acp8a. CtTpacpa�uc. is frequent. 128. 86. Note. 127.Kacp80v. The suffIx also makes feminine names in -w: ATjTW. uKapL We may assume that many words ending in -tOY. 1l0TW. OiOrrWTTj. oaA6.. -a. 30339): CtAKUWV. �laTwp. 28383. AdTWp.. a�oTjpa. c. Though the ending may also be inherited from lE.. Final .her cases. Note forms in -ua. -cp8-: Kpoooocp80v. CtKTapa.(Fur. h. OXaowv. as some original finals of the Pre-Greek language may have been preserved. -WK-: TN K08wKLOm (Att. -EUC.(a variant is -ourr-): 8ullaAw\jI.. TN 8wrrpwToL 3. -wo K08w. -woo (see -ouo( 0)-): TN LlIPCPWOOOC. Word end Word end provides an interesting situatipn.. 130. fenw. For -uov. �'LWV. pOIlI�a. Ctllouxpa.. -KauOWTOv. in many words it is clearly of Pre-Greek origin. TN Eupwrroc. words ending in a vowel A short -a can only come from *-ya < * -ih2 in inherited Greek words. oavowv.. qa-si-re-u). aKapa. -IOV.(as in TLpuv8-). Cty£poa. Maha (?).g. (Cyclades). uKooTIAa. For words ending in -oa. -uov originally ended in -I. parruc. rrTjAalluc. -cp. In all ot..(Fur. 384'32): CtOKaAa�WTTjC. -uov may often continue original -I. too. a. (?). 129.. 86. -wv. cpaOKwAoc. �l8uv. like apua.(Fur. �arrcpw. Final -UC. (Euboea). KOPI. -L.(on -acpco. see the foregoing. 8ama. Fick 22). e. dunijo next to duni.yxa. �pouKa. oaAallavopa. 3. va( 0)Kacp80v. 133. we may be dealing with a Pre-Greek ending -a that was originally short. AXIA(A)euc. Klvwm:Tov (Kuvoum:c.. 131. -WIl-: �apwll0C.see Chantraine Form. Fick 70).poa. -wp. is also found several times: ayouc...). a'LKouoa.. A6. (also -rroc..�a. CtoTayava. further. notably -oc. Examples: a�apKva. IllllapKuc. oKoAOrrevO pa. -ov. etc. TlTW.. oopvI�a. 135. d. (Chalc. aAapa. The words in -v80c. Of course. Greek endings must be removed. (Myc. <JlVOWV. Ct�apu.. o£oucpOC. Ctllavwp. -WT.. Kop8w. Ilooa. Tayupl (Tayuplov). ooua.).. 134.xl PRE-GREEK LOANWORDS IN GREEK 126. Myc. TN IHAWpOC. 132. / a (Crete). IlWAU. have replaced almost all of those in -v8. Thus. e. and in -evva. KOVOU. YOAa. olvam. -wrr. aKop-va. -u. IXwp. �a<JlAeUC. IlWUC. It is often difficult to see whether -a is short or long. K£oporra (also X-). the material requires further study. -1l£VOUC. aiYLAwrr-. oaTTa.. oappucp8civ. yooa. I withdraw my considerations in FS Kortlandt on this point. uyavva.1. (Caria.IC. �A£TUC.. 263): Ctpy£AOcpOl (also -IA-). TN KLllwAoc. Fick 26). IIlowoooC. aprruc. lloAocp80c. Ilampocpoc. lE words (neuters) in -I are very rare in Greek.. 2ll50): CtXWp. It is usually assumed that the original inflection of all words in -w . Ka<JowrrTj (Epirus). -WA-: CtrrocpWAloC. see the list of suffIxes. apoa.

-01'. 3. aAI\jI. In ll�plv80c... Of course.. ava� has a stem in -KT-. MLVWC. aOTAlY� / omAlY� has both the typical (prenasaJized) suffIx -Iyy. pw8uvec. YU\jl. a8pac. we have the 's-mobile' and the well known suffix. in -� or a. K£AWP. - . ixwp. but also prenasalization.. Ctllcplac.. Il£po\jl.. words ending in -ac. KaKKop. a. words in -v: �an�v. �aKap. Kaoac.. \jI -� (stem in -K-) is found quite often: 3. rrLoop. while Il£PIlIC. aiYlrro\jl. Ct�ac. are masculine: Ctxapvw(c. � PWC. \jIo8wp. CtKapva�. �plyKa. see the suffix section. Examples: CtOlYOP.. CtKxavTap. llovw\jI. EALllap. / 01l�Plv80c. The pair KPOO<JlOV / Kponov also shows the element 00 / T. Note acc.2. V£KTap. Ilooouv. I assume that Pre-Greek words secondarily joined this inflection.. all�a�. has . �lPPO� -ou�: �pou� -u�: �AlTU�. KOAI�. TaAwc. ace. h. With a stem in -aVT-: CtAl�ac.PRE-GREEK LOANWORDS IN GREEK xli derives from stems in * -oi-. CtOKaAwrrac.with prenasalization... Kuoap. we cannot demonstrate in each and every case that the words that are non-Greek belong to this same language. Examples: \jIl8up.. VWKap. KOpl\jl. KaAa�ac.. 5. apm� -o�: �£�pO�. av8pa�. �ouvlac. yopTU�.. �aneKa. (a-stems): D. Ctvopacpa�. K£lllloP (also -Ilrr-). well-known from geographical names. ny�v. words ending in -I' aoap(ov)?. has the variant without prenasalization..). CtTTayac. For example. �TU�. -18ac.) llapTup. A8allac. AalAa\jl.3. (-VT-) etc. words with a nom. but also the suffIx -u�.. rrpTJllvac. KOnO\jl. however. does not only show the element 00 / T8. Monosyllabic: XP£Il\jl. (Dor. seem to fit the general picture of the Pre­ Greek substrate. c... h. see the suffIx section. �uoTa�' llaA�a�. pa�. (�aTac. CtKKop.vOTj�. Examples: axwp. With stem in ao-: Ctxpac. (-VT-). -a�: a�a�. CtOKWvoac.). -a�: cp£va�.. Kap�av. a�Aac. 0auoa�.. m:ALap. ocp�� -Tj�: 86. d. 4. / Kooull�oC. or a group of closely related dialects or languages. and 0ll�plyyec. CtV8£PI�. IIvu�.and variation a / o. �a86. �uac. -wp. The bulk of the known non-Greek words. KOT8u�0c. AoyeAaTac. KlVOUV.c. -\jI: A6. The word oaAayxav next to 8aAaooa (-TTa) again has the suffIx 00 / TT.Tpa\jl. �aoKac. Ctrrpl�.. AUKa�ac. The unity of Pre-Greek The material itself shows that we are largely dealing with one language. but Kpoooocp80v has a suffIx added that is also typical for this language. -a l' . Words in -wc. -up.(?). ��PTj� -I�: MOI�.

we now know that most long vowels go back to a short vowel plus a laryngeal. 'overhanging bank'.of this word. Only when there is reason to assume that they have a different origin. I think that it is methodologically more sound to start from the assumption that non-Greek words are Pre-Greek. The inevitable conclusion is that the word is Pre-Greek... In a(f. for which a connection with KpEfluflUl 'to hang (up)' used to be evident. Pre-Greek is non-Indo-European Our knowledge of Indo-European has expanded so much. The conclusion is that no Indo-European proto-form can be reconstructed. This morphological objection is strengthened by the fact that there is no trace of the expected root-final -u. one can say that landscape terms are frequently borrowed from a substrate language. we need to introduce a h2.. cf.l)�puTTOl / �pUTTO<'. In this particular case. as is suggested by £pE�lV80<.. E..would yield *yuvu8-. these may have already been adopted in Pre-Greek. (�puO'O'o<. In order to explain the -a.(as in KpEfluflUl < *kremh2-). Positively. However. which has a Pre-Greek suffix.) we have a combination of a prothetic vowel and prenasalization. there are simply no conceivable formations that would contain a long root vowel.lv6<.. Other languages may well have existed in the area. Beekes 2000: 21-31. Further.would have given Gr. . it is not certain that Hieroglyphic Minoan reproduces the same language as Linear A. a preform *gnh2dh.< *-h2. Eteocretan has not yet been connected with other elements and seems isolated. However. especially in the last thirty years (notably because of the laryngeal theory) that in some cases we can say almost with certainty that an Indo-European reconstruction is impossible. and that the word cannot be of Indo-European origin. *yva8-.. A good example is the word yva80<. One might think that assuming *h2e would remedy the problem. and that long vowels cannot be postulated at random. Sometimes.xlii PRE-GREEK LOANWORDS IN GREEK a different Pre-Greek suffix. but *gnh2edh. However. but a root which is attested (with some variation) in other European languages. Moreover. such as 1tEAEKU<'. Another matter is that (non-Indo-European) loanwords from old Europe may have entered Greece. should we consider this option. elements from other IE languages may also have been adopted at a very early date. Another example is the word KpT]f. Thus.

Lesb. Go. Lith. Cret. Dor. Cz. Gaul. MLG MoDu. Arc. MDu. gloss. Co. Aetol. CS Cypr. Boeot. Cyren. CLuw. Ir. Luw. Corcyr. ME Meg. HLuw.ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS A. LG Locr. Bret. MBret. Arg. Bel. El. Lyd. Epid. Lat. Dan. Bulg. BSI. Gr. LANGUAGES Aegin. Latv. H. ep. Mess.-Cypr. Heracl. Aeol. Delph. Arc. lA IE lIr. Alb. Av. Etr. Aeginetan Aeolic Aetolian Albanian Arcadian Arcado-Cyprian Argive Classical Armenian Attic Avestan Atharvavedic Baltic Belorussian Boeotian Breton Balto-Slavic Bulgarian Cuneiform Luwian Cornish Corcyrean Cretan Church Slavic Cyprian Cyrenaean Czech Danish Delphian Doric Elean epic Epidaurian Etruscan Faliscan Gaulish in glosses Gm. AV Bait. Arm. Hitt. Lyc. MHG Mlr. MoE Germanic Gothic Greek Hesychius Heraclean Hittite Hieroglyphic Luwian Ionic-Attic Indo-European Indo-Iranian Ionic Irish Italic Khotanese Laconian Latin Latvian Lesbian Lithuanian Low German Locrian Luwian Lycian Lydian Middle Breton Middle Cornish Middle Dutch Middle English Megarian Messenian Middle High German Middle Irish Middle Low German Modern Dutch Modern English . Ion. MCo. Fal. Khot. Att. Lac. It.

PIA PIAr. OHG ale. OW Pael. Pol. ORu. OS ass. OLG OLith. SIn. Ven. MP MW Myc. PIt. MoNw.xliv MoFr. Osc. Sw. OIr. OAv. PGm. RuCS RV SCr. Sogd. YAv. OLat. OBret. OAlb. Ru. OCo. QIE Rhod. Proto-Albanian Pamphylian Proto-Anatolian Proto-Celtic Proto-Germanic Phocian Phrygian Proto-Ionic-Attic Proto-Indo-Aryan Proto-Indo-European Proto-Iranian Proto-Italic Polish Proto-Slavic Proto-Tocharian Quasi-Indo-European Rhodian Russian Russian Church Slavic Rigvedic Serbo-Croatian Sicilian Sanskrit Slovene Sogdian Swedish Swiss German Thessalian Tocharian A Tocharian A and B Tocharian B Umbrian Ukranian Venetic Vulgar Latin Welsh West-Germanic Young Avestan . OLFr. Skt. PIE PIr. Thess. OCS OCz. OPo. PTo. OSw. Phoc. NWGr. MoHG MoIr. Swi. W WGm. MoP MoSw. NPhr. Sicil. PCl. PSI. ToA ToAB ToB U Ukr. Pamph. ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS Modern French Modern High German Modern Irish Modern Norwegian Modern Persian Modern Swedish Middle Persian Middle Welsh Mycenaean New Phrygian North-West Greek Oscan Old Albanian Old Avestan Old Breton Old Cornish Old Church Slavonic Old Czech Old English Old Frisian Old High German Old Icelandic Old Irish Old Latin Old Low Franconian Old Low German Old Lithuanian Old Persian Old Phrygian Old Polish Old Prussian Old Russian Old Saxon Ossetic Old Swedish Old Welsh Paelignian Palaic PAlb. OE OFr. VLat. PAnat. Pal. Phryg. OPr. OP OPhr.

BC C.V. vel sim. athem.ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS xlv B. H HN id. conjecture 2. RECONSTRUCTION. ins. nom. pret. sg. pcl. pte. fthe. viz. p. TN trans. pron. DN duo e. to wit vocative . ppp. intr. desid. obl. indecl. ipf. AD adj. pref. PN postpos. colI. n. opt. voe. ace. them. et al. conjunction dative desiderative dialectal theonym dual for example ethnonym enclitic and others feminine forthcoming future genitive any PIE laryngeal hydronym idem indicative indeclinable injunctive instrumental inscription(s) interrogative intransitive imperfect imperative irregular lit. prev. ipv. S. p. aor. dial. pI. interr. num. ablative accusative according to active anno domini adjective adverb aorist athematic before Christ century compare collective comparative 1. GRAMMAR AND TEXT abl. prep. dat. irr. inj.e. EN encl. subj. fut. ind. adv. litt. reI. inscr. pers. cf. med. pass. ace. var. perf. gen. f. V. superl.g. pres. to act. conj. neg. literally literature locative masculine middle neuter negative nominative numeral oblique optative page personal communication particle perfect personal plural personal name postposition passive past particple present prefix preposition preterite preverb pronoun passive participle relative subjunctive singular superlative sub voce thematic toponym transitive verb variant or Similarly namely. loco m. compar.

= Ausonius B. = Apollonius App. Diog. = Euelides Eup. S. = Archias Arist. = Aristoteles AscI.. = Aselepiodotus or Aselepius Aselep. = Antiphanes Ap. = Damascius Din. = Aleman Amm. Chr. = Antonius Diogenes Ant. Corn. = Foedus Gal. Did. v. = Aeschylus AB = Anecdota Graeca. = Demosthenes D. = Aselepiades Asp. = Heraelas Herod. = Apollonius Dyscolus A. = Diogenes Dioph. ete. = Diodorus Siculus D. = Eustratius Foed. = Epigenes Epin. = Aspasius Ath. = Arius Didymus Arc. = Heliodorus. Lib. = Euphorio Eust. = Callinus Cerc. Scriptor Eroticus Horn. = Arcadius Arch. = Eustathius Eustr. = Hymnus ad Apollinem. = hymni Homerici H. = Athenaeus Aus. = Dioscorides Medicus E. = Callias Historicus Callin. = Hippocrates Hsch. = Herodotus Herael. Ap.xlvi ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS C. = Appianus Ar. = Apollonius Rhodius Aesch. AUTHORS AND WORKS Only the most common authors and works are mentioned here. = Dionysius Halicarnassensis L. = Dio Chrysostomus D. = Agathias Ale. A. = Callias Comicus Call. = Antoninus Liberalis Antip. = Halicarnassus Hdn. = Diophantus Dsc. Med. = Bacchius Call. = Bacchylides Bacch. C. = Homer Hp. P. = Galenus Gramm. = Dionysius Thrax Dam. = Euripides D. = Aleaeus Alem. Hom. = Callimachus Call. = Dinarchus Diog. Comic D.R. Gen. = Dionysius Periegeta D. Alex. = Aristophanes Ar. Marc. = Epicus Epig. I A. = in the Epic dialect Epic.D. = Diogenes Laertius D. ete. = Eupolis Euph. = Hesychius . Ty. = Epinicus Et. = Herodotus Medicus Hes. = Herodianus Hdt. = Grammarians h. = Etymologicum Genuinum Et. = Cercopes Corn. = Cercidas Cercop. EM = Etymologicum Magnum Ep. Please refer to LSJ for a complete list. = Apollonius Tyanensis Apollon. = Hesiodus HId. Gud. = Etymologicum Gudianum Eub. = Herodas Herod. = Dio Cassius D. = Comedy. T. = Ammianus Marcellinus And. = Antipater Antiph. H. = Andocides Ant. = Hesychius Halie. = Eubulus Euc. = Aeschylus Alexandrinus Agath. Hist. h.

= Thucydides Them. = Lycophron Lyr. = Menander Moer. = Philoponus Phoen. = Xenophanes Zen. = Zenobius Zon. Tragedy Tryph. = Theodorus Thgn. = Iliad Is. = Odyssey Orac. = Leonidas (two epigrammatists) Leonid. = Philetas Philipp. = Philonides Phld. poetica post-Horn. = Rufus S. E. = Zonas . = Quintilianus Rhet. = Polybius Plin. = Orchomenus Pall. Corn. = Themistoeles Theo Srn. = Priscus Historicus Quint. = Sophoeles S. Lyric poetry Lys. Lex.ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS Hymn. = Lysias Lysim. = Timotheus Comicus Tim. = Sextus Philosophus Srn. Dam. = Pliny Poet. = Hymnus. = Isaeus J. Hymni Il. Locr. = Theognis Thphr. = Symmachus St. = Timaeus Locrus Tim. = Themistius Themist. = Oratores Attici Orchom. = Melissus Men. = Plato Plb. = Meleager Meliss. = Leonidas Medicus Lyc. = Theon Smyrnaeus Theoc. = Lysimachus Mel. = Nicolaus Damascenus Od. = Phanias Phil. = Josephus Leon. = Oraculum Oratt. = Philippus Epigrammaticus Philet. = Rhetorical. = Tryphiodorus X. = Xenophon Xenoph. = Philippus Comicus Philol. = Tragic. = Lyricus. = Timaeus Grammaticus Trag. = Pindarus PI. Corn. = Moeris Mosch. = Palladius or Palladas Parm. = Philodemus Philosophus Phlp. = Tabulae Heraeleenses Th. = Theocritus Theod. = Philolaus Philonid. = Philo Phan. = Poeta. Herael. = Sextus Empiricus Sext. = Nicander or Nicias Nic. Gaz. = Theophrastus Ti. Byz. = Stephanus Byzantius Str. = post-Homeric Prise. = Phoenix Pi. Rhetoric Ruf. = Parmenides Ph. = Moschus NT = Novum Testamentum Nic. = Strabo xlvii Tab. = Timotheus Lyricus Tim. = Timotheus Gazaeus Tim.

SYMBOLS > < » « <lXX� (?) *X <X> IXI [Xl becomes by regular phonological development reflects by regular phonological development is replaced by way of analogy replaces by way of analogy the origin of the word (see preface above) see also the entry see s. meaning uncertain or appurtenance uncertain a reconstructed item of a proto-stage spelled with the symbol X the phoneme X phonetically pronounced as X .xlviii ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS D.v.

« *a-pGOe. all from PIE *1}-. Go. into avwvuf. so they followed the Ionic pronunciation (cf. a-£Ovov· n:OAU<p£pvov 'with much dowry' (H..A copulative prefix (a a8pOlGTLKOV). Skt..Lu.. In the Myc.g. vw­ like in V�yp£LOe. Frisk 1948: 8ff.'with the same name'). aKOlLle. like in classical aun:voe. am:80e. <l IE *sm-� . va-.. a zero grade to *sem in Skt. 'even'. the loss of initial consonants (*lj-. *s-) disturbed the original distribution: thus alGOe..VAR E.Loe. aOeA<pOe. PN a-u-po-no IAhupnosl.2 • a.was originally retained before *0 as well. un-. Lat.. see Frisk 1941: 4ff... we have e. *n-h3d-. sem-.g.'un-'. < *n-h�r-. In other languages. Wackernagel 1920-1924(1): 282f.was originally limited to verbal adjectives and bahuvrihis. etc. next to original av-o(oe. provided with'. a. If the second member began with laryngeal + cons.stands before h-. and Moorhouse 1959..g.. which was analogically extended: aAoXOe.. It has been supposed that in some cases a comparable a­ arose from *1}. also � of. � uf. Lat. a(v). ne-fas. the last two are analogical.. a.1 • privative prefix (a aL£pTjTLKOV). like a-o(oe.).. Wackernagel 19201924(2): 284ff.. but the alleged instances are probably all wrong..3 <l PG(V) � . which led to vocalization of the nasal: *1}-HV. a(n)-. we see that the initial F. ETYM From lE *sm. in un:u�. From the meaning 'together. cf. aVCt-£AltLOe. e. sa. was not aspirated because the Attic redactors of the text did not know the word. in-. � £8vu.> *anV-. both in Greek and in other lE languages. in Lat. e.. In Greek. vw06e.g. from PIE *s1J1-.arose because of a following laryngeal (Indo­ European roots always started with a consonant).) next to the reshaped aVlGOe. e. by Grassmann's dissimilation or by psilosis also a-.) . On pleonastic a(v)-. a�lOe. < *worwo-). 44ff. the a.. The sentence negative was *ne. � £te.VAR Prevocalic av-. (see Beekes 1969: 98-113) In avCt£OOe. In aoplGLOe. but this use is not attested for Greek (not in � v£n:oOee. this yielded Greek VTj-. aA£Yw (Seiler KZ 75 (1957): 1-23). Within Skt. next to �£ALOe. <l IE *n-� . Sometimes this led to analogical forms. cf. and the first may stand for av-££8v-. the so­ called a E1tLLaLlKOV (intensive) developed.(sa-naman..(the zero grade of *h1en 'in'). sim­ (sim-plex). (to opoe. sam 'together'.g. ETYM The antevocalic form av.). and avCtn:VeDaLOe. which seem to show avu. � a�£h£poe. 'rich'. �ALOe.Loe. These adjectives were later reshaped. ne-scio. A form like Horn. cf.

and could be different from that of the Pre-Greek prothetic vowel. the prothetic vowel may be present in the reflex of a substrate word or not.). uowp (3 271) 'inviolable'?..g. .. � ?� . from � a. perhaps au�aKTOl' a�Aa�£1<. => a'lTo<. Latte assumes aoo = a�a. see LfgrE s.. Hes. Without a doubt. a phonetic process was at the origin of these variations.)' (H.). 'want..). In other words. 'undamaged' (H. abstain from food' (H. � avMvw.). The vowel was almost always a.DER aaaflo<. does not convince me. aaTaxu<.. li(a)TOe. � ONOM� . e. (Arist. which is also unclear. see Fur. aaaTOe. � ?� . => £Xw.).). ETYM The forms and meanings are uncertain.' (H . AplaTo<puv'l<'. see DELG for an uncertain suggestion by Frisk. � ?� ETYM Schulze 1892: 38 explained it as *aua-av9a to the root of oU<'. It is probably due to adaptation from a non-lE language. • liac5a . not av-.. (<p 91. KUPTO<.. £vo£la. X 5) 'infallible'?.4 in Anatolian place names. We also find aao£iv· 6XA£1v.] £100<'. Mg. also Bechtel 1921.(only very few exceptions can be recorded. but since the suffIx is unclear (cf. e.. [adj.ETYM The origin of the phenomenon is unknown. next to muxu<. AUTI£ia9m.] In X£ip£<.v. aOtK£iv 'to disturb. (A. AUKWV£<. • aa�w [v. be vexed.2 . 2: 366.] 'to sigh.. this analysis cannot be substantiated. Meier-Briigger's explanation of � aTtTo£TI�<'.DER a�W [v.ETYM Aristophanes read *CtETtTou<.. 77) 'invincible'? � ?� VAR For the varying length of the vowel. a. unknown. Cf. / I1mao<.). 2. to Ar. (Opp... .] 'to breathe with the mouth wide open' (Arist.DER aao£1v· aTIop£1a9m. . a£9Ao<. contrary to the alphabetical order. a "prothetic vowel" occurs.. lack (Lacon.ETYM Onomatopoeic. � LW� .ETYM Comparable to � aT'l and � aaw 'to damage'. � �8U<. groan'. amT£iv 'to be in distress.ETYM In Pre-Greek substrate words. aaTtTOl (Hom. � ONOM� . a. 'A9ufl�pa / eUfl�pa..g. oLvuv9'l). • aavOa [f.. ace. In vuv flOl ofloaaov a. a. Cf. perhaps � a�w 2. LTUY0<..). R. Cf. 'a kind of earring in Alcm. ETYM Probably onomatopoeic. and � eu<p9'l. Another suggestion by Solmsen 1901: 284 relates it to � a'lfll.: 368-378. < *h2ous-. see on � ao'lv..). evwTlou TIapa AAKflUVl W<'. � a£TtTo<.. Note that the privative prefix is a-. • liaTITOe. see Pre-Greek). see Schwyzer: 716. a 5 interjection (ll. be wronged' (s. Cf. ATImao<.. perhaps 'invincible'..). aaoX£TOe. later of K�TO<'.. It is rather frequent.v. .

for *KaT-a�aaK£? . Borrowed as Lat.ETYM For earlier *a(fl)0uvTaamv [dat. Bruneau REGr. if the comparison is correct. Ka9mpofltv'1v KaTafl'lVlOl<'.)'. See further the glosses a��p£l' �O£l 'sings' and a�taa£l' e1tlTI09£1. Further a�aK�flwv· aAaAo<. � GR?� . and a�uK'1To<. �U�l<'. � IE? *h2euh2-� . AUKWV£<. � adow. with Cyprian loss of s-? . a�avT«O'lv · avu�amv 'mounting' (H.)' (H. low' (H. .) and a�aAl<'. [adj..).· �AU�'lV <ptpwv 'bringing damage' (H.). au£ [ipf. a�aAfj aXP£1ov. AUKWV£<. .). pass. aaa9'lv. li�aAle.: 167. explained as �auXlov Kal TIpq. (H. li�ayva pooa MaK£oov£<. . avaT(£)l 'without harm. who defends the connection with Hebrew. aaaa (contracted aaa) < *aFaaa. yuvmKl�ofltV'lV. difficult KaTt�aaK£' KaTt�Amjt£v 'damaged' (H.. The assumption of a loan from Hebr.).· av£1tl<p90vo<. 'quiet' (Anacr.).).ETYM Related to � aa�aplXl<'. Belardi Ric. li�a�. . med. Not connected to � WT£lA�.VAR Only Aeol. -KOe. Masson 1967: 97). A verbal noun * awa-teh2-.] ? See Schwyzer: 50 .). a�uK'lv <pptva [ace. 4 (1958): 196 . the word is Pre-Greek (variation �/fl). a�apuJTav . .).. 'iibiiq 'sand. ' . . 'roses (Maced.. 'without reproach' (H.ETYM In the sense of 'screaming'.DER a�uK'laav (0 249) '�aUxaaav' (?) and a�aKl�ofl£vO<'. cf. 'act in blindness' (ll.). � PG?(v)� .ETYM For PGr. li�a TPOX0<.). guilt. a�aK�e. � ?� . . 348 compares a�£AAov· TaTI£lVOV 'vile.: 221 doubts this.a�aplaTUV 3 aaw [v.).. o l o£ vw9pov 'bastard' (H.. damages' (H. lastly also a�wp with the meaning �o�.). makes noise' (both H. 'unspoken. but Fur.) 'to speak' . Specht compared a�a with Hom...) (H.. => a�aA�. cf. See � aU8�. aaUv£To<. foolish ( 90pu�£1 'yearns for. a�a�.ov 'quiet and gentle' (EM). � ?� .VAR Beside pres.] (Sapph.). aam<popo<. with impunity' (A. -ufl'lv. Kuiper compared afluKlov.] 'called'. with which compare auuTa (Alc.ETYM Fur. *awa-je!o-. we may mechanically reconstruct an lE root *h2euh2-.] 'board for calculating or drawing' (Cratin. not understood' (H. abacus..ETYM Etymology unknown. delusion'.' flox9'1pa eAala 'worthless olive tree' (H.COMP aWl<ppwv (wrong for aam-) 'damaged in mind' (ll. � ?� .).).] � ?� . KUTIplOl 'being made to play a womanly role. With -aK-: aaaK£l' <p9dp£l. �AUTtT£l 'destroys. � ?� . 80 (1967): 325-330.ETYM See Kalleris 1954: 66-73. Yet.). [m. med. see also Kratzsch WZHalle 23 (1973): 126.). but not � a<p£A�<..).). being cleansed or purified during the menses (Cypr.). � �o� 'wheel or screaming' (H. but there are no known cognates. a�aKA� => afla�a. aUTm (T 91 = 129) < *aF&'£Tm only aor. On the meaning. Cyr. ling... yields � a1''l 'damage.. Arist. dust' (Lewy 1895: 173) is semantically weak (rejected by E..ETYM Perhaps it belongs to � �u�w (�t�aKTm.] 'to damage'.

with an unclear prefix. �apu. see O.).). � LW� . unAT]u-rla 'greediness' (H. with � from IE *gwh.ETYM Fur. should be reconstructed as *h. 'greedy'.] . � ?� . 8). which is likely anyway for a form with �o. ' . as havmg suggestion of Kalleris 1954: 75f. also -T]TO<. you have' (H. flUTmov 'much. Latte reJects It as a corruptlon of the other form.] 'simple.). li�ap-ro<. a�£AL£po<.?) 'oregano (Maced. a�OeAAov. · anAT]u-ro<. . [adj.: 388 convincingly compares U�PlUT�V' fluuTlya (H. .). � PG?� . rash' (H. flUUTl� nap' 'InnwVaKTL 'whip (Hippon.] . Maybe the gloss is just Lat. Cf. • li�£Uov => u�aAT].t (or MaK£Oovla<..) (H. . Masson 1962: 170 (fr. 'ace. The . gluttonous .VAR Hesychius also has a�£AAov with the same mg. with -�p. . o l o£ aflapyo<. fl£ya. Aq. • a�ap-ra[ => u<pap£u<.perhaps representing earlier -�O-.: 309 connects it with the TN 'A�oT]pa. a�SlJ<. assuming that an original mg. �PG(v) � ETYM Probably a foreign word in Hipponax. the word clearly shows a prothetic vowel. abased' (H.. . 'morally good' developed into 'too good.. a�apv [n. empty.suggests Pre-Greek origin. 130).ETYM Wackernagel GGN (1902): 745ff.). .mad.] .. ETYM See Fur. is untenable. which seems difficult formally.: 122 connects it to flapyo<. ho\Vever.) (H. see Osthoff MU 6 (1910): 177 and Hatzidakis Glotta 11 (1921): 175f for different analyses. . who assumes connectIOn WIth �apu<.. ETYM Perhaps Illyrian.? If so. it is a Pre-Greek word.. .).) is glossed in the same way. a strong (heavy) odor' (with prothetic a). stupid' (Ar.). . habes (see Pisani Paideia 10 (1955): 279). which points to substrate origin. � PG(v) � . which is unnecessary. • li�£u.). whIch IS not convmcmg. The word is Pre-Greek because of the cluster �o (see ibid. UXUlUTOV.] . noAU. Fur. EX£l<.). �PG?(v) � VAR u�ap-rla. simple'. This is unlikely. 'greedy' (H. • • li�S£Uov [adj. or do we have to read * a�apyo<. Kat a�8La � EluAauua (EM 3.).: 210. that EXl<.VAR U�U�T]AOV (H.egwh-i-. .).: 318). .. see L�tte. EnaxEl£<. acc. ETYM Fur. as m vl�a· Xlova. a�£p�lJAOV [adj.ETYM Related to uflupaKov 'origanum'. The formation with -va after -K. 'vipers. (EM). 'hunger' (H. fl£v <paUl Elufllafla £uwOe<.lO<. great. connected it with �£h£po<. � PG(v) � . ETYM Fur. Tan£lVOV 'low.. If the variation �O / � is real. 6plyavov <TO ev> MaK£Oovl<. � PG?� . to some. f. . an odoriferous i�cens�' (H. • li�SlJpa [f. . � ?� .: 217 connects it to fluPY0<. . .] .: 167. to Fur. It IS unlIkely. also �apu· TLV£<.4 a�apKva li�apKva [f. [m. heavy or burdensome.] .

). 'powerless' leaves the initial vowel unexplained (see on � �AaOei<. a fish.] 'latrine' (IGR I. TauTov. � ?� . � LW? Eg. R.ETYM The variation points to a Pre-Greek word.).ETYM Cf.). a�AaPOl [m. abies. the semantic development is also problematic.DER U�OAT]TU<. .). a�oA£w [v. . assumed that PIE *ab.could be copulative (see � a. ] ? . � LW� VAR Also u�oAAa (Peripl. EXOV. .) .!f. => �Aumw. If this is the case. o'LKT]fla aToa<.ETYM Comparing Lat.. is the root from a non-IE language in Europe? a�moplov [n.] 'meet' (A.] . . a�Aon£<.ETYM Fur. . l£pov (H. Cf. treasury (Lacon. cf. � PG(v) � . � ?� .).] . Not identical with � u�p 'air' (as in Frisk.ETYM Probably related to � U�OAAT]<. [m. 'meeting' (H.!f. a�oA£i<. M.). � LW?� .). EAUTT]V.m. Connection with � uflaAouvw 'to make weak' would point to *h2mld. [adv. a�AlJxp6<.. there is yet no etymology.] . � en��oAo<. = UVTL�OA£W.ETYM From an unknown Lat. n£pl�OAat uno LlK£AWV 'garments (Sicilian) (H.).� .. Fur.] .ETYM A connection with *�Aa8U<.). The U. a�6UlJ<. A�lK� = 'YAata (St.(with -aA. Mayer KZ 66 (1939): 96f.). ol 8£ n£uKT]v 'silver fir.ETYM LW from Lat. Kp�T£<. ��OAOV �flap' KaEl' 0 unaVTWUlV ei<.).] 'kind of coat' (imperial period). => �AT]XP0<. pine' (H. 'A�pOl.'tree' occurs in several Illyrian and Iranian names.analogically after the full grade *Ufl£AO-). Call. Rubr. undamaged (Cret.. Scythia Minor). �Up�T]AO 'abundance' . Byz. � LW Lat. but in this case one would expect *ufl�Aao.1). �uAa 'wood' (H. vind 1.).). which may have its length for metrical reasons. or alternatively have arisen by decomposition.)..ETYM Unknown. [m. � £uKmpov. Istropolis. 'house provided with store­ houses..: 374 compares MoGr. a kind of mullet (Opp. in turn from abire (DELG Supp.).5 . 'bottom') . abolla (Varro).VAR u�oA�um· unavT�um 'to encounter' (H. a�AaMw<. *abitorium 'latrine'. AUKWV£<. �o£w<.] . It is less probable that � �upu£<.� .: 370 compares �oapol' opu£<.): a case in which a Latin word is known only from Greek.)' (H. also belongs here . the word is Pre-Greek (with prothetic vowel and �o alternating with �A). � GR?� . Taflelov. a��p [m. such as 'A�m. who compares MoSw. (H.!f. 599. 'wind' 2.. a�[UlOv => ufllAAaKav. a�lv [ace. o£vopa 'trees' (H. � U�OAel<. [adj. • a�pa!l[<.for our word. 'sweet' (H. 'sound. u�Aa�£<.

by folk etymology. a�vpTaK'l [f. �aTlUKTj.VAR Also a-. a�pa 'favorite slave' (not a Semitic loan.ETYM Defined as uTC6Tplflfla �ap�aplK6v 'a foreign dish' (Suid. see Francis Glotta 53 (1975) : 43-66. where the a. �aSu 'deep' (H.] 'wormwood' (Thphr. luxury'.ETYM Perhaps formed on the basis of �fl�POTOV.). . Masson 1967: 98) . • a�pOnl�(() [v. �puaaoc. apud Ath. but could also be a substrate word with prothetic a-. IIIP). (H. EvSa TCOl£iTm a�upTuKTj 'he will arrive in Media.. �pUTTOC. act. Is it metrically conditioned? a�p6TovOV [n.] 'to miss'.�pomJvTj 'id. (Arist. o. 17 Kock). 'kind of sea urchin' (H. On the feminine substantive.6 VAR Also a�paf. denominative o. ETYM No etymology. so perhaps it is an Iranian loan. a�up�'lAOC.LLC.VAR Fern.).instead of -fl�P.] 'graceful. (PLond.). . .). a�pvvu [n. "!l ?� .] a sauce of leek.). is correct. perhaps from the Greek substrate.VAR Also 0.�PUVOflaL [v.subj. From Akk.-. [adj. Eust. "!l ?� . the aorist of � o. a�vc')6v [adj. 'to treat soft-heartedly'. pretty' (Hes. Could it be an artificial archaism of the Doloneia (DELG)? On -�p. "!l PG?(v)� . related to �uS6C. maTuKTj. KauVuKTj. "!l PG?(v)� . £XLVWV SaAaaaLwv d80c. "!l ?� . 312b) . • • a�plo"nlv => a�8TjC. cf. E. See also Fur. to Bailey TPS 1955: 82.. "!l GR� . probably a loanword.. • a�pvTO[ [m. 'splendor.). Not related to ��Tj 'youthful power'. ETYM Unknown. ace. a�pa�LC. . It is either Pre-Greek..).VAR Only in a�pOTu�ofl£v [aor. Fur. (Ar.VAR Also afl�puTTOl' d80c..). 7. a�p6c. it is not necessarily Illyrian.�p6TTjC.).] .: 15864• . £XLVWV SaAaaaLwv'id.�p6c.] (K 65) . mostly of young girls and women. (a)murdennu 'flower with thorns'.flapTuvw.). Theopompus wrote: ��£l 8£ M�8wv yaiav. If the connection with �uS6C.. Connected with o. or a loan from Egyptian.DER o.] 'mulberries' (Parth. ined.). which has Tj. See � �uS6C. for the'.DER a�p6m�lC. But the structure a­ �UpT-UK-Tj is reminiscent of Pre-Greek words.: 220 thinks that the form with � is due to a recent assimilation. "!l PG(v)� . .ETYM von Blumenthal IF 49 (1931) : 175 considers it to have an Illyrian ongm ("bottomless". => a�Ep�TjAOC.' see Schwyzer: 277. delicate.] 'to live a delicate life'.ETYM The formal variation (prothetic vowel and prenasalization) is typical of Pre­ Greek substrate words. cress and pomegranate seeds (Pherecr.] . ETYM The fish was salted in Egypt (Ath.< *e « *eh. is made' (Suid. ' .ETYM Unknown.).

.ETYM The same stem as flEya-.). Note the expression ayaSwv ayaSL8£c. as these require a root *i'edh.'was festzuhalten ist'.ETYM Belardi Ric. continuing a PIE zero grade *ytlgh2-. 1. Andre 1956 s. I find this semantic development difficult. see Schindler 1987: 345. [f. gadh. (H. an Athenian delicacy given to guests at a wedding. = aTjaafl� 'a mixture of sesame seeds. ayuU[c. based on comparison with ayaiov· btl<pSovov 'liable to envy' (H.). "!l PG?(v)� . Supp. "!l ?� . 4 (1958) : 196 compared yUSla. 2. as-. Dor. � ayav.VAR aKaS6v ayaS6v 'good' (H. On Nic. 'quantities of goods'.'with great strength' (from a zero grade *mgs-).is rare (see Chantraine 1933: 366) .fr. Fr. 2. the word is Pre-Greek. a suffIx -dho.. the word could be Pre­ Greek. 'of great renown'. must probably be read ayaSoc. Nominal derivatives: ayTj 'admiration. 'hyacinth. 31 see DELG. aya-KA£�C.] 'ball of thread. . ayu8[c. DIAL Cypr.). [adj. => �uS6C.(LIV2 s. goditi 'be pleasant' and Ru.'to take.intensifying prefix. Frisk connects Skt..DER Verbs: ayaflaL [v. plantain.] 'good.. � ayavaKTEW.'great'� . Finally. a�aSoc.). see � aHac.). see Egetmeyer Kadmos 32 (1993) : 145-155 · . "!l IE *meg-h2. ayu�w 'to have too much' (A.] 'to be proud.ETYM Unknown. who derives the word from *mgh2-dhh. e.). fit. as-aojah. Iris attica' (h.g. exult in' (11.ETYM No etymology. noble' (11. aAAaVTla 'sausages (vel sim.ETYM No etymology. EM). is considered to be from a European substrate by Beekes KZ 109 (1996) . • ayulOC. xU'(OC. ayu8[c. see DELG. MoHG gut. � ayau6c.). anagallis and Stromberg 1940: 78..] 'to admire. "!l ?� . envy' (11. ayaoflaL (Hes. useful' (H. 'good. g6dnyj 'useful' should be forgotten.).. Moreover. 74. forms like Go.g. ayuaflam (S.). . ayu. 'noble. = aTjaaflLC. good' (long a) . seize' derives. "!l IE?. see Buck 1955: 245. -[c')oc. ayaS6c.: 370 also compares � y�Suov.. MLG gaden 'to fit' etc. See also � ayav. It has a counterpart in Av. 1061) .v.] 'dwarf iris. aTjaaflLC.v. Cf. Dem. Under ayaS6c.7 a�vO'O'oc. clew' (Pherecyd. because of the prothetic vowel.' UCtKlVSOC. See � ayuHoflaL.'made great'.).-o.. [f. ayaLoflaL (Od. or 'whose deeds are great' (Ruijgh 1991b) . XUaLOC.] epithet of a sacrificial calf in the Labyadai inscr. as Pinault admits. envy'. � flEyac.).. � avayaHLC. roasted and pounded with honey'. and Slavic words like OCS godbn'b 'pleasant'.. . gadhya.). LW?� .). gaps. e. An Indo-European attempt by Pinault MSS 38 (1979) : 165-170. (Schwyzer: 323) . ling.DER ayaHLC. � SpuaHLC. if these variants are reliable. [adj. "!l ?� . H. -[c')oc. If this is correct. ayaUoflal [v. Fur. ayu86c. aya(a)aLC. there are forms like aKaS6v and XUaLOC. pimpernel' (H.)' (H. from which Skt.' XpTjaT6C.ETYM The older comparison with Gm.). � ayaSLC.. 885) . (H. "!l ?� .VAR Also mse. Connected with � aya-.

Aquilaria malacensis' (Dse. 'pressed too much'. 'slandering' (H.. explaining -Gfl. *CC-eC-m. ayavo<. and flEV£lV (which von Kamptz 1982: 181 and 209 finds improbable). -lafla. Kretschmer Glotta 3 (1910-1912): 330£ connected the second part with flEVO<. ayuUoflaL is replaced by ayaUluo flaL.' AOloo po <..aY UAoxoV 8 .'ahaba 'love'. especially LXX and NT).) probably does not belong to ayuUOflaL. vases AyaflEGflwv. cf. � IE *mg�eh2-m� . .. . � IE? � . c£ � efl1tu�o flal.). 65 (1991 [1993]): 199-216 assumes it derives from *aya-1t<l.ETYM Looks like a denominative of *ayaA6<.] 'splendor' (Bechtel 1914) is semantically unconvincing. � ?� . Pinault RPh. • ayav [adv.] 'be indignant or irritated' (Hp. *CeC-C. (Tarent. Cer. thence ayaUlacn<. with the root of flEOOflaL.ETYM Expressive formation in -aK'rEW like uAaKTEw (to UAUW). known in various Greek dialects (other examples in Lejeune 1972: 771. ayuvTjflaL' aGXuUw. but there is no support for this.aya. which I assume is the original hysterodynamic inflection in Indo-European (see Beekes 1985: 103f. ayavaKTw (H. • aya�aL . ETYM Since Prellwitz BB 17 (1891): 171f. (h.). • . [n.DER ayaAfla 'glory. TapavTlvOl 'to slander . Cf.lUW. see Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 306. Nic. see Henning BSOAS 11 (1943-1946): 728. Schrader-Nehring 1917: 39f.). Fur.] 'mild.). 65 (1991 [1993]): 196-198 derives it from *aya vaKTo<. ayuUlo<.] the Greek commander before Troy (11. � LW� ETYM One suspects an Oriental loanword. � GR� ·VAR Att. The connection with ayaflaL or yuvo<.: 370 compares yapplwfle9a. ETYM Pinault RPh. but such a form is unknown.'to protect greatly'.> -vfl. The Christian use may have been influenced by Hebr. so from original *ayavuw? Cf.axuvTj. ayaUlu�o flaL AOlOOpciG9aL.). also � aya-. ayavaKTEw [v. aya1tuw [v.] 'to receive with friendship. ' ayuAoxoV [n. [adj. where also on the development to -Gfl-).). Retrograde ayu1tTj '(Christian) love' (late. as it points to the type nom..] 'eagle-wood. Uncertain. honor. In later a kind of popular assimilation. too much' (PL). - ayuvva . which explains the long a.> -flv. Aya�E�vwv [m. statue'. also AyaflEflflwv.] 'much. On Pahlavi 'wlwg < *agaluk. � GR?� .). referring to similar expressions in Sanskrit.VAR Also aya1tu�w (11. The plant name ayaUI<. acc. The form is important. The development -ofl.).ETYM No etymology.). gentle' (11.DIAL Aeolic or Doric in origin. love' (11. from � VUGGw.ETYM The old accusative of the adjective � flEya<. to like.). a pre-form *Aya-flEo-flwv has been assumed. -flEV(V)WV (Nachmanson Glotta 4 (1913): 246) . delight. -lUW after the verbs in .) (H.

ayyEAT£lpa 'female messenger' (Orph. and late by-forms are eyyapeuw. ayyapov 1tUP 'signal fire' (A. agarieum and Stromberg 1940: 122. ayyapo<..] 'Persian mounted courier' (X. . 78. But since a suffIx the basis of ayyap�LOv (Hdt. -EW... ayyaplKo<.). has now been abandoned.g. like � ayyapo <. Not from Akk.. -WTl<. DER Denominative aYYEUw [v. Did ayyeAITj<. by folk­ etymology after the preverb ev-. From ayyeAla: ayyeAlwTTj<.ETYM Fur. 98). Mere. [adj..)..). agru 'hired man'.g. Fecula marmarica (Dsc. 'premonitory' (late). Denominative ayyapeuw [v.. perhaps 'proud' (Hes. Th. � LW� . pap. rare).VAR Rarely as an adjective. Hdt. Th. Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970)). thence ayyap£uT�<. plur. Thence � ayyeAITj 'female messenger' (Hes. -la. substantivized ayyap� Lov 'institution of the ayyapOl' (Hdt. . (Dor.: 254 connects it with � yTj9uUI<. the word may rather be Pre-Greek. (pap. Happ Glotta 40 (1962): 201.] 'messenger' (Horn. from aYYEUw: ayyeAfla 'announcement' (E.? See Leumann 1950: 168ff. . � GR� . . � ?� .is doubtful in Greek (cf. 296).] 'admirable. Schmitt Glotta 49 (1971): 97-100 (who defends an Iranian origin).> *ayyapTj. ya-).: ayyeAlKo<.ETYM Was � yaupo<.) ayyeAITj<.). 8. Hell. to Schwyzer IF 30 (1912): 430ff. � LW� . = ayyapo <. � PG(v) � . ayyeATlKo<. a-ke-ro.] not quite certain. 'of a messenger' (late). Comparing the latter with ayaGuUI<. 98.ETYM The exact source is unknown. with a description of it).).ETYM Perhaps from the TN Ayapla (Sarmatia)? See Andre 1956 s. 781).). inscr.). which is Pre-Greek.. from ayyeAo<. H. [adj. IIIP). [f. See Andre 1956 s. noble' (11. angiras-.v.v. not certain). VIP) and ayyapda 'service' (pap.DIAL Perhaps Mye. [m. name of mythical beings.ETYM Ace. ayaupo<.. � ?� .). and R. ayyapciaL 'cursus publicus' (inscr. • ayyEpuKo�OV - ayeppuKa�o<.] plant that produces aflflwvlaKov. '(female) messenger' (h.] 'press into service' (Ev. Perhaps an Oriental loan. 3. ayauo<. 'impressed laborer' (pap.ETYM The connection with Skt. e. On the realia see Rostowzew Klio 6 (1906): 249ff. which must be the oldest Greek form. An expressive gemination of the F has been proposed (e.).] 'to convey a message'..) arise from a false interpretation of the genitive (T�<. 8. Matt. inscr. see Eilers Ilf 5 (1962): 225. agasyllis. we note the prothetic vowel and the interchange 9/0'. perhaps related to � ayaflaL.. Extensively on this word Brust 2005: 17ff. [m.DER ayyap� Lo <.. Mancini Glotta 73 (1995): 2lO-222 reconstructs a form OP *angara. Aeolic = aya-F0<. ' ' ayyEXo<. 282).).ayyepuKo floV 9 ayaplKov [n. Ag.] name of several mushrooms (Dsc.? A pre-Greek origin should also be considered. (Hdt. [m. reshaped after ayauo<.] 'messenger' (11. Chantraine 1933: l24: "le suffixe etait mort en grec"). ayaO'uAA[<.

Skt. oCOMP 6fl'lyep�c. 'gathering' (H.) . glott. denominative ayupTu(W 'to beg'.] 'vessel' (ll. 'unripe. a-ma-ko-to me-no /ham-agorto menos/ 'in the month of the Assembly'? See Taillardat REGr. ayepfl6c. �yepe90VTat and -TO have a present suffIx -9. 1tavuyopmc. <!!! ?� oETYM Cf. ayupT'lC.. ayopoc. =youpOC.]).] . oETYM Possibly a Mediterranean loanword (cf. <!!! IE *h2eg.). ayyoupoc. a-ke-re. from a-wpoc. liyyoupo� 'cake'. ayap. troops. whence ayupTeLa. and MoGr.) and Ta � yupyapa 'heaps. adjective ayupLlK6C.: 275..).] . 'gathering.v.).(cf. ve<peA'lyepeTa 'cloud-gatherer' (ll. 1273). quick' and Lat. ayupTpla 'beggar-woman' (A. secondary nasalization as in MoGr.). 'gathering of funds.kept the connection with the verb: ayepmc. 1tavayopla). a-ke-ha [pl. liyyoupa [f.). but the reconstruction *h.. 'gathering' and ayupfla 'anything collected'. Arist.. the forms were built on frequent �yepe90vTo. O"La<puA� 'grape.). a9pOlmc.). ajirci. <!!! PG(v)� . o DER � ayopu S. 'gathering. aywpoc. oETYM No direct cognates. with a suffIx *-1-. See Kretschmer Glotta 20 (1932): 239f. O"La<puA� 'bunch of grapes' (H.' ayopu.. aytATJ [f. etc. �yepe90VTat (r 231) and �yepe9w9at (K 127. with 1tav�yuplC. as kitchen utensils are often borrowed.] . aggur 'gherkin'. Also ayupfl6c. 759: 12 [Naples]).) which may be Aeolic.). See further � yepyepa . see Bailey BSOAS 20 (1957): 51 (does not belong to � ayyoc. 'young.] 'herd. 3072 compares ay8uc. youngster' and ayyoupl 'gherkin'. agilis. a-ko-ra /agora/. 'gathering of all' (Arc. Ta nvv fleAlaawv K'lpla 'honeycombs' (H. word was borrowed as MP angur 'grape' and Eg. with the spirant as a transitional sound.'gather'� o DIAL Myc.). 'meeting' (IG 14. Cret. green'. The MGr.). 97 (1984): 365-373.' (inscr.'drive'� oETYM From � ayw. troop' (ll. 'beggar'. Chantraine 1933: 418). (Str. 'collector' (IG 14. the formations are probably independent.] . bunch of grapes' ( unproblematic. Schwyzer: 703). which is quite tempting. Often ayup.. young man' and ayoupl8a 'unripe grape'. pu�. MoGr. mass' (ll. ayupTeuw (Str. 1tOAAU 'lots..). Also ayupT�p 'beggar'. PIu. KP'lLlKOV. The formations in ayep.. <!!! PG(v)� oDIAL Probably Myc.(cf.'mobile. aytp6a = axep80c.).­ Arab. <!!! LW� o ETYM From Iranian found in ay£ppaKa�o� [m. 'unripe. 423: I 35 [Taurom. Schwyzer: 351): ayuplC. also Cocco Arch. often' (H. ayepTac. <!!! IE *h. Aristarchus) have an unexpected long vowel. ital. 54 (1969): 98. Ag.).). ayyo� [n. inspection of the army' (Hdt. also ayopplC.10 ayyo1t'lvla liyy01tTJVla [n. ayoupoc.).ger. 'gathering' (E. green. agolum 'staff of a shepherd' makes little sense. lots'. 'gathered together' (ll.· ayyoc.] 'to gather' (ll. Fur. Comparison with Lat. see Chantraine 1933: 280. ayepfloaUv'l (Opp. aydpw [v.ger.

'Origanum onites' (Dsc. 'offering to the dead' (D. aytTpla [f. Uncertain is Dor. sanctuary' (LXX). 'woman who watches over the midwives in Tarent. This seems quite improbable semantically.). ay�paTov [n. cf.). aytpwxoc. 15 (1921): 48 assumes that it stands for earlier *aypeTpla. verbs ayl(w 'to consecrate.).. <!!! IE *Hieh. O"La<puA�v 'id. I think this is indefensible.).).] 'be holy. y�pac. from *aYloflat...: 378ff. <!!! ?� oETYM McKenzie Class. S. aylO"L�pLOV 'holy vessel' (Inscr. 980).] 'holy' (Hdt.(aYlaT6c. variation a/o and �/fl are also well-known in Pre-Greek (which means all the glosses are real). oDER aY'lvopl'l (Hom.'.. like so many words concerning wine (e.g-� oDER Yod-present a(oflat [v.). 255. oETYM Latte rejects two of these forms (how to decide which?).). apaaxu8ec.: 221. whence aYlafl6c. Plb. TlKTOUaatC.).is a prop vowel (see Fur. . 'consecration' (LXX. Note the element -a�-. perhaps 'proud' (ll. NT).] 'magnanimous. ay�vwp [adj. E. Lys. 'ceremony' (Call. from � aypew with a suffIx -Tpla and subsequent dissimilation. oETYM No etymology. Semantic parallels are given by Stromberg 1940: 103. see DELG. 'very lovely'.] epithet of 9ufl6C.' (LXX).] stone used to polish women's shoes (Gal. <!!! ?� oETYM A connection with the word for 'age' does not seem appropriate. and aylwaUv'l (LXX).] . The -e. it can be connected to Y'lpuaKw.).' (both H. whence aY'lvopew (Nonnos). aylaafla 'id. avayeTpla· � TalC. aYlo� [adj. <!!! ?� oDER ayepwxla 'magnanimity' (LXX. ay�paTo� [m. consecrate' (Pl.). 11 oVAR ayyepuKoflov. aY�Twp = �yeoflat. dedicate' (Pi. The word is Pre-Greek in any case. [adj. .).] 'to honor' (ll. oETYM First part probably related to ayw (Risch IF 59 (1949): 39f).). be pure. also Kuiper MKNA W 14: 5 (1951): 5 : 207.] a plant. 9). of uncertain mg. one of the clearest characteristics of Pre-Greek words.g. proud' (ll.ayLOC. aypuKa�oc. Late nouns aYl6T'lC.) (H. On the evolution of the meaning. aylaO"L�plOV 'sanctuary' (LXX) and aylO"LUC. Perg. <!!! ?� oETYM Assuming an original meaning 'unaging'. Quart.) and aYlu(w 'id. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 641-75 proposes ay-�paToc. U1t'lpe-rouaa yuv� 1tapa TapavTlvOlC.).) also presupposes a nominal form in -aT. these are uncompelling.· aTa<puA� 'id.).). <!!! IE *h2eg­ 'drive'� oVAR PN Ay�vwp. flala.' (H. rather than to aya­ (Sommer 1948: 169f. aYlaO"fl6c. aYTJ = aya-. followed by Fur. TapavTlvol 'midwife (Tarent. yepwxla (Ar. aYlaTeuw [v. S. the yy may represent a prenasalized consonant.).. which is not much better.

provided that the gloss is correct. name of various lame or stiff conditions (Gal.' (B. in *Hieh.] 'curved. the formation of which is unclear (see Chantraine 1933: 333f. [adj. below. For the stem in -u-. found in e. probably the elided dat.] 'elbow' (11. apud Gal.). with a zero grade suffIx belonging to aYKwv. An old e-grade may be found in £Jt-llYKevlee<. see Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 306. 'provided with a loop' (Hp. the glottal element of the pre-glottalized *g was lost before a consonant.without suffIxal vowel is found in aYKAOv. curve' and aeati 'id.'. Skt. cf. <JKOAL6v 'curved. medical term. which is more frequent in the epic for metrical reasons.).. ayKL<JTpeUW. mostly plur. Skt.)..).] 'in(to) the arms. sheaf (h. mati). denominative aYKwvl�W [v. 'to bow' (see Kloekhorst 2008).). i.).with a different suffIx: a) With *-1-: aYKuAll [f.e. from *aYKl�w). Cud. see Bechtel 1914). mostly plur. thence UYl<JT£Ufla 'sanctuary' (Procop.'hook' (note the operation of Wheeler's Law in Greek). (11.] 'curved arm. crooked' (H. In Greek. ayKL<JTp£UTLK6<. armful' (Archil.).] 'to lift up in the arms' (11. 'into the arms' (11. (Eust. S. *Hjag-). aYKuAll 'strap. formally comparable with Skt. bent. med. Many derivatives built on the root *h2enk.] 'arms' (11.) and uYL<JTela 'ritual.V.).] 'hook' (Opp.).) . from the latter aYKuAwfla 'loop' (Gal. -wvo<..] 'curve'. hinge of a door. -l<JKO<.g. aYKuALOv 'loop. DER Denominatives aYKuAAw [v. • aYKuAo<. -l<JKLOV. 'who thinks crooked thoughts' (11. S. -W<JL<. thence aYKu�OflaL [v. [m. The primary noun ayLO<. Denominative aYKaAl�OflaL [v.v. ayKu<. action nouns aYKuAL<Jfla (Tim. seems to have a suffIx *-iHo-. Pers.'bend'� .12 only in Et.. Thence aYKuAllT6<. b) With *-n-: aYKwv. whence aYKwvL<Jfl6<. bent' (11..). as is done by many scholars (e..). 'long planks on a ship' (see Bechtel I914). uYL<JTela). anku-ra. we also find � OYKO<.' (medic.).] 'to bend backwards' (Aret. LlV2 s. service' (Isoc. aYKU<JL (Opp. etc.). Mere.). Adverbs aYKa8ev [adv.ETYM All forms derive from a widespread lE root *h2enk-.] 'mountain glen' (11. E. Hp. from an old verb *flll-flL (cf. <!l IE *h2enk. This means that it is unnecessary to assume a-vocalism for this root in PIE. ankas­ [n.] 'to embrace' (Semon. 82) is not entirely [f. -loe<. and aYKL<JTpela (only marginal attestations).).] 'belt' (perhaps an old formation. aYKu<.. [n.). (pap. ON 61 [f. Adesp. thence ayKl<JTpLOV.).). A derivation in *-1. 'provided with aYKUAaL' (A. The I-suffix is found in OHG angul 'fishhook'. • . A different formation is found in � uyv6<. 611 'germ' etc. on the elbows' (A.) and aYKuA6w [v. said of many protruding objects. Further aYKOLVaL [ ayKuAofl�Tll<.).). yajati 'honor with sacrifice and prayer' is semantically unobjectionable and formally explained by Lubotsky's rule (Lubotsky MSS (1981): 133-8).).] 'to lean on the elbows' (Corn. diminutive aYKaAl<.)... sheaf (H. aYKaAov [acc. gloss.· aYKuAa<. . d) With *-tro-: aYKL<JTpOV 'hook' (Od. enlargement with -la. ETYM The connection with Skt.).g.). to which aYKuAuSWT6<. Late diminutives aYKwvLOv. hook. c) With *-s-: ayKo<. bai(n)k-tta 'to bestow'. 'barb' continuing *h2onk-o-.] 'armful. aneati 'to cf. aYKaAL<Jfl6<. dat. Unclear is the formation of ayKu<. Not connected with this group of words is Hitt. only antevocalic except in 'I' 711). aYKuAl<. Skt.. aYKuAll). 'armful.. loop.] 'to bend' (Ar. etc.

ayvl�w [v.).). -t8oe. aYAut:0"8m [v. m. PG?� VAR Also ayovo <. • uyvoe. polished' are due to misunderstanding of the Homeric usage.u 13 One generally connects it with � ayKupa 'anchor' (Ale. med.: 127.. 'purifier' (Lyc. UYVlTll<.'holy'� . <!l IE *ueh.). cf.'sacrifice'.] . e. UYV£UTLKO<. connecting it with Go. as in yecpupa.. 'purity' (NT. The name probably also denotes a fish and a bird.). whence uyvela 'purification'. purify' (lA).] 'to consider holy.). £a�a or ��d.: 381). -L80<. • uyvur.ayvuf. Szemerenyi 1964: 155). cf. Bel. Borrowed as Lat.ETYM von Blumenthal IF 49 (1931): 176 thinks it is Hyllaean or rather Messapian.. as yeA-Y-: a-YA-. <!I EUR?. aYKupLOv (Ph. [f... Verbal derivations: 1. -L<Jflo<. pass. aor.] '(ritually) pure.g-no.) after nouns in -lTll<. beautiful. Kep-K-a: a-Kp-l<. .).ETYM Fur. etc. to Leumann 1950: 272'8 . it therefore does not continue an inherited formation * -ur-ja-. be pure.). aYKUATJ VAR ayKwv..).DER Dervatives are scarce: ayKupwT6<. • *aYAle.). [f. y6pyupa. ancora. aYKupl�W [v. 282 connects it with �yeAYL<. Redard 1949: 11. see DELG S..v. 'Vitex agnus castus' (h..g.u [v.] 'clove of garlic' (Ar.] 'anchor' (Ale. uYAle.. acc. UyV£UT�pLO<.g. => aYKuAo<. This seems quite possible. perf.DER UYVOTll<. �Au1tTw8aL 'to be hindered. <!I ?� . if this is correct. 'anchor-shaped' (Ph. ETYM Related to � UyLO<..DER aYAa!a 'splendor. .] tree name: 'withy'.. ayKo<..] 'to embellish.). . <!I PG (v) � .. Bel. for which cf. � ayauo<... = AUyO<. yajna.] 'to break' (11. . agls. £aya. ayAal�w [v.). 2. famous' (11. ... UYllV or £&YllV (on verse-final £&1'11 A 559 see Wackernagel l916: 141. aYAa6e..). stumble' (old com.ETYM Comparable with OCS jagnfd'b 'black poplar' (Liden IF 18 (1905-1906): 506). -LOO<. formulary epithet.] 'to make sbd.. or to � ayavo<. whence uyvL<Jfla. [adj. <!l IE *(H)ih.ETYM The suffix -upa is typically Pre-Greek. see Beekes 2000). uyveuw [v. also PN.. On the folk-etymological connection with the notion of chastity (UYVOTll<. beauty' (11. Chantraine 1942: 18). mostly poet. it may be the same formation as Skt.. see Stromberg 1940: 154. with interchange 81 0 (Fur. etc. ayovov = flUP<JlVll aypla 'wild myrtle' (Fur. Connected with yaA�vll ' ayuUoflaL (cf.: 194). aor.). -L<JTLKO<. 'to take delight in'. glorify'.ETYM Probably from *ayAaFo<. consecrate' (poetic). but I suggest that this is a substrate word. Merc. . => *aiyAl<.'break'� VAR Fut. of ui6<. uyv£ufla. • aYKupa [f. ayv6e. The connection with ayuUoflaL enjoys a certain popularity.). Quite uncertain.. [adj. holy' (Od. damaged' (H.DER aYAl8Lov in: ayAloLa· <JKopooa 'garlic' (H.).] 'splendid. • . a�w. <!I ?� VAR The Cretan and Cyprian gloss ayAaov· YAaqmpov 'hollow(ed). it is perhaps a European substrate word (on which phenomenon. etc.] 'to purify.

which perhaps rather derives from ayopaof. 2.g-. � IE? *(H)ieh.. R. Rare and late evaYlo<. poet. Further aYf. Perhaps Lat. ilience ayopum<. cf.. ( F-} KACtO'f. Delphi. ayopaam<.certainly in A. the psilosis of which has not . ser. E. also YUKTO<. (cf.).). caus. 1: 115 suggests Lesbian origin. but the long vowel of Sanskrit cannot be accounted for.Lo<. ayopaaf.v. sin'. long a. in the . Probably a substrate word. guilt. is uncertain. also in composition e1tlwyul. DELG s. .).. ayopT]Tu<.14 ayvu<.).(Thespiae). Th. assembly) (epic Ion. for which Bechtel l921.'. [f. trade.] (after ayLO<.COMP ev-uy�<. agas. 155. 47) is clearly secondary. all forms can easily be derived from the root * from *uoh.DER ayopT]T�<.COMP Mostly in KunlYVUf. Boeot.. assembly. Also ayuvo<. ayopaaTlKo<..ETYM Verbal noun related to � ayElpw.). 'to split' and perhaps also to Hitt. with a from -u-Fuy. . Ch. • ayopa [f. cf.lUl 'to speak (in public. whence ayopEUT�<. S. Emp. 'fracture. 'pertaining to trade' (Plo). ayopa(w 'to be on the market. Chantraine and Masson 1954: 85-107). 'purchaser' (X.). 'id. -m<.lu. A. 'speech' (all rare and late). (Hdt.] 'gathering. 56 [Styra val).Lo<. ayopaof.). evuylKo<.' (Hom..!aV / l. cleft' (Hp.v.'sacred'. fem. ayopamplu (pap. explains it as a psilotic form of *ayo<.' (LXX). 154) as Fa�o<. 3: 40 (1966): 76.'to go apart'.). ayopaalu 'id.] 'weaving stones' (Piu.] 'pollution. ayopEuw 'id.lU.g­ 'sacred'� . • = • ayvu<. only in isolated forms. 941. Bechtel l921. 147). 775.) is found as EuhuYT]<.] 'to sacrifice to the dead'. and also in S.lo<.g-n(eu)-. MoHG Scheide 'id.[n. The opposite EU-Uy�<. . Fournier 1946: 41ff. traffrc' (Hom. A.ETYM Formerly connected with Skt.. ETYM From *Fayvuf. as a simplex rare in Attic (Wackernagel I916: 220ff. expiation' (Hdt. usually plur. further twy� < *FL-Fwy-� 'shelter'. 'under a curse or pollution' (Hdt. agent noun ayopaaT�<. but hardly from the O'-aor. [n. Cf. a�o<. ayo<. l. DER ay� 'fragment' (A. [adj. 4.. On FUYuvo.!akk. Kloekhorst 2008 s. S. As Chantraine remarks. market.luTu 'purchased wares' (D.). [adj.Lu 'fragment' (late).. 'eloquence' (epic).).lEVT] 'consecrated piece of land' (H. 231). [plo] . Denominative verbs: 1. aYf. appurtenance of the TN 'Oa�o<.). E. suffrxes of the type -ueare typical of Pre-Greek. 3. -aaf. belonging to ToB wak.ll.).). and Taillardat RPh. see CBG 6. 'speaker'.] 'broken' (S.). (Holt 1941: 49f.VAR -UeE<. vajra­ 'thunderbolt' and its Indo-Iranian cognates. (Crete). 554.). ETYM See Chantraine 1933: 366.'to bite' (cf. � PG (s) � . 'speaker' (inscr. -T�PlOV 'podium'. evuYlO'flO<.. 1.lUl (Fraenkel 1910: 25f. perhaps dissimilated from *bn-FLFwyul (but see Bechtel I914).. vagina is also related.). A palatovelar is best reconstructed based on Skt. the simplex ay�<.(Bjorck 1950: 42. the word denotes the notion of 'sacredness' in ayw· TEf. 4. belonging with � ayLO<. 2: 151).] 'fault. ayopuTpO<. which certainly fits the attested meaning 'sacredness' well. ayopaO'f.ll (the F is clearly visible in Homer) < *uh.). -lO'f. do shoppings' (lA).). . (lG l2(9). etc. if originally 'breaking of the wind' (� 533).' related to scheiden 'to separate'. 'purchase' (Plo). -� 'place of shelter' (E 404). except for ayo<. 'immaculate' (Parm. whence evuyl(w [v. 'speaker' (epic). = aYf. Greek -Fwy.. (of the sun.lU 'fragment' (H.

The existence of compounds like uUTaypETo<. "collector". aYPEeEVTU.). in Hom. XElpaypu 'gout in the hand'. etc. aypEUT�p 'id. etc. 297). Gaul. proposed an original *ayop-O'TO<. and this may explain formal variants like -ulypETo<. Taken by Hell. 'field'. the form with Ul for u (PN 'E�ulypETo<. � ?.) as 'arm. � ?� -ETYM Solmsen 1909: Iff.aypElcpvu 15 received a convincing explanation. Theoc. this form can hardly be reliable). Quart. H. 'to be taken back' (epic since 11. whereas aypEw would derive from the compounds in -aypETo<. aypei<pva [f.. av8payplov 'spoils of a slain enemy'. on which see Vendryes 1938: 331-334. uUTaypETo<. could indicate that UipEW and aypEw were associated.. 'hunter' (Pi. and the metathesized form UPYElTE. R. ar [n. S.. hunter'.). vilhrkqm azrodaiolm. A. �oayplu 'what was taken from a cow (= shield)'.. (per DELG) .).: TtUAlvaypETo<.lu 'catch. whence aypEUT�<. OCS gr'bstb 'handful' etc.] 'harrow' (AP 6.).: (see index) thinks that aypEw is a substrate word because of the prenasalized forms (Thess. KpEaypu 'meat tongs' (Ar. aor. would belong to aypo<. Connection with Indo-Iranian (Skt. Fur.' (Theoc. diseases: Tt08aypu 'podagra'.. it did not serve to distinguish the word from aylo<. E. aypEl. -TE (see Wackernagel l916: 166f. beside uueulpETo<. Schwyzer: 733. to mean 'with the hand (bent like a claw) (A 425). MW aer 'battle' < *agra. ghase-ajra-. is uncertain) and Celtic words (OW hair. The interpretation of these compounds is debated.] 'defeat' < *agro-. way of catching. hasta. [m. elbow'. 'self-chosen' (Od. aypEUf. more common is aypEuw [v.lwv) 'hunting spear.). ptc. verbal adj.. Aeol. whence aypEf. seize' (11.. aypEw [v..'EN Veragri) is rejected by DELG...). hunting net' (Sol. prey' (Od. See � (WypEW. cf.] . Av. KUTaypEvToV [ipv. 'hunter' (Sol.. aypETul (Cos). � PG? (V) � . aypa [f. -TE<. aYO<JT()<.] 'to catch' (Od. At any rate. and 125 separated the two words: aypu and aypEu<.).lwv (also -f. which is usually taken . OIr. => ayEppaKu�o<.. derived from � ayElpw 'to gather' wiili a suffrx * -st.found in semantically close TtUAUO'T� 'flat hand. on coins from Asia Minor.).] in Homer only in the formula £AE yuluv ayomtp.. Compounds in -aypETo<. PG? (v) � -COMP Instruments: Ttupaypu 'fire tongs' (11.. where it is remarked that none of these words bear the concrete meaning of 'catching' that is attested in Greek. X. only ipv.. 15 (1921): 46f.] 'to take. UyypE-). Call. Agent noun aypEf.] 'hunting.l).lloV 'catch' (AP) .. S. [lyr. -ETYM The relation between aypu and aypEw is unclear. as medical terms 600vTaypu 'tooth tongs'. BM). MoHG Faust 'fist'. the variant eypEw. of aypETT]<. E. ArchiL). A. Sapph.. on the mg.). Skt. Not really convincing.. (A.. McKenzie Class. see Redard 1949: 23658 • Further aypwO'O'w [v. see DELG. Schwyzer: 727' pleads against aypEw as a denominative from aypu.] 'to hunt' (Hdt. which themselves belong to � ayElpw 'to gather'.).). both hapaxes of which the mg. X. imitative poets (A.'hand'. -DER aypEu<. breadth of four fingers'.. aypaKa�o<.

aypoTT]<. Fur. liypv1tvoe.). cf. (Il. KaL eVOufla O£ 1tOlOV (EM 14. A derivation from aypa (DELG) is quite uncertain. But note that the attestations are very late.).' (H. awake' (lA). AUKWV£<.aYPT]vov 16 o DER aYP[cpT] [f. Eratosthenes calls it a y. (S. cf..) . 116). � aypwoTl<.'field'� oVAR Mye. oETYM Does the word have a prothetic vowel? Cf. tastes bitter' (H. but also Meier-Briigger KZ 103 (1990 ) above). -<! ?� oETYM Latte suggested that it stands for aYP[oK£Tat and derives from ayplo<.· ytvo<. .. 'living in the mountains (as opposed to the fields)'.] (E.). Skt. E. ("wohl auch").) 'id.] . ETYM One compares yplcpaoElat· YPUCP£lV. aypoT£pO<.would remain unexplained. [m. -EWe. with derivations: ayploTT]<. Go.). ayplow. also aypwTT]<.. uyp6e. aypwoTl<. 'wild'. but neither author says so: it was only a guess by PW S.).'. also yp�vT]' avElT] GUflfllKTU 'mixed flowers' (H. would have arisen at verse end (Risch 1937: 32). Comp. -<! IE *h2eg-ro. Hesychius states that it was called � yuyyaflov.). ot O£ �U£lV KaL afluoo£lv 'to write (Lacon.] 'dog's-tooth grass' (Od.] Laconian name for the wild olive (Zen. aypOlwTT]<. O£ mho KaA£l [yp�vuv] � y�vov 'garment like a net which those possessed by Dionysus put on. comparing aAEl[oKw I aAEl�oKw to � aAEla[vw.. 'wild'.). [m. D.] 'field' (Il.] 'harrow' (Hdn. liypl1t1toe. akrs and Arm. originally designating the uncultivated field: cf..v. which developed into 'sleepless...] 'countryman. aYPT]vov 1tOlKIAov EP£OUV OtKTuO£lO£<. On ayptTT]<. o COMP aypolKo<. -<! GR� . [m.) and aypwoTT]<. Tl aypla<.. X.). also aypu1tvo<. of unclear formation (see Bechtel 1914 S. Nilsson 1941(1): 204 says that the net on the Omphalos was called aYPT]vov. 2). others: to plane and scratch' (H.. Derivation from *h2eg. liypwoTle.). o ETYM Fur. ' aYPTJOKETat 1tlKpalv£Tat 'is made bitter. a-ko-ro lagros/. Stromberg 1944: IS.. see � aypa. aypla[vw [v. Lat. L'HOVU041. In fact. cf. oDER Thence ayplo<. (Il. E..) for aypwTT]<.v. PN a-ko-ro-qo-ro IAgrokWolos/. ajra-. cf.. EpaTooEltvT]<. -<! PG (v) � oVAR ayplcpo<.). "who sleeps outside".). 13265• • uYPTJv6v [n... ager.'drive' is probable. The form in -va also suggests Pre-Greek. art. oETYM Old lE word. Semantically not convincing. <evoufla> OlKTUO£lO£<. 'species of wild olive' (H.). EAe la<. The a. 0 1t£PlT[El£VTat ot �aKx£uovT£<.). [f. Pre-Greek origin with a prothetic vowel is possible. optaT£po<.. 'who lives in the country' (aypo-FOlK-). rustic' (1t 218. this statement is ascribed to Hesychius and Pollux (4. -u50e.] 'to become (make) wild'. [f. => aypo<.) 'who has his bed/lair in the field'. characteristic of Pre­ Greek words. aypoT�p [m. cf. (E.. ayplooflat. ayp-auAo<. -<! ?� oVAR aYPT]va· OIKTua KaL eVOufla 'nets and clothing' (H.] 'wildness' (PI..: IS8 notes that these words have the variation 1t/cp.. H.

see Chantraine 1933: 204.from the synonym aiyIAw". due to variation a/at and y/X and prenasalization. UYXlAW'" [f.' (A. of � ayw 'to drive' without reduplication.). epithet of Apollo (com.'a sitting close together'. AyUlUTT]<. = liyxovpoe. Meier-Briigger KZ 103 (1990): 33f. fem. From the superl. 2. -<! ?� oETYM Unknown.). for which cf. or a direct derivation from � ayxw after 1ttpl. Elean amOTa (see Peters 1980a: 288). 1 [m.). for the formation.] 'guardian of the streets'.. Comp. oETYM Galen analyzes it as � ayx( and � w"'. means gold in Persian' (sch. [lyr. 'near each other' (Il. cf. [m. aYXloTa.-Dsc. but this makes little sense as the formation is without a parallel (save archaic iouia). ptc. also aomoTa. (Cels.d-ti.] 'id. p : 3S1 W. Frisk suggests that the first member is from � ayxw instead. Not very convincing. If the . aYUlaTl<.) that the compound contains the root �o. n£pmK� 'T.ayxoup0<. from � aypo<. of aypwoTT]<.). (Pi. The synonym points to a Pre-Greek origin.). presumably the name of the son of Midas (PIu. E.' (Pharsalos). More probable is the suggestion by Watkins (apud West Le. and which he interprets as liYXl + to-Tl. 438). -at for aYXlaTivOl.. -at. 19.. 'gold' (Cosmas ad OGI 199). superl. also 'inhabitant of an a. more probably a substrate word in -Ula. oETYM Mainly a poetic word. Generally considered to be a perf. see Szemerenyi 1964: 203ff. road' (Il.). -<! PG (V) � oVAR Synonym aiylAw".. (Bechtel 1914 S. ayul�Tat· KWfl�Tat 'village dwellers' (H. E.ooov.]). oDER Further adverbial forms ayxo-Ell. whence the month name Ayu[T]o<. � AE�l<.). � KWOUla. suggests reconsidering the reading aYXT]aTiVOl. prep. at all Homeric places.'to sit'.. On LOCf.v. (only as a PN)..l. Influence of aYXll ayxw on aiY[Aw". However.). [m. aooOTtpw. which is a v. Note that at before Ne is not tolerated in Greek. Stromberg 1944: 9Sf. Stromberg 1940: 117). comparing � V�OTl<.) and Tuyxapa<. aYXloTivo<.) probably after TT]At-flaxo<. betroth'� oCOMP ayxt-flaxo<. yap 6 Xpuoo<. ayxou.. West Glotta 77 (1999): 118f. convincingly explained the word as *h2egro-h.] 'gold' (AP.] flavOpayopa 'mandrake' (Ps. -<! PG (s) � ovAR Plur. aVTl. liyVla [f. follows this. 6. -<! IE *h2em/. (Argos).'tie. uYX6vTJ [f. -ov. oETYM Considered to be the locative of a root noun related to � ayxw (Schwyzer: 622).). 30M. -El£v. 'countryman'. More forms in DELG. -<! ?� oETYM Fur. 1 17 oETYM Formerly supposed to be the fem. Theoe.'Feld-Futter'. perhaps the first i derives from a palatalized Ig' I. PIu. and Beekes 1998: 2sf. is improbable.] 'street. (Il. and explains the -A.. see Triimpy 19S0: 113f. aYXlOT£OUV = ayXlaT�8av see Fraenkel Glotta 20 (1932): 84f. aYUlaL oDER AyUl£U<.] 'near' (Il.. liYXL [adv.] 'swelling which obstructs the lacrymal duct' (Gal.: 391 compares TUYXOUp0<. The analysis in terms of Pre-Greek is *a(n)g'-il­ (jp .).

). KaT-. as both occur in Callimachus (so if au is explained from aupLov. AOKpO[ 'short-sighted (Locrian)' (H. ay� 'transport' (Chios). aywvLuTTj<. but perhaps a parallel formation. <!l IE *h2emft .).in Skt. ete.(e) n -ft -. a-ke /agei/. formation unclear. m) . A typical substrate word. for the suffIx cf.).' (ll. aYfla· KAeflfla 'theft' (H. Med. aywy� 'carrying away' (lA). 'leader' (poet. ·COMP Also KaTuyxouaa (Ps.] 'tool for sewing up wounds' (Cels.ETYM The variant eyxouaa excludes derivation from � ayxw (which is defended by Stromberg 1940: 64). whence aywyeu<.).DIAL Myc. which is formally identical with Skt.] 'to squeeze. .. These forms show typical variations of Pre-Greek: K/X and prenasalization (see Fur. ayxoupo<. strangle'� DER ayxovTj 'hanging. commander'.] 'leader' (lA).. whence aywvLO<. aywyLOv. bringer of light.. actor may be an independent formation.. <!I PG(v)� . strangle' (ll.-Dse. aywv. 'leader' (A.. Hitt. The widespread u-stem adjective *h2emft-u. ayKT�p..· 6pepo<. • ayw [v.. .).. bamanV.] 'gathering.ETYM An exact correspondence for the thematic present is found in Lat. ayxpav [adj..18 ayxoupo<. Dsc. aywVLaT�<.: 127). bame/ink. [m.).ETYM Bechtel 1921 compares aKapov· TU<pAOV 'blind' (H.). ete. carry. Nonn. aywvLaTLKo<. KlmpLOl. PIu. anju-k. £�-. -wvo<. lead. ay�yoxa.COMP With aJt-. . aywyLKu. see � ayxoupo<. 'l'euouyxouaa (Plin..] 'dawn' (Call. .). fluwJta.).has a nasal present *h2m.'narrow.. � JtepovTj. ayxovuw 'to strangle' (Man.ETYM Unknown. but Lat. . cf. Reduplicated nouns: aywyo<.. <!l IE *h2eg.). ango 'to bind together. Go.. cf. etc. See � ayxL. strangle'. since ll.) see Fraenkel l91O: 59ff. 'time near dawn' (Call.).(with additional coloring of the vowel). aywYLflo<. The interchange ou/au is reliable. I propose a sequence -arw. aja.). ayewxa.). • ayxouaa [f. Lat. 'fit for hanging' (E. LW angina (Leumann Sprache 1 (1949): 205. rally (to see games)' (ll. lead'� ·VAR Aor. ete.). 2 and. Dor.v. aTpaTTjy0<. bring. 'Anchusa tinctoria' (Thphr.).'.. ayxw [v. Kat oi auv aunp 'dawn (Cypr. aywyalo<.] a plant. <!I ?� VAR ayxoupo<. etc. 'winding' (Arat.. � <pwa<popo<. 2 word is Pre-Greek.). aywvLafla. aggwus. strangling'.] . perf.).giving either -ap.: 346 and 19755 on the suffIx -ouaa. <!I PG(v)� . • . verb aywv[�OflaL 'to contend for a prize. -opo<. ayt1hu. 'near the morning' (AP 4. Arm. aywv[a. OCS PZb-k'b is not found in Greek. �yayov. DER ayo<. 2 [m. 'leader (of the army). Further aKTwp.'narrow'. but see E-M s. � apaaxuoe<.(with anticipation of the labial element) and oup.] 'to drive.or -oup-.).'drive. Not related to � ayxuvw'l'. aywvLuw. whence aywVLaL<.'driver'. whence ay�oxa. eia-.). we cannot understand -oup-). also a PN (ll. most notably. �xa (Att.). On -ayeTTj<. Variant ayxaupo<. [m. Perhaps PG -arW­ yielded variants in -aup. Thence ayxovLo<. [m. see LST Supp. in compounds (apXTjyeTTj<. and what comes with him' (H. see Fur.VAR Also eyxouaa (Ar. -�po<.).. ete.).. to draw. � apaaxuoe<..). Sommer 1950: uf.

Lat. [m.). <!I LW Celt.ETYM von Blumenthal l930: 24 compares aTapa�[a and thinks the word is of Illyrian origin.). gropes' (H.DER Cf.VAR PN Aoufla<. Unclear is the formation of aYlveflevaL. also � aypo<. aMpKTJ [f. [m. [m. . ( due to the desire to reduce everything to Indo-European roots. j celt. j celt.19 wyavov 'spoke' seems unrelated (in spite of Frisk 1938: 17f. neatly corresponding to Skt. oETYM Old thematic present.'trajectory'.. 0Ir.). for the formation. aa�oAo<. -t<. aoapKo<. the etymology is rather strange.). see Van Beek fthc.). � aKufla<. adarc 'horn'. *h2eg-) . and the relation with Dor. Lubotsky 1998: 4143 refers to NPhr. [m.] a strong metal. also found in Skt. <!I ?� .ETYM Both the appellative and the PN are often derived from � ouflvTjflL as 'indomitable'.� . <!I PG(v)� . 'diamond' (Thphr. ete. 68aYflo<.ETYM The old explanation of aoaYflo<. Aetol. Maq<. see von Blumenthal l930: 5.� . � a�wv. azaiti. A. (Horn. 'furrow. (a)TWfla 'stone'. ajati. 'scratches the head. 16 (1927): 1l2).v. suffix -k. � oyflo<. adamu.(Pokorny Zeitschr. 14 (1923): 273. aM!1a<..] 'salt deposit on the herbage of marshes' (Dse. ayvew 'id.'.. Tr. all 'to drive.)..] . It is rather a loanword that was adapted by folk etymology.] a measure offour choinikes (Ar. not a (as was contended by Ruijgh). the vocalic variation points to PG origin.VAR Also in S. it is a loan from Semitic. 'soot' (H. 709). . comparing Akk. fr. Av. But semantically. See � 68u�. ajma. Ace.. to Phot. Phi!. � oYfl0<. Phi!. Not here � ayULa.ETYM Macedonian for a'i8aAo<. Gal. -aig.VAR Also -Tj<. acem. 'l'TjAa<pq. aMauov => a�w l. aMpE�a . adarca (Plin. 770 acc. ago. � aOPaLa. aMl�. e[p�VTj 'peace' (H. and proves that the regular reflex of *h2o in Greek was 0. � a�Lo<.). <!I LW Maced.). aYLvew 'to lead. 'itch' (H.).] . -lX0<.).b. a�aA6<. => oa�vaL. Originally the verb was present (see LIV2 s. <!I ?� . -avTo<. with a Celt. aoa��aaL· KV�aaL 'to scrape. KV�e£L Ke<paA�v.DER aoafluvTLvO<. aoaXq.] . scratch'. to Troxler 1964: 19-21 and Barb 1969: 66-82. ON aka and ToAB ak-. cf. . as assimilated from 68a.ETYM Like Lat.). aoaKTw· KV�eOflaL 'to itch'.· KVq.. See � ao�. Pokorny Zeitschr. Arm. a�aY!16<. There is no compelling reason to connect a word for 'scratch' with 'tooth'.. which is from Basque adar 'horn'. Cf. lead' vel sim. [f. and Chantraine 1933: 269. (Pi.' derives from *h2og-mo-.). carry' (ll. 'steel' (Hes.. KVTjaflo<. <!I ?� .] . Very uncertain. further on � ayeATj.).. a loanword from Gaulish: cf. . . Ir. [m.

)... . which seems most improbable. evouKEw<.v. Skt. aOEAlcp�p· aOEAcpEo<.] 'to accept as a brother' (Hecat. was primarily used in a religious or political sense (e. which is combined by Fur. for more details) thinks of OEATO<'. thus *ha-gWelpheh-o-. -oou<. We may also assume a ntr. The inherited word for 'brother'.. U1h�<.).] 'brother' (11.v...opt. within Greek. aoEACP( W [v. de-u-ka-ri-jo lDeukalion/.. 8. who assumes a substrate word with the alternation K/zero. [adj.. etc.). 'brotherhood' (LXX). *OEACPO<'.ptc. uncertain..). nOTflo<. � Kaoo<. cf. .. would then mean 'careless. and names for measures are often borrowed. [perf. -OE'1 (Att.).and. 15 (1962): 390-2. cppaTpa.ETYM Derived from a word for 'womb' with copulative a < *s1]1-.ETYM DELG (see s. cf.... aoWK�<'. s.. OEACPU<'. In a sch. 'niece'.v. MevKI\<. ..... 'brother (Lacon.) is due to contamination with cppaT'1p.� ETYM Identical with � ai8�p. yEyovOTE<'. as a base noun. aOEAcpoT'1<'. cppaT'1P. aOw1tlo<.] unknown. <! ?� . Geminated 80 is rare in lA..' (Arist. Cf. see Bechtel 1914 s. ponder' (H. aoEACPO<'.pl.aor. it must derive from * -eio-. etc. it presupposes a noun *OEUKO<'. as per Lagercrantz KZ 35 (1899): 276. is glossed as yAEUKO<..nom..). -LO<'. -Ea. but the word may instead point to a society with concubines (naAAaKa(). like nephews. Cret. It has been suggested that the word derived from pre-Greek matrilinear societies (Kretschmer Glotta 2 (1910): 201ff. Diminutive aoEACP(OLOV (Ar.] unknown (inscr. 1.because of Cret. the -E.ETYM Unknown. • Macedonian lu5'1Kon<. Is it a mistake for r�EYKOL? The name �wKaA(wv may derive from *AwKaA(wv. � aowK�<'.. Att..VAR Att. which fits the meaning very well. The suffix is also found in XOtVl� (which has -lK-).). 350"]). 'careful'. Att.).).20 a8£aATwhmE .. OEUKO<.] in Kaflanf' ao'1KOTE<'. Meahwhate [3sg.. and could perhaps also be used for other members of the extended family. -e<. [n. See � OEAcpU<. 1027..DER a8£AcploEO<'. said of OAE8po<. 'brotherly..). also Szemerenyi 1969b: 248.. -cp�).. However. 'heaven (Maced.DIAL Perhaps Myc.. -o�) 'nephew'. 'brother proper'. meaning 'from the same womb'.).... (shortened form). Greek probably introduced the expression *cppaT'1p aOEAcpEo<. thoughtless'. sagarbhya. a8£Acpo(· 01 eK T�<'. OEUKEl· CPPOVT( El 'consider. which features the typical Lautverschiebung (0 for Gr. aOEAcpE� 'sister' (Pi. acc.]. Not to Lat. which forms material adjectives. duco 'to lead'. OflOYU<HpLO<. for which no cognates can be suggested. 'writing tablet'. �8£ Kat U7tV4J (K 98). Cf. <! ?� ..)' (H.. (Od. mg. . Elis [approx. yap � fl�Tpa (H. on A. see Gonda Mnem. aoEACPlKO<'. Cf. aoEACPl�l<'. R. Cp�fll<'. (Hp. Kao8txo<. MaKE86vE<..: 13059..ETYM Like IIoAv-oEuK'1<'. <! GR� . AaKwvE<. <! IE? *deuk­ 'care'?� . <! LW Mac. etc. cppmp(a). Mi1 · oupavo<.cannot be from -EF. [m. OEACPUO<'. aoEACPO<'.g.. referring to Buck 1955: 263· MeAcpeO<. to Wackernagel 1916: 52f...) (H. is from contracted forms like a8£Acpou < -EaU.

. = aKaA�cp'1 (Ps.. Go. -inis [n.ETYM Explained as 'what cannot be irrigated' (� ola(vw). 'Adiantum' (Thphr. *ev8£.). Fur.] 'to one's fill' (11. � a.). Often connected with the root * Connected with � ao'1v or � �8U<. see Stri:imberg 1940: 74f. which is found in several Greek verbal forms: uflEvm (11. a. .). Still. swelling on the groin' and Mole.] 'groin.. but. 93).o'1v itself may simply contain a suffix -0'1v.engW-. and on the present word... a8pOQ l.. and � aOflwA� and � aa'1. However.VAR With short a. Debrunner 1937: 266 assumed a contraction from *aoa'1flovEw. From *a..ETYM Cf. ao'1flOo1JV'1 (Democr. unpleasant' (Sophr.� . 20 (1906): 5 connected it with oa�vm. [f. Ml<. 'glutton' (but what kind of compound is it?). W<'. PI. see Schrijver 1991: 58).). [?] .. it is rather a substrate word.).] . a. of course.o po<. this would be reconstructed as *h. remarks. p. at-ok' 'full.DER ao'1flov(a (Epicur. Cf..-Dsc. � e<1xapa 'in masses. => /io'1v.8tvo<. satis 'enough'. inguen. 4.: 172"8 suggests a substrate origin (words in -'1v). AlIen Class.. a.. to Rix' Law (*HRC.opo<. <! IE *seh2. nor to a'10�<'. <! IE?. see Nikolaev 2005.'to satisfy'.. Not related to �8U<. • MiavTov [n. <! ?� . 'leading to satiety. see DELG. sotis 'satiaty' etc. this does not explain the other derivations with -0-.engW-..). Other languages have an enlargement in -t(i)-: Lat. hearth' (H.. Lith.] 'to be restless.] . etc' (mainly epic). <! IE?. as Clackson 1994: 170f. as *7. The connection with OHG nazza..o'1v was analyzed by Frisk as containing a stem a.> Gr.).(Nic. but a zero grade *h. ga-sopjan. H. GR� .ngW-e.o po<. . [m. The a.] 'growth. scared' (Hp. PG?� . This implies that the Greek word cannot be cognate with the Germanic one (the latter can be cognate with the Latin word. further the glosses � aaoa and aaoE1v (H. u6lKll [f.and connected with Arm. a611!1ovew [v. n. MlVO<.). uaaa8m (epic) 'to become satiated' and � aaTO<'.. 'crowded. aor.] 'gland' (Hp.). � a.o'1-cpayo<. Frisk) is most improbable.). -evo<..] 'nettle'..acc. For a recent challenge of the validity of Rix's Law.vAR Later [m. vehement. Rev... nezzila etc. For discussion. *enkwa. � £A(K'1 'willow'.< *engWo-. ekkr [m. (Leumann 1950: 30982). as *h. ETYM One compares Lat. <! LW Mac. and aaoE1v (cf. X..o.21 ..VAR ao(avTo<. X.DER aoo<. Greek ao�v thus remains isolated. f\n(wv.. [m. ripe' (cf. � aam.may undergo metrical lengthening.would give Gr..ETYM Old accusative of a noun supposed in the first member of a. ETYM An Ionic word. PIu. saps 'satiated'.] 'satiety' (11. semantically not compelling.ld-ika (cf. a. � aaoa).. 16). since PIE had no words beginning with a vowel.) . <! PG?� . alE/oRC). • a6l\v.] name of a plant.'satiate'� VAR In epic with psilosis. thronging.o'1-: aoato<. 5054• • MllV [adv. (see � aam).). . tumor' < PGm.

the word can hardly be inherited. 33).. 1tAola 1l0vo�uAa. contempt or negligence.(in � a0'lv) with "suffIxal" -llwA.] .] 'to make ripe'. Gr. -<! GR� oDER aOOUaLov. a()VQV [adj. med. 'strength' (Hell. MIlWV£1:.)'. see Thompson 1947. to von Blumenthal IF 49 (1931): 179. a()oX£crX'l1:. oETYM Unknown. Mpuu .).� oETYM Probably Macedonian. probably a mistake for aAL<.). on Horn. a1topla. oDER aOllwAw. ripe' (Hdt. thence aooAwXla. (IG 2\ 553: 15. aedes). act or treat unfairly. 3. Schulze 1892: 452f. Call. and a first member *a-oFao. strong. 'holy (Cret. -<! IE *seh2.) (H.).: 2638. 41. Acc. agreed' (H. Mpol:. -<! ?� oVAR On a see Bjorck 1950: 142. -<! ?� oETYM Is it a hypercorrect form.. see von Blumenthal 1930: 5. which is highly improbable.).).. Hal. oETYM Perhaps from *aaoo-AtoX'l<.] a sea-fish (Opp. fr. Kp�TE<. MIlWAt] [f.. ayvOla. cf.). ayvoElv � ayvwllov£lv � aK'l0L<lV 'to be ignorant. -<! ?� oVAR aOllwAla· � ayvOla 'ignorance' (Suid. Mpu[u · aiepla 'clear weather' (H.] see � av�p. See DELG for more details.). KU1tpLOl 'ships made out of one piece of wood (Cypr. -tw. oETYM Probably connected with aoo<. in the sense eoxapa. oUllcpwVOV 'pleased. full-grown. 'decree' < 'decision'. to Fur. KaL oqllou KaL cppaTpla<. Further aOllwA£lv = ayvoElv (H. with AtoX'l as a second member in the sense of 'conversation'. a()ouO'lucrucrOat [v.yvov. be careless' (EM). Quite uncertain. a()pucpu�UI:. etc. 717 Pf. ignorance. aOIlWAel' XWPl<. [m. Macedonian (= Lat. -<! LW Mac.. LSJ Supp.1. sometimes also aoptw. harmonious. to aaOelv· 0XA£lv (H. EM 155. AtyoVTaL oE KaL ol ev n:p apoTp4> oTuAOl 'the poles in the plough'. ..] 'thick. 324. On the interchange 0ll/ Oil. oETYM From root 0. � �ou<. cpuA�<. see Schwyzer: 208 (unclear). cf. apWTOV. (Stromberg 1940: 82). a(v)opoT�-ra [acc. aollwA£lv.] 'to accept the membership of.).). oETYM Frisk derived it from ao. aopuvw [v.. LLKEAoL OE aopua AtyOUaL Ta Il�Aa 'apples (Sicilian)" 1tapa oE AHLKOl<.(Frisk Eranos 41 (1943): 52). aoouaLaoa­ IlEVOL' 0lloAoY'l0aIlEvOl 'who agreed' (H.. -<! ?� oVAR Also aollwE<. => aTpacpa�u<.aor.voavw. -LKO<.). 06Aou 'without resource' (Suid. �auXla 'difficulty. acc. aopoOllaL.(see � o. Hdn. aoIlOAl'l (EM). with a suffix -po-.22 oETYM In the meaning aepOOl. rest or quiet' (H. oDER Later aooAwx0<. 'to ripen'. Plant name aopw0'l<. caused by the development OV > yv? Or just a form invented to explain ApLaov'l ? See Bechtel 1921(2): 777.] 'idle talker' (Ar. [adj. aK'l0LW 'am careless' (Suid. 371).).in � a0'lv.). aKpoopua 'fruits grown on .). whence aoPUVaL<.0.). o.] .'satiate'� oDER aoPOT'l<. [pl. oALywpla.

). qOllu [n. Corn. whence aOlOLllo<. -Tq<. opu<. which is non-IE.] 'song' (lA).' (Pl. as it is a variant of � Ilaopuu. are found in Frisk and DELG.] 'to contend for'. See � auoq. PG� oETYM In the first gloss.] (ll..aelPW 1 23 . This can also be assumed for the second. [m. adon 'Lord'). upper branches of trees (Att. -<! IE? *h2ueid.. -<! IE? *h2uedh. o DIAL Arc. explains as an injunctive *aopTo < PIE *h21d[-to . a compound from 0.and � opu<. oETYM The ablaut suggests PIE *h2ueid-. -aL<. ad()w [v. But in the third meaning. For the meaning 'one single' of 0. oDER ateALov 'id. agricultiral meaning. but no cognate outside Greek is known. the verb aOlOLaw (epic) = aElow.) . [a] FEeAa (IG 5(2). Mw. o. <v06<.< *SI]1. it seems to continue *a-opua '(consisting) of one Single tree'. Kretschmer Glotta 7 (1916): 29ff. • .. See Burkert 1985: 176f. contr. which Tichy 1983: 364f.) (H.). <.. But no cult connected with this name is known in the Semitic world.v.. -<! IE? *h2uer. Taillardat RPh. Corn. -<! IE *dru. arguing against Kretschmer. � a'l0wv. Call. 'singer'.] theonym. A()WVLI:. Compounds with a second member -opu.-.. [m.] 'id.. -<! LW?� oVAR Also AOWV.tollaLLov (Pl.ueh2-. a pw < *aEpw. [m. Haroarson 1993b: 163 assumed the reconstruction *h2ue-(h2)ud-. or from aOloq. nor a myth parallel to that in Greece. DIAL Att. a(E)eA'lTqp. and Kretschmer Glotta 10 (1920): 235f.are rare and doubtful.). a(E)eAtw.).v.).). a£OXol:. ateALO<.). see DELG S. The word looks Indo-European. -LLKO<.'raise'?� oVAR awpTo 'hung' (ll. vayati 'be tired' (as per Triimpy 1950: 150-151). Triimpy 1950: 150f.. Thence. contest. 75). cf. Agent noun aOl06<. &eAo<.. which is from *h. aeALO<. 'of the contest' (Thgn.e-ue-ukw-. fut. Improbable is a root *S[-.'contest'?� oVAR Also -ov [n.] 'burden.. -0<. a'(pw.] 'to sing (the praises of)' (ll. Att. <. -EUW [v.). -ov. derived from <V0q: 'fhO£lov a building in Athens for musical contests. OL' tiJv ° la-ro�oEu<. adpw 1 [v. it is probably folk-etymological. for which Frisk suggested a recent formation to the Att. prize of a contest' (ll. Also aopua· ol oTuAOl apoTpou. an Armenian general and a Phrygian flute-player.. now dated. S.> a'(pw. 57 (1983): 21-25 convincingly assumes a zero grade verb *awr-je/o. oETYM The original meaning probably was 'contest for a prize'.PIlO�£laL 'by which the plough beam is fixed' (H.'sing'� oDIAL Att..' (epic). <V0q 'song'.'tree'.). IlWVUXE<... a(t)eA'llla. aeALoT'l<. as per Heubeck Orbis 13 (1964): 264-7. oETYM Supposed to be a loan from Semitic (Hebr. Not related to Skt. oDER aOloq. Further aELolla. e. the form suggests a root reconstruction *h2uedh-.tollo<. <V0LKO<.. � ovu�. 'apples'. Fur. -L()OI:.).g. On the mg. with loss of the laryngeal (which seems diffIcult) and dissimilation as in £EL1tOV < *h.] 'to raise' (ll.: 32821 points to the proper name AOWV. Older speculations. 'unhappy' (Att.

KaT�OpO<.). -100<. • • U£lpW 2 [v. also � apfla 2. -opo<. • • UEK�AlO" [adj. 'sword-belt' (Od. See further � aop. See � UpT�p. . also Ct6PT'l<. also aUVWplaaT�<. e.] 'to bind together. link' in *TeTp(a)-aopo<.). � aop.] . CtEAlOl [m. after nouns in -TPOV (Chantraine 1933: 331f. (H. separated it from � uelpw 1 'to raise'. aopTpa [n.'to wish' in � eKwv.] 'sword' (probably unrelated).] 'raising' (Arist. � EK'lAO<. DER Action noun UOpT� *'attaching'.v. Denominative or deverbative ptc. fleT�Opo<..DIAL Perhaps Myc. Leumann loco cit. (pap. 'driver of a auvwpl<. (these are not from � u�p). 'which yokes four together' (Od..'band. � alwpa..e. <{ GR� . with unclear 0vocalism. ltapaopo<. hang on. � UpT�p . 'suspended over'. H.] *'attacher'.g. o-pa-wo-ta lop-awortal 'pieces of armor'? . 'hanged' (AP).ETYM The form was based on the root *uek. is unattested.). cf. Isolated Ult�Opo<. [f. strick' in Balto-Slavic.�p 'air' (which has long *a-). <{ IE *sue-lo-� .. DER apat<.24 uelpw 2 . Agent or instrument noun UOpT�P..) in the air'. 'sth. 'hanging down'. bag for tying' (Men. � �epEeOVTat.). but DELG tends to consider the second as a specialization of the first (see extensive discussion in DELG). but the form requires the reconstruction *h2uer-.'to bind. (11. Att. but the exact demarcation from the root *Huer. See � UpT�p. No cognates are known. For Greek. OCS obora < *ob-vora 'string.. whence TeTpaopla 'four-horse chariot' (Pi. TeTpaopo<. ltap'lEpe'l 'was made to hang beside' IT 34l.. virve 'string'. [n.] 'two-horse team'. fleTEWpO<. etc. 'band hanging down' rather belong with fleT�Opo<. '(sth.ETYM Solmsen 1901: 289ff. but *auVWPlKO<.COMP uepal-ltooe<. See also � UelpW 2.) . ETYM Not from a. medic. from auvaelpw also auvaopo<. auv�opo<..COMP Nominal stem -aop.).. vjerr 'to hang.(horse) joined beside'. spouse'.). elt�opo<.. Att. 'far away'. 'lifting their feet' (11.).). . Lith. to which belongs auvwplKeUeTat 'drives with a team of horses' (Ar. term referring to the bronchi and the hose-like aorta (Hp.). [f. is ltap�opo<.. Contrasted with auv�opo<.pl. UOpT'leel<. 'brothers-in-law' (H. Cf. also 'outstretched' and 'reckless' (see Leumann 1950: 222ff.] 'pulmonary lobe' (Hp.). and KaTwpl<. from auvwPl<. i. LitlI. which presupposes a verb *auvwpla�£lv.). The present entry is mostly connected with a root *uerH.. eaX'lKoTe<. related is � upTaw 'to hang'.' (Luc. 'who have sisters as wives'. twine'.). Arist. yuvaLKa<. auvwpl<. � upTaw. suspend'. contracted TETPWpO<. string'. attached. 'coupled together. fleTEWpO<.] 'unbearable' (only L 77.) and uopTeu<. lteOCtopo<. see � UelpW l. ot uOeA<pa<. <{ IE? *h2uer-? 'bind'� VAR Note awpTo 'was hanging'. mostly with auv-. a verb ltapaelpw seems to have existed beside auvaelpw. join' (11. [m. verti 'to pierce. an important question is whether these are originally the same verb.).). epya).). �uvalPeTat· auva1tTeTat 'is attached' (H. perhaps it was originally one root. see Philipp in LfgrE s. Nub. but it is attested only in a special use ltap'lEpe'l ot Kap'l (IT 341) 'the head hung on one side'. 15). -�po<.pl. the closest connection is with Alb. Aeol.'to open' is unclear. cf.

). a derivative in -1. See � aETflov.] name of a Harpy (Hes. See Wackernagel Stud. . perhaps d-. Tl. Pre-Greek origin of the bird name and the proper name is probable (cf.ETYM See Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 12-34.' (H. ltOl'lTaL<.(but this remains uncertain. r 13).< *eFepolt.. . 3 �EpOltO<. Variants dpo. it is clearly a substrate element. at�w => av�w.). See � flEpO'\!.] 'to spend (the night)' (Od. Chantraine thinks that the a.I UFEPOlt.). dwell. (of KovlaaAo<.).] 'bow' (Call. lineage in Macedonia.aor. 5 (1897): 27ff. is corrupted acc. (Nonn.).] of uncertain mg. 246.: 243. explained as an artificial form for aflfla 'knot. <{ IE? *h2uel-� . ital. Kal ev MaKeoovlq yEVO<. aEUu [f. . euena.. whose wives are sisters'.).) and aenov· Taxu 'quick' (EM).ETYM Unknown. (sch.'live.of the reflexive pronoun *sue.). Cognate with ON svilar [m.· KOXAla<.] 'storm wind' (11. elAlove<. .).ETYM Cf. <{ ?� . in Pollux 3.. uninhabited' (H. 32 (ot O£ uoeA<pa<. 'fast like a storm' (S.-.] 'brothers-in-law. 'snail' (H.. kind of bird' (H.).awa 25 . uenmo<. (A.ETYM a'LA lOl may be an itacistic notation for *eALOl (*EAlOl). The Greek form can also be derived from *uFA-la.).. cf.) does not fit in..] Boeotian name for the bird flEpO'l' (sch. Kal opvea Tlva 'people inhabiting Troezen. The u. �. Verb UEneTat· meL (EM).VAR Sometimes we find � aa1tTo<. aEOU [v. also Boeotian (Arist. or *eAlove<. Fur. [f. Bird name ueno<. to DELG following Latte.· eevo<. the gloss uepolto<. -ou<. V)� .VAR a'LAlOl· auyyafl�pOl 'the husbands of two sisters' (H. uenwo'l<. . uOlK'lTov (aelKTOV) 'strong.). with metrical lengthening of *eAlove<. Supp. (H.).in aEAlOl is taken as a 'copulative' a-. CtEPO'l' [m.VAR UEn'l (IT 374). etc. Direct derivation fron the root of � a'lfll. aE1tTO" [adj. . H. but rather not after aena. elAlove<. aET!!OV => UTflo<. <{ IE *h2ues.. Ag. Note uen�<. 908. or aeA1tTo<. Ar.I dpolt. <{ ?� ..).is long because of Ant.I �FEpOlt. � v£upa).] 'wind'. perhaps from � uon�<. ae1tTov· laxupov.. 141. PN'HEpolto<. fil. <{ PG? (S. TpOl��va KaTOlKouvTe<. � lt'lVEAO. spend the night'� VAR Secondary pres. which requires the reconstruction *h2eu-el-.\!. The gloss UelA'l· ltVO� 'breath. Av. 18. 1354). • .\! = flEpO'\!.ETYM Assuming an original meaning 'bowstring' (cf. 352 assumes the interchange fll F and prothesis u-I e-I �-: flEpOlt. avena. aEaKW (Hdn. this is doubtful. au�avw. *h2ueh. also uena<.DER Aenw. always with vUKTa(<. 11. PIE *sue-lo-. aE!!!!U [n. class..). is impossible because of related W awel [f. 6floyafl�pOl � auyyafl�pOl � flCinov aUYK'lOeaTat Kat ltapa TOL<.DIAL Aeol. uen�£l<. etc.). the suffix -Olt-).are secondary lengthenings). y�flavTe<. cord' (to � a1tTw).VAR Also AEpOlte<.

. which remains unclear. iaxuAeo<. KUt KOVl<.). nenuAuwevov a�n (X 184) often interpreted as 'shield defiled with mold'.. U'l''lAOV 'black or dark. the nearest cognates are found in Slavic: OPoL ozd 'dried malt'. heat'. U�£TOV .] 'anuuaTo<. Cf. live.). There is also an old present iuvw < *h2i-h2eus-.. • • u�ov [adj. LlKeAol 'not trustworthy (Sicilian) (H. auvex�<.).. a�uUTo<. Latte corrects the gloss to *aoouvov. UUaTUAeo<. Kloekhorst 2008). 'dry' (Fraenkel Gnomon 21 (1949): 39. . Fraenkel Glotta 32 (1953): 22). a�ulvw (Nic. � ?� . it is more probable that Gr. cf. incessant'.· aOLexe<.'dry'� .VAR Mostly intr. to Frisk. dust or ashes'. DELG therefore suggests the influence of �X� and compounds like oua'lX�<. both deverbative. Hitt.ETYM Acc. COMP aoouuov· �'lpov.)' (H. a�0f.. KOVl<. bat-i 'to dry up' < *h2od-ei.26 aWl<ppwv . and a�exe<.).ETYM von Blumenthal 1930: 33 corrects fleAuv to fleyuv. but it simply means 'without interrruption'. but the mg. AUKwve<.v. 17). ETYM Probably for *a�uex�<. ozditi 'to dry malt' < *h2esd-. 'dry (Lacon.· nUAaLOT'l<.DER HelL a�u 'dryness.) 'to parch'. cu::al<ppwv => auw. What is perhaps originally an extension of the • . amaTov. buis-zi 'to live'.). which seems unnecessary. .· aOLUAel1tTOV 'incessant'.).) is quite uncertain. Not related to aaTu.] . to wait'. 'soot. be separate'. see DELG. his explanation from *ag-jon (to ayuv and fleyu<. ToB was.). Bechtel assumes 'der ohne Einhalt etwas tut'. a�'lxe<. SIn. Germanic has a group of words with velars in place of dentals: Go. 'unceasing' (Suid. Bechtel 1914 s. ETYM Unexplained. Adjective a�uAeo<.) etc. . Lesbian and Arcado-Cyprian. But the contraction * ue > 'l is irregular in Ionic. in aUKo<.). auvex�<. cf. Cz. spend the night'. fleAuv. Go. Arm.(cf. . £v aYYEl4J unoflElvuau 'filth having remained behind in a receptacle' (H. � ?� .[verb] 'to stay. of noise.. which can be read in all places in Homer. � GR� DER In H. wisan 'to be'. • a�TJxq" [adj. a�OflaL 'to parch'. a�w is comparable to Hitt. arid' (n.· Konpo<. eaTlu.ETYM Related to Skt. a£aKw => awu. also a�uxe<. azgo. .] 'to dry' (ll. 'barren. SGD! 2034. (cf. Ven.) would be a compound of a�u (see below) and uDo<. OHG asca 'ashes'. high' (H. vasati 'to dwell.) . Ci�u· Cia�oAo<. but also remarks that * ue > 'l may be found in ' Thessalian. nUAaLOT'l<. 'continuous') (Schulze 1892: 471.. Verbs a�uvoflaL (h. 'antiquity. olexw means 'to stand apart. gom 'I am' (but rejected by Kortlandt AAL 19 (1998): 19f. and should be reconstructed as *h2ed-ie/o. improbable.laL => CiYLO<. u�w 1 [v.DER a�£Tow in a�£TWeeWVTl (Delphi. pain (ll. 'if they are persuaded' poses difficulties. � IE *h2ed.. However.). However. as it is the opposite of the gloss. from * a�olu­ ex�<. For the meaning. dust' (H.

VAR ui�auAOV· avoflov. both of which must often be read with three syllables. vata. Go.] 'ashes.DIAL AeoL uU'lP.ETYM It has been proposed that the word is a modification of U'LauAO<. ve-jr. if *h2eh. E 403. ToB also reflected in Skt. [f. 626 derives the word from *auser. Skt. furilier � aeAAu. .27 same root. � uDo<..has been assumed in in � a�aupo<. viita-. � IE *h2eus-er-� . => 0.« *h2uh. Meillet BSL 26 (1925): 7ff.).VAR Also allow. asa). . Unrelated is � a�p. �epoelo�<.]. PG? (V) � .-nt-o. this leaves the length of the initial vowel unexplained. all 'to blow'. A zero grade ae.· nveuflu � a'lflu (cod. A form with suffix *-t.> Skt. � aTfl°<..: .· • lU1P [f.lL [v. whence � aTfl0<. haze. Also [m. The nom.ETYM From * aF'lowv. � IE *h2ueh. vati. dust' probably continues *h2eh. wind' (H.] 'nightingale' (Od. since a lengthened grade *h2ued. � TeVep'lOwv 'wasp' . Cf. atmosphere'.DER Derivatives: �epoel<. also � uupu. See � CieAAu. clouds' (n. bird and animals names like � xeAiowv 'swallow'. Ber. The word could therefore well be Pre-Greek. a�T'l<. cf. -ou<. The same word is found in Lat. 53 (1901): 94.[m. Hitt. waian. 'airy.).).) is an innovation..] 'to cry.[m. ��p .) arose by dissimilation.'blow'� VAR Forms in Schwyzer: 680 .'windy'. Fraenkel Glotta 34 (1955): 307ff proposed * u(F)laauAu. assumed an original meaning 'suspension' and derived the word from aelpw 'raise'. connecting it with lao<.] 'mist. rare are the verbal nouns a'lflu. Connection with � aElow and � uuo� (which is almost universally accepted) is difficult. a��p (= uu�p) (H.s-h2. groan'.is improbable. The word for 'wind' is (a thematization of) the participle of this root: *h2ueh. Fur. Hitt.. � auaTuAeo<. arguing that related � uupu < *h2eus-r-h2 still means 'morning mist' in e 469. 43 (1967): 619. [m.). representing Proto-Indo-Iranian *vaHata-. KUKonOlOV 'lawless. but rare. thence gen.). � ?. . quick (as wind?)' (poet. vatula.s. doing ill' (H. for which cf. area 'to be dry'. � PG?(S)� . Q�P (also Att. See � �eplo<. buyant. evil' (U'LauAu pe�£lv.'hearth' < *h2eh.) after a'lfll or a�aupo<.).). for the suffix. which has long a-. Skt. a�w 2 [v. cloudy'..s-o-.] (S. etc. Av. -ovo" [f. � uupu.). aTJ!5wv. later 'air. 'dim.. is it an Atticism in Homer? Later Ion. asa. '(uflu) 'breath.. Cio<. Dor.VAR Gen. �epo<..< pre-PIE * from unthematicized *h2uh. ara 'altar' (OLat. is found in Lat.DER a�T'l [f. Different explanations are found in Bechtel 1914 and Brugmann Sachs. ventus. aqo"uAo" [adj. bassa.] 'wind'.. . � a�aupo<.. but this gives formal problems (*tu > au is not regular). Kiparsky Lang.] . winds. cf. OHG waen and OCS ISg. aeTflov· TO nveuflu (H.. Qepo<.] 'to blow' (ll. 5. � � pl. a'lat<. (highly doubtful). 'unseemly.ETYM a�p is not cognate with a'lfll.-ent-.] . .ETYM An old verbal root *h2ueh. a�'loovu· a'loovu (H.). ToA want.] in the hapax a�auAu epyu (E 876) 'criminal acts'. Go. However. . . Cf..

) (H. by its long vowel. Since Pre-Greek also had labiovelars (cf. releases' by Galen. said of Hephaistos). also 8apooc. a8£A�ci· £AK£1 'draws' (H. An. Perhaps it is the same word as � U'iTjTOC.. 'insatiable. a8t:\. a�oupov· TO Ae1HOV. further a8eA8£Tat· 81Tj8£LTat 'id. substrate origin is most probably the source of the alternations. a�<Jl)po" [adj. ETYM Unexplained. The variation �I 81 I' should not be explained from an IE labiovelar (as per Solmsen 1909: 9'). atisk and Iran. 253 points to the variant ui.) . 1. 1. 220) . -a [f. light. � ?� . 15 (1967): 78-84. ye<pupu beside M<pupu. draw away. If so. aTOC.) and a8£A�a(£lv' 8lTj8civ 'to strain through' (H. H. the variation al at might point to a substrate word.. off. Also a8eAYTjTat· 8TjAa(£Tat � 8A(�TjTat 'is suckled. crowded' (Erotian.). which may imply a substrate origin (comparing aTjToc. cf. see Hp. a8eAYTjTat· BUKX£1oC. • • a8£A�.vAR Also a8�pTj.). � PG?(v)� VAR Cf. Connection with a8�p is neither formally nor semantically plausible. The final -Tj in Attic.] 'gruel. as contamination leading to three different forms is improbable. Kui EK8Ai�TjTat WC.). uncertain. agile'. 'incessant' (Hdn. 7 Kock. • • ae&pTj [f. <PTjat 8TjAa(£Tat � EmomlTat. A8ailuvTl 'great (Aesch..: 388. Com. (in 1teAWp u'iTjTOV 2: 410. this is improbable. metrical lengthening is improbable. which is improbable. mg. aTjTov (<D 395).ETYM Connection with � aTjill is improbable. Med. � PG(v)� .).in the gloss. adu 'grain' (Szemerenyi 1969a: 968f. 0 aKUTa1tUUOTOC. � &Oat 'to satiate'. ETYM These verbs. Myc.). Not related to Lat. filter'. rather a substrate word (where the suffix -up. but this would mean that it differs from aUToc. 350) . AioxuAoC. ador (Hamp TPS (1968): 106).a8eAym. • . a�Touc. meaning 'to press.).: 253.. ETYM The first explanation connects the word with ail£vat. Also aTjTol' UKOPWTOl..] aileAY£IV 'to milk' (H.] (Hell. (E�)u8eAy£Tat (Hp.· il£yaAuc. . TO il£Tewpov Kui KOU<pOV 1tUpa TO aepl mJPw8at £1ti opvewv 'delicate. explained as 1tUple-rat. studi class. and a < at impossible. which may have a variant u'iTjTOC. is squeezed (out).] probably 'light. 217). 'is suckled. see Fur. 22.. though his connection with � a�auAoc. Bekk. (Ruf. qa-si-re-u). EM). not infrequent). which is confirmed by Moeris. a8eA�£Tat· 81Tj8£LTat 'is strained through' (AB). 390.). have no etymology.).VAR Cf... �UatA£UC. De med. drawn after one. Not related to aTjill. a1tATjOTOl . . influence of � a8�p? DER a8upw8TjC. an Egyptian word according to Pliny (N. See Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 12f. greedy'. Kul N(Kuv8poC. fr. 11). elevated. � PG?(s)� . «TjTO" [adj. 121). acnov (Q. compressed' (H.). after being dragged through the air by birds' (Suda).a�oupoc. would lead us to suppose a pre-form *a8UpF<l. and cf. porridge' (Ar.] in 8apooc. as this belongs to Go. a-ja-me-no as 'artist'. See Sabbadini Riv. 20.) and a8�pwila 'kind of ulcer' (Gal.' (Diocl. S. aTjToc.VAR Cf. 81£KAU£Tat 'lets go. said of ants (A. See Fur. Gr. remains uncertain.ynv [v. Palmer 1963: 339 connects the epithet of Hephaistos with Myc.

).). and depicted with a snake. perhaps also � av8puoKOV I E. DER a8£p(vTj f.'chervil'. place -£wv: av8£p£wv. m.COMP a8TjpTjAOlYOC. -tpo" [m. -IKOC.ETYM Like the goddess itself. See � ATTIKOC.· <'> a(8Tjp0C. .ETYM Unknown. and because this is kindred with Iran.. � av8pTj8wv). a common Greek goddess dating from Minoan times. . asphodel plant' (Hp. see Szemerenyi 1969a: 958f.with the interchange oKI K. (Zonar.] 'chin' (ll.V8£p(OKOC. -IKOC..] a plant. The word has nothing to do with names of the wasp or forest bee (� o. to Rix's Law.). Fr. Fur. spine or prickle of a fish'. The nasalized forms could be due to folk etymology. with suffix -£wv: av8£p£wv. -ITOV.).).] 'stalk of an asphodel.).). from 'consumer of chaff (Od. An older proposal derives it from *a8£poc. [f. aT£lp�c.) A8avu. MUK�VUI.] 'prickly' (Nic.: *h2ndh. Chantraine 1933: 204. nor with � av8pw1toc. A 128 = 8 275).] 'awn'. Also a8£pTjic.acc. which was contracted to Att. plur. also 'edge of a weapon' (Hes. -Tj. A8TjvCi. Another proposal (DELG) derives it from � a8�p. etc.VAR With a nasal av8epl�. amv 8£p((n. cod. aKpl�ec. Go. impossible. but rather point to Pre-Greek prenasalization. cf. 'Clematis vitalba' (Thphr. av8eplKoc. Originally always with negation. -WVOC.: 296 further adduces o. A8Civat) contains the same onomastic element.'(be)low' (see Bechtel 1914). Thompson 1947 S.8. 'indestructible iron when it is heated' (H. 'stupid. ' A8uvuu with short vu). which he thinks would fit a climbing plant well. � PG(v)� . = av8£pIK. Neither is convincing. (Thphr. Note the suffix * -an-.ETYM Frisk compares � a8puc. 'chaff. (Thphr. but I don't see what a car has to do with a plant. � PG� . -WVOC. IE ablaut *h2endh. A8Tjvu(u. -1voC.] th� goddess (n. o. A.DER a8eplmoc. . DER The town A8�vat (Dor. [m. The glosses a8£pec. ador. Not related to Lat. This form gave *A8Tjvau (Aeol.] ? (see Aura Jorro 1985-1993: 112). Atherina hepsetus' (Arist. With the suffIx of ..). 'kind of smelt. (see below) . whence fem. a-ta-na-po-ti-ni-ja [dat. adu.. for the suffIx cf. (etc.) seem unrelated in view of their meaning. both because of the meaning.] 'to disparage. 'winnowing-fan'.a8puyevTj 29 a8£:\.] = a8�p. • a8paytvT) [ � ?� .· avoTjTov. av8£pIKW8TjC.).v..). protecting the palace. [m. a8£p(�w [v.ETYM No etymology. 'chariot'. as both forms would give Gr. avoatov. connecting it with Skt.).a8eAym. which is probable anyhow.. .DIAL Myc. � PG(v)� . adhara. Fur. the name is pre-Greek. not in order.8£pw8TjC. [m. . as flocci facio.). but the two Tj's are surprising. Thence A8Tjvaloc. barb of a weapon. av8. Variants with nasal: av8epl�.. etc. 128). • a8qp.. -(80c.v8p�vTj.). neglect' (ll. precise' (H. A8qVT) [f.) and a8£p�c.. also 'ear' (ll. 'Athenian' (n. which is also used as the name of the goddess (88 times im Hom. Dor. See Stromberg 1940: 108.· a<ppovTlmOC.: 288 compares av8paxvTj and concludes to a substrate origin (prenasalization).

f.[m. pain.] 'wagon-seat'. 8pfjaKEuw 'to observe' etc.. intermingle. ufla).). from PIE *dhuer(H). Formerly compared with Skt. � a8poo<. Ru. rush'. ETYM From *a8up-yw.would still yield £v-.). It cannot be the zero grade of £v-. sport' (11. etc. taken as a wicker basket tied upon the wagon. is most improbable.] 'to play. in which case it would originally mean 'mother'.DER Ci8upfla 'plaything. (spiritus asper perhaps restored after una<. toy' (11. . It is probable that a.). aKlpTuv 'to play. • • ai 'if. «6pa" [m. but this is no longer maintained by EWAia. and an initial laryngeal gives the improbable root structure *h2dhuerH-. The derivation by Hoffmann 1921: 78f.DER a8po[(w (a-) 'to gather together' (Archil.DER a8p�flaTa· owpa nEflnoflEva napa TWV auyyEVWV TaT<. ETYM Elementary formation.) (Snell Glotta 37 (1959): 282-287. (Lesbian) (H. -<! ?� .). upfla.'in' (which would not really make sense semantically anyway).cannot be the zero grade of *h.). nap8Evm<. . 'directed at a goal'.(cf. ETYM No etymology.: undh. One compares £v8puv· <jlUAaO"<J£lV 'to guard' (H.). 'speaking a foreign language'. -<! ?� . vandhura.) and 8p�aKw· vow 'to perceive' (H.ETYM By some considered identical with � ala 2 (Brugmann IF 15 (1903-1904): 94ff. diminutive a8upflunov.. However. leap' (H. see Prevot RPh. Brugmann IF 29 (1911-1912): 206ff. 61 (1935): from *S111 -.DIAL Att. the connection must be false. since a zero grade *h.n.). -<! ONOM� VAR Also aiaT.. plur. nor to � 8povo<.'united' (Brugmann 1894: 14ff. 'gifts having been sent by kinsfolk to maidens being given in marriage . or sorrow.EL ata 1 [f. Risch 1937: 179 compares aAAo-8poo<. a.en.ETYM Unexplained. gathered together' (11. padurmai 'impetuous'... a6pEw [v. Connection with Kuvva8pov is improbable. observe' (11. Banateanu REIE 3 (1943): 149 calls the word Anatolian. napa AW�[Ol<. fllyVU£lV.30 Ci8pa<. from a noun *a8po<. As the formation of the Sanskrit word is unclear.). 'POOlOl 'chariot (Rhodian) (H. in which case it would mean 'calling together'(?). .] 'in crowds. yaflouflEvm<. found in many languages.). . Renehan Glotta 49 (1971): 66). cf..). but the further analysis is uncertain. dur' 'foolishness'. . -<! ?� .'to whirl. *Fa8-. which was formerly analyzed as containing the root *dher. and the root is hardly attested outside Germanic.'to hold' and copulative 0.). Compared with Lith. but this leaves the a. -<! ?� VAR Only present. Deverbative a8upEuw8m· na[(Elv. from IE *dher.] 'to gaze at.] 'earth' (11. -<! ?� . . (Pok. On the use of a8pEw.'to hold'. a6upw [v.).>(» Gr. sadhry-aiic.unexplained. • • a'l exclamation of surprise. and connected with MoHG winden. a8poo<.: 1148) as IE *uendh.] . • a6poo" [adj. also 'adornments'. It does not belong to � a8pEw.ETYM Compared with Skt.

To � aiXfl� ace. KUVEfj ete.t MyoflEV 'we usually call • . Also AiYlaAu<.(A'lylva.VAR Cf. ala· uno Kupfjva[wv Tfj8[<. also TN. Giintert 1914: l26f.DER alYlUA£lO<.. etc.belongs to ilig. name of the inhabitants of the coast of Achaea Hdt. the mg. Triimpy 1950: 52. cf. Kat <jlUTOV Tl. the word for 'face' seen in � anfjv�<. DER alyElpwv 'poplar grove'. ejati. Alya[.. Brandenstein 1954b: 80.ETYM For the suffIx. and late) .). aiYlaA£1. aUT<f' oflwvuflo<. Elementary word? See � ala 1.). (see Chantraine 1933: 91f. 'waves (Dor. . See Schwyzer: 600. suggesting a Pre-Greek origin. saevus.) .g. 2. form seems to confirm that the second element is derived from . beach'. See Degani Helikon 2 (1962): 37-56. 1276. uncertain. -<! ONOM� VAR Also al�Ol�oT. This would be confirmed by the form with -E-.ETYM Compared with Lat. -<! PG(v) � .).] 'mother. 57 explains that the alyavEfj was thrown by a strap. and if Skt. -AWOfj<.). but cf. the names of trees and animal skins in -Efj. cf. set in movement'.· Ta KUflaTa. see � «(w). Woodhouse KZ 107 (1994): 99f.. -<! ?� .) and Artem. � alyavtfj is uncertain. -<! ?� . which would make the connection impossible. aly£lpLTfj<. aiuvq" [adj.. 1tTEAEfj. in Skt. This is semantically improbable.. £V Tn auvfj8£l<.(see Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 264).DIAL Myc.VAR Ion.] 'sea-shore. e.). 24). one compares the word for 'oak' in PGm. .. For the first member. ej. alYE<. ata 2 [f. and names in Aiy. -A[Tfj<. If named after the material. � 0.ETYM The connection with � aiy[Aw'i'. poet. all are late derivations.J<.J:EyUAa KUflaTa alya<. Kock) .). oflaughter. elementary formation.] 'black poplar' (11.'dry' (but this root perhaps did not exist.) (H. then the root contained a labiovelar.. 31 The relation with yaTa and flaTa is uncertain. (Com. £Tl O£ o Kupno<. grandmother'? (11.). who assumed the reconstruction *amF-uv�<. Adesp.'to stir.· KUflaTa (see � a'i�) is compared.] 'hunting spear.) through association with � aIEL -<! ?� . alfjv�<. which is also supposed in � aiy[Aw'i' and Lat. Sommer IF 55 (1937): 260 pointed to numerous non-IE words like a'iyl80<. -<! ?� . avia 'grandmother'. . Van Windekens assumed *as-ya from *h2s.\o" [adj. 'of the poplar' (all Hell. aesculus. (EM 27. -Ea: flfjAEfj.). ai�oi exclamation of disgust (Ar. 'eternal' (A.) assumes *sausja.130<. . 12 Kat yap Ta f. aiy£lplvo<. the coast of Achaea (11.ETYM There is a speculative hypothesis by Wackernagel 1897: 7.aiylaA6<. cf. see Aura Torro 1985-1993: 134· . ETYM The Myc. • aiYla.ETYM Onomatopoeic. � UA<. LiWPlET<. *aik-.VAR a'lyEpo<.. Kat flaTa Kat a8£A<jl� Kp�Tfj<.. to Bechtel 1914· ' a'(ynpo" [f. 'with terrifying face' (whence Lat.). to which alYE<. alYlaAlKo<. javelin' (11. etc. • aiyavEIl [f.. .. aJ-ki-a2-ri-jo probably laigihalio-I.] 'horrible' (Archil. Laser Gymnasium 60 (1953): 115-l21 connected it with PIE *h2eig.

Cye. 6. 189). non in eortiee modo. in the second meaning from a'(YlAo<. further 'heart-wood of the Corsican pine or the silver fir in Arcadia' (Thphr).v.VAR a'(YlvSO<. also as a TN. . the gloss AI.). the explanation of which from 'what cannot be climbed' is doubtful too. ETYM Probably a goatskin in origin (thus Hdt.ETYM As the name of a kind of oak. Kat hEa UTtO 80UplWV 'high rock. 12) . 304.with variation AI AA. verum et e ramis dependentes. see Stromberg 1940: 87. -SdAO<. lipti 'to clamber' (see Solmsen 1901: 731) as 'what can be climbed only by goats'. it is connected with Lith. <!! ?� VAR aiYIAl. for which see � aYXIAW'/'. parra modica' (gloss.] 'titmouse (Parus)' (Ar. <!! ?� . willow (Thourian) (H.l. with AWTt'l 'cork' (cf.). Kretschmer Glotta 3 (1910-1912): 335 connected -AW. For the meaning 'storm wind'. see Heubeck IF 68 (1963): 13-21. Within Greek. aiYl<. 'cloak. mantle' H.) . Stromberg 1940: 137 derives aiylAw.DER aiy(SaAAo<. 16. On the mg. v. discernible from its prenasalization and the suffIx -aA(A). • • aiYlAw. ETYM A typical substrate word. to Chantraine 1933: 248. though Chantraine now calls it 'all too easy' in DELG s.). a mantle protecting Zeus and Athena (ll. AW'/" XAaf1u<. not mentioned by Frisk or DELG. a'(YlvSo<. citadel. also � aAl.' U'/''lA� TtETpa Kat Tt6Al<.). 'havergrass' (Theoc. <!! PG(S. formation like V£�PI<./. cf.). . aiylAw. adduced from Pliny (H. which is also highly doubtful. on which see � ayAI'l. lacrymal fistula'. [m. 4./" -WTto<.] 'sheer.? . N.. with further literature.32 a'(YlSo<. This in turn is comparable with Skt. 2548. it is doubtful whether one can connect it with � aiyavE'l and � a'(Y£lp0<. Marzullo 1969: 101f thinks it is a mistake for a[iyl]Al'/'. cf.: 13) .(Pok. in the sense of KUf1aLa is a metaphorical use of a'(� 'goat' (as per Heubeck IF 68 (1963): 13-21). aiyloSo<. (Arist.).).] 'kind of oak' (Thphr. ej. uowp aTCt�£l 'rock from which water drips' may be due to later interpretation (Solmsen. Persson 1912(1): 1521). epithet of Zeus (ll. 288. 'ulcer in the eye. yatCtFOXo<. word for 'oak'. Av. .).DER aiylox0 <.v)� ./.'. later also 'storm wind' (A. The formation in aiyl. The meaning 'clamber' for the root *leip.] 'goatskin' (E. [m. (Ar. has been connected with the Gm. In modern times.' TtETpa a<p' �<. Hdt. See Fur./././.)./.). 387... gods and men are frightened when it is shaken. for *a'(YlaSo<. <!! GR� . In Homer. and it is far from certain that Greek underwent the same development as Lithuanian. also 'oat-grass' (Thphr. £Tt-atYI�w 'rush upon' (from a storm wind) (Horn) . a'(Yl8o<. 1.'to storm'. secondary to 'stick.). • aiYlAlljl [adj. . which is clearly a folk etymology. [f. Cf. *aik.). 189). Kretschmer Glotta 27 • . but see � aiyavE'l ' It is highly improbable that aly£<. which is certainly correct. steep' (ll. (Dionys. f1lKp6<. With the last mg. which cannot be excluded. 'fawn­ skin' (see � v£�p6<. etc.). TtETpa 'rock' ( unexplained as well (see � a'(�).. 13): aegilops jert pannos arentes . Also 'speck in the eye' (Hp.: 267. 4. The word is Pre-Greek acc. ETYM The Ancients explained it as 'abandoned even by goats'. large waves aiya<.).). cleave'.

ETYM The connection with Skt. See the discussion in DELG.). .· af1<plOEa<. JrJzi-jiia. itself is no doubt a substrate word as well.) . Etymology unknown. � yu. In view of the variation aiyA. one might think of Skt.. aiYACt�W 'to shine. aiYI<. Thera. The noun may be of Pre-Greek origin too (it has no etymology).] 'vulture' (ll.ETYM The form is reconstructed in order to account for aiy(<. and other words attested in lexicons.). 19) . See formally difficult. <!! ?� VAR Also aiywAlo<. .). (Anaphe. <!! ?� . .). 'Stix flammea' (Arist. Ta Tt£pt T�V UVlV TOU ap6TpOU 'things around the plowshare' (H.. aiyvmo<. <!! ?� .ETYM The comparison with Skt.1 f1CtpOUTtTto<. � aiyavE'l) is rightly rejected by DELG. A. (Anaphe) and ATt6AAWV AiYACtLa<. .ETYM Lewy KZ 59 (1932) derived it from a'(yAa<. 'agIl '(ear-)ring'.? aIYATJ 1 [f.. 'vulture' has been assumed.33 (1939) : 28. aiYACtTa<. UTtO MaK£oovwv 'eagle (Maced. with prothetic vowel and palatalized Ig'l.VAR aiYITto. 73 (1999) 81f.). The epithets ATt6AAWV � Aay£AaLa<. -�T'l<./. tremble' (cf. and -oTt-is a Pre­ Greek suffix. from aiy<l>Ala· oaKTuAlola 'small rings' (H. <!! GR� . Variation between i and u is well-attested in substrate words (cf. gleam' (Man. see Rohlfs ByzZ 37 (1937): 55.). cf. connected it with a'(YA'l and aiy£<. metonymic use of � a'(yA'l 1 'gleam. radiance' (ll.).DER aiyA�£l<. Kat . [adj. since we expect *apC-. [m./. Thera) are often compared. aIYATJ 2 [f.). but this seems unlikely. <!! ?� . annihilating. s.'eagle. (H. it may be a variant of *(a)g'up-. anklets'. invisible. � f1Ctpal1tTto<.ETYM The reading ahwAlo<.] 'light (of sun or moon).' 0.v. 'speck in the eye' (Gall. HA 563a 31) is wrong. falcon'. also aiYlaAlo£<.).I aay(£)A-. it is methodically incorrect to clarify the formation of the appellative by that of a name. No conclusion is reached by Meier-Brugger KZ 108 (1995): 50-55. epithet of Apollo (inscr. (Arist. as evidenced by forms from modern southern Italy (agoleo etc.ETYM It is difficult to decide what the primary meaning is.£<6<. set in motion'. *aiYAl<. and aYAI'l(<.). unseen' (ll.EAla 'iron rings. destructive. As Frisk remarks.).' Ta KUf1aTa 'waves' (H.] mg. . 'gleaming' (ll. Fur.) (EM 28. aiywAlo<.).] a kind of owl. rji-pya-. ejati 'to move. Anaphe. R./" which is evidently a variant of the same word. -lSO<./.] 'ring' (deduced from glosses). but it does not necessarily have the same origin as the epithets. which remains hypothetical./. [m. Or should we reconstruct *aYAl<. gleam.: 364 compares the gloss aiYITto. Av. <!! PG(v)� . influence by a'(� and yu. (derived from a'(yA'l). but it is rather clear that the word contains a privative a with a form of iodv. Ivanov 1999: 283-292 compares . ejati 'to move. the epithets must be Pre-Greek. epithet of the bird syena. splendor' is well possible. which also gives aiyuTt-.). He explained it as a loan from Hebr.). not quite clear: 'hated. • a"tSTJAO<.

). as then Alo.. The aspiration in Attic is secondary and arose by contraction from 6 AtollC. aiooaUvll ai0'1floaUv'1 (AB. this is not correct. lA). dat. Fur.. etc..). e. would give Gr. To my mind. in formulaic 06floV 1\IOOC. not the God of the Underworld. also aiO�atfl0C. Phot.. respect' and Skt. from which Go. 2. (sch. it rather seems to denote the God.] 'sacrificiis'. r�w < *si-sd-). (Kamerbeek apud Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 307)..] Hades (11. Arist. sam vid-) as 'das Sichzusammenfinden [gathering of the family in the ..) substantivized ntr.(cf. (pap. and perhaps originally in the verb *h2is-ske/o. . is found in later Ionic poetry (Semon. I pointed out that the replacement of a root found in MoHG Ehre 'honor'.) . 'honorable' (PIu. -Ou.] 8paaUC.).). aiO-: we would expect *h2eisd. rash' (H. revere'.. 1# < PIIr. as * sometimes lengthened for metrical reasons: it is not lengthened when it is not necessary or impossible. whence 1.should denote the Underworld.. The initial A. honor' derive. epic poet. usually plur. aiO£atflOC. The other explanation. also gen..). to honor. 'AI06C. [f. the Doric form Atoac. as a legal term also 'to be reconciled' (Hom. -<!l IE? *h2eis-d. compound UV-atO�C.] 'to hold back. 4. compares a'LauAoc. underworld] . the root *h2eis. and aiOo'LKOC. TO aiOolov. 1\:tS'1C. nevidal' for the semantics and assumes the development 'invisible' > 'strange. the connection is semantically very tempting. -£w.'to hold back. 'the Unseen'. Ato'1C. 3. ON eir. 'shameless' (11. *Hizd. OCS iskati 'to search'.'unseen.). EM). daw. -a in tragedy.. fut. aiOwToc. • a'lSo!1at [v.'to 262f. ETYM Thieme proposed (Thieme 1952: 35-55) that the word derives from *syt1 uid­ (Skt. < *-os-jo. ai�.. seems the correct one. etc. dangerous' . aistan 'to hold back.).).VAR With metathesis of quantity gen. 'bold. -L Att. aiO�flwv 'modest' (X.34 Ru. In Beekes 1998: 17-19. and in Osc. gen. [adj. Ta aiOola 'private parts' (11. a'Lono. Thence a'LO£atC. aiOoloc.).. In Homer. whence aioolwOllC. first in the nominative (here as the final element of a compound). (11. .).DER A'LOwv£uC. Ato'1C.. (post-class. be ashamed. 'mercy. aiOwLlKoC. prose) 'object of aiOwc. pardon' (D.' (11. (E 897)? Leumann Glotta 32 (1953): 2184 differs. ai0'1flovIKOC. Of course.. is parallel to the case of <puy� : <puya8e. -ao [m. aisusis [abl. reverence' (11. -<!l IE *I:J-uid. invisible'� . uvalO£la. . (Orph. ai<'l£aoflat. Without final * -d. An inscription from Thessaly (SEG 16. ai06fl£voC.). see Risch 1937: 158.DER aiowc. respect' (11. -<!l ?� ETYM A mistake for Ct"tOllAoC. ETYM It is formally uncertain that a PIE root *h2eisd-. aiOEOflat < *aides-je/o.'. 380) gives ApOav.'inspiring appear as Gr. icchati 'search for'. whence aiOWlfloT'1C. more frequent is denominative aiOEOflat (from *aides-je/o-). like in 1\106aOe.). Herodas).'to demand' > Skt.g. • = • (ifSUAOC. • . Arist. etc.'honor'� VAR a'L8eo. and -floaUv'1 (late and rare).] 'shame.. see Chantraine 1942: 310f.

aUA�C. the zero grade *h2iu.). suggested that the word is Illyrian for areouaa.. a mountain in Sicyon. ai'1 (Tarent. suggested.).. which in Greek may be found in Aeol. TIu pnoc. 'eternity' (Arist. Locr.). Aesop. aevum. unwo'1C.. < *awjet6-. not the loss of -£-. avis. <'h(v) < *aiw-i(n).'life. (Al80c. Both the s-stem and the n­ stem extensions seem to be found in Sanskrit: ayu-n-i [loc. Ar.. ai£c.] (cod. The Tarentine form would be an old instrumental *h2eiu-eh" but this is unclear. although the -£.: 197 considers it a a substrate word. domestic cats were not found in the Greek world. Lat. perhaps found as the first member of Cypr. The s. lA). . Hell.VAR Att. For the suffix -no-.] .ainoc. aillToC. starting from *FatFEpOUpOC.VAR aiw (A. to the tympanum' (inscr.aiwv.). whence u'LOtoTllC.ETYM von Blumenthal 1930: 5f. aiowaaa} T�C. well-being'� . Greek had an n­ stem in � aiwv. which is artificial (DELG). [m.. and also in the accus. problematic. Mech. (Philostr. The artificial form ai'1Toc. .'time of living. from which aiEv derives. Ta mXla 'the walls of the court or hall' (H. uETwfla 'tympanum' (Hp. 8: a'(AoupoC. (Arist.DIAL aiF£l (Cypr. also metaph.'bird'� . the old locative of an s-stem. Latte thinks it is a corruption (but on three points?).] probably '(wild) cat' (Hdt.)..) and oupa 'with moving tail' (cf.). UETwatC. vlverra 'ferret' and Lith.. aid [adv. anOC. u-wa­ i-se 'forever' < *h2iu(y)-h2ei-s.). thematicized *h2ei-u-o.). aiw < *aiwos-yt1. alt(v) .) -<!l IE *h2ei-u. .aieL ai£-roc. (Arat.) (Ael. vaiveris 'male of the polecat / pitchew'. 'eternal' (Hes. 522). 35 a'lSwaaa [f. aiEC.> Lat.ETYM From * aiFnoc.> Av. .DER ueno£uc. and comparing K�Awaaa / KllAouaa. The connection with Lat. and ayu-$. • aiiv [adv.). . (Dor.ETYM The explanation as a compound of aioAoc. does not allow us to conclude that it is a substrate word.and n-stems derive from the old PIE u-stem *h2oi-u.. aiEC. 350. see below. Note that the word may well have been adapted by folk etymology. Fur. [m.. 'ptng. .' unoc. which is found without ending in Dor.).: 1154• Not a Semitic word (Astour JAOS 86 (1966): 278B). EM 34.) . (Ehrlich 1912: l28ff.we expect an Attic development to u£-.). cf. vI<pnoc.] 'eagle' (11. gen. with � = F. As Weiss MSS 55 (1994): 151f.[n.). should be abandoned.] 'always' (11.] 'young eagle' (Ael. inscr.. *h2i-eu-s > OAv. Att. f..). II£pyalOl (H. taking � areouaa as a variant form.ETYM From *aiwes-i. and that from ai£. ai�noc. aino£lC.). « *ai£Aoc. TIapa TO aiOAA£lv Kat UVaY£lV T�V oupav Kat KIVdv) still seems possible.). -<!l IE *h2eu-i.). 'arched roof of a x£Awvll' (Ath. cf. time of life'. aienaloc.] 'always' (epic poet. [m. ud (Att. unlTllC.(but see � u) and of � uyl�C. iiiiu.. -<!l PG(V)� . • aiEAovpoC. yaos.]. as per Fur. 'tympanum.). pediment'. -<!l ?� VAR Also a'(Aou pOC. Beside the s-stem. AB 363). DER UtOIOC.) . On the accentuation of the Greek forms see Hamp Glotta 67 (1989): 41. .. Phoc. (Opp.

· Ta £v nil OlT4> YLvoflEva.. -ov [adj.. cold air' (� 318 a'l8p4> KaL KafluT4> OEoflT]flEVOV). . Denominative verb ai8aAOw 'to make sooty'.).is unexplained. 4).). heavenly' (trag. • Ai8iom:c.).DIAL Myc.).. beside which rare and late ai8EpWOT]e. [m. � PG(S)� ..) could point to an rln-stem. Fur.. Nic.' (Arist. � TOUe.. 'id. ai8uAlwV. the word must be compared with ethnonyms like �pU01tEe. R. -a.COMP On ai8�p and a'l8pT] as a second member (e. i8apoe. ai8aAEOe.] ethnonym. (Theoc. burning'. DER ai8aAOELe.. 138). a typical substrate suffix (as opposed to 'face' = -W1t-). which may be folk-etymological (DELG). � IE *h2eidh. � ?� .] 'soot' (Hp. �OA01tEe. DER a'l8pT]. �MOTT]fla 'well-fed offspring' (H. I objected that ai8.). cf.: 234. ai8aAwOT]e. atrium.)... a18o'\l) . ETYM Since antiquity explained as '(people) with burnt faces'. • ai81lP. In Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 12-34. heaven' (ll. perhaps the formation was influenced by a�p.). probably a color term with verse-final metrical lengthening). ai8pci· XELflU�EL 'to expose to or pass the winter' (H. (n.] 'of the sky.. who connects it with A'(oT]1toe. With full-grade of the suffix ai8EpLOe.). bright' (�T)6c. ai8EpLWOT]e. 'fresh. ai8aAWOELe. 'Ethiopians'(?). -lWVOe. ignite'� .]). a. u1taL8poe.)..) see Sommer 1948: 151f. Therefore. Ph. (Nic. diminutive ai8plOLoV was used in imperial times as a folk-etymological adaptation of Lat. ai8EpOoflaL. [adj. and never 'burnt'. also a plant.) 'smoky.] 'clear sky. 183 [lyr.] (Hp. the -L. 'strong'? (ll.. . and is of Pre-Greek origin.).. Col. � PG(v)� .always means 'burning' in the sense of 'brilliant.'kindle.] 'portico' (ll. (Hom. Ai8Lo1t�Ee. £v T4J MaTL a-ruAaYflOUe.ETYM Danielsson 1892 gives no definitive answer. Gal. perhaps 'fiery. 'in the air. D. ai8EplTT]e.. The verb i8alVELV (A. dark brown'. .). ai9uAT) [f. 31 (1962): 25ff.ETYM Generally derived from .). Unclear ai8aAloae.VAR a'l8aAoe. PN a-i-ti-jo-qo IAithiokWsl (or 1-0-/). The gloss suggested a connection with ad and ��v. Lyc.] unknown.. • a'lOouaa [f. «'(8w. a'(8w. 41. perhaps directly from a'l8aAOe. 'id. -OOflaL 'to soot up' (E.. (Theopomp. poet.g. Tyr.. -tpoc. epithet of the TETnyEe. ai8pLvoV· 1tPW·lVOV 'early' (H.. ai8plT]. Th.. emitting light' (cf. 659). TOU £Aalou 'what is in the food.. 'cheerful.(8pLOe. bright' (lA). aiT)Toc. 7. [m.' (ll. aI8poe. is incorrect. = ai8aAOELe.VAR Also ai��·lOe. a'l8w. 'id.ETYM See . also as an adj. or drops of olive oil in ilie water' (H. ai��ELe.).' (A. E. ui�aEv· Einpa<pEe. in lJ1tal8pLOe. [f.) may contain an old ablauting form of the root.).). Wo­ no-qe-we (/WoinokWewei/) cf. 'clouds of sooty smoke' (Max.). the ntr. H. nice weather'. for the u-stem in Me-to-qe-u. . also of the sheet of lightning (E.. => UT]TOe. -la 'clear sky. improbable Bouquiaus-Simon Ant. a'(8pLov. and -01t. class. med. m. .

] 'firewood' are independent formations.) and Skt. -wvoe.. aiKuAAw [v.. temple'. Remarkable forms in other languages include Av. OL-. aestus 'heat'.. e. glowing'.] name of a bird (see Thompson 1895 s. and it has -00-.] 'firewood'. as opposed to ai8uKT�p 'stirring violently' (Opp. [n. OE ad 'glow.). u'l8Lvoe. R.[m. see Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 15-17). 'burn (with light)' (ll. On a'l8ouoa 'hemlock. cf. with a nasal present i-n-ddhe 'to kindle'. The form . a folk-etymological connection with ..DER a18oe. Conium maculatum' (Ps.. OHG eit [m. of . 919).] 'firewood'. Sanskrit has the root form idh-. On KaK-L8�e.. . this is highly dubious. also a'l8wv. The connection with Latv.) = Skt. EM). diff. Skt. it can hardly be a mistake for a'l8ouoa (which would imply three mistakes). pimple' (Hp. [n. • aiKu�£l [v.). aiKuAAw? .probably appears in i8apoe. which is hardly convincing.. also epithet of Athena.] 'fire' (A. 2.VAR a'l8ouooa (Hdn.) see CEG 4 (from 'black'). OE ad 'blaze.v.ETYM Generally explained as a ptc. a'l8w is likely. The verbal noun a'l8uYfla 'spark. Ai8lom:e. 'burning' (Cratin. VAR Only present. 1Wfl<POAU� 'bubble' for the formation..] 'burning coals' . Gr. especially said of animals. Lith. . also . aedes 'dwelling place. pyre'. intr. .[n. a18oe. 'sparkling. but rather a substrate word (Szemerenyi 1964: 207. � ?� .] 'fire' (A. funeral pyre'.'kindle'� vAR Only present.­ Dsc. aiowooa confirms this. KUyKavOe. Beekes 1998: 25 on the suffix -ma. Of course. as a technical term of building.. but also Kretschmer Glotta 9 (1918): 229f.] 'firewood'. Thematic a18oe.). also ai8�e. also 'dark-colored'. also prefixed wiili av-. 'sooty' (Nic. med. edha. (H. but the development of meaning is strange. f Religionswiss. edhas. a'(8w meaning 'glowing.37 .) did not undergo the metaphorical development of ai8uoow. edha. . . aicinat 'to call' is doubted by Pok. Also Ka-raT8u� 0fl�poe. place where the sun burns' or 'place where fire can be kindled'.). can be of PIE date. • ..ETYM Old PIE verbal root. a'lOw [v. ai8oe.] 'burning heat' (E. aikdafed.[m. � IE *h2eidh.).v. see Kock Arch. who deems it a substrate word. � ?� .] 'to flatter.). [m. . is usually considered cognate. a'l8ouoa.: 19754. cf.ETYM Pisani IF 58 (1942): 243 compared it to Osc..[m. aesma.). Pi. Perhaps related is ai8oALKEe.] . ai8uAT].) and aI80'\l (on the mgs. mostly explained as a color term.).]. 1tap-. Is it a mistake for . of which the zero grade *h2idh.] KaAci 'calls' (H. ai8uoow 'to stir violently' (Sapph. from ai8�ELe. which he interpreted as 'proclamavit'. since the Greek word is late. Lat.). Cf. KaT-. OHG eit [m. if this does not stand for ai8�e. 88). . R. . A better explanation is that of Fur. because of the form with -00-.: 15. 18 (1915): 127ff... fondle' (trag.COMP Cf. ai8�ELe.). 'pustule.] 'to kindle'. Gal.'. a'l8ma [f. a18oe. and several Germanic forms. aestas 'summer'. glow' (Plb.g. see on KEYKEL s.). Pisani Paideia 15 (1960): 245f.. i8alvw.· 6 KaTaL8uoowv 'which is floating down' (H. . (ll.. ai8�p. iesme 'id.. But note that these are late derivations. OHG eit (see above) and ON eisa [f.

poet. Suid. iKv£lav· Tpo<p£la 'nourishment' and iKV£lO<..). aLflCtAw\j! 'mass of blood' (Hp. 'red as blood' (Ath. DER aLflCt<..). ETYM Privative verbal adjective to £oLKa.). See � £LKCt�W. he correctly concludes that it is a substrate word. .).) contain an enlargement of synonymous a£LKq<. AUKaLxAla<.' TpO<p£U<. 'plaintive' (E. (poet. => alXflq.. alKq<. (Gal. alKLafl6<. aLflwv (E.. Hel.. ete.). O£lTtVOV 'meal' (H. . Hell. (Ion.ETYM Fur.· 6 AUK6�pWTO<.ETYM Etymology unknown. whence late nouns aLflaYfl6<. Cos. Th. aLfla�L<. see on � aLflwO£w . a£LKl�w. unseemly'..] 'evening meal at Sparta' (Epich. £TtCt'(KAa (Pl.. � £OLKa.. and compares .) (H.). aLflaTl�w (A. £LKWV. aLflaTla 'Spartan blood soop' (Poll. (Arist. <!I PG(v)� .COMP aLflaKouplaL 'offerings of blood' to the dead (Pi. the interchange between A and v may be secondary. alK£ALo<. codd. Thphr. • • aIKAol ' aL yWVlaL TOU �£AOU<.). aLflaTLK6<. 'eaten by wolves' (-�pOTO<.) or � alKCtAAW is completely uncertain.). cf. • .).).). disrespect'. aLflaTwoll<.).. � £A£y0<..DER avalKA£La· Ci8£LTtVa 'suppedess' (H. aLflCtTLvo<. In a£LKq<. DER a£LK£ll1. duo E"iKTov < *we-w(o)ik-. a£LK£ALO<. Also a[Kvov.).. poet. A comparison with aiKCt�£L' KaA£l 'calls' (H. 'flow of blood' (S.. • a'(AlOl => a£ALOL. aLflaKTLK6<. aLflaT6w (lA). . (Horn. 3. (Hp. next to a£LKq<.) ' It appears to be derived from the interjection � a'( and � AlVO<. (Ph.). Denominative verbs: l.] (Call. aLflaTlTll <.pK-q <. alKq<.).lvo<. [m. aLflaTwTt6<. aLflwOll<.). aLflaTll p 6<.. (D. ete. aLflCtTw<1L<. In a similar meaning compounds like £VaL fl0<. aep oTt.. 'like blood' (Hp. poet. Arist.. (E. u<PaLflo<.] 'improper. .] 'song of mourning' (trag. aLflwv LO <. 2. (Arist. alK£la. [adj.VAR Att.). <!I GR� . < * a. -£L. whence a'(KLafla (trag. Nonnos). (Luc. alKCtAll' aTtCtTll 'deceit' (Zonar.. Ant.). <!I ?� . and adjectives aLflaKT6<.)... (AP.). Miletus..ETYM Looks like a denominative of the forms given in the glosses (unless these are based on the verb). aLflaA£o<. -CtTTW 'to make or be bloody' (A. diminutive aLflcmov.). aIKAov [n.)..).DER alKaAO<. 'the angles of the missile' (H. Etymology unknown.). -OflaL 'to maltreat'.. (Man. <!I ?� VAR a'LALVa [adv.). see CEG 6 . aLflllp6<. also name of a dish (Arr. CilKq<.).. Derived adjectives: aLflaT6£ L<. LXX). 'bloody' (epic.). aLflwTt6<.). Arist..).). M. 'P6OLOL 'feeder (Rhod.] 'blood' (ll.). alfla [n..). 171).VAR Ci"iKAov.' K6Aa� 'flatterer' (H. alKla 'unseemly treatment. <auv>aLYAla = auvaLKAla.). Boisacq's postulation of a Phrygian origin lacks support (cf. aiKl�w. This may be reconstructed as *(a)wiklln-: for the prothetic vowel. sometimes as an adj..). Lys. inscr. aLflCtaaw. at\.)./ fl£ probably secondary after £LKCt�w.: 139 points to clKAOV' O£lTtVOV and £LKA£l' O£LTtV£l (H.

ETYM The second element can hardly be separated from 60wv 'tooth' (Szemerenyi 1964: 81). Further aiflwo ll <. from * ava-alvoflaL (cf.). [m. mainly epic Ion.. Picard Rev. aLfluAo<.). saepes 'hedge. -q aw. (Od. <!I ?� VAR Also aLfluALO<. fut. 889) is accepted by Weiss HSPh. (Ph. to � alfla. also 'to decide' (ll.).ETYM The suffix is also found in (1TW flUAO<. aifluAO<. (see Wackernagel 1916: 180f. Weiss HSPh. 'talkative'. whence aiflw OLaafl6<. for Greek. ete. arch. ava-v£uw). of the teeth. ace. Dsc. derives from � aLflwv in the same way as ayKwv relates to aYKuAo<. as this etymon originally denoted a 'thick liquid'. Rare is . The connection with OHG seim 'virgin honey'. praise'.: 223 finds the variation in other non-lE loans. AiTvalaL<.. see Scheller 1951: 87f.'bond'� . *sai-ra. NT).. also � alOVCtW.). secondarily -taw. On the accentuation. on the meaning. 138) or thorns (Od. e. to Bechtel 1914. From aiv£w: a'(vwL<.) a'(vll flL.). 2. 39 . Solmsen 1909: 25ff.) . OHG ser 'pain'. 'bloody'. Arist. sometimes glossed as 'skillful'.] only in LKaflCtvOpLOV aLflova 8qPll <. love' and in � aLfluAo<. thickets (A. connected the first member with Gm.] 'to approve.). the primary formation in avalvo flaL 'to deny.). i$. praise' (ll. as caused by sour stuff (Hp. 98 (1998): 31-61 points to the semantics of spellbinding. fence'. e. See Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 651.).. Arist. 'copses. mostly said of words (Hes. .] 'meaningful words. Acc. 98 (1998): 31-61 assumes a pre-form *seh2i-mon-. .VAR a'(vll (Hdt.). but cannot explain the Greek vocalism. It has no established etymology.] conventionally translated as 'flattering'. II£v£aTaL / M£V£aTaL (Schwyzer: 333). sair.DER aiv£w [v. It is difficult to assume that the first part is from � alfla. <!l IE *seh2i-mon. � ixwp .'to drip' (Pok. has £TtaLV£W. (Hes. to Guntert (ibid. [adj. ace. W hufen from the uncertain PIE root *sei. of stone (thus Hdt. Fur.ETYM alfla replaces the old lE word for blood £ap < *h.). 'praise' (LXX.). Aeol. to Guntert 1921: 103.). refuse' (ll. mg. . alvo<. is a back-formation in the sense of 'having aLflwola' (Gal. • aLflwSiw [v. y£<pupa / Arm. as we would expect to see a trace of the suffIx -aT-.g.)..] 'to be set on edge'.] 'wall around a terrain'. cf. it means 'wily'. whence aLflwO LCtw 'to have aiflwola' (Hp..'refreshment'. but rather 'eager' (see below). A direct connection with OHG seim 'virgin honey' is impossible (see on � alfla). -OVO<.. aiflamCt [f. ALflovo<. (see Bechtel 1921.DER aLflwola (Hp. Weiss HSPh. (1946): 68f. [adj.alvo<. positing *aL-flo<. Cf. <!I ?� . aLflol' OpufloL AiaxuAo<.ETYM The word is found in the Thessalian names '!TtTtalflwv. ON sar 'wound'. and � aLflwv.).). <!I ?� .. 98 (1998): 3161. poet. Ace. . Aitnaiai) ' (H.).g. The fact that the meaning 'eager' fits so well in this passage confirms Weiss's proposal. (E 49).esh2-r. in aLfluA lOL<1L A6YOL<1L // 8 £AY£L. kamurj. aLflwoll <. it is related to Skt.ETYM Comparable with Lat. a'(vll <1L<. from the root *Sh2i. to Sommer 1905: 29ff. <!I ?� . 98 (1998): 31-61 in his account of � Ifl£ PO <. (H.VAR Cf. 'longing. 1: 203). which has p for m. also 'decision' (inscr. alflwv. This idea is integrated by Weiss HSPh.'to bind' which he also assumes to be present in � lfl£ P O<.in Go. Att.

aetahmiiiius does not contain a noun aeta. (A. however. 694 (uncertain).VAR On enmv� see Leumann 1950: 258f. � ?� . cf. rarely msc.vm. emla!l£vac. On the expression aivo0Ev aivwc. The verbal noun *ahoc.] 'winnow' (Pherecr. (Timo).). OHG eid).'that'. � ?� VAR Aor. see Solmsen 1901: 280 . 11 with Germanic words for 'oath' (Go.). The same root is found in ToB ai-.' (Plot. interpretation uncertain. �vac.). See � araa. See also LfgrE. QV£W has been explained from *a-Fav-£w (Solmsen 1901: 272) . Thus.).. aivoc.).] 'goat'. see Leumann l.. [adj. • ::: • a'(�. a'{vu!1at [v.).ETYM Comparable with Lat. aivlKT�p 'who speaks in riddles' (S. DER Bechtel KZ 46 (1914) : 374 compares the name of a phratry Faviom (Argos). 'having struck' and yo. which has no vowel before the F.'punishment'. �vm.. a3-ki-pa-ta laigi-pa(s)tasl (?) 'goatherd'. ToA e.. aivlwaTiac. dis-winpjan 'AlK!lUV. also QV£W (Ar. COMP Often with e�-. aivlwanKoc.'goat'� . aivlKTllPiwC. Note that the exact meaning of tlIe word is unclear.40 aivoc. aivi�0!lm [V. aivlwanaT�C. . is at the base of � aiL£w. further aLVWV miaawv 'winnowing'.).).ETYM Etymology unknown.seems to be excluded by yo. Lat. acpuv£w (Ar. a meteor (Arist. [f.DIAL Myc. Connected with Skt. acp�vm' TO TaC. also aivlW0C.). • • • a'{vw [v. thence with a'(vlY!la 'dark saying. vannus 'winnowing-basket'. Kloekhorst 2008 has given a convincing alternative: an i-present to the root *h1p.] 'to take. The Germanic words seem to derive from the word for 'wind' (cf. Ath.vm would imply a non-IE word.)" and it was previously thought to be reflected in Hitt. 'id. Go.] 'part (of a possession)'.).). a'(v l�lC. aiyoc. 10. . . � aiTia.' (Att. pai) 'to give'.. (ll. which is mostly rejected. to winnow'. Kpl0ac. a3-ki-po-de. seize' (ll.'to give (act.] 'terrible' (ll. i. take (med. usually aiviaao!lm (-n-) (lA) 'to speak in riddles'..l. Hp. . � IE *h2ei. from 'to speak words full of content. acpllva· EKo. Compared by Pok.] 'to praise' (Hom.). 394 v.c.'to seize'. Fischer and Ritter MSS 52 (1991) : 9-13.COMP Common as the first member of poetic compounds. but no derivatives. . � 8[mTa. pres.nEplmiam 'strip off the husk or skin' (cod. thence aivlwaTwollC. ventilare 'to fan'). but aLVW has no trace of the -t-. .'give'� VAR Only present. DIAL Myc. but rather the pronoun aeta. -nTuam). OHG winton 'to fan'. Derivation of the Greek word from *h2ueh1. Recently.) and a star (Aratos). also in the verbal noun E�-mLOC. PN a3-nu-me-no IAinumenosl . Eq. Also a water bird (Janzen 1937: 17. aivlKT�C.vm ( Fuvm).). YAv. 'id. In nominal form the root is found in Oscan aeteis [gen. which beside yo. 'selected' (ll.ETYM No etymology.).\!a 'struck'. enas 'crime' by Pok.\!ac.e. but see the glosses. riddle' (Pi.). which was analyzed as *pe-ai-. difficult to understand'. aips. � IE? *h2eig. the present root is eliminated as an example for PIE *a. XEpal Tpl'\!m 'rubbing by hand of the winnowed barley-corns' (H.' KO.

'to make colorful' (Nic.). the type ainoAoc. aioAi�w 'to trick with words' (S . lzaena. � aiwpa. napa KunpiOlC. LaXdC. fr. Antiph. Cf. � aiovo. [m.. perhaps Anatolian. see Leumann 1950: 271ff. (H. aioACto!lm 'to be restless' (Hp.. cf. � aiyiAw'\!.ETYM The compounds in -l. Skt.v. Connection with toponyms like Aiyai..'of leather'. e. 'browsed by goats' (Od. bathe (a wound)' (Hp. 155) .. since Skt.] 'to moisten. The zero grade is often supposed in Av. which is reconstructed as *h2eig-ih2 (Clackson 1994: 88-90 after Meillet). 4..ETYM Etymology unknown..] 'herds of goats' (ll. see Mallory & Adams 1997 s. . On � ai£AoupOC. On alYEC. 'goatherd' < * aiy -noAoc.'goat' looks similar. aioAoC. Greek and Armenian borrowed the word from a common source.). AiyruoC. aja. P. Cra. Benveniste BSL 38 (1937) : 107 connected aiwv. ainoAlKoc. (cf. but we do not know if the word referred to the skin of a goat. etc. � ?� . but is formally deviant. maybe a metrical device. and aiovll!la. Connection with *h2eig. aioAiac. variegated' (ll.).DER Denominaitve aioUw [v. sheer' (ll. Se.COMP As a second member.]. (med. . 399) . unclear the gloss ainoAoc. 2. On the distribution.COMP ainoAoc.· nOlKiAoUC.v. � a'(YlAoc. nor does it mean 'to jump'. . Diminutive of a'(�: aiyiolov (Pherecr.aimjc. ejati did not have a palatovelar. (aim't p£E0pa El 369) and ain�v (noAlv . see � n£Aw and � �OUKOAOC. is at best folk-etymological. thence ainoA£w [v. 'rapid movement' (sch. ainoAla [n. If the connection is correct.] 'steep. 174b.) 'to change color' (Hes. ainoAoc. Thompson 1947 s.· Ko. a'(� is cognate with Arm. also -lOV [sg.] 'to move quickly to and fro' (u 27). Risch Mus. .] 'to herd goats' (A.DER See � aiyic. ETYM Etymology unknown. aye 'goat' (i­ stem). Meier­ Briigger 1992a: 92) . • aiovaw [v. � oi�a. Helv.). dyu­ 'vital force' (formally improbable). aioAioac...] fish name (cf. 'variegated.g. aioAllC1lC.) � PG(v)� VAR A different stem in aino.. aioAla!la 'varied tones' (S.). only present. see on � aiylaA6c. � ?� . . aioA£w ::: nOlKiAAw (PI. [adj. • . see s. PN A'(OAOC.. [adj.' Ta KU!laLa 'waves'. (Theoc. ain�v y 130. Stromberg 1943: 23. 41 . Mu!. 29 (1972) : 97 argued that the original meaning was a color. mostly epic and poet. �wpldC. 'jumper' (Thieme 1953: 571) is rejected by Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 264. => a'(�.pl.] 'agile. 'with glittering (colorful) helmet'. Lys.)... a3-wo-ro IAiwolosl name of a cow.are unexplained (Heubeck IF 69 (1964) : 13-21 is unclear). to be rejected is Latte's correction ai.). 912) . However.DIAL Myc.). A'lYlva.v.DER Verbal nouns aiovllC1lC.).w. (EM). Pi. uncertain). the word could be IE. . aimJC. 409a) . 319) . quick' (H.). Iehn . 412) .. EN AioAElC. glittering. 'peddlar (Cypr. aiOAElOC. Kopu0aioAoc. This could suggest that Avestan.). 'goatskin'.nllAoC. Theoc. is old in any case. For the type *Cai-CoR-. Further aiyi-�oToC.)..::: aE t. etc. Skt. .)' (H.

• • aipEw [v. 359.[f. == • alpa 2 [f.] 'sledgehammer' (Call. 'destroyer' (Th. Furthermore. � OE<PW I 8£. too. DER atpWl<. .ETYM DELG thinks that it consists of a'(pw 'to remove' and rrlvo<.). i. � EAElV is used as a suppletive aorist.VAR Cf. 'to take for oneself. <! ?� VAR Often plur. 'what can be taken or chosen' (lA). a<pupa (Et. alpa<. D. 'who chooses' (Vett.). party. axe-head' (H. Variations shown here include rrl<p. to Schwyzer: 474. fr. this is rejected by Thieme 1953: 586. a[Atw is a contamination of a[pEw and EAElv.). a[p£To<.). choose' (ll.). precipice' (E. Bk.DIAL Cret. and � e�arrlvTj<. seize'. aipwoTj<.e. Further alrro<. rrolElv urrElVaL Kat Xwpl(ElV � OLa TO a'(pElV TOV rrlvov a eaT! TOV purrov 'a porous sieve.: 158 connects it with e�al<pvTj<. aipomvov· aKoTElVOV. Denominative e�-aLPOOflaL [v. From a[p£Tl(w also a[p£TlaT�<. a[pE0Lflo<. OLEA6Elv 'because it passes through the rye-grass'. a[pET�<. or after its removing the rrlvov. eraka. 42). • aip6mvov [n.). Acc.ETYM Specht KZ 66 (1939): 12 connected it with Skt. . alpa<. also a sieve through which wheat is sieved'. . Ka6aLpETTj<. < *airrw-vo<.).] 'to take. a[p£TlKo<. after its making the rye-grass go apart. as well as � a<pvw and � a<pap.). An.\. choice. [f. uyAta6w from uypEw and EAElv. whence aim:tVo<.w and �ITTaKo<. it is from � a'(pw (improbable). labial I '\' (cf. S. grasp. which is a denominative to a[p£To<. aIpa 1 [f. a[p£Tl<.42 alpa 1 . . On eraka-.] 'sieve' (Ar. Lolium temulentum' (Thphr. see Schwyzer: 442. back-formation to a[p£Tl(w [v..). also aipomvov· TO UpaLOV KoaKlvov· rrapa TO Ta<. . the dirt' (EM 38. like the latter part of the final gloss. L. for the type of compound.). med.] 'steepness.VAR Except for late forms like uv-npTjaa (Q.). see Schwyzer: 527.). a'ipw => UelpW 1. it may be a Pre-Greek word reshaped by folk etymology. 'pregnable' (X. <! GR?� · . 12). 'filth'. .. Fur. <! ?� ETYM Unknown. Kat KoaKlVov ev tP rrupot a�60VTaL 'dark. . alPaL. I '\'lTTaKo<.). and anticipation of a palatalized consonant *ap'. 'to be chosen. is an enlargement of aimJ<. Gen. 'steep'. c#vTj 'hammer. which is highly convincing.] 'rye-grass. causing schisms' (late). assuming that both languages borrowed the word from an Oriental ai-. a<pupa.. see � aipomvov. philosophical school (whence heresy) (lA). DER a'(plvo<.ETYM No etymology. 24 continues with ll1tEp TOU Ta<. Berger WZKSS 3 (1959): 48 thinks that the Sanskrit word is of Austro-Asiatic origin.DER ai1t�El<.ETYM � ahjla probably belongs here. the first part of which is clearly folk­ etymological. (Horn. fr.] a kind of grass. 480).). 'capture. Alternatively. Val. see now Klaus MSS 57 (1997): 49-64. for other such forms see Vendryes 1938: 331ff. 115. 'mixed with rye-grass' (Thphr. darnel.).] 'to elect' (HelL).] 'to change into rye-grass' (Thphr.. 'of rye-grass' (Dsc. [n.] 'who chooses' (LXX). <! ?� . Pamphyl. 'adherent' (Plb.

).' (H. knowledge' (Hp. [m.] 'to consume (the apportioned share) (Ion. which builds resultative verbal forms. both mainly philosophical terms. <! PG� . a. note' (lA).(see De Vaan 2008 s.v. take'� .). both the act and the object of perception (cf.). KaT-. aia6�aw6aL (lA).VAR Or rather *u·la6wv (IT 468)."la6E (y 403). [m. exhale' (ll. 6£Ou<. Further related to Skt. intervocalic -a-.] 'part'..). Gr. Adjectival abstract ai01fllaL rrAouTou 'the due apportionment of wealth' (A. *awis-tI'-.).. 996). . See on � ai0Lflvaw. .ETYM We can connect it with a·lov (== TO UrrE1tV£OV Eust. KAaOO<. uval0Lflo<. OCS (j)ave 'evidently'.). <! PG (V) � .. Arist.). Pl. 615b. fut. 'auspicious.. 'perceptible' and aia6TjTlKo<.DER a'(a6Tj0L<. and the suffix -aK-.: 234 compares ai(Tjo<.).). . audio 'to hear' < *h2eui-dhh. and connected with � utw 'to perceive. *aho<.). rrap-. fitting' ( aia6Ea6aL.) in erreL <plAov &. a'iTlo<. ETYM alaa is from the root seen in a'(vuflaL. decree' (ll. destiny..) . � ai0Uflvaw. Note the initial ai-. aia6TjTo<.ETYM Fur. � ai0Uflv�TTj<. [EpaKo<.' as well. whence UVaL0LflwflaTa 'expenses' (Hdt. (Emp."lov �TOp (0 252).. is from *dhh. . aiaapwv· £100<. • a'iO"aKoc.a:La6wv 43 aIO"a [f. See � aiaaAwv.. 'perception.DER a'(0Lo<. derived with -la from a form in -t­ found in Osc. See Bechtel 1914 and DELG. of 6uflov. also found in Arc.] 'share. <! ?� .).) a'(a6Tj0L<..] 'to consume entirely' (corn. etc. . AEa�lol (H. eval0Lflo<. . Some PNs: A'(awv.)..). fA 1243.ETYM Fur.. epic and lyr. A similar pre-form is found in Lat.] 'who perceives' (Pl.VAR Cf. aJ-sa laisa/. 'able to perceive'.ETYM Interpreted as PGr. E.] 'to take as a good omen' (PIu. which are adverbial forms in • == -is.).-ie/o. PIu. Mor. to Nehring Glotta 14 (1925): 183 and Krause KZ 67 (1942): 2144.(a60flaL (Th. aeteis [gen.). A'i0TJrroc.). avis·. An ablauting root shape could be found in �'(a0aa6aL · KATjpoua6al. Eu.'to do. (see � aiTEw).'give. while grasping these. the gods were praised' (H. av KaTExovTE<. Ace. <! IE *h2ei. but much remains uncertain.).'perceive'� VAR Incidentally pres. It is probable that the Greek suffIx -6-. No doubt a Pre-Greek name. 'the branch of the sweet bay. aiCJ(lAWV [m. 'id.ETYM Etymology unknown. <! PG (s. see Thompson 1895. &. whence ai0LooflaL [v. a'(0Lfl0<. oboedio 'to obey'. .] kind of falcon (Arist. The word is Pre-Greek (or Anatolian). also with ev-. Cf.o) � .: 387 gives it as Pre-Greek form with the variation pi A.] 'to breathe out. Av. ALala<. also PN (ll. App.] HN in Mysia (ll. opportune'. etc.DIAL Mye... [?] 6 T�<.] 'to perceive. of which he has more than 30 examples. . aor. apprehend. 'destined. 49 it indicates the bird epI6aKo<. al0"8avoflat [v. to EM 38.). Thence prefixed denominative UV-aL0LflOW [v. ace. etc.-Cypr. uflvOUV TOU<. ul0"8wv [ptc. <! IE *h2eu-is. aia6TjT�pLOV 'one of the senses' (Arist. auuis 'manifestly'. aia6TjalTj (Aret.). hear' < *awis-je/o-. aia6TjT�<. KaTaL0Lflow [v. e�-. oa<pvTj<.

KOpUe-C(l�. <'it�w.VAR Comp. denominative aiaxuvw 'to dishonor'. ETYM Unexplained. from aiaxpo<. However. 4. The word and its derivations are reminiscent of � Ku�£pvaw..DER aiaxpo<. rush (upon) (ll. flee. � o. in Homer e 258 a referee of games.. 'to be ashamed' (ll. aiaXUVT'lAla (PIu. Carg.] 'unseemly. back-formation aiaxuv'l 'shame' (lA). it has -T. atoxoc. Further aiauflvlov �OUA£UT� p LOV in Megara (Paus..). Cf. Danielsson IF 14 (1903): 386£f.). 'ugliness' (PI. a'(atfl0<.. or o. (Ale. (Horn. Att. (Ps.). ugliness'. ETYM Previously derived from � a[aa. Arist. and aiaxuvnKo<. -T£W.). i(foow [v. plur. -T'lfla. 2. from aiaxuvw: aiaxuvT�p 'violator' (A. aiauflv�T'l<. �HW (Att. *a'iatflvo<. vevijyate 'to raise. 'timid. Arist.' (Arist. PN AiaxuAo<. from the verb or from *a'(auflvo<. ? DER o.from the opposite o. => always long in Horn.).DIAL Meg.] 'to move quickly.) after a'iauAa P£�£lV (Horn.: aiaxpOT'l<. aiou�vaw [v. see Chantraine 1942: 110. med. R. (Suid..). . secondary aiaxuvTo<. superl. (aiatflvaTa<. a'(aXlaTo<.? Both a and l are long. aiauflv�n<. 3.aUCP'lAO<.] 'to be ruler' (Horn. shy'. 4).. elsewhere it is mostly short. ugly'. (Max.v-alaXUVTO<. � PG?� . by Solmsen 1909: 36£f. flue�aaaem (opposed to a'iatfla).. Also PNs A'iauflvo<. class. Comparison with Skt. .VAR Pres. distress'. Phoc. . aerumna 'task. R. also 'disgraceful' (PI. 820).VAR aiauflv�nlP (0 347) has a variant aiau(l)�T'l P now preferred by West Clatta 77 ' (1999): 119f..V£flwV alKa<.). � ?� . 'dishonoring.). Verbal noun aiauflv'lTlJ<. aiaxlwv. • • a'iouAoc.l. • = • aiouqHoc. whence o. root noun (il� in o. Astrol. fern. (A. Rare aiaxuvT'lpo<. Aiau�T'l<. Bph.ETYM The overall appearance is Pre-Greek: initial ai-. �aaw (Pi. aiaxpoaUv'l (Tz. aiauflv'lT£la 'office of aiauflv�T'l<. suffIx -UA-. also in � TPlX(ilK£<. and in a[�n (A.ataaw 44 . which must be correct: it explains the interchanges fll F (cf. 998). evil' (Horn. . intervocalic -a-.. Further derivatives: 1.)..). The 0.and compares � aioAo<. .lKa<. perhaps an enlargement of an old u-stem.).. [adj.). . eio£vm. Chantraine 1933: 216 and von Blumenthal 1930: 33 assume a Pre-Greek origin. 525a..] 'shame.COMP As a second member in nOAu-(il�.). except in iJ1taT�£l (<1> 126).) title of a high magistrate in several towns (inscr.: 244) and ul l. fut.). DER aiauflv'lT�p (0 347 v. Ch.. 26 (1958): 404-410 compares Lat. � ?� . Deroy Ant. 'disgraceful deeds' (ll.. in a'iauAa p£�£lV.�aUAO<. and the long L remains unexplained)."(K� 'rush' (0 709)..). dart. aiatflvaw .). and Fraenkel 1910: 172f. aiaxuvT'lAO<. Further details are in the LfgrB. (Miletus).vmaxuvTla. 1302).).. Fur. � PG (v) � . 5.COMP aiauAo-£py0<. reconstructs *aiF-LK. Bp.). move quickly' is formally impossible (no trace of a F in Homer.). [n.

): aiTla [f. �IE *h2eik-(s)m.n-. Gr...). abstract aiXflaAwala.). beg' (ll. � PG (V) � . 1: 201. see Triimpy 1950: 52ff. charge with'. 'prisoner of war' (Pi. . 'share' (see � a'ivuflm.] 'aiaxuv'l' is generally abandoned in view of obvious formal difficulties. and aiT'lflaTwO'l<. adj. aiTl�w = aiT£w (epic since Od. run<. Plot. De Lamberterie 1990: 835-840 plaUSibly compares � a'iooflm.) and aiTlafla (A. From aiTla (or TO ahlov): ainwo'l<. lifTuc. the grammarians created � ainaTlK� nTWat<. D. C.DER Thence (or directly from *alTO<. request.. 31 (1896): 372 and Bechtel 1921.). guilt. which is semantically understandable. = a'{cpv'1c. 'requestor' (pap. also a fish (pap. thence denominative ainaoflm 'to accuse. and late). class. Th. 96 (1968): 257f.) 'accusation.). 3.v. 4.ETYM The older comparison with Go. aiXflaAwnKo<. (Hdn. • ahlOc.] 'suddenly' (E. responsible' (ll. aiwiski [n... aiT'lflaTlKo<. and also to � acpvw. 39). Arist. claim' (PI. � e�an lv'l<.DIAL Myc.. where it is called Thessalian) .'spear'� . spear' (ll. request' (lA). To ainaoflm: aiTlaat<. s. L. . nap-. Arist.. aiXflaAwTl<. -Mv (Hdn. aiT�atfl0<..). 2.DIAL A Doric or Thessalian word.COMP Often prefixed with o. (Arist. 34 Page). D. [m. Act. ete. . 12.. alnaTo<. The adjective aicpvl8to<. accusation'.. D.. cause. Pi.for Greek next to * aid-st.after the change of *ti > at. aiT'lT�<. (A.) . � ?� . Go. ah'lat<.).) aiTlaat<..] 'eromenos' (Ar.).] 'point of a spear. � aiT£w). is more common and more archaic than e�mcpvlOlo<.). whence fern. fil. ah'lfla 'demand.£LTav' TOV ETalpov 'companion' . (Antipho. on the other hand. 14.. e�-. (Arist. � GR� .. Thence denominative verbs aiXflaAwTl�w and . From � a[w 'to hear' ace.. etc. ahEw [v. � a[aa and � ahlo<. positing * aid-sk.COMP aiXfl-aAwTo<.. � GR� . and with the same vocalism aiTlwat<. [adv. ete.). (Horn. O£ TOV epwfl£vov 'eromenos' (Ar.) = aiTlafla. 'causal'. Adverbial forms aicpv'l0l<.. so properly 'case of what is effectuated' (WackernageI 192o-1924(1): 19).VAR Fern... (Eust. secondary aina�oflm (X. may have been added to aiT..).). Arist.] 'responsibility.ETYM ahlo<.. to Diels Herm. . see also Arena Riv.). also Theocr. philosophical term (Hell. see � a'ivuflm. The suffIx . Th. Tebt. . Ap. ETYM A denominative of*aho<.lO<. GaL). C..45 . fr 738. Hp.] 'guilty. .. aistan.. 44). also 'disease'. lA 1581.. charge'.DER More common as well as more archaic is e�alcpv'l<. from TO ainaTov. Alem. . a3-ka-sa-ma laiksmans/. likewise aiTlwfla (pap. aiT'lTlKO<. 701. Int. l\plaTocpav'l<.) 'having a cause' (TO ainaTov 'effect' as opposed to TO ahlov 'cause') is rather directly from aiTla because of the meaning. � acpap.ETYM Related to � ahva. ' aix�q [f. On its use in Homer.DER 1. 'demand..] 'to ask. [adj. (PI. aiTla and aiT£w were derived from *alTO<.ETYM Uncertain.. 'accusative case'. Also o.

.). OPr. 'armed with a spear. Within Greek. uiwvlaflu 'perpetuation.v. with -e. suddenly' (11. *UeLW in a£l' UKOU£l. *aiksma. Nonn.) can also be connected with it.'perceive'� VAR Ipf. u'lXfl'lTle. UiWVlOT'le. 454 verse-fInal). and perhaps � 'lKLUp 'near'.). 'points of the arrow' (H.) to E1tUtW. see • • . uiXfl'lT�pLOe. CilW [v.).. and in E1t-q. and uiXfluAwnafloe. (EM). On the meaning. an n-stem also found in the old locative � uiev 'always'. and late). an£' uKouauT£ (H.indicating the completion of a process. .. As Kloekhorst recently showed..'time of living. naeofl'lv.. NT).. 'lYO'l (Hp. to arm with a spear' (11. iKTeu· UKovnov 'javelin' (H. � E�U1tLV'le.ETYM Sommer IF 11 (1900): 243 connected the word with � ui1tue.uiel. Furnee further connects it with E�ULcpV'le. . � uiaeCtVOflUL.] (Sol. E1t<�.)..) <!! PG� . 'steep' as *ui1t-a-u. See also � oU. 'wounded' (Ruijgh 1957: 136). the laryngeal would regularly be lost. Uncertain is the appurtenance of'(y8te.] 'perceive. whence aor.DER uiXfl�£le.). S. since in o-grade forms *h2ou-. E1t-Ct'LaToe. 'quick' (11. Denominative uiXflCt�W [v. from which a present Mw was formed secondarily. but this is diffIcult to fIt in with the etymology prevailing today: a'LOV < *awis-e/o.£lV (E. DER UiWVlOe. fut. 'enduring. Hell.'to see' (see Kloekhorst 2008 s. with secondary suffIx uiXfl'lT�p (Opp. from uiXfluAWTL�W: uiXfluAwnaT�e. UiWVL�£lV 'to make or be eternal' (Dam.ETYM The ipf. f. ay!? [adv. aysmis 'spit' which may derive from *h2eik-(s)m-. aiwv.DIAL Cypr.: 158) as alternation of a labial with 'V. <!! IE *h2euis. detected' (Hdt.). war-like' (Lye.). awiyesomai. well-being'� . . verb au-i / u. uiXfl'lT& (E 197).] '(life)time.DER ui'V'l poe. a'iov (see below). • aI'Va [adv.] 'always'.'. mOV was considered by Schulze KZ 29 (1888): 251ff. is the connection by Szemerenyi Glotta 38 (1960): 243 with the word for 'ear'. � acpup. Suid. Q.). poet. to be an original aorist.. 'spearman. • uiw . uiee. [m. we further fInd Cypr.] 'evidently.). fem. E1tfiau (E1t�·Lau). hear' (11. Fur. uiXfl'lT�e. Opp. warrior' (11. The word is connected with a. ETYM The Mycenaean form proves PGr. HF 773). etc.) and with Lith. iesmas. eternal' (Pl. though improbable. � acpvw. [f. the Hitt. Within Greek. so the Greek verb is probably a denominative from this adverb.) . ETYM From *uiFwv.W (Att. manifestly' and OCS Wave 'id. � Ui£L 'id. 'perceived.). iKfluflevoe.: 32l. Noteworthy. long period of time.) 'mortar'... Pi. which coexisted with the s-stem in uiw.).is generally connected with Skt.VAR uiev [adv.] 'quickly. monument' (Ostr. . compare aor. 'armed with a spear' (A.. prose). <!! IE *h2ei-u. eternity' (11.. Phot. Schulze found traces of an original pres.] 'to throw the spear..uhvu uiXflUAWT£UW (Hell. the forms can also be understood in substrate terms (with Fur. The original meaning must have been 'point'.).'. 'perpetuitas' (gloss.. but cf. -WVOC. verbal adj . pres.LKAOl· ui yWVLUL TOU �eAOUe.

and the Carian PN j\xrao'l floe. cf. .ET�M Generally identifIed with the fIrst element of EKCt£pyoe.).). Skt. unknown. uiwpa [f. jaunas. (D. Withania somnifera' (Dsc.(like *UFULPW > u'lpw).) . pertica. This type is not accepted anymore. Cf. lntep. yuvan. see LSJ Supp. An old derivation is Lat. Derived from this are Lith. for the semantics. *h2i-eu-s. Fh£Kuoufloe. . Further KCtYKavov = KUK(K)UALU 'Mercurialis tomentosa' (Gal. dat. Taillardat RPh. inscr. aiiu '(life)time'. aKULVU 8£ Ean fleTpov O£KCt1tOUV GwaCtAWV £upeflu (sch. noose. to the root of ueLpw 'to hang').DER AKUO�fl£lU the gymnasium in Athens where Plato taught. also -eoflUL 'to hand. an intensiv� (iterative) verb *FUL-Fwp-ew was reconstructed.ETYM Previously. (H. 47 Stadtmuller Saeculum 2 (1951): 315ff.. lntep-. Latin has thematicized aevus < *h2ei-u-o-. the names in Greece seem to have (had) a F-. just like the development to *uFuj­ and its continuation as (UF)-UL.] name of several plants (Dsc.(Pl. etc. Thence uiwp'lme. St. [lyr.LOOe. FK£-. Gothic has an i-stem aiwins [acc. iuvenis.'young man' from *h2iu-Hen. DELG compares KCtAufloe. which would have given *UFULWP. (Cilicia)? However. Lyc. 24.. Av.] 'swing. auv. gen.with the Hoffmann suffIx ('having vital strength').). UKUKUAALe. Kp�T£e. from which *FULFwpu > uiwpu was a derivation. Fur. 1323. KUKKUALU = aTpuxvoV lntvwTlKOV 'sleepy nightshade.. PG?� . who objects that the aspiration was lost. reduplication would then have resulted in *uFuFwP-. in Attic this form may have been 'EKCtO'lfloe.] . A neuter u-stem is found in Skt. 1: 116. If the word was Pre-Greek.DER uiwpew 'to raise.> *uFwpew (formation as in 1tWAeW. Call. and with the PN Boeot. the varying vocalism can be better understood (assimilations are rare in Greek). <!! ?� . aKUlva [f. halter' (Pl. 204). A. also TupKovo'lfloe..ETYM Traditionally derived from the n-stem � aKWV with the suffIx -lU. [f. [m.]. OCS jun'b 'young' and Go. Byz. Also 'ten-foot rod' in Thessaly (Bechtel 1921. goad' (A. R. perche. Lat. The reduplication with uF-uF. Aeg. the Platonic school (Ar.)' (H. 72 and 122). yaos. 1.before a vowel. vupKLaaou.seems uncertain to me.. but see Lejeune 1972: §2543. hang' (Pi.).).). UKaKUAtc. fr. uiwP'lflu (E.). it may also contain the Pre-Greek suffIx -ULVU (see Fur. also prefIxed with auv-.: 171"7) added directly to the stem UK-. The meaning of -oufl. ayu-..VAR Cf. <!! GR?. 3. 6). (Hero. (which derives from *uek-m). 57 (1983): 21-25 assumes *h2uor-eje.) .pl. 4. KUKUALe.] name of a hero. of which there is no trace in the Anatolian names. In Egypt a measure of 100 square ft. .> uiwp... The measure is in origin the same word.). *h2i-eu-ei.UKUKUALe.(Hp. lA). Paul. <!! ?� . hammock. (Att.). h£KUO'lfl£lUe. yauuoi < *h2oi-u.: 309 separates it from these words and connects the Lydian TN AKUOuflLe. . <!! PG(v)� . AKacSTJ!10C. OAv.. prick.' aveoe. MoFr.). jund 'youth' < *h2iu-Hn-ti-.] 'spike.) . However. -t6oc. hover'. pap. (mainly medic. 'flower of narcissus (Cret. R.).' VCtpKlaaOe.

possibly Egyptian.] epithet of Hermes (11.] only in E� CtKUAUppdTUO �uevpp60v 'OKwvol0 (H 422. CtKUVeWOTjC.ETYM Frisk assumes an Oriental origin. cf. Hes. Kramer ZPE 97 (1993): 146 compares Coptic KUK£. This is unconvincing. CtKUVeEU a plant. <! GR� . as 'kein rauschendes Fliessen habend. CtKUVelC.).KUVeU. (CalL).] 'thorn. also 'backbone. and LfgrE . variants which prove a Pre-Greek origin. Thompson 1895 s.. [m. Sapph. as 'rauschend dahineilen'. of unknown mg. DELG rejects the glosses without reason and assumes a meaning 'benevolent'.).. cf. a compound of CtKUACt and � pEW with suffixal -TTjC.ETYM Probably a substrate word.. • CtKCtKTJT« [adj. and KCtYKUVOV. thinks it was built on aKuKoc. � CtKUKUAlC. CtKUVelWV 'hedgehog'. or man (Od. as DELG assumes.] name of a tree or plant. <! PG? (v) � VAR Thphr. after f!TjTl£TU (which is not easy).' ouvlac.COMP Similar CtKuMppooc. => aKUVeU. but why? Fur. UKUAUppdTTJC. See � CtK� 2.). f!UAUK6v 'quiet. <! ?� . UKUKlU [f..).). . 'acacia' or 'Genista acanthoclada' (Dsc. and CtKUKl£1· <1vVl£l are reliable. Fur. TIpaov.'.. Cf. also a plant name.. CtKuveTjp6C.) . There is no reason to suppose the influence of O. [adv. name of different thorny plants (Stromberg 1940: 17). • UKUAqq>TJ [f. the word could mean 'ouv£T6c. bird name (Thompson s. Suffixal _bh_ is quite common in names of trees and plants. seen in KEAUOOC.. UKUAUVOtC. CtKCtKUC. DER Many derived adjektives: CtKCtVelVOC. 2) has CtKuMq>Tj. soft' (H. . sea anemone' (Eup. Semitic etymology in Lewy 1895: 50.. although there are no clear parallels to it. CtKUVeVAAlC. K£K£. (Orph. 277 (see also 138) compares KUKUALC. • • . (Frisk).).] 'acanthus' (Acanthus mollis) . etc.v. <! PG (v) � .. also � CtKUKlU. <! PG?� VAR Note aKUVeOC. There is no reason for an Oriental origin. Stromberg 1943: 47. Stromberg 1944: 17).. . Meier-Briigger Glotta 73 (1995): 9-11. See also Fraenkel l956b: 168.DER CtKUK�moc. l' 434). CtKUVelUC.. still fliessend'. cf.' (Hoffmann BB 17 (1891): 328). the Ct­ would have been taken from aKUVeOC.: 321 compares KCtKTOC. CtKUVelK6C.goldfinch' or 'linnet'. Thompson 1947 s.).. CtKUVe�ac. K£Ka 'dark'.DER The adverbial first member is only sparsely attested (Hes.] 'stinging nettle.) .ETYM If the glosses CtKUKlac. 'provided with thorns.) and Prometheus (Hes.v.VAR = CtKUVelC. Risch 1954: 395f. etc. 7. kind of shark or grasshopper (cf. . thistle'. ETYM From CtKUAU-PP£FE-TTjC. CtKUAWC.] (Eust. [adj.: 371.). spine' of fish. • aKuvOu [f. and in glosses like CtKuA6v· �ouxov. the color of the wood of the acacia. name of a bird (. and interprets Ct-KUAUPP£lTTjC. (HP 7.ETYM Unknown. The variation v/ Tj could point to a Pre-Greek word..v. Further diminutive CtKCtVeLOV. mild. snake. derives the first member from the root *kelh2-.

<! PG?� . OUK CtKUp� 'not at all'.VAR Mostly in fixed expressions. but the suffix -UVOC. as a substrate word. pCt<puvoC. kaflt(h)a-.). CtKUp� 'a moment'. connected it with CtKUAUVelC.] .g. 'Atractylis gummifera'.ETYM The basic meaning is 'thorn'. and tlIe lndo­ Mediterranean hypotlIesis is quite doubtfuL Most probable is a Pre-Greek substrate element.DER CtKUVlK6c.). with prothetic vowel and u/o interchange. ETYM For the formation.: 371 connects it with KCtpVOC. 49 CtKUVe£WV and -ewv 'thorny break. 'bug'. EKCtpTjV 'to cut' as 'too short to cut': TO �puXU 0 OUO£ K£1paL 0'[6v 1'£ (H. rather points to a non-IE word (words like aKwv.. EV CtKup£1 (XP6vov). .).). 'pine-thistle' is considered basic.ETYM The word has been connected with � aKU<1TOC.). aKuvoc.DER CtKUPlaLOC.. e.]? . Aee. though in this case there is no positive indication except for the ending in short -u (see Pre-Greek). (LXX).] a thistle.). = <pedp 'louse' (H.) . [m.. aKupov => ayxpuv. . the word is mostly derived from tlIe root CtK. but a connection with aveOC. 10 (1955): 309-331 assumes an lndo-Mediterranean substrate word. with K6plC. whence 'backbone. 1"<ji 8ta 'it was a hair-breadth escape'. tiny' (Ar. is cognate. cf.(not even a) louse'? See ' � CtKupL UKUpt [n. A form aKup is attributed to Antiphon (Taillardat 1962: §248). Usually. Denominative verb CtKuve60f!aL 'to be thorny' (Thphr. Niedermann Glotta 19 (1931): 8ff. • UKUpqC. which is quite attractive . Chantraine 1933: 49. but such combinations with Sanskrit are mostly incorrect. -tc. aKupvu [f.VAR Also aKuv. 1) is a type of etymology of the foreign).)..v.ETYM Fur.. TIACtTuvOC. by metathesis of *CtKuveuAlC. CtKUVl�W (all Thphr. spinetum' CtKuVeTjA� mg.] 'small. (as *akan-anti'o-. It is usually connected with � CtKUp�C.. aKuvoc. CtKCtVlOV (H. <! PG?� . (Ar. this is doubtfuL Perhaps .).'sharp'.)..).. 'maple' (and further with OHG ahorn). but this must be explained differently. (D. Belardi Rend. = CtKUVelC. 8Ct<pvTj 'sweet bay' (H. etc. spine'.. <! ?� . . CtKUVWOTjC. [m. Line.). cf. CtK6vTj confirm that the -u. AnalYSis as a compound *aK-UVeU 'sharp flower' (Kretschmer 1896: 403 A. [adj. 'dorniger Fruchtkopf (Thphr.. of time (Ar. 13).CtKap6C. see Frisk) is improbable. -VOC. id. <! ?� . unknown. s. connecting Skt. <1Tjf!ulva TOV EYKE<PUAOV � T�V K£q>UA�V 'brain. there is no reason to assume a secondary Greek formation (as per DELG). . in this respect. aKupvu is most probably a substrate word (note the sequence -pv-) . DELG suggests a contamination of CtKUp�C. also KUTETIWOV CtKUp�C. head' (EM 45. I would rather think that K6plC. <! PG? (s) � . UKclpVUV => CtXUpVWc. TIlJUVOC. UKUP0C.ETYM Traditionally derived from Kdpw.] 'mite' (Arist.

'OKWVO<. <!I PG(Y)� ETYM We may posit *aKap-aTo<.). . uKaoKa => UK� 2.. 16 [lIP]). Fur. <!I ?� . also compounded in CtKlOO£lO�<.pl.). cod.. CtK£WV YAR Also -Eouoa.] 'millipede' (Steph.. 'boat-shaped cup' (com..' (Hubschmied Rev.).. Since plant names are often borrowed. Winter 1950: 12 connected it with K'lT�V'l' 1tAOIOV flEya w<. 'id.. and UKaT'lvaplov (Olsson AfP 11 (1935): 219). see Stromberg 1944: 11.).: UKlOlOV 'small barb' (BCH 29. -EOVT£..). mg. remains sceptical.] . with the same mg. which also denotes a kind of women's shoe (Ar.). Often connected with UK. -ris 'maple'. uncertain. *akar(n)os 'id. K�-rO<.) (Hom. cf.). O.] 'light vessel' (Thgn. (lG 2. . UKaO"-rO<. (H. was borrowed from Lat. <!l IE? *h2ek. 'pointed' (Thphr. we may envisage a substrate origin. but without any obvious reason. has been suggested. 343) is less certain. <!l IE *h2ek­ 'point.). barb' (Hp..). [f. [perf. sharp'� .] 'sharpened' (Il. a reduplicated formation *uK-aK-cr-flEVO<.). 12. cf.yielding u-.c. <!I ?� ETYM Unexplained. CtKlOWO'l<. • .] .). For the formation. 164. and 'lYKpO<. Chantraine 1933: 302) may well be wrong.). UKIOWTO<. � ocpEvoaflvo<. see Pok.'sharp' (see � UK�). A further comparison with KOaTOV 'wooden parts of a wagon' (o.).ETYM From the root *h2ek. -lOO<. which could perhaps belong with � K�'ro<. aiXfl� .(cf. eelt. further uKaT£lo<. if the form is old.). CtKax(�w => axoflal.. [m.YAR A parallel formation is UKl<. arrow. and for the meaning ocpEvoaflvov. but the derivation from * -id-to. For the overall structure. 572). [f. Opp.).] (BGU 1028. 'wood' (H.).v. �UAOV (H. but Nussbaum 1986: 72f. s.nC. �KlowflEVO<. passive verbal adj. OHG ahorn (which is sometimes connected with � aKapva · oacpv'l H. UKfl� GLO�pOU 'point of an iron tool' (Suid. see � �K�.' (Paul. we may compare 1tAaTavloTo<. instead.. [f. eYKapo<. 50 (1933): 263f. • CtK£U£l => UKOUW.ETYM Cf. and Gallo-Rom. form in � UKWK� 'point (of a lance. Schubart's comment ad loCo Reduplicated . aeer. 807). Aeg.] 'needle. (Procl.50 aKaOKa . m. A8afla. and the formation is unclear. which remains speculative.: 371 compares KaoTov' �UAOV.ptc.c. also plant names like UKlOWTOV (Dsc. • uKa-ro<.DER Diminutives uKaTlov. uywy�. etc.COMP On -�K'l<. • CtK� 1 [f. UKlOKAWV [gen. Med. sword.v£<.). as one would expect *UKpO<. -ra UKaT£la (sc. It would be the only relatively certain instance of *h. H. [aTla) 'small sails' (X.'sharp'. cf.'sharp'� . uKa-rl<. CtKaXIl£vo<.] a kind of leguminous vegetable (Pherecr.). aeiseulum 'small pOinted hammer of a stonemason'. 20.). and assume that the word is cognate with Lat. Theoc. [m. instead of UKapo<.ETYM Probably a technical loanword. DER From UKl<..). => UK� 2. CtK£UVO<. 'maple' (H. which point to EV and Kap'l 'head'.

formation unexplained.).may point to a substrate word. �auXlav �y£<. PG?� . In some cases. [adj. [adj. 1.DER UKEWV. seen in several other etyma. [m.. 28).. slender' (H.. 1).). where it is probably conditioned by the preceding � . ' CtK� 2 [f.). 'undamaged (by the K�p£<. from the stem of K£pa-l�w 'to destroy'. . 'weak' (Theoc. (Plb. 1tpq. � aKpo<. (not from K'lpalvw. was 'quiet. Od. <!I ?� .fr.).. Sappho 43 LP). OUK E1tlTeTaflEVa 'weak.] 'short sword of Persians and Scythians' (Hdt. 765) is a late creation. . The optative CtKEOl<. fr.). 86 LP).' �oppa. quiet' (Il. UKlP�' uo8£v�..). u-rpEfla<. 1061). 'id. R. Similar formations are UK�PlO<. Derived from a root UK­ 'sharp'. � aKWV..).<.YAR KlvaK'l<.51 .ETYM It may be connected with � �Ka. mild. intact' (Il.] 'undamaged.).YAR Beside the instr. (S. though the interchange is rare (cf. 126).) and UKlPW<. KlvaK'l<. Lee Glotta 39 (1961): 191-205 connects it with � Kdpw. A.) .). 'unharmed. the form in -wv became indeclinable (I::!.. It is supposed that CtKlvaYfla = • . (Pi. 'pure' (Od. epic).(Il. uKEpmo<. which shows that the original mg. UKq. It is unnecessary to assume a second. soft' (H. adv. but UKlpO<.ETYM Unexplained. -Eouoa is a ptc. 422). fr..YAR uKEpmo<. he compares oKloapov' upmov 'thin. CtK�VlOV' �auxov 'quiet' (EM 48. Fur. ETYM Perhaps an Iranian loan: Benveniste 1940b: 202 compares kyn 'k. The element -ov. this adverb also in uKaAapp£lTQO < uKaAa-p£F£.).) . 'quietly' (H..DER uK'l paGLo<. Fur.: uK£pmo-r'l<. 'discreet. UK�V �y£<. <!I PG?� .] 'silence.).) cannot belong here.). At 360. undamaged' (lA).] 'weak. CtK�pa-ro<.DER UKlOpW1ta�w· Ufl�AUW1tW 'to be dim-sighted' (H. cf. 'were bringing quiet or calm' (H. UK�V.). <!I ?� .. 'the north wind' (H. the meaning may have been influenced by � K£pavvufll 'to mix'. 1.?.' £uAa�w<. However. Crat. (Pi. 999) was metrically lengthened from *uKEpaTo<.. as Frisk does.ETYM Probably from a root noun. CtKivUKq<.ETYM An epic and poetic word. Not related to � aKmva.ov. From CtKEpmo<. Supp. pure'.] (Hes. quiet' (H. uKaA6v· �ouxov.). -EOV-r£. AP). 27. small' (Od. aKaaKa = �ouxw<. in Hom. 218. uKaoKq. 1tpOKVl<. . <!I LW Pers.: 388 assumes a substrate word with v/ p. adverbial in UK�V EYEVOVTO GLW1tn.' (Hdt. but influence of K�p is improbable. UK£pmoaUv'l (Suid. assuming ablaut. see further Bailey TPS 1955: 69. In view of the variant with -p-. but this leaves the formation unexplained. which cannot be considered certain.). uKaACt [n. Mere. Frisk also compares UKlpO<. UKa. flaAaKov 'quiet. uK£pmooflm (Eust. DELG pleads for a unified meaning 'intact. in Sophocles (Belardi 1969: 202) could suggest that the word is Pre-Greek rather than Iranian. � UKfl� � UKOV'l. uK�pa-ro<.). For the interchange 0/ p. independent word meaning 'pure' (Od.). � aKavo<. uKaAav (Sappho 68. cf. .: 388 gives only ol�oa. see Schwyzer: 465. (A. . the l was long in UKlOpO<. calm'. not stretched' (H. (Cyr. 5 .)' (Od. Perhaps. See � aKwv. CtKlSVO<. . 'untouched' (h.) only acc.

722). (Lacon.. asman.] 'wild basil. also 'meteoric stone' (Hes. (Mansion 1904: 64).· nvuYflo<.t £iKOVl w<.'point. ONOM� .l'lvo� [adj.t OtuAeyw0aL 'woman slandered to be crazy. 43).). = oupUVO� � alo'lpov 'heaven. = UKfluio<.) for AUXVO<. Th. � PG. edge' with as.t Otu�uAAoflev'l ' � <pU01V evompl(ofleV'lV Tft iOl<. 53) 'vain woman'. (Hp.] (Hom. Adesp. Klppl<. etc.COMP UKflo-0£TOV [n. = uKflaio<.). thence: 1. asman. • aKlvo� [m. � PG(V)� VAR Also aKovo<. heaven'.).lwv.] 'point. CtKK1(oflaL [v. 'stirring. ETYM Unknown. which is very uncertain too. heaven'� ..: 369 compares Old Georg. -ens 'stone' (with regular depalatalization before m. £Tep<. 'lamp' (H. 2. nOADKfl'lTO<.[m. � IE *h2ek­ mon.] 'to adorn oneself (Pl. DER UKfluio<.'to fill'.). Aeea (Larentia) and Skt.). KunpLOl 'pestle (Cypr. ace.). cf. AUXVO<. to others (Zen.). The relation of these words to OCS kamy. sharp'� VAR The ace. See Fur. cf. . this is highly uncertain. Fur. movement' (H.ETYM A scholion on T 163 derives it from Aeol. iron' (H.). asmens 'sharp side. si-qmili 'hunger'. This seems attractive (cf.'get tired'� . with the root of � TI0'lfll. 1.l� [f. which yields 'not properly cared for.] 'bogey' (PIu. UKKW.DER Also as a PN (PIu. Ot uKflumul name of a gymnastic club in Thyatira (inscr.).and a zero grade -Kfl'l. found in several languages: Skt.: 191. akmuo. still' . uKflumlKO<. UKfl�v is used adverbially in the sense 'as yet. uKflum�<. -ene 'stone' and the Germanic group ON hamarr 'hammer' = • . . timely' (A. � IE *kemh2.).from other positions). 17). 1040b).DER Diminutive UKfloVlOV (Aisop. culminating point. � aKpo<.] 'fasting (from food)' (ll. uA£Tpl�uvo�. Calamintha graveolens' (Dse. Lat.' (Suda 1. -ovo� [m. need'. 3.). though rare.. (EM 515. which Hesychius explains as v'laT£lu. 'full-grown' ('\1 191). (Hdn.).VAR Cf.)' (H. also Klpl<. Blanc 1999: 317-338 proposes a derivation from *kemh2.). 87).. -ou� [f. (H. etc.(KCtflvw) in the sense 'to care (for)'. Av.eic.52 T1VUYflU (Lyr. aKflu.'stone.] 'anvil' (ll.'stone. Denominative verb uKflCt(w [v. edge. ETYM The vowel interchange. 2.. UKfl'lvo<. � PG?� . (ibid. which would point to privative u.] 'to be in one's prime' (lA).) . Klv'l01<. may point to a substrate word. • • • aKf. CtKlPl� [?] . neglected' (see also DELG Supp.. aKf. Gal.) arose under influence of CtKlVCtK'l<. ete. £VO£lU 'fasting. 'in full bloom. OP asman. � IE *h.ETYM A 'Lallwort' or nursery word.] 'stone.).). also CtKKW· yuv� btt flwPl<. ETYM Derivative in -fl� of the root in � UK�. the glosses meaning of aKflwv as 'heaven'. • • UKlpO� => CtKlOVO<. Lith. zenith' (ll.). heaven'.). ETYM Old word for 'stone'. but it may well be Pre-Greek in view of the variations. Cf.'heaven'. UKf. prime. akka (gramm. 30 B) and CtKlVUYflo<. only in T).) 'base of an anvil'. Bechtel 1914 compares KOflwau· yeflouau 'filling' (H.

] 'following.: the idea that the woman is the one sharing the bed of the man is more natural than the other way around.and KOlT'l or KOLTO� 'bed' (Chantraine 1933: 26ff.] 'to whet' (lA). For the suffIx -n-. UKOV'lT�<. Hdn. The double ablaut seems surprising. sequence. but also other plants. see Andre 1956. Leumann 1950: 49). Dioc/. abstract uKoAou01u 'retinue. on which see Chantraine REGr. but there are parallels (see Van Beek fthe.. . [adj.).] 'bedfellow. � PG?� . nominal derivations UKOV'l01<.).). UKOVlTOV [n.] 'follower.DER Diminutive uKoAou01aKo<.DER UKOVCtW [v.).ETYM It is supposed that KUT' aKv'lanv stands for older KUTa Kv�aTlv 'rasp' (K 161). cf. (Ptol. � UKfl� ' ete. 'path' with copulative U-.] 'to follow' (Ar.). with UK­ as in � UK�. uK6AOVeO� [adj. on Kv�aTl� see � -Kvulw . (Haas 1966: 84). explain it as � TpO<p�. and 113f. apud Ath.] the poisonous plant 'Aconitum' (Thphr. Suid. Ath.VAR Boeot. attendants. Denominative UKoAou0ew [v. e. point'� .ETYM Derived from � KeAw00<. in Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 137.CtKOVLTOV 53 (originally made of stone) is much discussed. � aKwv.).DER UKOVlTlKO<. . companion'. 4.ETYM Formation in . 326a). 59-60 (19461947): 225f. . � IE *kei.VAR Often substantivized [m. asnati 'to eat' does not explain the formation. be situated'� . aKv'laTl� [f. R. A connection with Skt.g. morsel' (p 222. and Mallory & Adams 1997: 547. uKovlu<. corresponding' (Att.] 'whetstone' (Pi. .) . Ionic). (H. 52) . further UKOVlOV name of a medicine for the eye (Dse. 47. One supposes the root ak. 1403: en' aKv'lanv). See � K£iflat. Euerg. � PG?� .] 'bit. Th.). � IE *h2ek.].b). it does not point to vowel assimilation.: 371 is to connect it to KOAOV. husband' (ll.ov'l like m:pov'l ' �eA6v'l ' etc. Pl.'sharp.'sharp' in � UK�. cf. 6. (ll. 'acorn'. [f. � GR� . com. The psilosis may be analogical after aAoxo� or dialectal (Lesbian. 7. UKOV'l [f. also. a type of food preserved in pots (pap. (Arist. 17. acc. consequence' (S. (Ed. aKoAo� [m.. .] 'backbone' (A.). A suggestion by Fur. With copulative U. . fish name (Numen..). eX. the feminine is more frequent. 262a and Eust. Maher JIES 1 (1973): 441ff. (Wackernagel Glotta 2 (1910): 1. etc.] (Arist.). aKOlT'l�' -ov [m. whence UKOAou0'l01<. (Chantraine 1933: 207).'lie.ETYM Secondarily built on aKOlTl<. name of a plant (Nic.). On these questions see the litt.)..COMP nupCtKOlTl<..ETYM Possibly of foreign origin.). succession. to Stratt. Phrygian �£KO� UKKaAO<. mostly as a philosophical term. lIP). .) and UKoAou0'lnKo<. Fraenkel Glotta 4 (1913): 42. Nothing suggests an identity with aKuAo<. f.).

). KOpVOC.). 74).] 'fish thistle. Jiithner Glotta 29 (1942): 73ff.. [n. aK£aTWp epithet of Apollo (E. Thence 1. repair' (11.: 121 connects it with KOV�. seem to point to original yod...COMP a<p. A substrate word is in any case probable. 900). OC 714 [lyr. Lyc. as *eh/ h.). aKwT�C. inscr. probably from aK£oflm. epithet of Apollo (Paus. (Hp. ETYM On the final short -u. aKopvu [f. KWVOC.). therefore 'invincible'. aKw[uc.). the cluster -pv. this is hardly possible. 'bars in furnaces' (Dsc. R. 'grasshopper' beside aKuv8u 'thorn.and E<p-.ETYM The ancients derived the word from KOPTj 'pupil of the eye'. 4. (Hes. Also V�KWTOC. .) and aKwT�plOV 'tailor's shop' (Lib.).). because of its deadly effect.· KeVTpOflupa[vTj.. see Arbenz 1933: 93.VAR (a)opvoc. Pailler Lettre de Pallas 4 (1996): 8). aKwnK� T£XVTj 'tailor's trade' (Democr. which (beside avuKwToC. 'midwife' (Hp. inscr. Fur. Cf. 'healing' (Call. E<p-UK£oflaL (Delph. 3.. From aK� perhaps *aKlfloc. Andr. (Cic. 4). [m.: 359 compares KUpU.] 'cure. 2. Stromberg 1940: 150 A. but interpreted as derived from aK£oflm. i. and did not arise by connection with aK. see Chantraine 1933: 100ff.) and aKopvoc. It seems possible that aKopvoc. aK£aTpU [f. Hp..). Antipho). Luc. Thomas 1912: l25ff. tailor' (X.). 'healing' (App. Gal..-Dsc. aK£afllov· iUaLflOV 'healing' (H.] 'yellow flag.. 1. aK£aflUTu 'remedy' (11. would have resulted in *EK-. aV�KwToC. 'curable' (N 115. . 'healer' (Phot. LlKeAO[ 'butcher's broom (plant name) (H.l). aKwlC. impossible.).. thistle'.).· KOpVOC.). Cnicus Acarna' (Thphr. Fur.ETYM Etymology unknown. S. aK£aLfloc. medicine' (11.54 aKopvu . aKwT[OeC. � PG(v)� . Pl. l2a. 5. aKwT�p 'tranquilizing' (XUAlVOC.] 'medicine' (S.· iUTpOC. PN 'E�TjK[uC. flupa[VTj TO <pUTOV 'myrtle'. Adjectives: aKeaTOC. A.e.] 'patcher. The variation a-I a-I zero.. aKwT�plOC. � ?� . • liKOpOV [n. as well as the Myc. An original root *HiehJ. (OKOpVOC. 7.. aKwfloc.). form with j-.). S. The a..DIAL Myc.). Feminines aKeaTp[C.. 2. Iris Pseudacorus' (Dsc. A . Pi.). See Stromberg 1940: 98. a2-ke-te-re Ihakesteresl. but could be analogical in view of the Myc. PN (Styra).). aKuv8[uc.DER Denominative verb aK£oflm 'to a Pre-Greek prothetic vowel. 169).. The compounds with a<p. Stromberg 1944: 17 compares .seems possible. fern. 'healing' (Hdt. Att.). without struggle ! fight (aKOVLTOC. Instrument nouns: 6. 5. DELG's reconstruction *iek-/iak.). Semantically. . Also aK� 'healing' (Hp. 10..ETYM Derived by the ancients from aKOvrrt 'without dust'. � ?� .). 'id.).. aKeaT0p[C.) seems to be from *n-h2k-.and the short -u all point to a Pre-Greek word. it would be used to care for the pupil. aKwTpov [n. form with j-.). AKWTTjp[OTjC. (Attica.) and aK£aTplU 'tailor woman' (Antiph. pap..) 'grasshopper' derives from aKopvu (Stromberg). which would be the Libyan form (Ps.'sharp'. fern.) and aK£aLOC. It is quite thinkable that the psilotic forms are epicisms or Ionic forms. Q. originally from aKoc. abstract aKeaT0p[U 'art of healing' (A. cf.' (PIu. ja-ke-te-re Ijakesteresl. see below.] 'darning needle' (Luc.

(comparing Lat. formally. 56 = Et.ETYM Fur. .would be expected. to hearing' (Arist. In support of such a compound. aKouaT[�w 'to make hear' (LXX). . Diminutive aKotOloV (gloss. �Kouaflm.. 0 263) 'well-fed'..).). observes (Cypr.). 3. but the analysis. � IE *h2keus.VAR Perf. EnuKouw. [adj. Lysipp. . as a word for food in general (cf.). � ?� .). of Lnnoc.ETYM Hesychius calls the word Cyprian. aKouOlfl0C.). 2. (Iamb.). aKo� 'hearing. 'audible' (h. OC 518 [lyr. from the word for 'javelin'.)' (H. whence aKouaT�peC. it is a substrate word (nl <p.] 'to hear. The word has often been explained as a compound from CtK. 'listener.) (H.and KoaTu[. aK�Kou. Hp. audience' (Gal.). See . pupil' (Men. also 'to obey. un�Kooc.] . Bechtel l921.). 'kind of magistrature (Metap. Unclear is aKoanAu· EAaXlam 'slightest. ahs and OHG ahir [n.). (Z 506. cf. Arist.] 'to hear'.: 159 compares CtKpunviJc.).. but its relation to MW iach 'healthy' is uncertain (Schrijver 1995: 103). . 'fit for hearing' (S. ear' (with shortening in hiatus) < *akQa < akQha < *akowha < *akowsa. 338. Thessalian.). lA). It is compared with Lat. inviolate' (E. aKOUaT�C. axvTj. aKOaT�aUC.DER Denominative verb in the ptc.­ Luc.55 connection with OIr.COMP VTjKOUaT£W < */}-h2k-. be called' (11. in which a suffIx -T� with substantivizing function is added to *akos. onus-tus. Go. acus -eris [n. Diminutive aKouafluTLOv (Ps. is rather weak. aKouaToc. 'hearing'.). Deverbative aKouu�oflm [v.. Philopatr. However. venus-tus and perhaps locus-ta).] 'chaff. this could also derive from aKou�. If this is reliable. Desiderative aKouae[W (S. tiding. (mss. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1961): 652 proposes *ako(n)sta < *akont-ta 'barbed'.. KUT�KOOC.] 'ear (of corn)' (see Frisk). Mere.] 'unmixed. Al. (oral) teachings' (S. CtKOOTiJ [f. rather point to foreign origin. -£W (AB 213 [gramm. plur. 9 apud EM 531.'hear'� . nupa MeTUnovT[OlC... aKouaTlKoc.). Gud. ul m). 15). (H. fr. sheer.). CtKpaiJc. The primary verb may be found in the gloss aKeUel. the scholion on Z 506...).ETYM Related to Go. 'sounds' (Arist. X.. aKouaT�pLOv 'lecture hall. aKouaflu 'sound. CtKPUl<pViJc. WT-UKouaT£W 'to eavesdrop' may be compared within Greek...) may have lost its vowel. See .. 1: 204). Porph. see Kuiper 1956: 221. but this is not certain. CtKouaflunKoc. En�Kooc. . D. denominative verb aKoU�n· aKouac.· . hausjan 'to hear' as *h2kous-ie!o-.. Phld. 4. KO£W. Them. untouched. rarely act. 106). KUTUKOUW. aKouOlC.DER aKou� (11.... pure. not at all' (H. listen' (Horn.VAR aY0aTu[. 5. Often prefixed: unUKOUW 'to be obedient'.'sharp' and oDc. Epic. KunplOl 'watches (over). aKouw is from *aKoua-yw .] 'barley' (Nic. => aKpoc. 'ptng. the forms with -y. if these are old.. KOaTU[ = aKo aT� (H.). an e-grade *akes. . apx� nc. aKeUa· TTjpeI. -ic. � PG(v)� . CtKpulluAU => CtXpuouflUAU. CtKOUW [v. hicc 'healing' has been suggested. -ic.. rumor. aKouaToc.). H. H. the discussion on CtKOuu�oflm below. cf. -u�w. etc. " aKwv.l)..

). is improbable. cf. 2. legislation'.) .l0<.l.aKpuTl<0!1Ul => KEpCtVVUf. -aaT�<.). � ?� oETYM Unknown. UKPl�OW [v. next to UyAl<.'. may secondarily mean 'reader' (Philostr. UKPTjTO-XOAO<. = EUKPUTO<. it was changed to UKPOXOAO<. -ovo<. oETYM Literally "with unmixed bile". from *uKpaT-xoAo<. Thence uKpl�wm<. precise' (Hp. � GR� . See � KEpCtVVUf.] (Pl.). (Arist. in the dative-Iocative in -I. oETYM The old etymology with UKpO<.'mix'� oDER Abstract uKpuxoAla. comparing y£Ayl<. uKploa (H. (H. a substrate word for a grasshopper is not unexpected.).. [f. -t<. Tichy MSS 36 (1977): 151-172 explains the word from UKpl<. as the formation is unclear (see Chantraine 1933: 172f. is hardly acceptable. It is most improbable that KpEf. 'well-mixed'. that the word is from UKpO<.lWV· KCtf. female slave who grinds corn (Phrygian)' (H. aKpi��<.lWV (Eratosth. UKPl<JTlV KAEmplav. also pass. However. 'exact observance' (J.). with *uKpa<. it is a desperate attempt to reduce the word to known elements. which shows that it is a substrate word. 6 UKpOWf. Fur.). exact knowledge' (Phld. Epicur.' (Att. denominative UKPUXOA£W [v. denominatives: 1. which leaves the U­ unexplained.' � uyae� (scil. · 3· UKPl�Ct�W [v. � PG(v)� oETYM Hardly related to KPI�w 'creak' (Stromberg 1944: 15ft). Like the etymology. (Hp.). � PG(V)� oVAR Accentuation after Hdn. whence uKpl�aaf. [adj. � IE *kerh2.). -ISo<.). 54£. Of course. Ion.lwv. a suffix -st. Winter 1950: 15 connects it to K£pKa· uKpl<. shaft' (H.L. on the mg.. 'to be proud' (LXX.' -aaf. also 'legislator'.. .la�. aKpl<. pap.: 115 adduces UypEf. Gr.).). Fur.). Brugmann IF 17 (1904-1905): 174ff. 'mountain top'. uAETploa.). and ��vat 'to go'.).. mostly have -£f.] 'to investigate accurately.lTCCt<.. [adj. UKPl�Et)W [v.lEVO<.] 'grasshopper' (n. <D pUylo l 'female thief.could be Pre-Greek.lL.] 'to hearken. Aq. the mss. aKpaXOAO<.la 'precise account.. obey' (X. suggested that the suffix -(i)stis is Phrygian.)..).] 'to investigate accurately. = UKPUTO<.) and ElJKpa<. 33. Did. oETYM The explanation by Schwyzer Glotta 12 (1923): 12ff. 1.) « *UXEPOOV [Bechtel 1921. etc. Kretschmer Glotta 22 (1934): 205f.] 'exact.. y�) (H.). give precise instructions' (S. for the variation. 'investigator'. branch' (Simon. [m. 2: 671]) is less convincing.] 'bough. Furnee's further comparison with uXTjpov. and E'l�w with early itacism.) is due to � KpEf.ll. Mpu 'pole. also 'law. Thd. also intr. Later. see Stromberg 1937: 141f. oDER uKpl�Ela 'precision' (lA).).: 127 accepts this. Aaf..). torch. 'precise investigation'. aKp£!1wv...) and uKpl�wf. � GR?� oCOMP uKPl�o-Aoyla (Arist. uKPTjXOAITj (Hp. assumes the same first member occurs in UKP�TCEOO<.] 'raging passionately' (Ar. 'to be exact' (Arist. aKpoao!1at [v.] 'to use accurately. etc.

. Hitt. e.g. Szemerenyi SMEA 3 (1967): 69ff. pupil'. and � uKopva. (gloss.. sharp side'. uKpoaf.). 'hearing. Hes. 0Ir.) 'from the highest point down'. -wvo<.. epithet of the wind (� 421.). point'� oVAR Old substantivized forms uKpa [f. UKPWV.laTlK6<.). diminutive UKpWVCtplOV (ibid. bekur 'rock sanctuary' is unrelated.g. etc. whence UKpOaTlKo<. topmost.). � ui<6aTTj. uKpoaT�pLOv 'lecture hall. the Iliad still has UKpTj J10Al<. Axrotalus PN 'with high forehead'.) � of <J1'Ctmv. A connection with the root *h2ek­ has been assumed unjustly for many words.. cf. sternpost of a ship.uKTalvw 57 oDER uKpoam<.).]. Phld. -u. however.). UKpwTEp�aat· KO'/lat � uxpElwaat 'to beat. From UKPWT�pLOV: UKpWTTjpla�w 'to remove the stern. see on � OKPl<. � uKaA�cpTj. uKpla· � AeTjvu £V 'ApyEl (H. probably 'mutilation' (cf. 8. aKTUlvw [v. J1poaJ10lE1Tat (H. song' (X. also 'lecture (hall)' (lA). also personified as 'lecturer. [f..). be keen to hear' (Frisk GHA 56 : 3 (1950): 21).).la 'what is heard'.lo<.). plur. also adverbial uKpad J1AEiV (Arr. (Opp.. 'listener. �Ctmv. and � 013<. The derivation is straightforward semantically. uKpoaT�<. oETYM Commonly derived from a univerbation of � UKpO<. Str.lo<. the discussion on UKpwTTjplaaf.). but probably originally 'blowing onl from the heights'. 594) is often interpreted as 'blowing vehemently'. � ?� . UKpOV [n.] 'extremity' (Hippiatr.. thence uKpoaf.. hence 'completely. abstract uKpwvla (A. acer. 'fit (only) for hearing' (PIu. also name of other goddesses.). Substantives: UKpOTTj<.). uKplat· Ta UKpa TWV 6p£wv 'mountain-tops' (H. oCOMP UKPOTCOAl<. See further � UK�. aStras.. below). aKpo<. Arist. Ap. Hom. outermost' (n.). � IE *h2ek. Denominative verbs to UKpO<. er 'high'.. mutilate. only Epigr.).: OWf.). sing.] 'at the farthest point. e.. PIu. and several r-derivatives from it are found: Skt. 'dwelling on heights'. OCS ostrb 'sharp'. cf. also = UKpO<. HelL). (Od. Arist. promontory. probably directly from UKPO<..'.). plur. � UKf. on UKpwaaEl' UKPOUTat. also KaT' UKpTjeEV (which became KaTa Kp�eEV by association with KCtpa). £KWV OUX lJJ1aKOUEl. headland. 188).] 'hill-top.'sharp.lWT�plOV. mountain peak' (Od. 1035. [m..lo<. epithet of several gods. perfection' (Hp. aKpo�u<JTlu => J16aeTj. Puhvel HED s.] 'highest or farthest point. e. -re (with unexplained length). cape'.). audience' (Act. see Risch IF 59 (1949): 20. also 'extremities of the body' (lA). oWf. lecture.. catur-asra. render useless' (H. whence 'to prick the ears. Lat.v. Op. also 'to jut out like a promontory' (Plb. 'rumor. Gaul. oETYM The root *h2ek. <D 12).is widespread in IE.] 'corner.'quadrangular'. Ph. uKpa�<.). Gr. cf..[ (Epich. OLith.. asri. uKpalo<.g. UKPWT�pLOV 'projecting part. (Dsc. Eu.l�' and � OKPl<. obeying'. see Leumann 1950: 56£f. amputate' (lA). singer' (Plb. KaT' UKpTj<. oDER UKpl<.] 'to erect' (A. Plb. 'Ta UKpa £aeIElV' (sch. 'highest point. that denoted the top of the ear. UKpOCt�0f. 7). utterly'.: uKPI�w 'to go on tiptoe' (E.). always plur. -ov [adj. also 'reader' (Att. � 253. (J10AlO<. Verbal nouns UKpWTTjplaaf. but some formal difficulties remain. -ris. completion. uKpwTTjplam<. -lO<. cf.) see Frisk GHA 56 : 3 (1950): 22.

CtKTlVWOfj<. -a. � PG(v)� oETYM There is no trace of initial digamma. UKTl<. � fl£T£WPl�WV 'willing. bank' (which seems quite convincing).] 'staff (Achae.). Hp. Bechtel l914. IE?� oDER CtKTalo<... uKTEa [f. the fern. � UKT� 2. as a v. CtKTala is also the name of a plant (Plin. -l6o<. -ov 'located at or belonging to the coast' (Th.] 'who lives on the coast' (A. often �fjfl�T£p0<.: 127 is right in comparing DXefj. hae'i 'ash'. It resembles Skt. 'stone from Piraeus or Argolis' (IG. 'unable to move' (H. Schwyzer: 705f. � ?� oVAR Contracted CtKT�. also CtKTfO<. o DER CtKTlVWTO<. -0<. to Frisk and DELG. edge' (ll. Ph. rocky coast.).. or lifting (the spirit)' (H.) and OHG atuh. also 'spoke of a wheel' (AP). CalL).). UKTll 2 [f.] 'promontory. Witczak Linguistiea Baltiea 1 (1992): 20l-2U) connects it with Arm. one meaning seems to be 'night'. but this is doubted by DELG.). as DELG rightly points out. � ?� oCOMP Frequent as a first member. CtKTalv£lV' fl£T£WPl�£lV 'to lift (the spirit)' (H.). o ETYM The only suggestion is that it derives from a. beam oflight' (ll. 10. Skoda 1993: 275-283 thinks that the word means 'ear (of corn)' and therefore belongs to CtK.) and Apollo (A. 668b) is rather from � CtKT� 2.). o DER a. [adj.).). Schwyzer 1937: 70).).KTlOV and CtKTlVfj).l. Fur. CtKTCt�W [v. CtKTlVfjOOV [adv. [f.'sharp' is possible ace.] 'to banquet' (which would derive from *'to banquet on the shore'. � 6Pfl�<. oETYM Derivation from CtK. P.KTlOV = CtKTll (Ael. CtKTLTfj<. which forms tree names. it could be a substrate word (variations a/ 0. R. 2. 157). [f.. CtKT�' Tp0<P� 'nourishment' (H. Borrowed from Greek are Lat. -ivo<. 'provided with CtKTlV£<..). and WOl<.: 127 compares *6Xefj in � dSoXeo<. £TP£floV 'were trembling' (H. see Immisch PhW 48 (1928): 908. KT/ Xe). for which reason it cannot mean 'flour'.)..'sharp'. which he disassociates from � 6�ua.' (inscr.). 21). � PG?.. at(t)ah.' (Luc.KTlO<.). see Chantraine 1933: 92 ([Tfa.).). aete (Plin. 'bar of wood supporting a chariot-pole' (Poll. 320 on 6X�' This evidence cannot be ignored. Sambucus nigra' (Emp.KTlVO<.KTW (cf. a. The explanation as a univerbation of CtKTalVW (*CtKTCtW) and tp£lOW (Frisk) seems most improbable.. 1lT£A£a). see also ibid. AleO<. Cf. for un£plKTalvovTo (\V 3). Unclear are CtKral�wv· CtKr\l�WV. but the meaning of the latter is very difficult (see Renou 1937: 6. UKT1l 1 [f. another has been .yw through *CtKTCtW or *a.). of noo£<. and probably derived from a noun. yAWXl<.] 'ray. and CtKT� 'corn' is a substrate word.). npOeUflOlJfl£vo<. is built like O£A<Pl<.] 'corn' (ll.] . (Thphr. aktu-. � ?� oETYM Unknown.] 'elder-tree.. Cf. unoaKTalvovTo. S. CtKTlTfj<. 'shore.). or CtA<pLTOU CtKT�. Kuiper Yak 2 (1953): 81f.] 'id. [m. nAfjpwv. but if Fur.] 'like beams' (Philostr..).).58 oVAR Aor... a. 89f. see Stromberg 1940: 115 (also on a. PIu. oETYM On the suffix -fa. [m. rough shore. epithet of Pan (Theoc. full of impulse. oxrmvwCJm (Anacr. Also CtnaKTalvwv' 6 KlVilCJem fl� OUVCtfl£VO<.. Delos Iva Miehel 815. oETYM CtKTl<. UKTTJpl<. Cf.

e. point'� oDER Diminutive CtKOVTlOV (h. It is rather a substrate word (Fur. often made of alabaster (Hdt. is improbable. but Kuiper thinks it means 'ray.KUAO<. lO62).] 'alabaster'..KOAO<. CtKOVTlCJla = CtKOVTlCJl<. CtKovTla<.] 'point of a lance or sword.KWV. 'ptng. .. Mere. Chantraine 1933: 86.). cf.. CtAa�CtCJTplvO<. which excludes derivation from 'night'. 'id. CtAa�aCJTpWVlT'1<. dart' (ll.). as it shows no trace of a labiovelar. crab'. . to throwing the dart' (PI.).). CtAa�aCJT1Tl<. as Gr. cf. Agent nouns: CtKOVTlCJT�<. (pap. etc. 'javelin' (Str. so perhaps the -vT-suffix is original. X. [m. to the word for 'night' is excluded. Schwyzer: 500a. � PG?� oETYM See Petersson IF 34 (191411915): 241.] 'javelin.).). CtKovTlCJfla 'distance of a dart's throw' (X.) [m. uno oE Kunplwv flaplAfj 'coal-dust (Cypr. 'game of the dart' .] 'vase without handles for storing perfumes'.'sharp. also 'meteor'. [m. and Nonn.). From other languages. PIu. CtA6.). KapKlvo<. (SIG 1060. it is probably a Pre-Greek word (note -a�-). (AleO<.g. more recent CtKOVTlCJT�P 'id. CtKOVTlCJTlKO<. asani­ 'point of an arrow'. Because of its structure. 'coals' (H.] 'alabaster quarry'.)..). -OVTO<. ahana 'chaff. from the root *h2ek. a. *U1JXtwon.'to smear'.) Relation of CtKTl<.' (ll. aKwv.'sharp. 'throwing the javelin' (X... CtAa�aCJTpwv [m.: 25532) because of CtKuAalov. CtA6. 3. CtKOVTlCJTU<.]. since -UA. because of its speed (Nic. Lat. CtKOVTlCJT�P also as 'spring. CJnooo<. AleOToflla) 'alabaster quarry' (pap. [m. see Zingerle Glotta 19 (1931): 72f.] (ll.] = CtKOvTla<. etc. Opp..). [m. point'� oETYM Reduplicated formation of unknown structure: *h.59 derived from anj. as � a.v. � IE? *h2ek. also used as an adjective in Opp.).. Plo). � PG(S)� oETYM Connection with Skt.. we can compare Skt. CtKOVTlCJl<. cf.] the edible acorn of the Quereus Ilex (K 242). uhtwo [f.] and CtAa�aCJTplVfj (scil. Gm. 460. and ON Qgn. Thus it remains without an etymology.Kmva need not be a derivation of the stem of a.). CtKOVTlAO<. oETYM a. CtKOVTlCJfl0<. [m. -TPOV [n. Go.).' (E. 'id.). however.'.' (H. CtAa�aCJTplTfj<.or (hardly feasible) *hJ-o-hJ-.�fj· a. nfTpa (Callix.).] 'to throw a javelin' (ll.. 'worker in an alabaster quarry' (pap. the zero grade of which is also found in Go.. uAa�aoTo<. Verb CtKOVTl�W [v.)' (H.]. embers. anksti 'early' requires an initial laryngeal.KWV is considered to be a derivative -n. further CtAa�CtCJTplOV [n. 'soot.). asnati 'eat' or with � a. plo agnar 'id. (ll. [m.).�fj' AlyVU<.'sharp' (see � CtK�). But there is no proof for this. CtKWKll [f. uAa�a flfAav tP yPCt<pofl£v 'black [stuff] with which we write' (H.). f. Further CtKOVTlCJT�PlOV 'ballista' (Agath. 2.] 'kind of snake'. vu� shows that there was no laryngeal.VepaK£<. � IE *h2ek. Str.'night'. Theoc.of the root in � CtK�.< *1'JkWt-u-n-) 'dawn' (Lith. fountain'. 5. verbal nouns 1.). shooting (of stars) (X. [m.. 4.] < PGm. light'. Hdt.(e)k-h2ok. This has been connected with *nolekWt.).). � LW� oVAR Later CtAa�CtCJTpo<. De Vaan 2008 s. agna 'ear (of corn)' (which could be a substrate a frequent Pre-Greek suffix.. Arr. oDER Diminutive CtAa�CtCJTlOv (Eub.).).

CtAUTe[U (A. ETYM An elementary cry. 0 aAUAa interjection (Pi. and Kretschmer Glotta 9 (1918): 228ff. See Theander Eranos 15 (1915): 98ff. Fur. quack. CtAU(OaUVTj 'bragging' (Aq. Late CtAU[VW (see Schwyzer: 733). whence CtAUAUYf. (Hdt.DER CtAU(OVLKO<.. CtAUAUy� (S. to be banished' (11.LUL 'to wander'). �AL08eP £<. this interpretation remains uncertain. refugee. 18). PIu.) with present mg.'wander. 1914: 117f.).). Perhaps it simply became an appellative.).60 . 'priest' ( evidence for a substrate word. == aAU�'1" => aAAa�Tj<. [m. . just like vandal (though with a different meaning).).. Nachr.Ak.] 'wanderer. CtA�TL<.could be Pre-Greek. this is not very convincing.). aAaoflUl [v. the accent.]. CtAUA�f.).DER Deverbal aATj (Od. also personified AAUAa.). -u')o<. perhaps originally "beggar priest". [f.). balzai) 'to cry.] 'cry of war. -<I ONOM� VAR Also CtAUAU[ (Ar. Chr..). CtAaTU<.. Arr.] XALUPOV.. also a PN. Rare CtATjT�P name of a dance (Aristox. Hdt. roaming about' (Od. Chantraine 1942: 190). CtAaATja8UL.: 32926 uses the -p.). -uyyo" [f.l). Hp. this is doubtful. H.. Denominative verb CtAUAa(w 'to call CtAUAa' (mainly poetic). but it could be analogical..). roam. boaster' (Arist. The sequence -st. alala-bhdvant.ETYM CtAU(WV is identical with the Thracian EN AAU(WV. See Burkert RhM 105 (1962): 50f.. -<I ?� .. . -<I ?� VAR Also as a adjective. CtAU(WV (Hdn. [lyr. substantive 'war cry. Al..). CtA�8Tjv (Horn. like Skt.L0<.). of victory' (11. of fear. • • • aAUAuy�.] 'charlatan. perf.) . also [adj.(RV.] 'to roam about (as a beggar or refugee)" thence CtATjTe[U. Dor. CtATjTLKO<.). see Wackernagel Gatt. vagrant' (Od. CtAaAUYf. -6vo" [m. (D. 'making cheerful'. which Kloekhorst 2008: 276f. choking' (Nic.VAR Aor. analyses as *h2lt-(o)i-. roam about'� .. Of course. 89 (1963): 214-218. (Horn.LU (Call. • == aAUl6ept" [adj.. Cf. of water). on which see Masson RPh. CtAU(OV[U<... aAu�wv. . � OAOAU(W..Sb. braggart. rover. whence CtAetU (AB.ETYM Unknown. exultation' (Pi.. invoke' by Van Windekens KZ 100 (1987): 307f.). explained the form as Egyptian: *'a-la-baste 'vase of the goddess Ebiste' ( Bubastis). DER CtAUATjTO<. 'boastful' (Hp. E.). (cf. � £AeAeV. -<l ONOM� . improbable Leumann 1950: 211 (connecting CtAaATjf.).] 'beggar. Implausible is the connection with Hitt. [m. CtA�TWpO LepeU<. CtA�TTj<. trag. X.). like � CtAUW or � CtAa0f. warmed in the sun' (H. also as a plur.ETYM Sethe Berl.LUL. f. .] 'to wander. 'warm. -<l IE *h2elh2. To CtA�TTj<.).ETYM One suggests contamination of AUy� 'hiccup' and another word.). Arist.LeVO<. denominative CtATjTeUW [v. E. trag. Does it contain CtAUAa? It is rather a primary onomatopoeic formation (with the Pre-Greek element -u [y ] y -).] 'gulping. 1933: 888f.

(u 252). -<l PG (v) � . The future Auna�eLV is found twice in A. .. see DELG. as an epithet of n£v80<. 130). to Leumann 1950: 211 also CtAUATjTtp (IT 78).' and PIt. (Th. � CtAUW. 531.) .L 267 f. denoting an emotion. feeble' (Horn. (A. aluM 'id.). but cf. S.Lo(Of.] 'blind' (11.LOaUVTj (Man. (L 503) 'blinding..ETYM CtAaof. perhaps 'full of wrath'.LaVTLo<. cf.for PIE. trag.VAR Cf.DER CtAUnuovo<.. CtAUna�w. blindness'.) has a strange formation.(Schwyzer: 489). on � CtAUAa.). Fur.).ETYM The interchange u/ e clearly points to a substrate word. either from CtAU<JT£W or directly from aAU<JTo<.). Eu.LUL. The original meaning seems to have been 'to empty'. whence also digging' (H. dlpa. ETYM A connection with Skt. and with analogical -0. acc. 'exhausted. but also of men. £ltLOOpUT[OO<. (like CtKLOVO<. and axo<. CtAaAUy�o � nAavTj 'wandering' (H. Also CtAa<JTOpo<. 53. e.) .?) CtAUOV. K 493 == f. CtAanu�u. aAuna�w [v.). aAu6" [adj. A. The explanation from � Aaw 'see' is problematic. ambulo 'to walk'. == • aAupu TO TOV 06puLo<. CtATjf. further Auna(£Lv· £KKeVOVV. Call. or 'distraught'? Also CtAua-ru[vwo ouanu8£w 'to suffer a hard fate' (H.. Action nouns: CtATjTU<. 0 • UAUOLO" [adj. 61 Further CtA�f. 562 probably has Aunuovov (cod. Ctcp' OD KUt Tt) 6puYf. The interchange of the prothetic vowel points to a substrate word. . . a PN in Horn.). The word has been compared (but hardly correctly) with Aanu80<. (-Tjo<. pres. X 261)? -<I ?� . . fut. S. � �AaaKw.: 371. CtAUnuovoaUvTj (Q. A. � aALO<. which is not evident semantically. the compounds with £�-. often with negation. as a privative formation should have barytone accentuation. attributively of gods.) . destroy' (Horn. TOV UUAOV T�<. *ala.: 371 compares Aunupo<. cf. which can be compared with Latv. AunapTj by DELG and Fur. . See Fur.DER Denominative verb CtAUOW (Od.? Perhaps 'accursed' as a vocative (aAU<JTe.: 347. : CtKLP0<. which may mean that it belongs to the Achaean layer in Homer (Ruijgh 1957: 160). EM 57.] uncertain mg. alpstu 'to faint' is formally impOSSible.. which provides a metrical problem.LUL is an old intensive verb in Lat. [lyr.Lu· ooo mo p[u 'journey' (H. Wackernagel 1916: 127. d<. doubtful in Ag.). Cf. . 'roving' (Call. Denominative verb CtAU<JT£W (Horn.] . aATjf. cf.LUL..).] 'to drain. See � CtA£0f.VAR Aor.).aAuaTo<. The usual word for 'blind' is � TucpA6<. 47. <KUt O£vopu CtAUp[UL> Ctcp' <Dv y[VETUL Ta 06puTU (H.DER Original noun CtAa<JTWp 'avenging spirit' or 'he who does deeds which merit vengeance'.. A.LWV 'roving' (Od.ETYM No etymology.'small' and Lith.Lu 'to empty out.g.). B. R. U amb-oltu 'must go around'. 1095 says that the word was Cypriot. -<l PG (V) � VAR £AaPULo Ta £V Ttp UUAtp TWV oopaTWV a p f.).. £nUAU<JT�au<. � Kapuu IToVTLKa. -<I ?� . derivative CtAUaTop[u (J.LeVU (H. Thence CtAUWTU<.). (also of related words). Aunaaaw 'to empty' is used as a medical term. plunder. Man. Perhaps 'insufferable'. AP). LIV2 reconstructs a root *h2elh2.). A£n-) CtAUnuovov. £f..LnL1tTOV.

COMP See � £7taA�c. UAYEW 'to suffer. upyaAEoc.] 'warmth'.' (poet. ETYM The words is often connected with � UAEyW. warm up' (Arist. Gr. grief (11. in uvaAO�C.'singe. . hot' (Ion. 2.).). thence upyaA£o-rf]C. poet. UAUKP0C. UA£�C. after <pa£lvoc. Arist. UA£OV· e£pf.). Although this has a different meaning 'to take care. Seiler 1950: 85. UA£Ct�W 'to be £v-). 2. zero grade of £V ("invisus. Thence UAYUV<JlC. . (Phlp. UAO�£lC. zorgen 'to take care' beside MoE sorrow). Thence UAWV-rlKOC. The root *h2el. who defends the identity. apud EM). cf..ETYM uAoaLvw. etc. -Of. on UAYf]p0C. • = aAta 1 [f. 'infertile' (Hp. be worried' (lA). <!l ?� . see � £l'Af]. (Theoe.) and UAYUV-r�p (Zos. fut. Thence UAYf]<JlC.) < *UAYW-VOC.'feed. Iterative preterite UAO�<Ja<JK£ (Orph. Ar. Denominative verb: UAWLVW 'to warm (oneself)' (Hp.).ETYM Derived from the verb seen in Germanic and Baltic (OE swelan 'to burn slowly'. (H. 'id. ratlIer impf. .] 'to make grow. aspirated UA. assuming an original meaning 'one who cannot forget or .. L. on UAWLV£lV below. but hypothetical with regard to the meaning. . metrical device.. Pl. 'id. <!l IE *h2el. uAym. and � v£aA�C. an extension in -0. 57 (1929): 116ff. 'grow' ('I' 599). (Horn.ETYM Uncertain. svilti intr. E.. (S. specifically of the sun (Horn..). (epic). . Archil. • uAoalvw [v. a development to 'worry. see above. MoHG schwelen. 62 . 'to singe').. Men. �Aoav£..). trag.. MoDu. of UAOCtVW.] 'pain..DER UAO�(JKW intr. 'painful. Gr.). Primary grades of comparison UAYLWV and UAYl<J-rOC.).DER UAY£lVOC. 370).l0v � XAlapov 'hot.).from the root of � uvahoc. (Opp. all direct derivations from the verb.). Arat. warm' (H.. The etymology was rejected by Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 653. For *hFaA-. Eust. that it is from � ACtW 'to see' with u.' (LXX) belongs to UAYEW (see below). UAEf].). Olymp. -�<Jw.. .). burn'� VAR Ion.. Deverbal UAOf] 'growth' (Hdn. mind. 'causing growth' (Method. Perhaps also uAEa. 'growing' (Max. One connects � AaveCtVW. Cf. with a suffix -Ea (Chantraine 1933: 91). UAYUVW 'to cause pain'. dissimilated from *uAyaAEoc.) and uAYf]f. ala 'to feed' and Go.). alan 'to grow up'. and Szemerenyi 1964: 148ff. also trans..from *1]-.) 'newly grown'.). grievous' (A. 'id. UAO�I-UOC. of e' UAUKp0C. [n. who connects it with • . and UAO�<JKW replace an unattested root verb.. X. (Ph. 'lukewarm' (Nie.? Cf.). not uOt:�C. H.).UAY°C.). Frisk correctly considers it formally impeccable. DELG accepts it. 716). 1636. � UAeaLvw.) and v£OaAO�C. found in Lat. UAUK-r pOV· £u8Lvov 'splendid (of weather) (H.). UAt:y£lVOC. <!l IE *suelH.. 'pain' (Hp. after eaAuKp0C. S. ete. see Chantraine 1933: 271. VWAO�C.n.' (Horn. . (Chantraine 1933: 196). cf. UAOl<JKCtVW (Hdn. grief is conceivable (cf.DER UA££lVOC. 2. Muller's explanation (Muller in Teeuwen 1929: 649ff... Seiler Word 11 (1955): 288. UAYlVO£lC. strengthen' (A.). Ph. see � UAEYW. or from false split .). 1.COMP As a second member -aAo�c. 311). heed'. Lith.lUl 'to suffer pain' ( Attic acc.. 'exposed to the sun. Muller Mnem. to Eust. UAYf]p0C. 859).. as per Reiske.. is artificial and formally problematic (* forgotten'. this implies a reconstruction *syIH-e-. E. Gal.. 'fit for warming' (S.). rear'� VAR �Aoav£ (<J 70 W 368). Denominative verbs: 1. further UAYf]OWV 'pain' (Ion.. Ar..). 'suffering' (S. qui invidendo nocet").

ETYM No etymology. <!l IE *h2Ieit. 'avenger' (Emp.) with vf]. ablauting UAOL-rf]C. On UAl-r�f.· uvaf. = . in UAl-rf]PlWOf]C. 'id.] (Ar. [m.). 'criminal' (Lyk. mind. probably for older *Vf]A£Yf]C.). 'offending against a friend' (Pi. 479C). mind'� VAR Only pres. adolea 'to burn . probably a loan. epithet of Athena (Lye.). UALLf]p0C. transgress' (Horn. uAL-r f]f. Also UALL�pLOC.lCtp-rf]-rOl.. but UAl-rWV Dorat). C. uAtyw [v. perspire'. Vf]A£L-rf]C. nOlvaL 'common.' (AP). 289). as well as Lat. allanija-zj 'to sweat.. UVf]A£yEC.).COMP From the stem of tlIe aorist UAl-rO-�£voC.). 177W. An identity with UAyOC. aAta 2 => UAtOf. see Tichy Glotta 55 (1977): 160ff.' (S. and impf. R. also [adj. Ar. . Hitt. cf. but is also suggested by uAl-rpla· � uf. .). Eu. (Beekes 1969: 108f. (Horn. heed' (11.). De Lamberterie RPh. Leumann 1950: 45. also UAl-rPEW (A. requitals' (H.). Vf]A£L-rf]C. allas 'sweat'. if not a mistake for -�pLOC. criminal' (11. . Thence uAl-rpaLvw UAl-raLVW (epic poet.e.lf]voC. both only pres.'offense' (?)� . *UAl-r�p is unattested. AAOLLlC. UAOl-r�w<Jav· KOlV�V. secondary pres. . The ablaut suggests an old IE form.). UAl-rpO<JUVf] (A. UALLf]f. rogue'.. Antim. 'born untimely' (11.VAR UA£l<JOC. 'id.lap-rwAaL.· uvaf.. husbandless' (EM). e. �Al-rOV.lap-rwA6c. -ravf]At:y�C. uALLaLvw 'to offend against. *laijJa.lO<JUVf] 'crime' (Opp.). QC 371). (Bechtel Herm.DER uA£mLa· � uf.ETYM On the relation of the Greek forms.COMP OU<J-f]A£Y�C.). 136). pitiless'. [useless] (H. UVaL-rlOl.' (Q. 'cursed' ( 'id. .lWV 'criminal' but also 'cursed' (11. Zero grade aor. UAOl-rOC. guiltless.] 'to care for. originally 'who does not care.] 'offender. Abstracts uAl-rpLa (S. aAchf]e. �Al-rO-f. 2) and UAl-rpOC. AP).).g. UV-f]A£Y�C. Uf.lWV. (as an offering) . Vf]Al-rE£C.'care... 39 (1904): 155f. with metrical lengthening.) to be read *Vf]A£L-r££C. cf.] (Horn. [UXPf]<J-rOl] 'blameless. faults. <!l IE *h. also 'hip socket' (Marsyas apud Ath. .] 'drinking cup with two handles' (11.Mlr.). [m.< *1]-h2Ieit-. to be read for Horn.). < *1]-h2Ieg-.ETYM Although there is no etymology. From uALLaLvw further UAl-r pOC.· U<PPOVLlcr-rOV 'unmindful'. the structure of the word suggests an IE origin. Vf]A£L-rlO£C.leg. . Gud. which is unacceptable from the perspective of laryngeal theory.). 'transgressing woman' (Et. 'breaking the law' (Att. <!l ?� . mostly with negation.] ' OHG leid 'harm' and ON leiar 'offensive'. Keany Glotta 59 (1981): 76-69 is of . i.lCtp-rf]-rOC. (below).). D.DER Enlargements UA£YL�W and UA£YUVW. (Od. 'blameless' LSJ Supp. doubtful value. 936). 'missing the right month'. [m. From uAmlv: UAl-r�f.lap-rLa 'fault' (Suid. The only cognate proposed is PGm. is semantically improbable. S. • uA£lO"ov [n..lUl. 71 (1997): 150 defends the connection with Atyw. uvavopov 'common.). UAOl-raL· KOlvaL.). 316: UALLPWV codd. secondarily associated with UAY0C.).

Hell. 'Hilfe. stick. UA£�f]flu 'defense.).). . Sommer 1948: 186ff.. -<p. defend' (ll. [m.). DER UA£�lOV 'medicine' (Nik.). Hell. Thphr. aA£l<pup. UA£l<p£lJ<. etc. aA£�l<.] (> Lat.' (Man.).).. Pok. -f]<Ju (Hom. with a different • • • • . -ovo" [m. 'defense. A -re-ke-se-u IAlekseusl. UAE�OflaL (S. PN a-re-ku-tu-ru-wo IAlektruon/. Agent nouns: UA£L7tTf]<.v. PG?� . see Chantraine 1933: 60f. but iliis is impossible because of the *-p. .) is now abandoned. XPWVTaL ol UA£l1tTaL 'which is used by anointers' (H. uA£�acr8aL (Hom.). 670 (*leip-). derivations UA£�f]T�pLO<. poet.DIAL Myc. 579). in UA£�L-KUKO<.] 'spreading [of ointment]. a-re-pa-zo-o laleiphazohosl 'boiler ((£w) of unguent'.). � IE? *h21eibh. Szemerenyi SMEA 2 (1967): 2364• Thence UA£l<paTLTf]<. a-re-pa-te laleiphatei/. ETYM UA£�. the interchanges observed could also point to substrate origin.] (Lyc. UA£l<plOV· q. also AA£�UVOpo<. UAWtT�pLOV (Alex. Sommer's view that it is Anatolian in origin (Sommer IF 55 (1937): 187ff.) and UA£lflfluTWOf]<. fut. aA£l\ll l<. . unguent' (lA). Semantically close is Skt. UAt:Ktpuwv. aA£lflflu 'ointment.).med.] 'unguent. aor.YAR UA£��<JW. (inscr. 'fat'.makes the comparison impossible (see � AL7to<. a-re-ko-to-re IAlektorei/.(cf. a stem uh. bileiban 'to stick'.). 3.'ointment'. UAt�W [v.). without -f]. from which comes the Hittite rendering AlakSandus.) and aA£l<pu [n. UAWtT�p 'id. see � uh�. � GR?� . UAOl<pUIO<. also uAol<p£lov 'Salbungszimmer' (Eust. Mayrhofer EWAia s.DER 1. The suggestions by Szemerenyi Gnomon 42 (1971): 653 are improbable. (Alex. Nonn. rep-).] 'to smear with pitch' (Aq. 4. and UAOl<pUW [v. from which � UA£KTPUWV is derived. note that the suffIx is rare. [f.] 'to anoint with oil' (ll. anointing oil' (ll. nik?ati 'to protect'. 'anointer.).). Aeol.] 'cock' (Thgn. [n.ETYM The word seems to be built on UA£KTWP. 2.). however. UA£��T£lpU (AP.] 'to ward off. (Hp.).). adhere' (cf. From the stem with -f]. [adj.. or directly from uAd<pw. UA£��TWP (S.exists in Greek.g. *h21ek-s. f. Com. com. On UAEKTWP. trainer of athletes' (Arist. fem.). but Gr. aAl1mU (EM 64. -UTO<. These continue *h2(e)lk-: *h. UA£��<JW): UA£�f](JL<. grease' (lA).. A connection with � UALVW is formally (*h.). Priene).'ward off� . (Hom.ETYM Generally connected with � AL7to<. Besides UA£�-. UA£l<pU<. perhaps it is rather related to Go.UAd<pw [v.. with -u perhaps from *-1'}t.DIAL Myc.lek-s-.). e-nacri-po-to len-aliptosl.). UAEKTWP itself is an agent noun from � UA£�W 'to ward off. UA£lflflunov (Diog.? Cf. 5.and the "prothetic" u-. EM). 'helping out'. DIAL Myc. medicine' (Ion. Thence.). apud D. -opo<. UA£�f]TlKO<. UAOl<p� 'anointing. (PIu. Abwehr' (Aristid. fem. In principle. e. UA£l1tTPlU (Lys... adeps).). Aphr..). help' (Ion.corresponds exactly with Skt.).lei(bh)-) and semantically easier. shaving' (pap. as in � uhuwv 'kingfisher'.). L. � IE *h2elk-. limpdti 'smear. (apTo<.). UAWtnKO<.] 'cock' (Pi.). 6.) 'bread baked with oil' (Epich.). UA£�f]T�P 'defender' (Hom. COMP As a first member UA£�(l-).). 'anointing' (Ion. UA£�f]T�PlOV 'medicine' (Hp. ointment. 40). with the suffIx -UWV.

UA£UpLTf]<.> *01. UA�A£KU.v. -£(<J)flaL. or as the result of contraction of UAWT-. uAf]8L(OflaL 'id. Lacon. UA£TlKO<. aor.ETYM UA£W is probably an athematic present *UA£. act.) and aAwflu (EM). LIV2 s.) 'inescapable' < */}-h21eu-. gen. ex S. beside oneself.) either denominative to UAEU or deverbative to UAEOflaL.DER 1.DIAL Dor. U<pUVL(£lV 'hide.UA£WP� 'escape.). .(LIV2 s. (Hom. 438 .). reality'.] 'flour' (S. uAf]8L(W (PHolm. Thematicized in aA£up-ov.The formation of *aA£­ FUP may be compared with Arm. . 3.). make invisible' (H.v.) in the technical meaning 'to dye with genuine purple'. 'to be distraught. A connection with Lat. 'grinder (upper millstone) (Gortyn.' (T.) with metrical lengthening. from a noun *uA£F-£V-. aAwl<. UA£W [v. Schwyzer: 469. younger is uA�8£la. 5.. -TU 'flour' (Hp.) 'mealing'. Sophr. Thphr. . uAa8�<. mostly plur. Cf. 2. Denominative verb uAf]8£uw 'to speak the truth' (S. shelter' (ll. On UA£TpL�UVO<.YAR Also UA£U£TaL (Hom. Bengali).).. flee' (ll. Thence UA�(JLOV· miv Tt') UAf]AWfl£vOV 'anything ground' (H. 2.).'fernhalten' follows Hackstein 1995: 214-216.YAR Aor.). epic aAw<Ju. 'of milling' (pap. [m. . with KUT-). e.]). (apTo<. UAU�W with analogical �.. who explains aA£lup from aAwp. Thence UA£UPlVO<. MoP ard 'id. UA£U(£lV· KPU1tT£lV � 1tpO�UAA£lV. *h21u-en-s.g. . [lyr. [m.] 'they shall keep away'.). for which one expects *h21eu-J:. � IE *h2elh. UA£UTa 'wheat-groats' (inscr. UA£TPL<. *h2elk-). UAwfl0<. UA£TO<.).DER uAf]8df].] 'to avoid.). .).. UA£Ollul [v.-uJ:. shelter'.) and UAf]TO<. shun. ata 'flour' (+ Hindi. UA£Tf]<.'be hidden'� . Av. perhaps an rln-stem (cf. and aAf](JL<. fut. . who connects it with ToB alyintrii [subj. uAf]hlov (with h < *s < *t before i).) with f] after aflf]To<. aAwp· UA£WPLUV � 1tOAUWPLUV 'u. aliwr 'flour' < *h21eh.< *h2elh.).DER Verbal noun UA£U 'avoiding.] 'pestle' (Ar.] (PIu. alam.full-grade slot as in *h2eug-: *h2ueg-s-. 2. see Giintert IF 45 (1927): 345. 6. Agent nouns: QVo<. aAf]flu [n. cf.] 'to grind' (Od. . 4. Unclear UALVW = A£1tTUVW 'to crush.'ground' < *arta-.). (Babr.). asa. �A£UaTO (Hom. ward off. UAlV[V] OV· ufluopov 'dim' (H. Milete [Vra]) < *uAEFuTU. pound' (Phot. Enlargements to this are UAU<JKU(W and UAU<JKUVW (epic).). KUL dpY£lV. also QVo<. MInd.ETYM A connection with � UAUW is very doubtful because of its deviant mg. A zero grade of the root in UAU<JKW (epic. and is not likely from the semantic side.) 'to avoid.). *h21ey. UA£TP£UW 'to mill' (ep.) cf. 'id. aA£upu 'flour' (Hdt. flee'. adj.). dissimilated from *uA£F-WAf] (Chantraine 1933: 243).' (Hdt. Denominative verb UA££LVW = UA£oflaL.) . or consideration' H. also UA£LUTU (Hom. perf. cf. Lengthened verbal stem uA�8w (Hp. with the same meaning..). aAf]Tov. 12. escape. -£la 'truth. � IE *leh2dh. and UA£UPWOf]<.. (medic. the PIE root *melH-. �AWU (lA).'escape. uAl19q" [adj.' (Gp. with secondary -<J-. Instrument noun: aAwTpov 'fee for milling' (pap. real' (ll. Further cognates are found in Indo-Iranian. 'id..'grind'� .). � IE? *h21eu. 472.COMP Vf]A£�<.'.). 'woman who grinds corn' (Hom. ulclscor 'to avenge' presupposes *h21. . Late derivatives: UA�8£u(JL<. UA£UW (trag. X.] 'true. UA£TWV (Alexis). Schwyzer: 263.).). ward off (?)� . The verb is Arm. and � flUA£upov. trag. Schulze 1892: 226 and Hdn.

Aa9.) (H.must be a false Ionicism of a Doric LW. �Ala[a 'tribunal'. or from the verb A�9w. or *Ct-F0Av�<. Cf..) was formed directly to the verb. CtAT]9wTlK6<.] 'thronged.. Cf. for aA90<.) with �AlacrT�<.A�<. adj.] 'to cure'. who loves the truth' (Arist. see below. -aw (11. the second member is either from *A�90<.).).) and CtAT]9wT�<.). � CtOAA�<.. has the same meaning as aA�<. aAlaKT�p· T61to<. (Ps. gepam:u£l.). 'being a member of the �. Fut. uYla[vEl· cpapflaKov yap aA90<. Stromberg 1940: 81 (partly incorrect).). . see Meyer Phi!. cf.). It is regular in aA�<. Luther 1935.). 48 (1889) : 187.). CtAge�oflm (Aret. CtA[a.'press'� YAR Or 6. CtAgeu<. Ct. CtA9�El<.) and aFAavew<. but not for Dor. � CtoAA�<.. xaplaT�pla.'to be hidden. cf. CtA[a).). apud Gal. cf. -0!1«L [v. . E.YAR aA9no (ll.] 'to be seated in the �Ala[a' (Ar.'. synonymous i�[aKo<.) was perhaps formed after its opposite 1tupe�oflm of 1tupeaaw (but DELG comments: "l'hypothese reste en l'air"). also AA9T]cpo<. £V 4> a9po[(ovTm ot I lKeAo [ 'place where Sicilians convene' (H. the month name AAlaLo<. Probably the mythical name AA9a[a. From it Dor. adj.< *Sfll.DER Glosses: aA9a· gepflaa[a � gepa1te[a 'warmth or heat. (meaning uncertain. Elis) might also be the same word. (Chantraine 1933: 63f. crowded' (Hdt. (lA) and CtAT]9lK6<.' (Att. aA[aaat<. also a plant name. cf.< QIE *-uJ-n-. 19.· iaTp6<. etc. a kind of mallow (Thphr. be unknown'. The expected full grade may be found in the hapax CteAA�<.). where the �. 'to become whole and sound' (Hp.). poet.). CtA-) 'member of the �. (Gela). CtA9a[v£l· au�el. CtA9£aT�pla 'medicine' (Nic. We may suppose a noun *p:A-VO<. which would belong to � e'iAW. (Tegea) 'meeting'. �AlaaTlK6<..· cpapflaKov 'drug' (EM). Finally. • uA8aivw.-Callisth.. 'who always speaks the truth' (Max. see Bechtel Herm. -<l IE *uel. Note CtA9dv· uYla(£lv 'to make sound' (Hp. Att. 76) . attends to. afl�vo<.DER aA[(w 'to gather' (Ion.: the spiritus asper is uncertain.. to aAta.). Enlarged CtAT]9lV6<.). CtA9�aoflm. throng'.). . If the formations are identical. 'physician' (H. On these forms see van Brock 1961: 198-207 ("capricieuses formations". 'crowd. Aii90<. &A�C. service' (H. abstract aA[T] '(public) assembly' (Dor. further presents CtA9�aKw and CtA9[aKw (Hp. med. aA[aafla unclear mg. Cf. 'truthful. 'increases. [adj.). (Dor. The fut.ETYM Aeol. both may go back to *a-FaAv�<. On the PN AA9T]1to<.). � UAl<. which may also be derived directly from the noun after 8tKaaT�<. 'healing' (Hp. Action nouns: �A[aat<.'. with copulative a-. 56 (1921) : 228 and the mythical name AA9a[a. oAoaxepw<. TapaVTLvol 'completely (Tarant.66 'Wahrhaftigkeit' (S. means "drug'" (H. 'curing' (Nic.) or A�9T] (Horn. -<l IE? *h2el­ 'grow'� .: O[KT]. is a compound with privative Ct-. aA90<.. CtAla[a 'id.) .. all late). etc. CtA9[aKo<. (Dor.· . also aAge�l<.). (Chantraine 1933: 420) . (Dreros).. Thence �Ala(oflm [v..). CtAavew<. (r 13) . suffIxed like i:9vo<. oETYM CtAT]9�<.. (Ps. Tyr.-Dsc.and *wa/oln. .

contra Seller KZ 75 (1957) : 11-16. *h2el-.).] 'to sink.) is incorrect.l.v. The name AA9T]1t/cpo<. thrive' (Rix MSS 27 (1970) : 88 and Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 118 [taken up in LIV2 as *h2eldh-J). The meaning 'to heal' is not evidently connected with CtA. 3 (1951-1952) : . and aU�El also deviates semantically (is it for � CtAoa[vw?). seen in Lat. -<I ?� YAR More frequent is £vaA[YKlo<. of wine-vinegar (Hippon.) (H.. as well as old Germanic TNs and HNs. and also on � CtAOa[vw).). ol'xa 'alder'.'grow. Resp. oETYM The ancients connected the word with UA<. vinegar' (H. -<l EUR?� . z. also of the Styx (S. and Kopu�avTE<. [adj. KlAA[�a<. alisa and Ru. H. is clearly Pre-Greek (cf. Note that an lE root cannot have the structure *lein(k)-.YAR Tzetzes ad Lye. with privative Ct. the glosses systematically give the meaning 'to heal' ete. alands 'growing up'..). -aVTOC.) compared OHG elira. �P01)XO<. aAI�Mw [v. and *�Mw. Go. AUKa�a<. � 1toTafl6<. 387C. at any rate. is uncertain.ETYM The ancient explanation as 'sapless'. -£la is also known in Pre-Greek words). . The Ct. -<l PG� . (Schwyzer: 703 �). which is possible but uncertain. The conjecture of Immisch Arch. e. abele . Go. accomplish. (Maced. gepa1tE[a may mean 'medical or surgical treatment'. UAlYKLOC. the river A'laT]1to<. � o�o<.has been interpreted as the zero grade of £v-.g. as well as forms like 6Kp[�a<.ETYM Unexplained. rdhnoti 'to succeed.. for other glosses see Peiffer ad Call. submerge into the sea. Fr. See Beekes 1969: 25ff.· VEKp6<. to hide' (Lyc. Kretschl11er Glotta 22 (1934) : 104f. The strange structure of the word and the group -�o. • aAI�a [f. Alisa (Krahe Beitr. . 351 gives aAU�O�aal.. 216 (v. clearly pOint to a substrate origin.make substrate origin almost certain. uAi�ac.] � AEUKT] TO 8£vopov (TWV -wv ms. 'corpse. we cannot be sure that the names belong to the verb. ala 'to rear'. DELG remarks that the word was originally used for the growth of scar tissue. dead person' (PI. etc.). and perhaps the mythical name AA9a[a as well (the suffIx -ma. 'Populus alba. � �P01)XO<. Namenforsch.. is based on popular etymology. but this must be a popular etymology.). river.). perhaps the vowel is long). lupu 'he died' and Lat. 790) and metaph. (which does not belong to � �a[vw).YAR CtA[�a<. *alisa in Span.] 'like. An alternative etymology connects it with Skt. (see LIV2 s.. The deviant shape of the word. f Religionswiss. MaKE06vE<. The elements aAl­ and -Ouw may have been influenced by the Greek words. which is allegedly Aeolic for Mw.] 'corpse. 14 (1911) : 449f.). However. translating aA9no Xelp with "le bras se guerit".. [m. Kretschmer Glotta 28 (1940) : 269 connected it with Etr. cheek' etc.and Al�a<. . a-..). feed'.ETYM AA9a[vw has often been connected to the root of � avaATo<. 9EPflaa[a is less clear (is it a false reading?).ETYM Kretschmer (Kretschmer Glotta 15 (1927) : 305f. Libitina. but this is not likely. -<l PG� . fr. resembling' (11. The comparison with OCS lice 'face.

For European substrate words in Greek. uAlvCll' £TtClA£l\l!Cll 'to smear over' (H. The i-epenthesis is without parallel.: 391 compares forms with 0-: OClAO<. . DELG suggests a connection with KupKClvav 'to mix'. however. as well as OClA�<.. • UAlV£lV [v. flCtTCllOV. . � 'LAAW. KClL TtOCl<. to Wendel and Latte).] . One connects the latter with � £lA£W.). DELG assumes the root *uel.VAR Or is it an adverb? ETYM Fur.). UAlVO�8pCl 'place for rolling' (Ar. of athletes. �Ai<JCl. which is quite probable. See � UAIT].. aor. Hp. . UAlV [adj.: 13059 compares KClAlvO£oflCll 'id. etc. KClTClAlvCll' KClTClA£L\I!Cll 'to . �A18lov. OHG walzan (Pok. which would resemble KUK£WV. 1140). <pUAACl fl�KWVO<. OClA£l<. Theocr.] (cod.68 165ff. E. we may also compare the Thessalian place name 'OAl(WV. dish consisting of various kinds of meat' (H.which. � ?� . see Beekes 2000: rather non-Indo-European. == UAlKUKKCl�O<. H. 'to roll in the dust.. empty. £ACl<pPOV [H.. s.' as a variant with initial k-. Hatzidakis Glotta 23 (1935): 268ff. (Cyr. supposing that the suffIx is the same as in (>l(Cl. Taillardat REA 58 (1956): 1913 reconstructs a present *ul-n-ed-mi with anaptyictic -i-. KUAlVO£W. and an old nasal present is improbable. -KUKCl�OV? Cf. <pU(Cl.. and belongs to � UAlV ( �A18lov. BGU 1 120. A£lClV8£VTCl. � ?� . larva' (H. • == == UAlVStW [v. • UAlKUPK'l<.).).). MAT]} <JKWAT]� 'worm. 'fruit of various plants. K£VOV. � UTtOTplflflCl £K TtA£lOVWV KP£WV 'leaves of the poppy pounded with vinegar. -v£lv} uA£l<p£lv 'to anoint the skin with oil' (H. UAl'l ' Kcmpo<.). CtAl.. 33e). UOUVClTO<. flUTCllOV. � PG?� VAR Also uA1vow. the root could still be Indo-European. 9. £ACl<pPOV 'vain. comparing FUAT] (cod. Ol UflCl8£i<. cf. kind of grass' (H.). (sch. [?] plant name.ETYM Unexplained. The suffIx -ind. is seen in OS wealtan. idle. K£VOV.) (H. � ?� .. fl£T<l o�OU<..ETYM Formation like � KUA1vow. lengthened with -d-.v. KOVU(Cl.] 'to roll'. several words with variation kl zero exist among the substrate words.). Maa:B's suggestion (Maa:B RhM 74 (1925): 472) that it originally means u<J8£v�<. � GR� VAR Also -KUKCl�O<.).). (codd. Yet Fur. 'weak'. OClAI<. (H. light' (H.). 37).). Cyr. uA1VOT]<Jl<.DER UAlVOOV' opofloV CtpfluTWV 'race of chariots' (EM. Phryn. which are close in meaning. flwp0<. assumes a loan in Macedonian from a northern language..). . even in this case.). ace. UAlKUKKCl�Cl' 6 mu AWTOU KClpTtO<. [V-ClAClAl<Jfl£VCl 'engraved' (Cyprus).ETYM There is no support for Latte's proposal to read -KUKT]V. .ETYM Plant of which the fruit resembles a KUKKCl�O<. med. 'boar (Maced. thus 'salt-cellar'? See Amigues Journal des Savants 1984: 151-154.would mean 'salt'.]. but the nature of their relationship with UAlVO£W is uncertain. The word seems non-Indo­ European. roam' (Ar.) makes no sense. £100<. 'Physalis Alkekengi' (Dse. 'rolling' (in the dust. MClK£86v£<.

apud Ath. � LW?� .vAR Also [adv. enough' (ll.ETYM Walde 19lO: 25 derived the word from � UA£W.). wind'� .] 'fruitless. soot'. eaAwv < *�-FClAW­ (lA) .] . Skt. There are no traces of h cf. It could be an old nominative. TOU £pyCl<JTT]PIOU (Epid. UAlO<. further fut. 16. rub'.. alica is unknown.. � IE *h2lei(H).'seize. the discussion in De Vaan 2008. which was gradually replaced by flUTCllO<.] 'to be caught' (ll. � �Aa<JKW.often occurs in substrate words.> UAl-. The nature of the connection with Lat. 148). with more forms). .'turn. [adv. Still.but why would it fall into the sea? • aAl<. Tyan. the root is *h2li. UAlVOV [adj. but the form YUAl rather suggests that the -s is an adverbial marker like in UVl<. UAl�. as well as LIV2 s.VAR Cf. indicating an arrow that misses its target and falls into the sea . 69 (1995) 128. 17. The connection with � �AI8LO<. . Sommer 1905: 98 . . -Cl.ETYM An old term.v..ETYM Ritual term of unknown origin.. -KO<.). � ?� . CtAw<JoflCll. see RPh. XWP1<.VAR The form YUAl' lKClvov 'suffIcient' (H.) is now confIrmed by an inscr. UAlO'KOf. 'sea'.). also a fIsh sauce. 995) .)' (H. *h2lejH-.pour down' (H. this is unconvincing. .). uAlv£lv == A£1tTUVW 'to crush' (S· fr. DELG mentions the word s.). UAl<J�'l [f. see Pre-Greek 2a. � ?� . from Selinous.) shows initial F-. Kp�T£<.] 'to pollute' (LXX).lCll [v. FClAOVTOl<. � ?� . it does not explain the spiritus asper. Mwp ypU<p£lV. which supposes a prothetic vowel and interchange <Jlzero before velar (highly uncertain). (cf. which is originally an n-present. lino 'to smear. The formation is like £Al�. uAlaytw [v. called hallec in Latin (Dsc 4. FClAl<J<JK£TCll and Are. [m. the group -<Jy.ETYM Connected with � £'LAW 'to press'. suggesting the word belongs to iiA<. DELG supports this by remarking that the word is often used of �£AO<. The sequence -<J�.v.). prove the initial F-. One would like to reconstruct *h2li-n-H-.). DIAL hardly Indo-European.. -ov [adj. bahih).ETYM See Giintert IF 45 (1927): 345.DER Verbal noun UAlV<Jl<. aor. but Lat. Fur. Probably the same root as in � uAd<pw. XOAl� (Chantraine 1933: 382f.). and further to � UAa0flCll is correctly rejected by DELG. S. 1. CtAWvCll.. is cognate with Lat. 'weak.). � UOAA�<. � IE *uelh3. idle' (Hom.: 298 compares AlyVU<.VAR Homer only has the aor.. ufluopov. which probably derives from < *UAlV-1W. � IE *uel.] 'groats of rice-wheat' (Chrysipp. � UA£W. • .] . UTtUTT] 'deceit' (H.] 'in vain' .'smear'� . DER CtAlOW 'to prevent' (epic. catch'� . 'smoke. � aA�<. Schwyzer: 461 points to the expression £l<. � ?� .ETYM UAIVW. faint' (Cret. A loanword from an unknown language.] 'in crowds.ETYM Unknown. litus has short i (cf.



.DER UAwm<; 'capture' (Pi.), uAwmfl0<; 'seizable, ete.'; uAwfla = uvaAwfla 'expenses'
(Boeot. inscr.), cf. uvaAloKw. The gloss uAwvaK'l' uvaAwfla. XahlOel<; (H.) is
probably corrupt.
ETYM The initial aspiration may have been taken from a[pELv, EAelV. The aor. ECtAWV
is from *�-F<1AWV. UAloKOflat has the suffix -lOK-. A root *uelh3- explains all the
forms: the zero grade *ulh3- gives *FAW- before a consonant (e.g. 112pl. aor.) and
*FaA- before a vowel (e.g. 3Pl. aor.); contamination then gives *FaAw-. Perhaps it is
better to assume a passive aorist with -'l-: *ulh3-eh,- > *FaAw- like *gWih3-eh,- > �lW­
(defended by Normier KZ 92 (1978): 132ff.; cf. Haroarson 1993a: 208); an objection
could be that this form must be terribly old. Cognates are Lat. vella 'to pluck, tear
out', Hitt. yalb-zi 'to strike', ToA wiillii�tiir [3sg.pres.] 'to die' (see LIV2 s.v. *yelh3-),
and perhaps also Go. wilwan 'to rob, plunder', Arm. golanam 'to steal'. Cf.
.. uvaAloKw and .. e'lAwTE<;.

aAIO!lU [n.] 'water-plantain, Alisma Plantago' (Dsc. 3, 152). � ?�
.ETYM The word does not contain " UA<;. See Stromberg 1940: 115.
UAl<pUAO<; [?] . yEVO<; opu6<; 'species of tree' (H.). � ?�
ETYM Cf. .. uAl<pAolo<;. However, it seems less probable that uAl<paAo<; would be just
a corruption of that word (Latte); rather, the word in -<PAOlO<; is a secondary

aAl<pAOLO<; [m., f.] 'sea-bark oak, Quercus pseudosuber' (Thphr. HP 3, 8, 2). � ?�
.ETYM Belongs with <pA0l6<; 'bark', but hardly with UAl<;, as suggested by DELG. A
different name for .. Eu8u<pAOlO<;. See .. uAl<paAo<;.
aAllV [adj.] . 1tETpa 'rock' (H.). � PG?(v)�
.ETYM Beside Al'l" 1tETpa (H.), Fur.: 372, 378 also compares �Al�aTo<;, which in
Homer is always said of 1tETP'l. Quite possible, but not certain. If .. aiY1Al'l' also
belongs here, its second element is certainly non-Indo-European, whereas its first
part probably is.
aAKtl 1 [f.] 'defense, help' (ll.). � IE *h2elk-, *h21ek-s- 'ward off, defend'�
.VAR Aor. uAahElv (Hom.), late epic forms: fut. uAahqow (A. R.), present uMhw
(Q. S.).
.COMP As a second member, after the s-stems, in ETEp-ahq<; 'helping one side' (epic
poet.), ete. Old i-stem in Civ-ahl<; (epiC), with uvahei'l (epic) after other nouns in
-e i'l .
DER TN AAahoflEval (Boeotia), or is the resemblance fortuitous? Thence
AAahoflEv'll<; epithet of Athena 'from A. ' (ll.; the interpretation 'protectress' is
probably secondary).
A root noun only in Cih-l [] (Hom.).
Thence Uhq£l<; 'brave' (h. Hom., Pi.), Dor. uha<;, enlarged Uh'lOTq<; (Opp.) after
UA<P'lOTq<;, W fl'l 0Tq<;; uhaLo<; (E. Hel. 1152 [lyr.]).
The basis of Cihlflo<; (poet. since Hom.) is unclear (see Arbenz 1933: 13 and 31. The
gloss uhflalo<;' veavloKo<; 'boy' (H.) is probably a mistake for or a contamination
with uKflalo<; 'in one's prime'.

UAAC((iOW, -aTtW


Cihap [n.] 'defense' (epic, lyr.).
Agent noun: UhTqp, -�po<; 'warden, protector' (Hom., Pi.), UhTqplO<; 'curing'
(Nonn.) and UhTqplOV [n.] 'medicine' (Nie.) .
Also from uh-: uha8w [v.] 'to assist' (A., S. [ace. to gramm.]), cf. ufluva8w; further
uha(w [v.] 'to show strength' (EM), �ha(ovTo· � flUVOVTO 'they warded off (H.);
thence uhaoflaTa (S.).
PNs: Ahflav, -flEWV (-flalwv, cf. Bjorck I950: m), -flqv'l, etc.
.ETYM From the same root as " UAE�W, with *h,(e)lk- beside *h,lek-s-.
aAK'l 2 [f.] 'elk' (Paus.). � IE? *h,el- 'red, brown'�
.ETYM Like Lat. alees, alee (Caesar), Cih'l is a loan from Germanic: ON elgr < PGm.
* a13i-, besides which a form PGm. *dlX- with initial stress is supposed, from which
alees and Cih'l could be traced. West Germanic forms like OHG elahho, OE eolh
presuppose the stem PGm. *elxa(n)-, which arose secondarily. Slavic forms like Ru.
los' 'elk' presuppose PIE *olici-, and are compared with ON elgr. The root is
connected with a great number of words for animals, e.g. .. eAa<po<; (s.v.; see Pok.
302), and it is assumed that the root indicated a color. I think that an IE word or root
must be doubted; it may well be a loan from a non-lndo-European language.
aAKuwv, -ovo<; [f.] 'kingfisher, Alcedo ispida' (ll.). � PG?�
.VAR Also uhuwv (after UA<;) .
DER Thence uAKuovl<; 'id.' (A. R.), uhuovloE<; (�flEPat) 'period of the wintersolstice,
when the kingfisher nests' (Ar.), also called UhUOVElOl (Arist.). uhuowv (Hdn. Gr.
2, 285) is after other bird names in -owv (thence Lat. aleedo).
.ETYM See Thompson 1895 s.v. Origin unknown; probably a loan from a non-IE
language (cf. Fur.: 30339 on substrate words in -wv.) For the suffix, cf. .. UAEKTpUWV
(Ruijgh Minos 9 (1968): 152f.).

aUa [adv.] 'but, however' (ll.). � IE *h2el-io- 'other'�
.DIAL Cypr. alAa.
.ETYM The of CiAAO<;, used as an adverb. Cf. MoHG ubrigens, Lat. eeterum, ete.
aUa�T)<; [f.] 'Nile fish, Labeo Niloticus' (Str.). � PG?�
VAR Also uAa�'l<;.
.ETYM From Eg. repi or lepi (Thompson 1947 s.v.). Fur.: 145 etc. connects .. eAAo'l'
(with *a realized as e before */l) and UAA01tl'l<;, and concludes that it is a substrate
word. The uAAa�'l<; must not be an Egyptian fish.

aUa<;, -aVTo<; [m.] 'sausage, black pudding' (Hippon.). � ?�
.ETYM Unknown. Kretschmer Glotta 1 (1909): 323 compared CiAA'lV' Auxavov. 'haAol,
KaL E1tL mu upTuv8EVTO<; 1tEplKOflflaTo<;, E� ov UAAaVT01tWA'l<; (H.), and assumes
*uAAa-fEvT-. This would contain an Oscan word; cf. Lat. iilium 'garlic'. But
Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 653 notes that origin in southern Italy is implausible
for a word from Hipponax.
aUaoow, -aTTW [v.] 'to change, alter' (Hom.). � GR�
VAR Aor. UAAU�at.


UAA�AOUe;, -WV, -Ole;

.DER uAAay� (cf. uAAay�Vm) '(ex)change' (Att.); aAAaYfla 'exchange, price' (Hp.,
LXX), uAAaYflOe; 'id.' (Man.). aAAa�le; 'exchange, trade' (Arist.), uAAa�lfla (pap.,
gloss.), scil. Lflana, 'changes of raiment'. uAAaKTlKOe; 'pertaining to exchange' (PI.,
Arist.), uAAayofjv 'alternating' (Hdn.). Note uAAa�· EVfjAAaYflEVWe; 'exchanged' (H.),
ETT - , nap-, ufl<p-aAA6.� (Hp., Th., S., X.) .
ETYM uAAaaaw is derived from aAAOe;, either through a stem in a velar (for which,
compare uAAa� and uAAaxou, -X� [though direct connection is improbable]) or with
a suffix -aaaw.

UU�AOUe;, -WV, -Ole; [adj.) 'each other' (Il.). � IE *h2el-io- 'other'�
ETYM From repeated aAAOe;, i.e. *aAAo-aAAo-, in which the color of the second
initial vowel was restored. Cf. Lat. alius alium, Skt. anyo'nyam. On the single second
-A- see Schwyzer: 260.

aUI�, -lKOe; [f.) 'men's upper garment' (Euph.), = XAaflue; 'a short mantle', also =
Eflnopnfjfla 'garment secured by a brooch' (H.). � ?�
.ETYM For the glosses (EM, Suid.), see DELG. Origin unknown. The word is
supposed to be Thessalian. Lat. alicula also belongs here.
uUooanoe; [adj.) 'from another land, foreign' (Il.). � ?�
ETYM Derived from aAAOe;; for the formation, see TfjAeoanOe;, navTooanOe;,
nooanoe;, �fleoanoe;. It has been explained as uAAoo-anOe;, preserving the old neuter
pronominal marker *-d (Lat. aliud); the latter part would be the same as Lat. -inquus
< PIE *-nkwo- in longinquus, ete. Meillet BSL 28 (1927-1928): 42ff. expresses doubt:
-oanoe; is an unknown suffix. Moreover, suffixes are not added to case forms like the
neutral -d.

aU0!lal [v.) 'to jump, leap' (Il.). � IE *sel- 'jump'�
YAR Horn. has an aor. uho, of unknown quantity, which could be an unaugmented
Aeolic form (Schwyzer: 751').
.COMP npoaA�e; (Horn.) 'sloping, rushing forward'
.DER aAfla 'jump' (Horn.), (lAme; 'jumping' (Hp., Arist.); ah�p (Crates Corn.), in
sports, 'weights kept in the hands while jumping'.
.ETYM From *hal-je!o-. A yod-present is probably also found in Lat. salio, which
could perhaps derive from *sj-je/o- (LIV\ who reconstruct a root *sel-). A root *sal­
is impossible, as PIE had no phoneme a, but De Vaan suggests a root *sh21- in order
to account for the Italo-Celtic reflexes like Olr. saltraid 'to trample' < *sal-tro-. Also
related to Skt. asarat [3sg.aor.) 'to run, rush' (Narten MSS 26 (1969): 77ff.), ToB
salate [med.pret.) 'jumped'; further forms in LIV2 S.v. 1. *sel-. See � naAAoflal.

aUoC; [adj.) 'other' (Il.). � IE *h2el-io- 'other'�
.DIAL Cypr. alAoe;.
COMP uAAonpoaaAAOe; 'unreliable, fickle' from aAAo npoe; aAAov AEyWV, Bechtel
1914; UAA0<PPOVEW 'to give no heed, be senseless' with a special development of aAAo­
(improbable Aeol. &AAOe; �AeOe;, BechteI 1914); uAAo<paaaw 'to be delirious' (Hp.)
with an unclear second element. Cf. S.v. � �AaaKw.


aAo�, -KOe;


.DER Abstract UAAOTfje; [f.) (comm. Arist.); UAAOlOe; 'of another kind, different'
(Horn., lA), an adjectival formation in -OlOe; after TOlOe;, nOlOe;, oloe;; thence
UAAOlOTfje; 'being different' (Hp., Pl.) and UAAOlWOfje; 'of strange appearance' (Aret.,
Vett. Val.). Denominative verb UAAOlOW 'to change' (lA), uAAo(wme; 'change,
difference' (Pl., Arist.), UAAo(wfla 'id.' (Damox.) and UAAOlWTlKOe; (Arist., Gal.). On
� uAAaaaw, see s.v.
Several adverbs: aAA08ev, uAAaxn, ete. On � uAAooanOe; and � UAA�AOUe;, see s.v.
From an adverb with -TP- (cf. Skt. anya-tra 'elsewhere') comes UAAOTplOe; 'alien,
strange, belonging to someone else' (Il.). Thence UAAOTplOTfje; (Pl., Arist.),
UAAOLplOW [v.) (lA), whence UAAoTp(wme; (Th., Hell.) .
.ETYM aAAOe; < *h2el-io- 'other', like in Lat. alius, Go. aijis, 0Ir. aile, ToB alyek, ToA
alak (depalatalized) < *h2el-io-k-, Arm. ayl. Beside *h2el-io-, a similar adjective is
reconstructed for I1r. *Hania- > Skt. anya- 'other', etc., but this form is most
probably due to contamination of *h2elio- with the comparative *h2entero-.
aA.!la [n.) '(sacred) grove' (Lye. 319). � ?�
.ETYM The word has the same meaning as � aAaOe;. Is it from the root UA- 'to feed' in
� uAoa(vw, etc.?
UAoaw 'to thresh'. => UAW� .
UA.ofj [f.) 'bitter aloe, Aloe vera' (Dse.). � LW Or.�
.ETYM As for � uyaAoxov, an Oriental loanword is suspected (Lewy 1895: 36).
aAo�, -KOC; [f.) 'furrow' (trag., corn.). � PG�
.YAR Also aDAa� (Hes.), wha [, -ae; [ (Horn.), Dor. wAa� (EM 625,
37), also in ofl-wAaKee; (A. R. 2, 396). Further eUAaKu 'plough', with Lacon. eUAa�elV
[inf.fut.) (Orae. apud Th. 5, 16); aUAaxa· � UVVle; 'plowshare' (H.) and *oAoKee; (cod.
oAoKeUe;} aUAaKee; 'furrows' (H.) .
DER UAOK(�W [v.) 'to draw furrows, plough' (Ar., Lyc.); aUAaK(�w 'id.' (pap.), verbal
noun aUAaKlafloe; (pap.). Rare and late aUAaKO£le; (Max.), aUAaKwOfje; (Eust.),
diminutive aUAaKLOv (schol.) .
ETYM The exact relation between this cluster of forms has always been unclear.
Solmsen 1901: 258ff. explained wha as from *aFoAKa (KaTa wha N 707 for original
*KaT' aFoAKa), but it is strange that there are no further traces of this form. The zero
grade of *uFoh- would then give *uFAaK-, seen in aDAa�. In laryngealistic terms, a
root *h2uelk- has been supposed in Lith. velku, OCS vlekQ, Av. varak- 'to draw'. This
is tempting, but cannot be correct. If the Balto-Slavic words are isolated (there is
further only Av. varac-), the verb may be non-lE. Moreover, for Balto-Slavic and
Iranian we would rather reconstruct *uelkw- with a labiovelar, which is impossible
for Greek. Furthermore, there is no trace of the verbal root in Greek, which has EAKW
'to draw' < *selk-.
Pisani IF 53 (1935): 29 derived aDAa� from auA6e; and separated it from aAo�, etc.,
which is improbable. The variants are strongly reminiscent of substrate words, as
Beekes 1969: 40 maintained (withdrawn ibid. 275-7). Variation of prothetic el al 01
aul eu, and also that of K and X (auAaxa), are what one often finds in substrate

words, so Pre-Greek origin is most probable. The Homeric form is the only one
without a vowel between A and K, and therefore it is suspect. If we assume labialized
phonemes like /lwI for Pre-Greek, a reconstruction *alwak- can explain all the
different variants: aUAa� (by anticipation of the labial feature), which gives (bAa� by
contraction; aAo� (coloring of the second vowel by the labialized liquid), OAOK­
(influence on both vowels; I see no reason not to take the gloss seriously). Cf.
.. upaoxu8t:e;, etc. The interchange of initial al E (which gave EUAaK-) is difficult to
understand phonetically, but it may be related to plain al E.
CtAomJ6VIl [adj.] epithet of Thetis (Y 207), of the Nereids (A. R. 4, 1599), name of a sea
goddess (0 404). Mg. unknown. <"!!l IE? *seh2-1- 'salt', *ud-n- 'water', PG?�
.DIAL Myc. a2-rQ[ }1;l-do-pi has been interpreted as Ihalos hudo(t)phi/.
.ETYM Connected with .. iiAe; and .. uowp as "wave of the sea". The glosses UOVat·
£yyOVOl, aUvTpOCPOl 'born inside, raised together with (?)' and uovTje;' Elowe;, £flTt£lpOe;
'knowing, experienced' (H.) may have been extracted from CtAoOUOVTj. The relevance
of the Myc. words is unclear; cf. DELG. Since the meaning is not very clear, and the
structure aCVC-udn- is typically Pre-Greek, we may doubt the traditional
interpretation. Chantraine's KaAuowv, -uova (which is typically Pre-Greek) is an
example; cf. KaAuKaOVOe;. Schwyzer: 475, 5 wonders if the nom. was -uova, in which
case Pre-Greek origin would be even more probable.
aAn:Vl<JToC; [adj.] see below (Pi. I. 5 (4), l2). <"!!l ?�
VAR £TtaATtVOe; 'amiable' (Pi. P. 8, 84) = �8Ue;, TtpooTjv�e; 'sweet, gentle' (sch.);
UATtaAEov, uyaTtTjTov 'amiable' (H.), from which perhaps UpTtaAEOe;, by influence of
UpTtU�W; the gloss umxAlfla· UpTtaKTU, TtpOOCPlA� 'robbed, beloved' shows the double
mg.; cf. also upTtaAI�oflat· UOflEVWe; 8EXOflat 'to accept gladly' (H.). Here also the PN
AATtovloTje; (inscr. Karthaia), see BechteI 1917a: 5f., from AATtWV.
.DIAL Uncertain aATtap (inscr. Crete).
.ETYM Wackernagel KZ 43 (1910): 377 reads *aATtlOTOe; for aATtVlOTOe;: a primary
superlative formation, which could be attested as a PN in A. Pers. 982 (but the text is
uncertain). The assumption of an old rln-stem, to which the Cretan form would
point, is unnecessary. It is doubtful to interpret UATt- as *FaATt-, a zero grade of
* F£ATt- in .. £ATtOflat, .. EATtle; (for wouldn't one expect * FAaTt- ?).

UAC;, CtAOC; [m.] 'salt' (ll.), very often plur. <"!!l IE *seh2-1- 'salt'�
.VAR As fern. (only sg.) a poetical word for the sea (after 9uAaooa, or as a
collective?). Since Arist. also iiAae;, -aTOe; [n.] from the, see Leumann 1950:
.DIAL Myc. o-pi-a2-ra lopi-halal 'coastal regions' cf. .. £cpaAOe;; a-pi-a2-ro
IAmphihalosl, a2-ri-e perhaps Ihalien/, see Perpillou 1973: 61" 161.
.COMP UAI-TtAOOe;, -TtOpcpupoe; (for UA- after the i-stems, not locatival with Schwyzer:
476 : 5, 1. On UAl-flup�£le; see fluPOflat. On uAoupyoe; 'who exploits a salt mine' see
DELG Supp.



.DER 1. iiAflTj 'seawater, brine' (Od.), whence uAflala 'id.' (Ar., Nic.), CtAflUe; (EAala)
'pickled olive' (corn.), uAflupoe; 'salty, bitter' (Od.), which would stand for *UAUpOe;
(Schwyzer: 482: 6); thence uAflupwoTje;, uAflupOTTje; and verbs UAfluPI�w, UAflupow,
further uAfluple; [f.] 'brackish soil, salty liquid', cf. TtATjflUple; and UAlflup�£le; (see
.. flU po flat); from iiAflTj also uAfl�£le; (A.) and UAflEUW 'to pickle' (Dsc.), whence
iiAflwOle;, UAflWT�e;.
2. iiALOe;, (-a), -OV 'of the sea' (epic poet.), UAlUe; [f.] 'fishing boat' (Arist., D. S.). 3 .
uAla [f.] 'salt tub' (corn., Hell.). 4. iiAlVOe; 'consisting of salt' (Hdt., Str.). 5. iiAlfloe; 'of
the sea' (Trag. Adesp., LXX), iiAlfloV plant name, cf. Stromberg 1940: 97, 114. 6.
uAITTje; 'salty, of the sea'. 7. uAI�w 'to salt' (Arist.), UAlOfloe; (Sor.), but not aAlofla
'Alisma plantago' (Dsc.), see Stromberg 1940: 115, which is unexplained. 8. After
iiAlOe;, iiAlVOe; and UAl- as a first member for UA-: UAlEUe; 'fisherman' (Od.), UAlEUW
[v.] 'to fish' (LXX, NT, PIu.), -EUOflat (also corn.), UAlEUTlKOe; 'belonging to
fish(ermen)' (PI., X., Hell.); from UAlEUW: UAlWT�e; 'fisherman' (Cerc.), from CtAlEUe;
or UAlEUW: uAl£la 'fishery' (Arist., Str.), from UAlEUW: uAIEufla 'id.' (Str.). 9. UAl-MTje;
'sailor' (S. [lyr.l). 10. uAlapOe; 'salty' (Eust.). 11. CtAUKOe; 'salty' (Hp., Arist.), UAUKOTTje;
(Arist.), uAuKle; [f.] 'salt mine' (Str.), CtAUKWOTje; (Hp.; also in Thphr. HP 9, 11, 2
instead of codd. UAlKWOTje;), uAuK£la 'pickling' (Ptol.). 12. From the neuter TO iiAae;,
late formations like UAaTlOV (diminutive), UAaTlVOe;, UAaTl�W and UAaTlKOV
'salarium' (gloss.) are derived.
ETYM Old word found in most lE languages: Lat. sal, OIr. salann, Arm. ai, Latv. sals,
OCS solb 'salt', as well as OCS slan'b 'salted' < *soln'b), ToB salyiye, ToA sale. An
enlargement in -d is found in Germanic (Go. salt), Arm. alt, and Balto-Slavic, e.g .
Lith. said-us 'sweet', OCS slad'b-h 'id.'. Lith. s6lymas is an important form, since it
points to *seh21-, while other languages require *sh2-el. This points to an original
paradigm of nom. *seh2-(o)l, acc. sh2-el-m, gen. *sh2-I-os. On possible Sanskrit
cognates, see Thieme ZDMG 111 (1961): 94ff. .. UAOaUOVTj.

aA<JOe; [n.] 'sacred grove' (ll.). <"!!l PG?(v)�
.DER UAOWoTje; 'belonging to the grove' (E. [lyr.], Thphr.), uAoTjToEe; vUflCPat (A. R.),
after NTjpTjToEe;, etc.; aAowfla and UAOWV = aAOOe; (Aq.). Further uAolvTj a plant
(Dsc.), see Andre 1985, and cf. CEG 6.
.ETYM AATle; [f.], the name of the temple domain in Olympia, would be identical
with aAOOe; (see Paus. 5, 10, 1); on this basis one reconstructs aAOOe; as *altjos. Fur.:
249, 253 accepts the equation, but interprets it in the context of other instances of an
interchange of dental and sibilant in substrate words (avvTj90vl aVTjoov). Van
Windekens KZ 100 (1987): 308f. connects it with Hitt. alS- 'owe fealty, give
allegiance', which is hardly convincing. See .. aAfla.
uAu�a [f.] . aAUTtOV 'herb terrible, Globularia alypum' (H.). <"!!l ?�
.ETYM The hypothesis of von Blumenthal 1930: 34 (from *U-Auy-�a to Auypoe;,
AwyaAEOe;) is doubtful.



CtAUKTOTtt61l [f.] 'bond' (Hes., A. R., etc.). <"!!l ?�

ETYM Designation of a shackle. For the formation, we may compare Lo--r07tEOTJ (Od.);
see Risch IF 59 (1949): 26. Schulze KZ 28 (1887): 280 connects the first element with
Skt. ruj- 'to break', which Risch doubts. The latter assumes the contamination of
liAUTO� and UPPTJKTO� (7tEOU� . . . CtpP�KTOU� CtAUTOU� N 36f.) under the influence of
CtAUOXW (see on � CtAUW). All of this remains highly uncertain.

«AV(Jl(; [f.] 'chain', also as a woman's ornament (Hdt.). <!! IE *uel- 'wind'�
DER Thence Hell. diminutives CtAUOlOV and CtAUOlOLOV, further CtAUOlOWT6�
'consisting of chains' (Plb., D. S.), CtAuoTJ86v 'in chains' (Man.).
.ETYM Originally 'winding', derived from *FUAU-Tl�, belonging to *FEAUTpOV,
� £iAUW, etc.; see Frisk Eranos 43 (1945): 225ff. However, the u-vocalism remains
unexplained, as the root contained no final laryngeal. For the aspiration, cf. � £AL�.

«AV(J(JOV [n.] name of a plant (Dsc.). <!! GR?�
.ETYM With privative a from AUOOU 'rage', because of the curing effect of the seeds
(Dsc. 3, 91). Cf. Stromberg 1940: 9l.
aAVTa� [m.] = pu�oo<p6po� � flUOTlyo<p6po� (EM 72, 15), policemen in Elis (inscr.).
<!! EUR�
.COMP CtAUTUPXTJ� 'commander of the CtAVTUL' (inscr., Luc.).
DER Denominative CtAUnXTUL (cod. CtAUTaTUL)- 7tUpUTTJpEl 'observes' (H.).
.ETYM Explained as *FUAU-T<X� 'staff-bearer' with Go. walus 'staff, ON vt;Jlr 'id.'; see
Bechtel 1921, 2: 863. The Greek word is hardly inherited, in which case it would have
to be from *ulHu-. A direct loan from Germanic is improbable, so there may have
been a third intermediary source. Krahe Glotta 22 (1954): 123f. supposed an Illyrian
origin, but the word may also be non-IE (words with this meaning are very
frequently borrowed).

aAVW [v.] 'to be distraught, be beside oneself, from pain, anguish, etc. (11.). <!! ?�
.VAR only present, except CtAUAuo9UL· <pO�El09UL, CtAU£LV 'put to flight, scare; be
excited' (H.).
DER Medical terms CtAUOfl6�, whence CtAUOflWOTJ�, liAUOl�, CtAUKTJ 'fear, agitation', see
� CtAUAUy�. Backformation liAU� 'id.' (Hp.); with -K-: CtAUKTJ 'distress, anguish'; see
also � CtAUAUY�.
Verbs: CtAUOKW (on CtAUOKU(W and CtAUOKUVW see � CtAEU 2), CtAUOOW, fut. CtAU�W =
CtAUW (Horn.), perhaps all from an enlarged stem CtAUK-, which is also found in
CtAUKTEW, perf. CtAUAUKTTJflUL 'to be afraid' (Horn.), CtAUKTU(W 'to be afraid, wander'
(B., Hdt.) , cf. Bechtel 1914 s.v. CtAUW. Further CtAUOTU(W, CtAUo--rUlVW (H., EM), cf.
perhaps CtAuo9EV£LU· Ct09EV£LU (EM 70, 45); also CtAuo9flulVW 'to be weak' (CalL),
CtAUOflulV£LV· CtAU£LV, Ct7t0PElV 'to be beside oneself (H.).
ETYM CtAUW is considered to be a derivation in -u- from the root CtA- in � CtAUOflUL,
and / or from CtAEOflUL. This remains just a guess. Puhvel's connection with Hitt.
alyanz- 'bewitched' is doubtful (see Kloekhorst 2008 s.v.).

«A<PU [n.] name of the first letter of the alphabet (Pl.). <!! LW Sem.�
.COMP Collocation CtA<pU�TJTO� [m., f.] ; also [] ? (Irenaeus of Lyon), see Schwyzer
KZ 58 (1931): 199ff.



.ETYM From Hebr. 'aleph (see Schwyzer: 140 y and Schwyzer KZ 58 (1931): 177-183) .
For the final vowel, cf. ��Ta, from Hebr. beth. See Einarson Class. Phil.62 (1967): 1-24
and 262f.
aA<puvw [v.] 'to earn, gain' (E.). <!! IE *h2elgwh- 'earn'�
VAR CtA<pUlVW (H., EM); Aor. CtA<pElV (Horn.) .
COMP CtA<PWl�OLO� of girls, 'bringing in (many) oxen'; type n:p"'lfl�POTO�, with
shortening for *CtA<pTJOl- as in £AKWl7t£7tAO�.
.DER CtA<P� 'produce, gain' (Lyc.).
.ETYM A counterpart to the thematic aorist CtA<pElV is found in the Indo-Iranian
present Skt. arhati 'to earn', YAv. arajaiti 'is worth' < *h2elgWh-. Further, CtA<P�
formally corresponds with Lith. alga 'wages', but they are probably independent
formations. From Hittite, one adduces balkuessar 'supplies for a festival'. The Greek
aor. is from the zero grade *h2IgWh- with Rix's Law. On CtA<pUlVW Ctfl£l�W in Aetius,
see Benveniste L'a nnee sociologique 5 (1951): 19-20.


aA<pT)(JTtl1:;, -ov [m.] 'grain-eating', in the epic expression CtVEp£� CtA<pTJOTal (Od.).
<!! GR�
.DIAL Also a fish name in Dor. CtA<PTJOT<l� 'Labrus cinaedus' (Epich.); also called
KlVULOO�, cf. Stromberg 1943: 56; also Thompson 1947.
.ETYM Clearly from liA<PL, in opposition to WflTJOT��, plus *h,ed- 'eat', in the
expression CtVEp£� CtA<pTJOTal. In antiquity, the word was strangely enough not
understood; cf. the strange gloss CtA<pTJOTDOl· Tol� £Up£TLK01� KUL auv£Tol� 'intelligent'
(H.). The -L- was lost for metrical reasons; see Fraenkel 191O: 38.
«A<pt [n.] 'barley-groats' (h. Cer. 208). <!! IE? *h2elbhi 'barley'�
VAR Plur. liA<PLTU (11.), from which the sing. liA<pLTOV, in Horn. only in CtA<plTOU CtKT�.
.DER CtA<PLTTJp6� (Antiph., Herod.), CtA<pmu� 'miller' (Hyp.), CtA<pmuw 'to grind
barley' (Hippon.), CtA<pmlu (Hyp., Poll.) and CtA<pLTElOV (Poll., AB). Further
CtA<pmofl6� 'mixing with barley groats' (inscr. Delos) as if from *CtA<pLTl(£LV;
CtA<pLTTJ86v (Dsc.) .
.ETYM One previously assumed an iln-stem liA<PL, plur. *liA<pUTa, as in Skt. asthi, gen.
asthnas 'bone', on the basis of CtAl<pUTU· liA<PLTa � UAWpU (H.). But iln-stems are
doubtful, and CtAl<pUTa has been read as *CtATJ<pUTU (Latte); cf. DELG, which
compares CtA�<pUTOV liv90� EAUlTJ� (Peek 1897); the form would have been derived
from CtAEW 'to grind'.
liA<PL may be identical with Alb. elb, -i 'barley' from *albhi; see Demiraj 1997. Further
origin is uncertain; perhaps the word is from PIE *h2(e)lbh-i. Also related is Turc.
arpa 'barley', which is perhaps from an Iranian form *arbi; see Vasmer 1921: 16ff. See
Mallory & Adams 1997: 51 for Iranian forms.
On the meaning, see Moritz Class. Quart. 43 (1949): 113ff., who connected liA<PL with
CtA<pUVW, but this is judged improbable by DELG. Connection with � CtA<p6� 'leprosy'
and Lat. albus 'white' (cf. A£UK' liA<PLTU L 560) is rejected by Demiraj 1997.

aA<pOI:; [m.] 'dull-white leprosy' (Hes.). <!! IE *h2elbho- 'white'�

.DER CtA<pWO'l<; 'leprous' (Gal.). As an adjective CtA<pOU<;' A£UKOU<; 'white' (H.),
CtAW<pOlJ<;' A£UKOU<; 'id.' (see below). Thence CtA<plvla· � AeUK'l. I1eppm�ol (H.).
.ETYM Identical with Lat. albus and U alfu 'alba'. Extended forms with PIE *d may be
found in the word for 'swan', e.g. OHG albiz, OCS lebedb, but this could also be a
European substrate word. The main comparanda are geographical names, especially
river-names like AA<p£lO<;, Lat. Albula; Lat. Albis = MoHG Elbe; also ON elfr 'river'.
On the river names, see Krahe Beitr. z. Namenforsch. 4 (1953): 40ff. Most of these
names, however, are probably of non-IE origin.
The word plays a role in discussions about the existence of PIE * a, since Hittite has
alpa- 'cloud'. However, if this is related, it could easily represent thematic *h2olbho-.
IE *bh is frequent in color terms (e.g. apyu<po<;).
The form CtAW<pO<; (H.) was compared with Arm. alawni 'pigeon' < IE *aIH-bh-n-, but
now there is a different explanation of the word: *pJh2-bh-ni- (see Klingenschmitt
1982: 68"). The relation between CtA<pO<; and CtAW<pO<; cannot be explained in Indo­
European terms; perhaps CtAW<P0<; is a simple mistake due to misreading of <p as W?
aAw� [f.] 'threshing floor, garden' (ll.), also 'halo' (around sun and moon) (Arat.); also
'disk' of the sun or moon, or of a shield. � ?�
VAR Also UAW<;, gen. -W, -wo<; or -wvo<;; recent aAWV.
DIAL Cypr. aAOUa· K�1tOl 'gardens' (H.), probably ntr. plur.; Cypr. gen. alawo, =
CtAFw? Dor. aAo<; in Sicily is probably from * alwo-.
.COMP �'lTp-aAola<; 'matricide' (A.); Schwyzer 451 : 4·
.DER UAWeU<; 'farmer' (A. R., Arat.), also PN in Hom.; UAW£lVO<; (AP) and UAW'(O<;
(Nic.) 'of the threshing floor', AAWlCt<; epithet of L\'lw (Nonn.). uAwvla '(grain on the)
threshing floor' (pap., Ath.), diminutive UAWVlOV (Gp., Hdn.); UAWVlKO<; (pap., Ed.
Diocl.). Denominative verbs UAWVeUo�m (App.), uAwvl(w (H.) 'to work at the
threshing floor'; further CtAOCtW, CtAOlCtW (ll.) 'to thresh, crush', epic -Ol- stands for
original length; as a second member in 1taTp-aAola<; etc. (Att. and late), see
Schwyzer: 451 : 4. Thence CtA0'lO'�O<; 'threshing', CtA0'lT�<; 'thresher', CtAO'lTpa [pl.]
'wages for threshing', all known from papyri. Auch CtAOl'lT�p 'thresher' (Nonnos,
AP), CtAo(I)'lO'l<; (EM, gloss.).
ETYM Perhaps from earlier *CtAwF'l ' UAW<; and the Cypr. forms might derive from a
hysterodynamic noun of the type 1tCtTPW<;, with nom. * -{JU-s, acc. -ou-1l1, gen. -u-os;
see Beekes Mnem. 24 (1972): 350-2. If MoSw. 10 'threshing floor' is cognate, we might
also reconstruct a root *h2(e)I-. The explanation by Schwyzer: 479: 7 (from PIE
yel(u)- 'to wind', original meaning 'round') must be rejected, as it does not explain
the Cyprian forms without initial w-, nor the meaning 'garden'. Semantically, we
probably have to think of a small piece of land near the farm, used for growing fruits
and vegetables (garden) and for threshing. From threshing-floor, we can understand
the development to 'disk' and then to 'halo'; see Ure Class. Quart. 49 (1955): 225-230.
The conjecture of Van Windekens KZ 100 (1987): 309f. is to be rejected.

aAw1tIl�' -EKO<; [f.] 'fox' (Archil.). � IE *h,lop- 'fox'�
.VAR On the gender see DELG. A shortened form is CtAW1tCt (Ale.), CtAW1tO<; (Hdn.);
on its origin see Sommer 1948: 5. Denominative CtAW1teUel' CtVlXVeU£l 'tracks' (H.).

.DER Diminutive CtAW1t£KlOV (Ar.); CtAW1tEK£'l, -� 'fox-skin' (Hdt.); CtAW1teKla a
disease of the skin (Arist.); also CtAW1teKlaO'l<; (Gal.) in the same meaning; CtAW1teKla<;
[m.] 'branded with a fox' (Luc.); CtAW1teKl<; f. = KUVaAW1t'l� (X.), also 'head-gear of
fox-skin' (X.) and 'kind of vine' (Plin.), see details in Stromberg 1940: 139;
CtAW1teKlOeU<; [m.] 'young fox' (Ar.); CtAW1t£K£lO<; [adj.] (Gal.), CtAW1teKWO'l<; (H., EM).
Denominative CtAW1teKl(W [v.] 'to behave like a fox', i.e. 'to be cunning'.
.ETYM CtAW1t'l� may correspond to Arm. alues, gen. -esu 'fox'. Cf. further Lith. lape
and Latv. lapsa. Schrijver lIES 26 (1998): 421-434 connects it with the Celtic words
like W llywarn, etc., which he derives from *lop-erno-, and reconstructs *h2Iop-. The
Greek long 0 is explained from an old nom. *h21Op-s. (Skt. lopasa- 'jackal' and MP
ropas 'fox' have an original diphthong in the root and cannot be connected; Lat.
volpes 'fox', Lith. vilpisys 'wild cat' should also be kept apart; Schrijver starts from a
root *ulp-).
The inflection CtAW1t'l� -eKO<; is unique in Greek. There is no support for the
paradigm -ok-s, -ek-os assumed by Rix 1976: 143. In the Armenian form, the e
presents difficulties and is probably secondary, the word rather showing old short e;
see Clackson 1994: 95.
De Vaan III 43 (2000): 279-293, disassociates the suffix from the Indo-Ir. one (as
above the words were disassociated) and doubts that Skt. -asa- etc. are of IE origin.
He follows Chantraine 1933: 376 in assuming that the Greek (and Armenian) suffIx
-ek- was taken from a non-IE language; Greek would have lengthened the vowel in
the nominative. But this does not explain the Greek ablaut: one would expect that
the long vowel had been introduced everywhere. Rather, the suffIxes are IE, and the
long vowel of Sanskrit and the short one of Armenian confirm the Greek ablaut as
archaic. See also Blazek Linguistica Baltica 7 (1998): 25-31.
«!la [prep., adv.] 'at the same time (with), together (with)' (ll.). � IE *sem- 'one'�
.DIAL Dor. u�a, originally instrumental, see Schwyzer: 550. Ct�ei [loc.] (Delphi).
U�CtKl<;' u1ta�, Kp�n;<; 'once (Cret.)' (H.); Tarent. U�CtTl<; 'together' (H.).
.COMP u�a�'lAl<; plant growing at the same time as the apple tree, 'medlar', =
.DER a�UOl<; (Aeol.) 'together' .
.ETYM Probably the zero grade of the root *sem-, *som- in � el<;, � 6�6<;: perhaps from
*S1l1h2- (see � 6�o<;). For the �dverbial ending -a, see Schwyzer: 622 : 8; on KCtpTa,
Ruijgh 1980: 189ff. See � Ct�Cto�m 2, � u�a�a.
u!laSpua => �CtOpua.
u!la9o<; [f.] 'sand' (ll.). � EUR�
.DER Ct�aeiTl<; [f.] 'living in the sand' (Epich.), of KOYX0<;; also TN (J.); Ct�aew0'l <;
'sandy' (Str.); TNs 'H�ael'l (ll.), A�aeou<; (Cyprus) < *-OFeVT-, cf. ��aeOel<; 'sandy'
(Od.). Denominative verb Ct�aeuvw 'to turn into dust, etc.' (epic poet.).
.ETYM It is mostly assumed that 'VCt�aeo<; was created from a�aeo<; on the model of
'VCt��o<;, and that a��o<; was secondarily created to 'VCt��o<;. Beekes 2000: 26 finds
these assumptions far from convincing, as they depend on the etymology of 'VCt��o<;.
a�aeo<; has been connected with MHG sampt, and a pre-form PIE *samJdho- was

reconstructed. But DELG already warned that the connection does not guarantee lE
origin. Kuiper NOWELE 25 (1995): 67 favors European substrate origin because of
the a-vocalism and the varying consonantism. On possible Albanian connections,
see <:;:abej 1969: 174£ See � alllloe;, � '\Iullu80e;, � '\Iulllloe;.
UIlUlI.l(lK€TO!;, (-'1), -ov [adj.] Homeric epithet of unknown mg. (ll.) . .;! ?�
.ETYM Unknown. Connections with IlUKpOe;, llatllUW, lluXOllat should probably all be
rejected; see discussion in Tichy 1983: 314f£ One might conceive of a Pre-Greek
word, *a-mai-mak-eto- (with prothetic vowel and reduplication).



ulluXMvw [v.] 'to destroy, weaken' (ll.). .;! ?�
.ETYM One assumes that the verb is a denominative from an otherwise unknown
pre-form *ulluXoue;. The first question is whether the word has the same root as
� PAu8eIe;. The U- must then have been added after the privative formations (which
always express some lack), but this is not very probable; influence of ulluMe; is not
very likely either. Connection with IlEA80llat 'to smelt' is not compelling because of
the meaning. However, it has a variant ullEA8av, which shows the same problem as
in UIlUAOUVW / pAUOUe;, and in this case we are certain of cognate forms with S-, viz.
OHG smelzan. Does this point to an old interchange of *h2 m -/ sm-? The question has
not yet been solved. lluA8uKOe;, IlUAUKOe;, ulluAoe; and uIlPAue; differ too much to be
useful. PAEVVU and IlUA'1 do not belong here.
ulluUu [f.] 'sheaf (Soph.). ';! PG?�
COMP ulluAA08£T�p 'binder of sheaves' (ll.).
DER ulluAA£uW 'to bind sheaves' (EM) and ulluAAe"iov (ulluAALOv) (Call. Com., H.,
.ETYM Considered to be a derivation in -lU from an older I-stem, eventually from the
verb � ulluollm 'to gather'. However, if ullUOllat is used primarily for drawing
liquids, it can hardly be connected with alluAAu. One might also think of � ulluw 1 'to
reap corn'. Words in -AAU may well be Pre-Greek. See � all'1.

UIlUAOYlU [f.] see below (v.l. for 0110- Alciphr. 4, 18, 10) . .;! ?�
.VAR = up8'1pmalloe; 'foolery', garrulitas (gloss.); ulluMyoe;· <pAUUpOe; 'id.', garrulus
ETYM According to Latte Glotta 32 (1953): 37f., it is haplological for *ulluAAOAoy[u,
which properly meant 'collecting sheaves', then 'the accompanying song' >
'bragging'. This is rightly called "sehr hypothetisch" by Frisk. Groselj Ziva Ant. 7
(1957): 40 assumed *uIlUAO-Aoy[u.

UllaAO!; [adj.] 'weak, soft' (epic poet.), said of young animals and men (ll.). ';! PG?�
DER Perhaps here ulluA[A] Ot· u<pUV[(£l 'makes invisible' (H.) and ulluAumw (S.),
which would equal UlluAOUVW 'to soften' (H.), after � pAumw, � Mmw, see
Debrunner IF 21 (1907): 212.
.ETYM Uncertain. Mostly connected with � ulluAouvw, but this is just a guess. One
further connects uIlPAUe; < *uIlAue;, but this, too, is doubtful. Fur.: 224 connects it

with � unuAOe;, with the Pre-Greek interchange labial / 11. This is possible, but
remains uncertain.
UIlUIlU�U!;, -UO!; [f.] 'vine trained on two poles' (Epich., Sapph.). ';! PG(v)�
.VAR Also gen. -u80e; (Sapph.). Acc. to H. = alln£Aoe; � yEvoe; aTu<pUA�e; 'grape-vine
or kind of grape-bunch'; aTu<pUA�e; yEvoe;, ot 8£ T�V uvu8£v8p6.0u oihw KUAeIa8m
'kind of grape-bunch, thus a vine that grows up trees' (Suid.).
.ETYM Fur.: 212 compares ullu�[e;· YEVOe; aTU<pUA�e; uno uvu8£v8pu80e; (H.), which
must be correct. It is a typical substrate word, showing reduplication. Furnee's
further connection with p�Ka· uvu8£v8pue; (H.) is very doubtful; better, though still
doubtful, is the comparison with Hitt. miibla- 'grape-vine' (see Kloekhorst 2008 s.v.).
Cf. also Kuiper 1956: 215'5•
CtIlUIl'1Xl!;, -l6o!; [f.] 'a tree or bush with edible fruits', probably 'medlar, Mespilus
germanica' (Hp.) . .;! GR�
.ETYM Description in Ath. 14, 650 c-e; the speakers are uncertain about the plant,
and also about the name: we also find 0lloll'1A[e; 'which resembles the 11.', and
t1tlIl'1Ale;. It should probably be analyzed as 'which blossoms at the same time as the
apple tree'. See Stromberg 1944: 32.
UlluVUV [f.] . allu�uv 'chassis, wagon' (H.). ';! PG(v)�
.ETYM von Blumenthal 1930: 34 assumes a loan from an unknown lE language, from
*sr[l-aks-nii (cf. � allu�u); this is highly uncertain. We may compare � un�v'1 'id.'
(s.v., cf. also � Kunuvu), with Kuiper 1956: 213 and Fur.: 224. A variation n/ 11 is well­
known in substrate words. Latte's suggestion of a corruption is therefore gratuitous.
uIluv6uXov [adj.] = U<pUVEe; nup' Ahu[qJ 'unseen (Alcaeus) (Hdn.; Et. Gen. A p. 20
Reitzenstein; EM 76, 52) . .;! ?�
.DER Ulluv8uAot· U<pUV[(£l, pMma 'makes unseen, damages' (H.).
.ETYM Ace. to Hdn. it belongs to uIlUAOUVW; is it then dissimilated from *ulluA8uAoe;
(Schwyzer: 258)? This is doubtful.
ulluvLTm [] 'kind of mushroom' (Nic.) . .;! ?�
.ETYM Perhaps derived from a place name, e.g. the mountain Alluvoe; in Asia Minor,
but it occurs frequently (Koukoules Ep. Et. Byz. 17 (1948): 75; Chantraine RPh. 91
(1965): 201-3). For the sufftx, cf. UKOVLTOV, PWA[T'1e;. The gloss ulluvop£e;· 008l�V£e;
'small abscess, boil' (H.) may be unrelated.
UIlUVOP€!; => ullUvLTm.
allu�u [f.] 'framework, chassis of a four-wheeled wagon; wagon' (ll.). ';! PG(v)�
.COMP allu�lToe; 'practicable for a wagon' (oMe;, Pi.), mostly substantivized [f.]
'carriage-road' (ll.), from IEvm 'to go' and a sufftx -TO- .
.ETYM Usually derived from allu and u�- (in � a�wv) with a suffix -lU, e.g. Adrados
Emerita 17: 146f. However, the interpretation as 'one-axler' (Meringer KZ 40 (1907):
217ff.) does not fit the allu�u; one would rather expect 'two-axler' (cf. � 8[<ppoe;). It
hardly belongs to ToB amiik$piinta 'wagon-master' (for which, Adams 1999: 19
reconstructs unclear lE * h2em -), unless as a loan from Greek. Also improbable is

Adams KZ 97 (1984): 230-232 (,containing axles'). Finally, Forssman 1966: 8-11 argues
that the aspiration is late, which suggests that the word does not contain ulla.
Fur.: 221 compares u�aKA�' a.lla�a (Cyr.), i.e. the interchange ullaK-/ u�aK-, from
which we must conclude that the etymon is Pre-Greek. Note that Banateanu REIE 3
(1943): 136f. already assumed an Anatolian origin.
u,.uio!lCtl [v.] 'to draw (milk), gather' (Od.). � ?�
YAR The act. ullaw occurs late only.
.COMP In compounds with £rr-, Ka-r-, etc.
.DER aWl 'shovel' (Ar.) , 'hod' (inscr.), 'water-bucket, pail' (PIu.; Lat. hama, Cato),
'spade' (Gp.); probably derived from the verb, not the other way around; from here
Ctll[e; f. 'chamber-pot' (Hp.).
ETYM Mostly connected with aw], but even this seems not quite certain (Schulze
1892: 3653 and Solmsen 1909: 195 separate them). As the basic meaning of the verb
and of allfJ are unclear, the etymology is uncertain. It has further been connected
with � ullv[oV and � av-rAOe;; a relationship with � allaAAa has also been suggested; all
are uncertain. Cf. Bechtel 1914 and Solmsen 1909: 180ff. Originally, the meaning was
no doubt quite specific, so the verb should not be connected with � ulla. Connection
with Skt. amatra- [n.] 'vase' is also quite uncertain (the treatment of Mayrhofer
EWAia is unsatisfactory; words for vases mostly have no etymology). One has
connected it with Lith. semti, 1Sg. semiit 'to scoop, ladle', samtis 'ladle' < *semH-, to
which perhaps belongs Lat. sentfna 'bilge-water' (see � av-rAOe;). See � ullaw.

u!lapa [f.] 'trench, channel' (ll.). � ?�
YAR Ctll-? (Frisk); Ion. ullapfJ. Cf. ullapwlla· Ctepo[alla-ra �op�opou 'collection of
filth' (H.) and � £v -roie; K�rrOle; u8popofJ rrapu -ro ulla Ka[ taWe; Kat 0llaAwe; pEiv, �
oLov CtllapofJ -rle; ouaa 'irrigation in gardens ( . . . ) (H.).
.ETYM The second gloss from Hesychius is a typical example of folk etymology.
Formerly connected with OL-, £�-allav in the meaning 'to dig out', and with allfJ
'shovel' (Schulze 1892: 365f., Solmsen 1909: 194ff.), which is improbable. Others
considered a relationship with Hitt. amijar(a)- 'canal': see Puhvel HED S.v. But note
that the words only have initial am- in common. The word could belong to the
Greek-Anatolian substrate. A third option is a connection with Alb. ami! 'river-bed,
source' and river names like Amantia, Amana, Amara, etc.; see Krahe Beitr. z.
Namenforseh. 4 (1953): 52f. and Kuiper NOWELE 25 (1995): 73-5. This comparison is
formally better than tlIat with Hittite. See � ullapta.


U!lUPUKOV [n.] 'Origanum Majorana, marjoram' (Pherecr.). � PG?�
.YAR Also -ap-, -oe; [m.] .
.ETYM The long a in Ionic-Attic points to recent origin; cf. u�apu· 6ptyavov <-ro £v>
MaK£80v[q. (H.). If this is accepted, the variation �/Il points to a Pre-Greek substrate
word, which is probable anyhow. Connection with Skt. maruva(ka)- 'id.' must be
wrong. See Fur.: 21Of., who further compares �apoe;/v 'a kind of spice'. From Greek
comes Lat. amaraeum, -us, MLat. maioraeus, maiorana, whence the modern forms.

u!lapdv [v.] . UKoAoueEiv, rre[ewem, Ctllap-rav£lv 'to follow, believe, miss the mark'
(H.). � GR, IE *sm- 'one' and *h2er- 'join'�
.ETYM The last explanation of the gloss can hardly be reconciled with the first, so
they should be separated. One may compare AllapLOe;, epithet of Zeus and Athena in
Achaia (Aymard 1938: 455-470); the word might mean 'who brings together' (cf.
'OllayupLOe;). Further comparison with � Ctllap-r�, � ollap-r£w and � ollfJpoe;.
U!laplu [?] . 0llou, rrapaywywe; 'together, by a slight change' (H.). � ?�
.ETYM Not understandable. One would think that the meaning belongs to another
gloss, as ullapta can hardly be an adverb.
U!lUPTUVW [v.] 'to miss the mark, fail' (ll.). � IE *h2mert- 'miss, fail'�
.YAR Aor. Ctllap-rEiv .
.DIAL Aeol. �1l�POLOV (Hom.).
.COMP vfJll£p-r�e;, vUIl- (Hom.) 'infallible, unmistakable', Dor. vUIl£p-r£la (S.).
Younger uvallap-rfJ-roe; 'without fault'.
.DER Ctllap-rta 'fault' (Att.); Ctllapnov (A.), Ctllap-rae; (Ion. and late), Ctllap-rfJlla (Att.,
Hell.) , Ctllap-rwA� (Thgn.), Ctllap-rwAta (Hp., com.); secondary Ctllap-rwA6e; 'sinner'
(Arist., Hell.), whence Ctllap-rwA6e; 'erroneous, erring' (Arist.).
.ETYM vfJll£p-r�e; presupposes *1'}-h2mert-, and seems old because of the full grade
root (cf. uvallap-rfJ-roe;). Probably, the -ap- in Ctllap-ravw replaces -pa- after the full
grade (note that Aeolic has ull[�] po-r-). The aspiration must be analogical. The word
has no known cognates, but the reconstructed root looks perfectly lE. Cf. Ruijgh
Lingua 25 (1970): 308f.
U!lUPTtl [adv.] 'at the same time, together' (ll.). � IE *sm-h2er-t-, GR�
.YAR -� in Aristarchus; elsewhere -�, -ft, but probably wrongly.
.DER Ctllap-r�8fJv (sch. <l> 162, H.), which is also a probable reading of N 584
0llap-r�8fJv (WackernageI 1916: 70).
.ETYM Old instrumental (in *-eh, > -�, which also explains the accent) of a verbal
adjective *ullap-roe; 'joined together, meeting' (ulla and upaptaKw). Also from here
probably comes Ctllap-r£w 'to meet, get together', which is mostly written � o llap-r£w
(ll.). See also � 0llfJpoe;.
U!lUPU<JC1W [v.] 'to sparkle, twinkle' (of the eye) (h. Mere., Hes.). � PG�
YAR Only present.
.DER ullapuy� 'twinkling' (h. Mere.), ullapuwa 'id.' (Hes., Sappho), with D by
metrical lengthening, while Aeolic has -Xlla; allapuy� 'id.' (Hdn.). Perhaps a
nasalized form in AllapuyK£ue; ('If 630) and in ullapuYKuata· �oa-rpux[a 'curly things'
(H.) (rather unclear; mistake?). ullapuHa· -roue; 6<peaAlloue; 'eyes' (H.); taken as a
Cret. dual ullapuK-ra 'the twinkling ones'.
.ETYM Compare with � Ilapllatpw (s.v.; cf. llaPllapuy�). As -uaaw is typically Greek
(Schwyzer: 733), a comparison with Lith. merkti 'to close the eyes, twinkle', etc. is not
admissible. The word may well be of Pre-Greek origin, with It- interchanging with
reduplication and the suffIx -u�/ -uy�, which is typical of the substrate language and
shows prenasalization. See Kuiper 1956: 221.


UflaTa [] ? disputed; hapax in SIC 421 A 5 and 26 (lIP). <l IE *h2eh,(s)-mor 'day'�
.ETYM Leumann 1950: 276 reinstated the view that this form is simply �flaTo. 'days',
which is no doubt correct.
uflaup6c; [adj.] 'hardly seen, dim, faint' (Od.); on the mg. see McKinley Ant. class. 26
(1957): 12-39, Neugebauer Ant. class. 27 (1968): 373f. <l PG?�
.VAR Rarely flo.upoC; or flo.up6e; (Hdn., Gal., H.), probably from flo.up60flm, -6w
.DER Ctflo.up6Tlle; (Gal.), Ctflo.up[o. = caligo (gloss.). Denominative verb Ctflo.up60flm 'to
become dim', rarely Ctflo.up6w 'to make dim' (Ion., poet., Hell.). Thence Ctflo.upwme;
'obfuscation' (Hp., Arist.), Ctflo.uPWflo. 'id.' (PIu.).
.ETYM It is assumed that flo.up60flm arose through loss of the initial vowel (see the
material in Stromberg 1944: 44f.). However, it could also be a case of a prothetic
vowel vs. its absence, and therefore a substrate phenomenon. Substrate origin is
probable anyhow, as the word has no etymology. It is a Scythian loan ace. to Puhvel
1957: 237: from maurva-.
ufluw 1 [v.] 'to reap corn, cut, mow down' (ll.). <l IE? *h2meh,- 'mow'�
.VAR Homer often has long 0.-, no doubt metrical (Chantraine 1942: 111).
.COMP Especially in Ct1t-, 8Lo.flCtW 'to cut off, mow, harvest' (Od.).
.DER aflllToe; [m.] '(time of) harvest' (Horn.), on the accent see LSJ; CtflllTue; [f.]
(Hymn. IS) ; Ctfl�T�P 'reaper' (ll.), Ctfl�T£LPo. [f.] (EM), CtflllTp[e; [f.] (Poll. 1, 222).
Daneben o.flllTlle; (Porph.). Instrument noun CtflllT�PLOV 'sickle' (Max. Tyr.),
CtflllTLK6e; [adj.] 'made for cutting'.
.ETYM Connected with OHG maen, OE mawan 'to mow', which means we have a
root *h2meh,-; aflllToe; could then be identical with MHG mat, OE mced 'reaping'.
The Anatolian form Hitt. bamesba(nt)- 'spring, time of harvest' is important, as it
shows that the *h, belonged to the root. CtflCtW probably derives from aflll < *h2mh,­
eh2-, ace. to Schrijver 1991: 20 (no vowel assimilation from *ame-, as per Peters 1980a:
914'). For aflll, Morgenstierne Acta orientalia 7 (1929): 200 connects Pashto yum
'spade' (cf. Pok. 502, but it is doubtful whether a PIE root *ieh2m- is permissible).
The verb 8L-o.flCtW is separated from CtflCtW 'to mow' by lrigoin in the LfgrE. On
� aflo.Ho. 'sheaf and � CtflCtPo. 'canal', see s.vv.
ufluw 2 => CtflCtoflm.
dfl�T) => afl�wv,
afl�l�, -iKOC; [m.] 'spouted vessel' (Ath. ll, 480d), also 'alembic' (Zos. Alch.). <I ?�
VAR Also afl�LKOe; m. (Posid.).
.E:rYM Explained as '<pO�[XELAOe; KUAL�' and de; 6�u CtvllYfl£vll (Ath. ll, 480d); see
Dlehl on Semon. fr. 24. Statements about these words in the handbooks are unclear.
The suffix is no doubt a substrate element, as it is in KUAL�. It is often connected with
� afl�ll � afl�wv, but correctly so? Chantraine 1933: 376 calls these words Semitic, but
without references. Derivation from Ctvo.�o.[vw seems most improbable.

ufl�AaKio"Kw => Ctfl1tAaK[oxw and Ctfl�AlaKw.

Ufl�Aio"KW [v.] 'to cause to miscarry' (S.). <l IE? *h2mlhJ-�
.VAR Pres. also (£�-)afl�A6oflm, -6w (lA), -ww (Max.), -waKELV' TO CtTEA£e; yEvv�am,
TO <p8Eipm �pe<poe; 'uneffected birth, miscarriage of a foetus' (Suid.), -waaELV'
WflOTOKEiV 'to miscarry' (H.); aor. (£�-)o.fl�Awam.
.DER From Ctfl�A6oflm: afl�Awme; 'miscarriage' (Lys., Arist.), Ctfl�Awmfl0C; (Max.),
afl�Awfla (Antipho Soph., Aret.), Ctfl�Awafl6e; (Aret.); instrument noun Ctfl�AWT�PLOV
(Orib.), adjective Ctfl�AWTLK6e; (Gal.). The formation of Ctfl�AW8p[8LOV 'abortive child'
(Ph.), 'drug causing abortion' (Poll.), also -[8LOe; [adj.] (Aret.), looks strange. A
secondary suffix -[8Lov was added to -8po- (Chantraine 1933: 373 and 68ff.).
.ETYM The connection with fluAll as 'miscarriage' (Hp.), recte 'hard formation in a
woman's womb', should be given up; Chantraine thinks it may be the same word as
'mill', and Frisk, who gives the suggestion under Ctfl�A[aKw, does not mention it S.v.
fluAll. Rix MSS 27 (1970): 10541 considers the root *h2mlhJ- and a connection with
� Ctfl�AUe; (but see there).
Ufl�AUC;, -£ia, -u [adj.] 'blunt; dim, faint (of sight)' (lA). <I ?�
.DER Ctfl�AuTlle; 'bluntness, weakness' (Arist., PIu.); denominative verbs: 1. Ctfl�AUVW
[v.] 'to make blunt, weaken' (lA); afl�Auvme; (comm. Arist.), Ctfl�AUVT�p (Poeta de
herb.), Ctfl�AUVTLK6e; 'causing weakness' (Dsc.). 2. Ctfl�Auwaaw (-WTTW) [v.] 'to be
short-sighted' (Hp., Pl.), from *Ctfl�AU-W'V, cf. Ctfl�AU-w1t6e;, also Ctfl�AW1t6e;, Ctfl�AW'V;
Schwyzer: 733 (, Sommer 1948: 3ff.
.ETYM Ctfl�AUe; can be from *CtflA-Ue;. It cannot be from *h2mlhJu-, as per Rix MSS 27
(1970): 90, as this would give *CtflaAUe;. The connection with CtflaA6e; is a mere guess
and it explains nothing. Perhaps related to Ctfl�A(o.K)[aKw; there have also been
attempts to compare it to CtflaAMvw, lastly Nikolaev 2005.
Ctfl�p60"lOC; => �poT6e;.

dfl�WV' -WVOC; [m.] 'rim or edge of a cup (especially one that curves inwards) (A.).
<I ?�
VAR Attic for Ion. afl�ll 'raised edge, protuberance' (Gal. 18a 340); afl�ll' � T�C; huoe;
6<ppue; TWV KuHwv Cta1t[8wv 'rim of a shield ( . . . ) (H.), 'rim of a wheel' (Democr.).
One compares also CtvCt�wVEe;· �a8flou £180e; 'kind of step or threshold' (H.).
.ETYM On the formation, see Chantraine 1933: 162 and Schwyzer: 487; on the
meaning, Ross Clotta 49 (1971): 244-258. Probably a loanword. Connection with Lat.
umbo is quite uncertain; Chantraine (and, tentatively, Frisk) connect it with � afl�L�.

uflt6uO"TOC;, -ov [adj.] 'not drunken, not intoxicating' (PIu., Dse.); substantivized
'remedy against drunkenness' (PIu.), also as the name of a plant, see Stromberg 1940:
91; 'amethyst' (LXX). <l IE *medhu 'sweet; honey, wine'�
.ETYM Compound of privative 0.- and fle8u. The stone 'amethyst' was named after its
color: the red of wine diluted with water such that it is no longer intoxicating
(Clausing Clotta 20 (1932): 292).
Ufld�w, -OflUl [v.] 'to change, exchange', med. also 'to answer, repay' (ll.). <l IE
*h2meigW- 'change'�
VAR Ctfl£l�OVTEe; 'rafters that meet and cross each other' ('I' 712).



.DER UflOL�� 'change, exchange, requital, recompense, answer, etc.', UflOL�uioc;
'abwechselnd' (Pi., Emp., Hdt.), uflol�a8LOC; 'id.' (Opp.); UflOL�lfluiov 'payment,
reward' (IGRam., Lydia). UflOl�£UC; name of Poseidon in Lye. 617. Adverbs:
UflOL�'l81C;, (bt)UflOL�u81c; (Horn.), cf. Schwyzer 631. Late denominative uflOL�a(w [v.]
'to swap' (Men. Prot.). Ufl£l'\llC; (Plb., LXX) '(ex)change, etc.', UflWtTlKOC;. UflOl�OC;
'one who exchanges' (ll.), also adjective 'in requital' (S.), frequent as a second
.ETYM No exact correspondence. It has been compared to Lat. migrare 'to wander' as
if from *migros 'changing (place)'. The -�- probably goes back to *gW, as *b is rare in
PIE. Therefore, the root was *h2meigW-, which may be an extension of *h2mei- 'to
change' (as in Skt. mayate and Lat. cam-munis), but an enlargement _gW_ is rare.
Ctfl£lVWV [adj.] 'better, stronger, more advantageous' (ll.). <!! ?�
ETYM No etymology. Attic proper names with Afl£lV- are supposed to show that the
-£l- is a real diphthong, so it does not derive from *ufl£V!wv, DELG therefore
remarks that the word could be an old positive. Seiler 1950: 120 assumed *U-fl£lV!WV,
from *fllVUC; with privative u-; this is improbable. Note that a root *h2mein- would
violate the IE root structure constraints, so it would have to be from *h2mei-n-.

Ctfl£lPW [v.] 'to bereave' (Pi.). <!! ?�
.COMP U1tUfldpw (p 322 V. l., Hes.).
ETYM Solmsen KZ 29 (1888): 354 took the verb as an innovation for UflEp8w to
UflEpO"Ul, ufl£p0�vaL. Perhaps related to � UflEp8w. A reconstruction *h2mer-ie!a- is
perfectly possible.

UflEAYW [v.] 'milk' (ll.). <!! lE *h2melg- 'milk'�
.COMP L1t1t-'lfloAYOI 'Mare Milker', name of Scythians and other nomads (N 5, Hes.).
.DER Ufl£A�lC; 'milking' (Pi., LXX); plant name Ufl£A�IV'l (Ps.-Dse.), see Stromberg
1940: 160 (who compares ufl£P<J1v'l and £A�IV'l). Ufl£AKT�PU (H.) explaining
UflOAYOC;, UflOAY� (Hdn.); uflOAY£uC; and UflOAYlOV 'milking pail' (Theoc.), ufloAya8£c;
�o£C; 'dairy cows' (S. Ichn. 5). On ufloAyuioC;, ufloAya(£l see � UflOAy0C;.
ETYM An old verb, also found with full grade root in OHG melchan, OE melcan,
Alb. mjel, ToA malkant [ptc.] , Lith. melzu, with the acute due to the following *g
(Winter's Law). The zero grade root appears in OCS ml'bz{J, Mlr. bligim, Lat. mulgeo.
This points to an old ablauting athematic root present sing. *h2melg-ti, plur. *h2mlg­
enti. Not connected with Skt. marjmi, mrjanti 'to wipe off (see � 6floPyvufll).

frfl£vcu [v.] 'to satiate, take one's fill'. =- a<JaL.
Ctfl£v'1voC; [adj.] 'without power' (ll.). <!! GR, lE *men-s-�
.DER ufl£v�vw<J£v (N 562).
oETYM Built on ufl£v�C; (E.), from flEVOC;, perhaps modelled after UKfl'lvoC; (Od.).
UflEPYW [v.] 'to pluck', of flowers (Sapph.), also of olives = 'squeeze out'? (Cam. Adesp.
437); UflEPYW' TO EK1tlE(W 'to press out' (Hdn.). <!! lE?, PG?�

.DER uflOPY'l 'watery part which runs out when olives are pressed' (Hp.), borrowed
as Lat. amurca, amurga; also ufloPY'lC;, ufloPYoC;, UflOPYlC;. Agent noun ufloPyol'
1tOA£WC; oA£0pOL 'destructions of a city' (Cratin.). ufloPY£uC; 'squeezer of olive oil'
(Poll.), ufloPWu <JUAA£WU, uPTuflu 'collection, condiment' (H.). Unclear UflOPYIC;,
-180c; [f.] 'stalks of mallow, Malva silvestris' (Ar.); perhaps named after the island
Amorgos (Taillardat RPh. 33 (1959): 66; cf. also Taillardat REGr. 64 (1951): 11ff.).
Adjective UflOpYlVOC; epithet of XmiJv and other garments (corn., Aeschin.), cf.
UflOpY£lU' XpWflaTOC; cl80c;, U1tO v�<Jou AfloPYOUVTOC; 'kind of color, from the island
of Amorgos' (Suid.).
.ETYM Lat. mergae 'pitchfork' could be related. It seems that the Greek root is related
to Skt. marj- (see � 6floPyvufll), but it is unclear how the initial vocalism could be
explained. Although a PIE root *h2merg- is perfectly possible, the word may also be a
technical term borrowed from the substrate language.

CtflEP�W [v.] 'to deprive of (ll.). <!! lE *h2merd- 'cause injury'�
VAR flEp8£l· KWAU£l, �ACtm£l 'hinders, disables' (H.); fl£p0£i<Ju, m£p'l0£i<Ju
'deprived' (H.).
.ETYM If the form without the initial vowel is secondary, the root may have been
*h2merd-, which is cognate with Skt. mrdnati, mardati 'zerreiben, zerdrucken' (cf.
� flUpUIVW), OAv. mor;mdat 'destroys', Lat. mardeo 'to bite', OE smeartan 'to cause
pain' (with initial s- of Germanic origin). Perhaps related to � ufldpw .

uflEaw WflO1tACtTaL 'shoulder blades' (H.). <!! ?�
.ETYM Compare with � ibfl0C;; if this represents *Ham(e)s-, we could assume *h2mes-,
but then the language can hardly be Greek, given the preserved intervocalic -<J-. Is it
then Macedonian? It can hardly be Phrygian, which does not preserve intervocalic
-s- either. The word may have quite a different origin (see Beekes Sprache 18 (1972):

Ctfl£uaua6cu [v.] 'to surpass, go beyond' (Pi., Euph.), also 'to trade, exchange' in Cret.,
cf. Bechtel 1921, 2: 778. <!! lE? *h2meu(H)- 'move, push'�
VAR 8lufl£u<JTac;' UAU(OVUC; 'vagrants' (H.); 8lUfl£uT�C;' '\I£U<JT'lC;, U1tUT£WV 'liar, cheat'
(H.) .
.DER Ufl£U<JlflOC; = 1t0P£U<Jlfl0C; (A. R. 4, 297 after EM 82, 11), cf. Ufl£U<JI1tOPOC;, -£1t�C;
.ETYM The meaning 'trade' could derive from 'to go to the other side'. The
comparison with ufluVW 'to push back', further with Lat. maveo, Lith. mauti, ISg.
mauju 'to tear off, Skt. mivati 'move, push' < *miH-(e)u- (the European forms
continuing *mieu-), is rather uncertain. If it is Indo-European, the root may be
*h2meu-, cf. Heubeck Glatta 65 (1987): 37-44 and s.v. � ufluflwv,




Ctfl�Kwa [adj.] . 8£lVa. TUPUVTIVOL 'fearful (Tarantian) (H.). <!! ?� .
.ETYM Acc. to von Blumenthal l930: 14, the word is Messapian. A mere guess.
"fl'1<;, -'1TO<; [m.] 'cake' (Ar.). <!! ?�

DER Diminutive uflllTlaKoc; 'kind of cake' (corn.).
.ETYM Unknown. It has been compared to ... aflLEla. The latter word has a
reduplicated variant uflaflLEluoec;, typical of substrate words, but it need not be
cognate with uflllC;.

uflLa [f.] 'kind of tunny which swims up rivers', perhaps 'bonito' (Sotad. Corn.). <!I ?�
VAR Also -lac; [m.].
.ETYM Unknown. Thompson 1947 s.v. supposes an Egyptian origin (mehi, mf:zit
name of a fish). Cf. Stromberg 1943: 128 and De Saint Denis 1947 s.v.

afll6a [f.] . eOwfla TIOlOV, Kat upTufla wC; AvaKpewv 'kind of meat, condiment' (H.); for
Anacr. see 467 Page. <!I PG(v)�
VAR P. Hamb. 90, 18 has an ace. pI. ufuElac;. Cf. uflafuEluoec;· �ouaflu n aKWaanJV
OLa Kpewv eic; flLKpa KeKoflflevwv OL' UPTUflUTWV (Photius 86 R.).
.ETYM The variant with reduplication is typical of substrate words. The word has
been connected with uflllC;, but this is quite uncertain.

ufllUa [f.] 'contest' (Pi.). <!I PG(s)�
.DER Denominative verb UflLAAaOflUL 'to compete' (lA); UflLAAllT�P 'competing' (S.),
UflLAAllT�PLoC; 'of the competition' (Philostr., Aristid.); UflLAAllTLKoC; 'id.' (Pl.);
ufllAAllfla 'competition' (S. [lyr.] inscr. Cyr.).
.ETYM Derived from *afl-LA-la by Frisk (comparing ElveAAa, uflaAAa), but this is
problematic. All words in -LAA(a) look non-lE (i.e. Pre-Greek), so an lE suffix of this
shape is very doubtful (cf. Benveniste 1935: 41). For the form, cf. ufllAAaKav· olvov
'wine' (H.).
uflLUaKav [f.] ? · olvov. ell�cUOl 'wine (Theban) (H.). <!I ?�
ETYM Unknown. See Fur.: 221 (also on "' U�lAALov). Cf. ... ��Ka.

ufllx6aAOEO'Oa [adj.] 'rich in almonds', epithet of Lemnos (0 753). <!I PG�
.ETYM Call. fr. 18, 8 has uflLxElaAOwaav . . . �epa, so he connects 0fl1XAll. This must be
a folk etymology, since 0- comes from *h3-. Scholion BT on 0 753 gives = euoalflwv,
which is no more than a noncommittal guess (*UflLKTo-ElaAowaa [Lagercrantz IF 50
(1932): 277-80] is a construct that would hardly have been syncopated to our form).
The ancient interpretation as UTIpOaflLKToc; 'inhospitable' does not explain the form
of the word. The connection with Go. maihstus 'mist' has the objection that the latter
word is not known in Greek. Leumann 1950: 214 and 273), accepts the solution of
Doederlein, who identified the form with uflvyOaAov 'almond'. This explanation fits
well and gives no difficulties for the formation. The variation may be confirmed by
UflUKTO· yAUKV· oi 8£ UflLKTOV (H.) and ufluKA1C;· yAUKVC;, �8Uc; (H.); for KT/ KA, cf.
UpuKTll / UPOKAOV etc. See Fur.: 140, 388.
uflflu [f.] 'mamma, mother; nurse', TpO<pOC; Kat fl�TllP KaEl' lmoKopLaflov 'rearer and
mother (hypocoristic)' (EM 84, 22). <!I ONOM�
.VAR uflflla (Hdt.).
.ETYM Nursery word. Cf. Lat. amma, and Chantraine REGr. 59-60 (1946-7): 242ff.

*aflfll� . auYKoflLaToC; UpTOC;, TapavTlvOl 'bread of unbolted meal (Tarantian)' (H.) .
<!I ?�
.ETYM Gloss 3662 has UflLKovLaToc;, 3702 uflflLaKoflLaTov; thus *UflL( C;)?
aflfloc; [f.] 'sand' (Pl.). <!I LW�
.DER uflflwOllC; (Hp., Arist.), uflflLVOC; (Peripl. M. Rubr.) , uflfllTllC; [m.] (se. A1EloC;), also
uflfllnc; [f.] 'sandstone' (Plin.) .
.ETYM Considered to be a contamination of ", uflaEloc; and ",'VuflfloC;, but this
assumed starting point fails to appreciate that the word is non-Indo-European and,
as such, may not have followed the sound laws of lE words. On AflfllTllC; as a river
name, see Redard 1949: 130 ete.
uflvCtflOc; [m., f.] 'grandchild' (CalL). <!I GR�
VAR Also uflvaflfloc;; plur. uflvuflovec; (Poll. 3, 19). Cf. the gloss cited by DELG.
.DIAL Oros in Reitzenstein 1897: 5: uflvaflOl· oi UTIOyOVOl· KUplWC; TIapa T�V TWV
KupllvaLwv OLuAeKTov oi TWV uflvWV uflvol uflvaflOl AeyovTUL· TouTeanv TWV upvwv
upvec;· ( . . . ).
.ETYM Probably a reduplicated form of uflvoC;; cf. TIULOOTIULC; (DELG). See Dobias­
Lalou REGr. 111 (1998): 403-417.

UflVLOV [n.] 'patera, vase to receive the blood of a sacrifice' (y 444); see Brommer
Herm. 77 (1942): 357 and 364. <!I ?�
.ETYM Connection with uflaoflUL is no more than a guess.
uflvoC; [m., f.] 'lamb' (S.). <!l IE *h2egW-n-, *h2ogW-n- 'lamb'�
.VAR uflvoa· TIpO�aTOv, oi O£ uflvoC; 'cattle, lamb' (H.), unreliable .
COMP UflVOKWV 'stupid like a sheep' (from Koew, Taillardat 1962: § 453) UflVOKOfloC;
(Latte for -KOTIOC;). TIOlfl�V 'herdsman' (H.) .
.DER Special feminine forms: uflv�, -U (Cos, Gortyn, ete.), uflvac; (LXX), uflvlC;
(Theoe.). Adjectives: uflv£lOC; (Theoe.), uflvcUoC; (pap.) 'made of lambskin'; thence
uflv£lov, uflvlov, also uflveLoc;, aflvLoc; 'inner membrane surrounding the foetus'
(Emp.), also -OC;.
.ETYM Identical with Lat. agnus < *h2egW-no-, OIr. uan < *h2ogW-no-, OCS agnt; <
*h2egW-n-ent- (with long vowel and acute from Winter's Law). OE eanian, E yean,
Du. oonen < PGm. *awnon seem to presuppose _gwh_, but see Schrijver 1991: 39, 438.

uflo- 'some, someone, somebody', indefinite pronominal stem in ouoafloc;, ete. <!l IE
*smH-o- 'some'�
VAR Also in uflou, ufl� uflol, uflwa-ye-TIwc;; also flll0aflo-.
.ETYM Identical with Skt. sama- 'someone' and Go. sums 'id'. The Greek and
Germanic forms require *s1JlH-o-, and the Skt. form may also go back to this. A
similar form is at the basis of OIr. samail and Lat. similis 'like' < *semh2-1-, see on
... 6flaAoc;. The forms seem to be an enlargement of *sem- 'one' (see ... dc;), but the
exact relation is unclear.

aflOlva [?] unknown (only IG 5(2),
. 4: 22). <!I ?�
.ETYM Unknown.



aflOLOC; [adj.] . KaKOC;. �lKEAOL 'bad (Sicilian) (H.). � PG (v) �
.VAR f-loloC;· OKUSPW1tOC; 'sullen, sad' (H.), see on � Of-lOlOC; OKUSPW1tOC; (Hdn. Gr. I,
lO9), of-loloC; (Theognost.), of-lUOC; (H.).
.ETYM Given the plausible connection with � 0f-lOlOC; (see above and s.v.), the initial
displays a number of variations, which are typical for Pre-Greek (Fur.: 368). Not
related to � f-lOLTOC; (s.v.; pace von Blumenthal 1930: 15f.).

uflOAY0C; [m.] 'darkness'. Only (EV) VUKTOC; Uf-lOAYq, (A 173, 0 324, X 28 and 317, 0 841).
� ?�
.VAR Of-lOAyq,· �oCP4J 'in darkness' (H.), where the ms. has Of-lOAOYW. As an adjective
(which is probably a secondary, learned development) in E. fr. 104: Uf-lOAYOV VUKTa·
EupmLOT]C; AAKf-l�Vn �OCPEpaV KaL OKOTElV�V 'dark'. ot Of f-l£pOC; T�C; VUKTOC; KaS' 0
Uf-l£Ayoumv 'part of the night during which they milk' (H.).
DER o.f-loAyaloc; in f-lu�a o.f-loAyaLT] 'barley-cake made with milk' (Hes. Op. 590), see
below; o.f-loAyalov f-laoTov uvaoxof-lEvOC; 'who held up a breast full of milk' (AP 7, 657,
Leon.). o.f-l0AyU�El· f-lEOT]f-l�PL�El 'passes the noon' (H.).
.ETYM The meaning had already been lost in antiquity. If a verbal noun of o.f-l£AYW,
o.f-lOAYOC;, it means 'the milking' (and the oxytonesis has to be secondary). The
expression f-lu�a o.f-loAyaLT] in Hesiod is interpreted by Proclus and in EM s.v. f-lu�a as
o.Kf-laLa 'at its height, in full bloom': TO yap o.f-lOAYOV E1tL TOU o.Kf-laLou TLSnat. Thus
also Eustathius on 0 324: AXatOL Of KaLa LOVC; yAwoooypucpouC; o.f-lOAYOV T�V o.Kf-l�V
cpam. However, this meaning may have been derived from the text (see Leumann
1950: 274). Nilsson 1920: 35f. took it as the time of milking at the beginning of the
night. DELG judges this interpretation to be more probable than that of 'fullness'.
Older literature is mentioned in DELG and Frisk; see also BoIling AmJPh. 78 (1958):
165-172; Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 654. Parvulescu Glotta 63 (1985): 152-158
argues that vuKroc; o.f-lOAYq, indicates the evening twilight, and adduces parallels
from other languages for an original meaning 'night milking'. Still, if Of-lOAOYW
points to *Of-lOAYOC;, the alternation 0.-/0- could point to a substrate word.

uflopa [f.] 'sweet cake' (Philet.). � ?�
VAR o.f-lopa· oEf-lLOaAlC; ECPS� aUv f-l£AlLl 'fine wheat flour boiled with honey' (H.).
.DER o.f-lOpLTT]C; UpTOC; (LXX), also written o.f-l0p�LTT]C; (Ath.) and o.f-lopyLTac;·
1tAaKOUVTac; 'flat cakes' (H.), both = o.f-loPFL-rT]C;, with a suffIx -ITT]C;.
ETYM From original *o.f-loPFa. Etymology unknown; perhaps Pre-Greek *(a)marW-a?

uflOP�oC; [m., f.] 'follower, shepherd' (CalL). � ?�
DER Adjective o.f-l0p�aloc;, said of XapacSpat 'gravel' (Nic. Th. 28, 489), mg. unclear;
scholiasts render it with 1tOlf-lEvlKaL 'of herdsmen' or OKOTElVWOElC; 'dark' (which may
be mere guesses); cf. EM 85, 20: o.f-l0P��C; KaL o.f-lop�£C;· OT]f-laLVEl TO f-lEOOVUKTlOV 1tapa
T�V opCPVT]V . . . aT]f-laLVEl KaL TOV o.KOAOUSOV 'the time of midnight; companion'.
Denominative verbs o.f-l0P�£w (Antim.) and o.f-l0p�EUW (Nic.) 'to accompany'.
o.f-l0p�LTT]C; belongs to � o.f-lopa.
.ETYM Unknown. Improbable analysis by Pisani RlLomb. 77 (1943-44): 541.

uflOPY'l =o.f-l£PYw.

UflOPYlC; [f.] kind of dress ( 96). � PG�
.VAR Aaf-lm�pEC; o.f-lopyOUC; (Emp. fr. 84), perhaps lanterns clothed in muslin (cf. Lat.
lintea lanterna, PL Baeeh. 446).
.DER Unclear o.f-lOPYLC;, -LOOC; [f.] 'stalks of mallow, Malva silvestris' (Ar.); perhaps
named after the island Amorgos (Taillardat RPh. 33 (1959): 66; cf. also Taillardat
REGr. 64 (1951): llff.). Adjective o.f-lOPYlVOC; epithet of XlTWV and other garments
(com., Aeschin.), cf. o.f-lopYEla· Xpwf-laLOC; ilooc;, o.1tO v�oou Af-lOPYOUVTOC; 'kind of
color, after the island of Amorgos' (Suid.).
.ETYM The name of the island may have been used to designate clothes, cf. MoE
jersey, jeans, etc. Cf. Taillardat 1962: section 262.
aflOTOV [adv.] 'incessantly, without pause' (ll.), especially in the phrase Uf-lOLOV
f-lEf-lawc;. � IE *meh3- 'get tired'�
.VAR Thence the adj. Uf-lOLOC; (Theoc.) .
.ETYM Uncertain, as the exact meaning is unknown. Seiler KZ 75 (1957): 17-20
assumes zero grade of EV + zero grade of f-lEV-, like in Ef-lf-lEf-lawc;; yet a zero grade of
EV is uncertain. Forssman 1986: 329-339 explains it as *1}-m1}-tom mem1}Yos as
'Unerstrebtes/-bares erstrebend', with Greek and Sanskrit parallels. This is tempting,
but for the oldest formula with Eris (twice at verse end), the proposed meaning does
not fit. There, it clearly means 'incessantly, indefatigable', which rather suggests a
connection with *meh3-, as seen in � f-lWAOC;, OHG muojan 'to tire', muodi 'tired', Go.
af-mauips 'id.' < *mo-etos), Ru. majat', ISg. maju 'to wear out' (LIV2 s.v. *meh3-).
afl1tEAOC; [f.] 'grape-vine, Vitis vinifera' (ll.). � PG?�
.DER Diminutives: o.f-l1t£AlOV (Ar., Hp.), o.f-l1tEALC; (Ar.), also a bird name = o.f-l1tEALWV,
see below.
Adjectives: o.f-l1tEAOElC; 'rich in vines' (ll.); o.f-l1t£AlVOC; 'of the vine' (Hdt., Arist., Plb.),
o.f-l1tEAlKOC; 'id.' (HelL), o.f-l1t£AlOC; 'id.' (Ph., Ach. Tat.), o.f-l1tEAWOT]C; 'rich in vines'
(PolL, H.). o.f-l1tEALTlC; (y�, X£pOOC;) 'viniculture' (pap.), o.f-l1tEAlLlKOC; (pap.).
o.f-l1tEAWV [m.] 'vineyard' (Aeschin. 2, 156 [v.l.] , Hell.); o.f-l1tEAEWV (Theoc., AP),
diminutive o.f-l1tEAWVLOLOV (pap�); o.f-l1tEAEla 'id.' (inscr. Cherson.), after cpuTELa.
o.f-l1tEALWV [m.] name of an unknown bird (Dionys. Av.), see Thompson 1895 s.v.
.ETYM Cannot be explained in lE terms, and generally considered to be a substrate
word (although there are no further indications for thiS).
Ufl1tAaKlaKw [v.] 'to miss, fail; to be bereft of; to transgress' (ArchiL). � PG (v) �
.VAR Also o.f-l�AaKLoKw; late and rare present to the aor. �f-l1tAaKOV (also �f-l�-) pass.
perf. �f-l1tAaKT]f-lat. Note o.1tAaKWV (E. Ale. 242, lA 124) and o.va1tAaKT]ToC; (S. OT 472) .
.DIAL Does not occur in Attic.
DER o.f-l1tAaKLa 'fault' (Hp.) with o.f-l1tAaKlWTlC; f.
tEpa VOOOC; (Poet. de herb.).
Further o.f-l1tAaKlOV (Pi. P. 11, 26) and o.f-l1tAaKT]f-la (poet., late prose).
.ETYM Compared with � Uf-l�ALOKW, which DELG rejects for both formal and
semantic reasons. are typical for substrate words (see Fur.: 281f.). Blanc 1994: 79-85
connects it with � 1tAU�0f-lal. As Van Beek suggests to me (p.c.), this is quite
attractive, provided that 1tAa�0f-lat (which has no convincing etymology) is a
substrate word. The group would then display a prothetic vowel (which is otherwise




rare in verbal forms!), prenasalization, and interchange �I TI (if we include
clf.l�AlaKw), and we could reconstruct a Pre-Greek verbal root *(a)mpla"k-.
UflTIp6v [n.] 'rope for drawing loads' (inscr. V-Iva). � ?�
VAR Accentuation after Et. Gen., H.
.DER Cq.mpEUW [v.] 'to draw along, drag' (E. apud Phot., Call.); £�-aIlTIpEuw (Ar. Lys.
289), whence a retrograde derivative £�aIlTIpov 'team of oxen' (gloss.); auv-aIlTIPEUW
(Arist.). UIlTIp£UT�e; ovoe; (S. apud Phot.).
ETYM Technical term of unknown origin.

UflTIU�, -UKOC; [f., m.] 'women's diadem; horse's bit; rim of a wheel' (ll.). � PG�
.DIAL Myc. a-pu-ke lampukeil in a context of horses' harnesses, a-na-pu-ke lan­
ampukesl of �vlm, a-pu-ko-wo-ko lampuk(0)-worgos/ .
COMP xpUa-uIlTIu� 'with a golden bit' (ll.).
.DER aIlTIuKT�pEe; (A.), all1ruKT�pLa and a!l1cuKwllaTa (S.) are poetic enlargements.
Denominative allTIuKu�W [v.] 'to tie up with a headband' (AP, EM).
ETYM Formerly considered to be a root noun TIU� prefixed with allava-,
belonging to TIUKa 'solidly', TIUKVOe;, etc., and cognate with Av. pusii 'diadem' < lE
*pukeh2- (Liden 1932: 148ff.); this is seconded by Benveniste BSL 34 (1933): 41, who
adduced further forms and borrowings from Iranian. However, Szemerenyi Gnomon
43 (1971): 655 points out that ava- would not fit the meaning, as *allcpL-TIuK- would be
expected. As this form could hardly give aIlTIuK-, the etymology is doubtful. The
notion 'thick, solid' does not seem to fit the objects in question. Szemerenyi also
doubts the connection with Iranian.
A word for such objects is easily borrowed. If we analyze the word as *amp-uk-, it
contains a typical substrate suffix (Beekes 2003: 12-15).


UflTIWTLC; [f.] 'ebb' (Hp.). � GR�
.DER aIlTIWTI�W 'to ebb' (Ph., Eust.).
.ETYM Variant of avuTIWTLe; (Pi.), a fern. agent noun of avaTIlvw; UIlTIWTLe; (8uAaaaa)
resorbens unda (Hor.). See Schulze KZ 56 (1929): 287, Schulze KZ 57 (1930): 275, as
well as Fraenkel 191O: 116; but see also the critical notes in DELG.

ufluyMATJ [f.] 'almond' (Hp.). � PG(v) �
.VAR alluyoaAov [n.] , alluyoaAoe; [f.] (Luc.). Also alluaYEAa, -uAa (Cyrene).
DER alluyoaAle; [f.]
alluyoaAll (Philox., PIu.), diminutive alluyoaALOv (Hp.).
Adjectives: ulluyoaALvoe; 'made of almond' (X., Thphr.), alluyoaALOe; 'almond­
shaped' (pap.), alluyoaAo£Le; 'id.' (Nic.), alluyoaAwolle; 'id.' (Thphr.). alluyoaAEa, -�
'almond tree' (Eup., Hp., Arist., Thphr.), alluyoaALTlle; 'spurge' (Dsc., Plin.).
.ETYM A typical substrate word (note -yo-, which interchanges with -ay-), which is
confirmed by the identification with � aIlLx8aA6waa; on the variation see Pre-Greek.
Fur.: 140 further compares � lluKllpOe; and Hitt. mitgaimi- 'sweet bread', Luw.
mitgaimi- 'sweet(ened)'. Borrowed into Lat. as amygdala; also amiddula, amyndala,
amandula, whence OHG mandala.


uflulSp6c; [adj.] 'dim, faint, obscure' (Archil.). � ?�
VAR allu86.vm· Kpu'\Im 'hide, cover' (H.).




allue;, -uooe;

.DER alluop�£Le; 'id.' (Nic.); alluopoTlle; 'darkness, weakness, etc.' (Ph., Gal., Plot.).
Denominative alluopoollm 'become dark', -OW 'to make dark' (Ph., comm. Arist.);
thence alluOpWaLe; (comm. Arist.).
.ETYM Unknown. allaupoe; is close in meaning and form, but the two cannot be
combined in Indo-European terms. Influence of cpmopoe; has been proposed, but
such contaminations are often rather gratuitous. In principle, alluo- may continue a
root *h2mud-. The Slavic root *m'bd- 'weakness etc.' cannot continue *mud- in view
of Winter's Law (so it is from *mudh-)




UflUAOC; [m.] 'cake of fine meal' (Ar.). � GR?�
.VAR UlluAOV [n.] 'starch' (Dsc.).
.DER Diminutive alluALOv 1 [n.] 'cake' (PIu.), whence alluAiiTov 'id.' (sch. Ar. Pax
1195); allUALOV 2 'starch' (Hp., Arist.), whence alluALowTov 'kind of (starched) chiton'
(Hermipp.). For the formation cf. CtAUaLOWTOe;, X£LpLOWTOe; (Chantraine 1933: 305) .
.ETYM Starch is made from unground grain, which suggests that ulluAoe; derives
from lluAll (cf. ulluAov, aTEppOV, UKAaaTOV 'firm, unbroken' EM) with privative a-.
However, given the form, we expect a basic meaning 'having no mill', not
'unground', which casts some doubts on the etymology. Lat. LW amulum > MoFr.


UflUflWV [adj.] 'noble, excellent' (ll.), never of gods. � IE *h2meu-�
VAR ullulloe;. aya8oe;, allwllllToe;, UIlEIlTITOe; Kat allullwv 'good, blameless' (H.).
.ETYM Traditionally connected with llullap' aIaxoe;, cpo�oe;, '\Ioyoe; 'shame, fear,
blame' (H.) and llullapl�£L' yEAOLu�EL 'jests', which is taken to be Aeolic for Ilwllap,
� Ilwlloe; 'blame'. allullwv would then originally mean 'without blame', and relate to
llullap as aTIElpwv to TIELpap. However, Heubeck Glotta 65 (1987): 37-44 proposed a
derivation from allu- < *h2mu- in allEuaaa8m 'to surpass', i.e. 'who surpasses others'
(with metrically lengthened u in the sequence of three shorts). This seems to be an
improvement. The root (Pok. 743) would mean 'to bend the motion, (re)move',
found in Lat. moveo and in alluvw 'to ward off, but this is not entirely convincing.

uIluVW [v.] 'to ward off, defend, help' (ll.). � ?�
.VAR Pret. �lluva80v (impf. or aor.? See Schwyzer: 703) .
.DER alluvTwp 'warden, defender' (ll.), also as a PN; alluvT�pEe; 'brow tines of a stag's
antlers' (Arist.); alluvT�pLoe; 'fit for warding off (Pl., Hell.), alluvT�pLov (PI., Hell.);
alluvTLKOe; 'id.' (Pl., Arist.). alluvTpov (A. apud Phot.), not glossed. alluVTlle;
'defender' (Phot., Hdn.), also PN, cf. KllP-alluvTlle; (Lyc.); alluvlae; 'id.' (Ar. Eq. 570).
ulluva 'defense, revenge', etc. (Theopomp. Corn.); retrograde formation, see
Schwyzer: 475, Chantraine 1933: 101. XELIl-ulluva XAaLva TIaxcia (A. fr. and
.ETYM If the nasal is originally a present marker, as in KAlvw, TIAUVW, we have a root
allu-, which may be found in � allEuaaa8m 'to excel, transcend', but the semantics
are not quite clear. So a thematicized nasal present * allu-vF w?



ufluC;, -ulSoC; [f.] 'freshwater turtle', XEAWVll ALllvala (Archig. apud Gal.). � PG(v) �
.VAR Also £Ilue; (Arist. HA 588a 8, H.) .

.ETYM Considered to be a contamination of Eflu,; 'id.' and CtfllU 'tunny' by Stromberg
1943: 81, but this is improbable. The form with E- rather shows a substrate origin; see
Fur.: 347. Perhaps found in � n�Auflu,;?
CtflUOOW [v.] 'to scratch, tear, lacerate' (11.). � PG (V) �
.VAR CtflUOXWeUL. TO �E£lV Ta.; oapKU'; ToT.; OVU�lV 'the laceration of the flesh with
claws' (H.).; CtflUX� 'rent, wound' .
DER 1. CtflUX� 'rent, wound' (Hp.), CtflUXlUTo.; mg. uncertain (PI. Ax. 366a) and
CtflUxw8'l'; 'cracked' (Hp., Thphr.), CtfluX'lMv 'superficially, lightly' (EM); 2. CtflUXflo,;
'id.' (Theoe.), CtfluYflo,; (conj. in A. Ch. 24); 3. ufluYflu 'rending' (S., E.); 4· UflU�l';
'scratching' (Orph., Ach. Tat.). Adverb CtflU� (Efl<puOU Nic.) = flOAl'; (Euph.);
adjective CtflUKLlKO'; 'scratching, irritating' (PIu., medic.). Also CtflUKaAUL' ut CtK18£.;
«DV �£AWV 'the barbs of arrows' (H., EM), cf. Chantraine 1933: 245ff., Schwyzer: 483.
Cf. CtflUOXWeUL. TO �E£lV Ta.; oapKU'; ToT.; OVU�lV 'laceration of flesh with claws' (H.).
ETYM A root *CtflUK/X- is assumed, which would continue lE *h2muklt-; this is then
compared with Lat. mucro 'sharp point, sword' (cf. De Yaan 2008 s.v.). Further
comparanda include Lith. musti 'to beat' and OE gemyscan 'to afflict, tease'
(Holiliausen IF 48 (1930): 266). This seems a rather small basis for reconstructing an
lE root. Fur.: 347 accepts the comparison with Latin, but as a substrate word (though
his assimilation rule u- > £- before ul l [34633] seems doubtful to me). The form
CtflUOX- shows a typical Pre-Greek variation (insertion of -0- before stop).

UflUOTi =>fluw.
ufluoXp0<; [adj.] 'immaculate, pure' (Parth.). � PG (v) �
VAR Also CtflUXpo,; (S. apud Phot., Suid.) and CtflUXvo,;, Ctfluyvo,;, CtflUOKUpO'; (Suid.);
uflouxu, KUeUp£Uouou. AaKwvE'; 'clean or pure (Lacon.)' (H.). CtflUOX�VUL' KueiipUL,
UYV10UL 'to cleanse' (H.) .
ETYM The variations KI yl X and crI zero suggest a Pre-Greek origin (Fur.: 299);
perhaps also oKI �, if Furnee is right in connecting CtflU�uvo,;· CtVOOlO'; 'impure' (H.),
with privative u- (cf. Fur.: 393). Also related is flUOKO';' flluoflu, K�80.; 'defilement,
care' (H.). Not related to Ctnofluoow (see � fluoooflUL and flu�u), See � fluoo,;.

UfluW =>�fluw,
Ufl<Paoil1 [f.] 'speechlessness' (P 695 = 8 704), of EnEwv. � GR�
.ETYM Equivalent of Ct<puol'l (E.) from U<pUTO'; (� <P'lfll), with Ctfl- indicating a long
syllable, ace. to Chantraine 1942: 99. Perhaps modelled after Ctfl�pool'l.
afl<PI1V, -EVO'; =>UUX�V.
Ufl<pi [adv., prep.] 'around, on both sides' (11.). � IE *h2nt-bhi 'on both sides, around'�
VAR Also Ctfl<Pl'; [adv.] 'id., apart', more rare as a prep. 'around, outside of (epiC).
.DIAL Myc. a-pi, e.g. in a-pi-qo-ro-i lamphi-kwoloihil 'servants' [dat.pI.] . Also in PNs,
e.g. a-pi-a2-ro IAmphihalos/.
ETYM This old adverb is originally a case form of the word for 'face', as is clearly
shown by the cognate ToB iintpi, antapi 'both' < *h2ent-bho(i)-; cf. Jasanoff BSL 71
(1976): 123-131 (see � ufl<pw). Greek Ctfl<Pl and Lat. amb(i)-, am-, an-, continue the

instrumental *h2nt-bhi. Further forms: Alb. mbi 'at', W ambi-, OIr. imb-, OHG umbi
'around', Skt. abhi, OAv. aibz 'towards'. Grassmann's dissimilation law gave Ctfln- in
Ctfln-EXw etc. The word is important in historical phonology, because it shows iliat a
zero grade *h2n- (cf. the OHG and IIr. forms) gives CtV- in Greek (so-called Lex Rix).
ufl<pla�w [v.] 'to clothe, put on' (Alciphr.). � GR�
.ETYM Hellenistic innovation for Ctfl<plEvvufll beside Ctfl<PlE�W, which was built on the
aor. Ctfl<pl-EcrUL.
Ufl<pl&<;, -OU [m.] name of a mediocre Sicilian wine (com.); cf. Ath. 31e, Suid. � GR�
.VAR Cf. Ctfl<P�';' o'(VOU uveo.;· ot 8£ flEAUVU olvov 'the flower of the vine; red wine'
.ETYM -lU'; is a suffIx used in names of wines. See Baunack Phil. 70 (1911): 356; is
there a connection with Ctfl<Pl, -w? Fur.: 341 connects the gloss with Ctfl<pla.;, and also
� 0fl<pu� 'unripe grape', which is quite possible.
Ufl<piyuo" =>yu'l';.
Ctfl<PlE�W =>Ctfl<pla�w.
Ufl<plKEAEflvOV [m., n.] Ctfl<Pl�UpE';' ot 8£ TOV �UOLa�OflEVOV uno Mo CtVepwnwv
81<ppov, UAAOl 8£ Ctfl<plKOlAOV �UAOV 'chariot-board borne by two men; wood
hollowed on both sides' (H.). <'!l ?�
.VAR Ctfl<PlKEAEflVl';' KaT' 6�EAWV nEplKpEflUOl'; ioopponw.; 'hanging down from a bar
in equipoise' (H.) .
DIAL Mye. o-pi-ke-re-mi-ni-ja-pi lopi-kelemniaphil [ins.pI.] part of a chair
(connection with KpEflavvufll, supposing I-kremn-I, is impossible; see � KP'lflvo,;) .
.ETYM Connected with � KEAEOVTE'; by Fur.: 245. This seems quite possible, but he
assumes a variation fll F, which is unlikely. One might rather assume a suffIx -flv­
beside another formation.

Ufl<plAU<pJ1<; =>Aa<pupu.
ufl<piov [n.] 'garment' (S.). <'!l GR�
.VAR Or Ufl<pLOV (sch. D. T. 196).
.ETYM Shortened form of Ctfl<Plwflu. See Gregoire Byzantion 13 (1938): 396ff.
Ufl<phtoAo" [f., m.] 'servant, handmaid' (11.), also 'priest( ess)' (Pi.), i.e. 'one who takes
care of the gods'. <'!l IE *h2mbhi-kWol(h,)-o- 'servant'�
.DIAL Mye. a-pi-qo-ro lamphi-kwolos/.
DER Ctfl<pl1tOA£1ov 'servant dwelling' (IG 4, 39 [Aigina Y"l), Ctfl<Pl1tOAlU 'servanthood'
(D. S.). Denominatives Ctfl<pl1tOAEUW [v.] 'to work as a servant, ply, take care of (epic,
Hdt.), Ctfl<Pl1toMw 'id.' (Pi., B.) .
.ETYM From *h2mbi-kWol(h,)-o-, identical in origin with Lat. anculus 'servant' and
Skt. abhiciini- 'witchcraft' (AY+); cf. Lat. anc(u)liire 'to serve the gods' and Yed.
pari-cara- 'servant'. See � nEAoflUL and � �OUKOAO';.

ufl<Plo�I1TEW [v.] 'to go asunder, disagree, dispute' (Att., Hdt.). <'!l GR�
VAR Also -�iiTEW (Ion., perhaps also Lesb., Rhod. ?).

.DER Ctfl<pLa��-r'l<Jle; 'dispute, controversy, claim', juridical term (Att.),
Ctfl<pLa�'l-r�<JlflOe; 'controversial'; Ctfl<pLa�'l-r'l-rLKOe; 'belonging to the dispute' (Pl.).
Ctfl<pLa��-r'lfla 'dispute' (PI., Arist.), Ctfl<pLa�'l-r'lfla-rLKOe; (Aps.). From Ctfl<pLa�a-rEw:
Ctfl<pLa�aal'l (Hdt.) .
ETYM Compounded from Ctfl<ple; and �alv£Lv (��VaL) 'to go apart', as if from
*Ctfl<pLa��-r'l e; or *Ctfl<pLa�u-r'le; 'who goes apart' (cf. £flTIUpL��-r'le;, napaL-�u-r'le;).

A!1<PL-rpUWV [m.] name of a king of Tiryns, later Thebes (11.) . .;! ?�
.ETYM Neumann 1983: 334 rejects the connection with -rpuw, and starts from
*Amphi-tor, with a suffIx -uon like in � CtAEK-rpUWV.
Ct!1<popeuc; [m.] 'jar with two handles', also a measure (Ar., Hdt.). ';! GR�
VAR Also Ctfl<pL<pOpEUC; (11.).
DIAL Mye. (KN) a-pi-po-re-we /amphi-phorewes/, a-po-re-we /amphorewe/ [du.] .
.DER Ctfl<poPlOLov (Ar.), or -dOLOV, see Schwyzer 471; Ctfl<poplaKoc; [m.] (D., inscr.);
Ctfl<pOpLOV (gloss.); unclear Ctfl<popd'P' <pop-rl'P 'load' (H.). Ctfl<popl-r'le; as an adjective,
of Ctywv, 'contest with an Ct. as a prize', Call. fr. 80); as a substantive of uncertain mg.
(PSI 5, 535, 31, see Redard 1949: wM.; Ctfl<pOpLKOe; (sch.); Ctfl<poPl� [adv.] (Eust.),
whence a verb Ctfl<poPl<w was derived (Eust.).
.ETYM From Ctfl<pL-<pOpEUC;, i.e. 'born on two sides', but with -we; from the instrument
nouns. Borrowed as Lat. amphora, diminutive ampulla.

Ct!1<pOU�lC; [adv.] hapax of uncertain mg. (p 237): Ctfl<pouole; CtElpm; . .;! ?�
.ETYM Interpreted as if Ctfl<pwOle;, from *Ctfl<pwFaole; 'by both ears'. Cf. £�w�uOLa·
£vW-rLa. AUKWVEe; 'earrings (Lacon.) (H.). See Bechtel 1914 s.v. and DELG.
a!1<pw [pron.] 'both' (11.). ';! IE *h2(e)nt-bhoh,�
VAR Later replaced by Ctfl<pO-rEpOC;.
.ETYM Identical with Lat. ambO. The original form of the anlaut is found in ToA
iimpi (ToB antapi, iintpi; see � Ctfl<Pl). Other languages have forms without the nasal:
Skt. ubhau, Av. uua; OCS oba, Lith. abit. Germanic has no initial vowel, e.g. Go. bai.
There is no overall explanation for the forms, but connection with Ctfl<Pl seems clear.

a!1w!10v [n.] an Indian spice-plant, 'Amomum subulatum' (Hp.) . .;! LW India�
DER; [f.] 'false Amomum' (Dse.), from Armenia; CtflWflLL'le; Al�aVOe; (Dsc.) .
ETYM An Oriental loanword; cf. � KLvvuflwflov. See Andre 1956 s.v. amomum and E.
Masson 1967: 503.
Ct!1wauc; [v.] · KpEfluam;, Tapav-rlvOL 'hung up (Tarantian) (H.). ';! GR?�
.ETYM Immisch Leipz. Stud. 8 (1885): 276 thinks this is an allegro-form of CtvEflwaa<;.
Latte suggests aflflwaae; from *uflflow, which would be a denominative from aflfla
'something tied'. Possible, but hypothetical.

u!1woY£TIWC; 'in some way'.
.ETYM From aflwe; yE TIWe;. See � uflo-.


Kua-ruv£Lov. =>flo-ru.

av [pcl.] modal particle (lA, Arc.) . .;! ?�

.ETYM The identifIcation with the questioning particle Lat. an, Go. an (see Lee
AmJPh. 88 (1967): 45ff.) becomes superfluous because of the ingenious connection
with KE(V), which derives from *ken. We have to assume that *OV Kav < *Hoju kt;J was
analyzed as OVK ay; see Forbes Glotta 37 (1958): 179-182.
CtVU [prep.] 'up along' (11.) . .;! IE *h2en- 'up, on high'�
.VAR With elision and apocope (iv, CtV; adverbial (iva.
DIAL Mye. a-na-ke-e /an-agehen/ [inf.]; perhaps /ano-/, in a-no-qa-si-a /ano-gWasia/
'expedition (?)', etc. Lesb., Thess., Arc. and Cypr. have ov, giving vv- in Are. and
Cypr., cf. Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 309.
.DER Adverb (ivw, whence (iVW8EV, CtVW-rEpW, Ctvw-ru-rw; on -w see Schwyzer: 550.
.ETYM On the use of Ctvu, see DELG. It is an old adverb, also found in Iranian and
Germanic: Av. ana, OP anii 'upwards, along'; Go. ana, OHG an(a), OE on 'on, at' .
Perhaps also in Lat. an-hcliire, an-testiirf , Arm. am-barnam 'to raise', ete. It is
doubtful that Skt. anu 'along' derives from *h,enu.

avuyuAAlC;, -l�OC; =>uyanle;.
avuYKIl [f.] 'force, necessity' (11.) . .;! ?�
.VAR CtvaYKa1'l (11.) cf. Schwyzer: 469
.DER CtVaYKalOe; 'constrained, forced', also 'related by kinship' (since 11.), whence
CtVaYKaLO-r'le; [f.] 'kinship' (Att., Hell.), also 'necessity' (S. E.); CtvaYKaLW0'le;
'indispensable' (CtVaYKaLWOEa-rEpa sch.). Denominative verb: CtVaYKu<w [v.] 'to force,
compel' (lA, not in Horn.), whence CtvuYKaafla 'means of coercion' (J.); CtVaYKaaT�p
'coercer' (Amorgos), CtVaYKaaT�pLOe; 'compelling' (D. H.); CtVaYKaa-rLKOe; 'id.' (PI.,
Arist.). Ka-ravuYK'l kind ofvetch, 'Ornithopus compressus', used in making philtres.
.ETYM The word has been compared with Celtic words for 'necessity, fate' (OIr. ecen,
W angen), which may go back to *ank- < *h2enk- and also the Germanic group of
OHG iihta, MoHG Acht 'outlawry'. However, Matasovic 2008 s.v. *anku­
reconstructs the Celtic group as belonging to *nelcu- 'violent death'. NPhr. aVaVKaL
has an uncertain meaning and possibly a Greek loanword. Oettinger 1979: 175f.
argued for the connection with Hitt. benkan- 'death' (with be- < *h2c- by Eichner's
Law), but ace. to Kloekhorst 2008 s.v. bai(n)k-tta(ril, the -e- must go back to a
It is not excluded iliat CtVUYK'l is a substrate word; for the fIeld of meaning, cf.
� U�pLe;, which has no good etymology either.

avuyupoC; [m.] 'stinking bean-trefoil, Anagyris foetida' (Ar.) .;! ?�
.VAR -Le; [m.] , also ovoyupoe; (Nic.), where folk etymology after ovoe; (Stromberg
1940: 155) is improbable, as Ctva- is very common in Greek.
.DER Thence the Attic deme Avayupoue; (Ar., Pl.) .
ETYM Unknown. The form with ovo- might point to a substrate word, as a/ 0 is
frequent in such words. Amigues RPh. 73 (1999): 147-154 starts
. from MLat. faba
in versa 'inverted bean' and connects it with yupoe; (CEG 6).

aVUlVO!1Ul =>alvoe;.

aVUKapSlOV =>Kapouflov.
aVUKW<; [adv.] 'attentively, heedfully' (Hdt.). <!( GR�
.VAR Only in avuKw<; £X�:tV Tlvo<; 'to pay attention to sth.'.
ETYM From *avuKow<;, adverb of *avu-Koo<;, which is a verbal adjective from *avu­
KO£W 'to look after'; see � KO£W. Cf. aflvo-KwV 'simpleton', literally 'sheep-minded'
(Ar.) < *aflvo-KoWV.

avuKwXIl =>avoKwx�·
aVUAEl [v.] . aX0AO.�EL, TUPUVTIVOL 'is at leisure (Tarantian)' (H.). <!( ?�
.ETYM Unknown. Latte corrects it to avuAwlvEL 'to brush, crush' (highly uncertain,
see DELG).
avuAloKW [v.] 'to use up, spend, consume' (A.). <!( GR�
VAR Fut. aVo.Awaw, aor. aV�Awau, new present avo.A6w .
DER avCtAWaL<; 'expenditure, consumption' (Thgn.), avCtAwflu 'id.' (Att.) , aV�Awflu
(pap., inscr.); secondary Simplex CiAWflu (Boeot.), see Fraenkel 19lO: 119; diminutive
avuAwflclTlOV (Ph., pap.). avuAwT�<; 'squanderer' (Pl.), whence aVUAWTlKO<; (PI., Ph.).
ETYM From *avu-FuAfaKw, originally 'to tear up'; cf. HG verzehren 'to consume'. See
� CtAlaKoflm.

avuATO<; [adj.] 'insatiable' (Od.). <!( IE *h2el- 'grow; make grow, feed'�
.VAR Cf. Cihpov· flla8o<; 'reward' (H.); from 'what guarantees food' (DELG)?
.ETYM Negative verbal adjective of the root seen in Lat. ala, OIr. alim, ON ala 'to
feed' and Go. alands 'TpE<poflEVO<;, nourished', which in Greek only exists as a verbal
root in enlarged form: � aAoulvw, perhaps � aA8ulvw. Perhaps � VEo.A�<; 'fresh, not
tired' is from the same root as well.
avu�, -Kto<; [m.] 'lord, ruler' (ll.). <!( PG�
.VAR Voc. Civu (ll.); plur. (F)avuKE<; name of the Dioskouroi (Horn.); fern. (F)avuaau
< *wanak(t)-ja 'mistress' (ll.) .
DIAL Myc. wa-na-ka Iwanaks/; wa-na-ka-te Iwanaktei/; wa-na-ka-te-ro =
FuvaKTEp0<;, -OV, with -TEpO<; indicating opposition like in aypoTEpO<;, 6p£aTEpO<;.
wa-na-so-i Iwanassoiinl [dat.du.l , also wa-na-se-wi-jo Iwanass-ewios/, -e-wi-ja 1ewia/, of vases.
.COMP f\vu�uyopu<;, etc., 'I1t1tWVU�, etc.
.DER avu�lu 'command, rule' (Pi., A.), which may also derive from avaaaw; adjective
ava�LO<; 'royal' (sch.). From (F)avuKE<; derives (F)uvaKELOV 'temple of the
Dioskouroi' (Att., NWGr.) , f\vaKElu [pI.] festival for the Dioskouroi (Lys.),
avuKwaLO<; [adj.] (Rhegion). Denominative avaaaw [v.] 'to be lord, rule' (ll.).
.ETYM No IE etymology, and probably a substrate word. Are OPhr. vanaktei, NPhr.
OUUVUKTUV loans from Greek? The word is important for the interpretation of the
Mye. signs of the z- and s-series: is wa-na-sO derived from the stem in -kt-, or from
the stem in -k-? See Crespo Minos 19 (1985): 91-104, and Viredaz 1993. It is probable

that the forms without
Lingua 25 (1970): 309ff.



are younger, but see e.g. Ruijgh 1957: 112 and Ruijgh

avu�uplS£<; [f.] 'long, wide trousers', worn by the Persians and other eastern peoples
(Hdt.). <!( LW Iran.�
.ETYM Persian loanword. Cf. R. Schmitt Glotta 49 (1971): 96 .
avu�upl<; = 6�UAl<; 'sour wine' (Dse.). <!( ?�
.ETYM Unknown.
aVupLT'1<; =>vT]p1TT]<;.
avupplxaof.Lul [v.] 'to climb with hands and feet' (Ar.). <!( ?�
.VAR Also applxaoflm (Hippon.); called obsolete by Lucian; perhaps shortened from
.ETYM Unknown. See Solmsen IF 13 (1902/03): 132ff. and Ehrlich 19l2: 53.
avapO'lo<; [adj., m.] 'incongruous', hence 'strange, hostile' (ll.); equivalent of ouaflEv�<; .
<!( GR�
.DER Cf. CipaLov, olKmov 'just, lawful' (H.), which is explained as a back-formation to
avapaLo<; (see Frisk 1941: 7) .
.ETYM Generally assumed to be a derivative of � apuplaKw 'not fitting'.
avuoTUAV�W [v.] 'to burst into tears' (Anacr. 43, 4). <!( PG? (V) �
.VAR aaTuAO.�EL· AU1tEl flETa KAuu8floU 'grieves with weeping' (H.) probably stands
for *aaTUAU�El.
.ETYM Cf. aaTuAuxElV (read -U�ElV?)- avu[�]AU�ElV, KAU1ELV 'weep' (H.), VEOaTUAU�'
vEOMKPUTO<; 'who just cried' (H.); cf. also aTaAu�, to be read for aTaAT]� in Zonar.,
aTUAUYfl0<; 'drop'. Cf. � aTuAO.aaw, -a�w 'to drip, drop'. The suffix is also in other
words for 'crying etc.': ypu�w, iu�w, 6AOAU�W, 6TOTU�W. The prothetic a- of aaTUAuy­
beside aTaAU� could be a prothetic vowel; if so, this points to substrate origin.

avuoTlSWVO<; [adj.] . avuTETUfl£vo<; 'lifted up' (H.). <!( ?�
.ETYM Unknown.
avuoupTOAl<; =>aUpw.
avunl =>aaw.
avuupo<; [m.] 'torrent' (Mosch.); also a river name in Thessaly (Hes. Se. 477) and
Acarnania. <!( PG�
.ETYM Kretschmer Glotta 10 (1920): 51ff. interpreted the word as "waterless", from
the dried up river-bed in summer, comparing avaupo<;: 6 £� UETWV auvlaTaflEvo<;
1tOTUflo<; 'river arising out of heavy showers' (EM); see discussion on xapaopa s.v.
� x£paoo<;. It was therefore analyzed as a privative av- and a word for 'water', which
is not attested but supposed in � A YAaupo<; (but see there), and further in 8T]aaup6<;
and K£VTUUP0<; (Kretschmer I.e.). The source name Aupa (Nonnos) was also
compared, and Krahe IF 48 (1930): 216 connected it with Italic (Illyrian?) HNs like
Metaurus, Pisaurus, as well as HNs like Avara, Avantia (Krahe Beitr. z. Namenforseh.



4 (1953): 49 and 115). Having thus been etymologized, the second element was further
compared with Skt. var(i) and the Gm. group of ON aurr [m.] 'whet, water' (Pok.
80f.), but since that root contains no initial laryngeal, it could never yield Gr. au-. No
doubt, the word is non-Greek, and probably non-lE (if the connection with Krahe's
river names is correct). The assumption of a privative CtV- is highly improbable; such
assumptions are due to the desire to interpret everything as Greek and as Indo­
European as possible, even when all facts point in a different direction. The further
comparison with HNs without -r- in Fur.: 230 is doubtful.
avMvw [v.] 'to please' (ll.); used in a political context as 'it pleased the people (to
decide)" hence 'to decide'. � IE *sueh,d-�
VAR Aor. Mciv (Aeol. EllaOov in Horn.), perf. eo.Oa. Present also Att. � �ooflat.
DIAL Dor. aoavw should perhaps be assumed on the basis of CtoaVOVTa' CtPEO"KOVTa
'pleasing' (H.); Baunack Phil. 70 (1911): 353; cf. ATj8avw.
.COMP au8aoTjC; (see s.v.) .
DER Moc; 'decision, resolution' (Halic., Thasos), aOTjfla· ",�<plafla 'decree, law' (H.);
also FaOL�lC; in yaol�lC; ' OfloAoYLa and aOL�lC;' OfloAoYLa napa. TapavTLvOlC; 'agreement
(Tarantian) (H.) (to *FaOL(oflat).
.ETYM The initial F- is seen in Aeol. EuaOE, Cret. EFaOe < PGr. *e-swad-e and in Locr.
FEFaoTjq61"a. The root is that of � �ooflat, � �OUC;; see also � au8aoTjC;. Sanskrit has
swidati 'to make savory', which derives from *suh,-fJ-d- ace. to LIV, but is rather
from *sueh,d-e- with loss of laryngeal per Lubotsky's Law (Lubotsky MSS 40 (1981):
133). The factitive in Lat. suadeo 'to advise, recommend' is reminiscent of the Greek
meaning 'to decide'.

livST)pa [] 'raised bank of a river or ditch; dike, border of the sea, seed-bed'
(Hyp.). � PG?�
.VAR Rarely sing. avoTjpov.
.DER CtVOTjp£UT�C; 'workman employed on dikes' (pap.).
.ETYM Neumann 1961: 91 points to the fact that many words connected with
irrigation look non-Indo-European: beside avoTjpa, he mentions apow 'to irrigate'
and yopyupa 'underground drain'. Fur.: 20410 thinks that -Tjpov is a non-lE suffix.
Ibid. 347, he compares the Thracian place name "EvoTjpov, but there is little support
for this.
livSLvoc; [m.]? . nEpLnaToc; (cod. nEpl navToc;) 'walking about' (H.); acc. to
Hemsterhuis, <napa. TapavTLvOlC;> from the following line belongs in this gloss too.
� ?�
.DER CtVOLVLW (cod. CtVaOLvLw)- nEpmaniJ 'to walk up and down' (H.) is Doric.
ETYM Uncertain. On Illyrian and Messapian hypotheses, see Frisk s.v. Alternatively,
is it from OlVEW (s.v. � OLVTj)? See Forssman 1966: 61f.

avSpunoSov [n.] 'prisoner of war sold as a slave, slave' (ll.); on the spread of the word
see Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 76. � GR�
.DER Diminutive CtvOpanooLOv (Hyp., Diph., pap.). Adjective CtVopanOowoTjC; 'slave­
like' (Plo, Arist.), whence CtvopanoowoLa 'servile attitude' (Arist., PIu.). Denominative



verb CtvOpanooL(w, -Oflat [v.] 'to enslave, sell as slaves' (lA); thence CtvOpanOOlaLC;
'enslavement' (Xen.), -lafloc; 'id.' (Att.). CtVOpanOOLaT�C; 'slave trader' (Att.);
CtvOpanoolanKoc; 'ptng. to slave trade' (Plo, Eup.); CtVOpanOOLaT�plOC; 'id.' (Tz.).
.ETYM The plural Ctvopanooa 'of whom only the feet are human' is Original; this
form was modelled after TETpanooa 'quadruped' and is originally a consonant stem
(cf. [] CtvopanoowaL [H 475]). From Ctvopanooa, the thematic sing.
CtVopanooov was derived. See Wackernagel KZ 30 (1890): 298 and Leumann 1950:
157f. On the -a-, see Bader RPh. 43 (1969): 31.
avSpuxvT) [f.] plant name 'Portulaca oleracea', also 'Sedum stellatum' (Thphr.).
� PG (v) �
.VAR With dissimilation CtVOpaXATj (Thphr.); also avopaxvoc; [f.] (Paus.) .
.ETYM Fur.: 288 compares Ct8payEvTj, which is formally quite acceptable, i.e.
*(a)"trak(V)nll-, with metathesis of aspiration (197\ 393), variation nl I (388), the
common phenomenon of prenasalization, and anaptyxis of E. Substrate origin is
probable anyhow.
avSpE'i<povrn [adj.] in'EvuaAkp Ct. (B 651). � IE *h,nr-gwhon-teh,- 'man-slayer'�
.ETYM The epithet was changed after � Ctpyd<pOVTTjC;: it should be read as CtVr<pOVT­
'slaying men', with an extremely old zero grade of *h,nr-. Cf. � CtVOpOT�C;, and see R.
Schmitt 1967: 124f.
avSpLuc; =>CtV�p.
AVSpOfluXT) [f.] the wife of Hektor (ll.). � GR�
.ETYM Called iliis way because her husband is a famous warrior. Likewise, Hektor's
son has the name AaTUaVa� (,ruler, protector of the city'), after his father's deeds.
See Kretschmer Glotta 12 (1923): 103.
CtVSpOflT)TOV . auanaaTov tYX£lPLOLOV TpaYlKov 'stage-dagger (in tragedy) (H.). � ?�
.ETYM A Tarentine gloss; see Latte. DELG derives the word from Ctva and opoflOC;,
which seems doubtful; the structure remains unclear.
CtVSpOTqC; [m.] 'manhood, strength' (IT 857, ete.). � IE *h2ner- 'man'�
.ETYM CtVOpOT�Ta only fits the hexameter if it is read *anrtata, with old vocalic *-r.
Arguments in favor of the antiquity of this epithet are found in Ruijgh 1995: 85-91.
Arguments against this interpretation were developed by Berg following Tichy
Glotta 59 (1981): 55 ·
livEfloc; [m.] 'wind' (ll.). � IE *h2enh1-mo- 'wind'�
.DIAL Mye. (KN) a-ne-mo (i-je-re-ja) lanemon (hiereia)/.
.COMP vTjvEflLTj 'calm' < *fJ-h2n-, see on � v�vEflOC;.
.DER �vEflo£lC; 'windy' (epic poet.), metrically lengthened; CtVEflwALOC; 'idle, useless'
(ll.), after Ctno<pwALOC; (Bechtel 1914, Chantraine 1933: 43; Risch 1937: 122 reminds of
CtnaT�Aloc;); see on flETaflWVlOC;. Further CtVEflwoTjC; 'windy' (Hp., Arist., Hello);
CtvEfllaloc; 'windy, vain' (Plo, corn., Alciphr.), after adjectives of measure in -laloc;?
CtvEflwTac;· OVOC; a<pEToc;, LEpOC;, TOlC; CtVEflOlC; 8uoflEVOC; tv TapavTLvOlC; 'a donkey let
loose, sacred, being offered to the winds (Tarent.) (H.); CtvEflGmc; epithet of Athena



(who calms the wind; Paus.). aVEflLa 'flatulence' (Hp.); on .- av£flwvf] s.v.
Denominative verbs: aV£fl60flUl 'to beecome) inflated' (Hp., Pl.); aV£flL(oflUl 'to be
driven with the wind' (Bp. Jak.) .
ETYM Gr. aV£fl0<; agrees with Lat. animus < *anamo-; Skt. anila- [m.] 'wind, air' has
-10-. Further, Arm. holm 'wind' arose by dissimilation of n--m and has o-vocalism.
This may point to an original m-stem nom. *h20nh,-m, obl. *h2nh,-em-. The verbal
root *h2enh,- is present in Skt. aniti 'breathes', OIr. anaid, -ana 'to wait, remain' and
in Go. us-anan 'to exhale'; a different present formation is in PTo. *anask- < QIE
*h2enh,-ske!0-. See .- aaSfla, .- avTUl.

aV£f1wv'l [f.] the plant 'anemone' (Cratin.). <!I LW?�
DER aV£flwvL<; [f.] = aV£flwv'l �fl£p0<; (Nic.) .
ETYM Derivation from aV£fl0<; is supported by Stromberg 1940: 77. An improbable
Semitic etymology was proposed by Lewy 1895: 49. It is more likely a loanword,
perhaps from the substrate.

av£v£T£i [v.] . apv£lTUl 'denies' (H.). <!I ?�
.ETYM Acc. to von Blumenthal 1930: 34, we should read *avUlveTd (cf. avaLvoflUl); or
is it rather misspelled for avaLVeTUl?
av£u [adv.] 'far from, without' (ll.). <!l IE *sn(H)- 'without'�
.DIAL aveuv (Epidauros), aveu<; (Olympia), aVl<; (Megara apud Ar.); cf. xwpL<;.
DER aveuS£(v) (n.) and aTI<lveuS£v .
ETYM No exact correspondence exists. aveu looks like the old locative of a u-stem.
The comparison with Germanic forms like Go. inu 'without' < *enu and OHG iinu
'id.' < *enu cannot explain the Greek a- (the suggestion that the Germanic forms
contain a lengthened grade *h2en(e)u- (Nikolaev 2007: 165) is morphologically
unwarranted, and Eichner's Law that long vowels are not colored by an adjacent
laryngeal is unacceptable).
A better comparison is with Skt. sanutar 'away, off, aside' < *sen(H)u-ter (or *snHu­
?), Lat. sine 'without' < *seni < *snH-i, and ToA sne, ToB snai < *snH-i. Thus, the
Greek form could be from *snh,-eu > *saneu. In this case, aveu must be a psilotic
form. Within Greek, .- aT£p may be cognate, but it would exclude a root-final
laryngeal. I have no solution for this problem.

av£'i'u>" [m.] 'cousin' (n.). <!l IE *(h2)nepot- 'grandson'�
.DER Secondary fern. aV£'i'la 'id.' (Isoe., X.). Further aV£'i'laoou<; [m.] 'cousin's son'
(corn., D.), cf. aOeA<plooU<;; also aV£'i'laof]<; (Pachnemunis, Iamb.), to which aV£\lllao�
'cousin's daughter' (Ar.). aV£'i'l6T'l<;, -f]TO<; [f.] 'cousinhood' (Pl.).
.ETYM Corresponds with Av. naptiia- 'descendant' and OCS netii 'nephew', derived
from the word for 'grandson, nephew' seen in Skt. napiit, Lat. nepos, ete. The a- can
be *h2-, but possibly represents *s1p-, expressing the reciprocity of the relation
(Benveniste 1969(1): 234). Not related to '- V£7WO£<;.
«v£,!" av£w [adv.] 'silent(ly) (ll.), a predicate of plural subjects except in 'i' 93 av£w
�aTo. <!I GR?�
.VAR Recent av£w<;' a<pwvo<; 'mute' (Gal. Lex. Hp.).

.COMP aveaaTaai'l' Safl�o<; 'amazement' (H.).
.ETYM Eust. ad \If 93 takes the form as an adverb (perhaps Aristarchus as well, see
Buttmann 1825(2): 2); the notation with -l was supposed to be due to the
interpretation as an adjective with plural subjects. Acc. to traditional interpretation
(see Chantraine 1942: 249), it is an old instrumental in -Wo However, Peters 1993b:
85ff. asserts that it is an occidental Ionic form continuing *an-iiwo- 'without voice'
(with quantitative metathesis), for which he compares the gloss a�a· �o�. The form
av£'!' is the original nom. pI., while av£w arose by reanalysis as an adverb.
uV'leov [n.] 'dill, Anethum Graveolens' (Aeol., Att.). <!I PG(v)�
.VAR Also avv'lSov (Ar.); aV'lTOV (Ale.), avvf]Tov (Thphr.).
.DER av�Slvo<; 'made of dill' (Theoe., Dsc.), aVf]SiTf]<; olvo<; (Gp.).
.ETYM Cf. AarraSov and other plant names in -SOY (-So<;) (Chantraine 1933: 368). The
word is Egyptian, acc. to Hemmerdinger Clotta 46 (1968): 240. Fur.: 254 compares
.- avvf]aov; for the equation, cf. the gloss S.V. .- avSpuaKov. On the gemination, see
ibid. 387; for variation S/a, see ibid. 253ff.
av�voe£v [v.] 'gushed forth, mounted up' (A 266, P 270). <!I ?�
.ETYM The relation of this form to £rr-£v-�voS£ and rrap-£v-�voS£ is unclear, and
therefore the etymology uncertain. See .- £vSdv; not related to .- avSo<;. Nikolaev
2007: 16515 assumes a root *h2nedh- 'to move/stick out' [not in LIV2] , but the
Schwebeablaut makes connection with avSo<; improbable .
aV'l1t£Al'l =Vf]rr£Atw.
av�p [m.] 'man' (ll.). <!l IE *h2ner- 'man'�
.VAR Gen. avop6<;, ace. avopa (analogical; Horn. has the old form avtpa < *h2ner-m,
whence gen. avtpo<;, ete.).
.DIAL Mye. a-di-ri-ja-te /andriantei/, a-di-ri-ja-pi /andrian(t)phi/, A-ta-no (see below
on compounds).
.COMP As a first member avopo-: -Kfl'lTO<;, -KTaaLa; on .- avoparrooov S.V. As a
second member -�vwp, e.g. Pf]�-, <pS£la- (Horn.); in PNs Ay-�vwp, Myc. A-ta-no
/Antiinor/; fern. aVTl-aV£lpa, KuOt-av£lpa; as a second member -avopo<; in av­
avopo<;, EA-avopo<;; PNs especially in Asia Minor and Cyprus: 'Hy�a-avopo<;, T£prr-;
Horn. AAt�-.
DER Diminutive avopiov (corn.), whence (with an unclear suffIx -nt-) avopla<;,
-avTo<; 'statue' (Pi., lA). avopi<; [f.] 'woman' (Srn.); avop(£)wv [m.] 'men's room'
(Hdt.), avopwvlOV (Delos) and aVOpWVLTl<; 'id.' (Lys., X.).
Abstracts: avopeia (-f]Lf], -ia) 'manliness, courage' (A.); avopoT�<;, -T�TO<; 'id.' (IT 857,
[2 6), on which see Ruijgh 1995: 88ff.; �voptf] 'id.' (Horn.) for Aeolic avopta < * -pLa,
perhaps from a compound, cf. £uavopia (Pi.). Thence av6pea<; (S.).
Adjectives: avopdo<; (Ion. avop�'LO<;, cf. Chantraine 1933: 52, Schwyzer: 468 : 3)
'manly, courageous', whence avop£l6w [v.] 'to make courageous' (LXX); avoplK6<; 'of
the man, manly' (Att.), avop6flea<; 'human' (ll.), with -flea<; = Skt. -maya- (?);
avopwof]<; 'manly' (Emp.).



Denominative verbs: av8pooflaL [v.] 'to become a man' (Hdt., Hp., E.), -ow 'to turn
into a man (trans.) (Lye.); av8plJVoflaL [v.] 'to become a man' (Ps. Callisth.);
av8pL�OflaL [v.] 'to become a man, represent a man' (Att.), -L�W 'to turn into a man
(trans.)' (X.).
ETYM av�p is identical with Arm. ayr, gen. iifn 'man', Skt. na, obl. nar-, NPhr. uvup,
Italic ner- in Osc. nerum 'virorum', Lat. Nero (Sabellic), W ner 'chief, and Alb. njeri
'human being, person'. The gloss � vwp£l does not belong here.

uv8£!lov =>av80<;.
av8£p£wv .VAR av8Epl�. => a8�p.
av8(a<;, -ov [m.] a fish, 'Labrus anthias' (Anan.). � ?�
.ETYM Connected with av80<; 'flower' by Stromberg 1943: 26 because of its color;
Thompson 1947 s.v. differs on this.
uv8o<; [n.] 'flower' (ll.). � IE? *h2endh- 'sprout'�
.DER 1. Substantives. Diminutives av8uAAloV (M. Ant., Dsc.), also a plant, like
av8uAAL<; (Dsc.) and av8uAAov (Ps.-Dsc.); av8�ALOv v.l. for av8uAAloV (Dsc. 3, 156; 4,
121), also = Kuv8�AlOV (Charax); av8aALOv a plant, cf. Chantraine 1933: 74; av8aplov,
£pu8Tjflu 'redness, blush' (H.).
Further aV8�ATj 'a crown of flowers' (Thphr.), or from av8€w? Thence aV8TjACi<; [m.]
'flower trader' vel sim.; av8£wv [m.] 'flowerbed' (Amasia), av8wv (gloss.).
av8Tj8wv [f.] 'bee' (cf. av8pTj8Wv and Chantraine 1933: 361), also a plant. av80alJVTj
'Blute' (AP). On � av8Lu<; see there. Av8wT�PlU [] 'spring festival' (lA), see
Chantraine 1933: 63, Schwyzer: 470), month name Av8wTTjplWV.
Independent formation av8£flov [n.] 'flower, rosette' (Sappho); acc. to Frisk, it
cannot be a recent back-formation (as per Leumann 1950: 249ff.), as there are many
derivatives; for the formation cf. apY£flov and Chantraine 1933: 132, Ruijgh 1957: 102f.
Thence av8£flw8Tj<; 'rich in flowers' (poet. since Sappho), av8£flwTO<; 'id.' (Attica),
av8£flL<; plant name, also 'little flower' (Nic.), av8£flLcnov plant name (Alex. Trall.),
av8EflloV 'blossom' (X., Thphr.); Hom. PNs Av8£flLWV and Av8£flL8Tj<; (ace. to
Leumann l.c.), TN Av8£flou<; (Macedonia). Derived poetic verbs av8£flL�OflaL and
£7tav8£flL�W (A., S. [lyr.l).
2. Adjectives: av8lvo<; 'made of flowers, variegated' (l 84, Hp., Arist.); av8Tjpo<; 'rich
in flowers', metaph. 'fresh, lush' (S., E., Ar., etc.) is rather from av8€w (Chantraine
1933: 232). Other adjectives are isolated and late (see Frisk).
3. Verb av8€w 'to bloom, blossom' (Od., lA), often metaph.; thence av8Tjcn<;
'blossom' (Thphr., PIu.), £�-UV8EW, £�av8Tjcn<; (Hp., Th.) and £�av8Tjflu (Hp., Arist.).
Backformation av8Tj 'flowering' (Pl., Nic., Ael.); verbal adj. av8fJTlKO<; = av8lKo<;
(Thphr.). av8L�w 'to cover with flowers, decorate', with several preverbs (Hdt., S., E.,
Arist.) .
ETYM av80<; has been equated with Skt. andhas- [n.] 'sprout of the soma plant', but
see the objections by Burrow Archiv. Linguist. 6 (1954): 61 and Chantraine. Uncertain
is the appurtenance of Alb. ende 'flour'; see Meyer 1891: 5. The word is perhaps also
related to Arm. and 'field'. The comparison with EFris. an duI 'marsh grass' and its


-" ;,

av8pTj8Wv, -ovo<;


Germanic cognates does not inspire confidence. A connection with � av�v08£v
(Schwebeablaut *h2endh- : h2nodh-) is improbable.
av8pa�, -«KO!; [m.] 'charcoal' (Ar.), metaph. 'carbuncle' (Arist.). � PG(v)�
VAR Mostly plur. av8puK£<;.
.DER Many derivatives: diminutive av8paKlov (Thphr.), av8puKla 'heap of coals' (I
213); av8puKLU<; "coal-man" (Luc.); av8puKLTTj<; [m.] name of a gem (Plin.), -11"l<; [f.]
'kind of coal' (Plin.); av8puKwV [m.] 'heap of coals' (Hdn.), av8paKwflu 'id.' (Dsc.);
av8puKaplo<;, carbonarius (gloss.). Adjectives: av8puKw8Tj<; 'like charcoal' (Hp.,
Arist.), av8puKTjpO<; 'of charcoal' (Alex., Delos), av8paKlvo<; 'of carbuncle' (LXX,
Denominative verbs: 1. av8pUKOOflaL 'to be burnt to coals' (A., E., Thphr.), 'to
develop an ulcer' (Aet.); thence av8paKwcn<; 'carbonization' (Dsc.), also 'ulcer' (Paul.
Aeg., Gal.). 2. av8pUK£UW 'to burn charcoal, carbonize' (Ar., Thphr.); deverbal
av8puK£U<; 'charcoal burner' (App., Aesop., Them.; qJlAuv8pUK£U<; already in Ar.);
av8puK£uT�<; 'id.' (And., Ael.), aV8pUKeLU 'carbonization' (Thphr.). 3. av8puKL�W 'to
roast on charcoal' (Ar., pap.); back-formation av8puKL8£<; 'small fish for roasting'
(Philyll.); cf. £1tUV8PUKL8£<; 'id.' (Ar.) to £1tUV8pUKL�W.
.ETYM One compares Arm. ant'el 'charcoal', and further Georg. *nt' in v-a-nt'-ab 'to
kindle' (Vogt NTS 9 (1962/63): 333), but the formations are different. Fur.: 197, 393
compares av8paXATj 'warming-pan, brazier' (Eust.) (cf. av8paKlov 'brazier'), and
furter (391) Kav8upo<;· av8pu� (H.), with the interchange K/ zero. Also note the suffix
-UK- (see Pre-Greek). Therefore, a substrate origin is clear; a comparison with Hitt.
iiant- 'warm' is useless, as it does not explain the formation of the Greek word.

av8p'18wv, -ovo<; [f.] 'hornet' (D. S.). � PG(V)�
.DER av8p�vTj [f.] 'bee, wasp' (Ar., Arist.); thence av8p�vLOV [n.] 'wasps' nest' (Ar.),
av8pTjvlW8Tj<; 'built like a wasps' nest' (PIu.).
av8Tj8Wv [f.] 'bee' (Damocr. apud Gal.).
Further � T£v8pTj8wv [f.] (Arist., Dsc.), � 1t£fl<PpTj8Wv [f.] 'kind of wasp' (Nic.).
.ETYM No doubt a substrate word. Beside av8pTj8wv, av8p�vTj, we find T£v8pTj8wv
(Arist.), T£v8p�vTj (Nic.); T£v8p�VlOV (Arist.). There are several forms which lack the
first nasal: T£8pTjVlW8Tj<; (Hp.), a8p�vTj (Suidas, etc.), and forms without
reduplication or initial a-, e.g. 8p�vTj (Eust.) and 8pTjvw8Tj<; (Democr. apud Ael.). Cf.
further 8pwvu�· KTj<P�V. AaKwv£<; 'drone (Lacon.)' (H.), though I know of no other
cases with the interchange Tj/ w. Further note 1t£fl<PpTj8wv [f.] a wasp (Nic.).
In sum, we have a root 8pTj/wv- with a prothetic vowel or reduplication (cf.
K£KPU<pUAO<;, LLcrU<pO<;) and prenasalization; see Kuiper 1956: 221f. We may
reconstruct PG *(a)Ntriin-, *ta-Ntriin-. For the interchange v/ 8, we may perhaps
compare <pATjvu<paw : <pATj8wVTU. II£fl<PPTj8wv could show that the word had a
labiovelar (see Beekes GIotta 73 (1995-1996): 12f.). There is no ground to assume that
T£v8p�vTj, T£v8pTj8wv are dissimilated from *T£p8p-; relation to a8�p, av8Epl� is
improbable. Needless to say, the connection with � 8pEOflaL, � 8opu�0<; (Frisk)
makes no sense. T£8pTj8wv· 1tPWp£u<; 'officer in command at the bow' (H.) is a joking



formation from the language of sailors, modelled after animal names in -'1owv (see
Chantraine 1933: 360f.).
A difficult problem is the relation to Germanic and Balto-Slavic words for 'drone':
OS dren, driino, MoHG Drohne, Lith. triinas; on this, see Kuiper 1956: 222.
liv6pu<JKOV [n.] 'chervil, Scandix australis' (Sapph.). � PG(v»
VAR Also Ev9pu<JKOV (Pherecr.).
.DER av9pl<JKOC; [m.] (Pollux 6, 106); av9pl<JKIOV' Aaxavov EXOV uv90c;, wc; UV'190v, �
T() uvv'1<Jov 'garden herbs, such as dill' (H.) .
ETYM No etymology. Connected with a9�p, av9Epl� because of the prickly fruits
(Frisk). Fur.: 364 points to the interchange II U; for £/ a, he considers the assimilation
a > £ before II u, which is doubtful. He rejects 9pu<JKa· uypla Aaxava 'wild herbs'
(H.) as a mistake for Uv9pu<JKa. Because of the variations, a substrate origin seems

liv6pW1tOC; [m.] 'man' (ll.). � PG(s»
.DIAL Myc. a-to-ro-qo lanthrokwos/.
.DER Diminutives, usually depreciatory: av9pw1tlov (E., com.), aV9pW1tl<JKOC; (E., Ar.,
Pl.), av9pw1tuplOV (com.).
Further derivatives: av9pw1tw, � yuv� 1tapu AUKW<JlV 'woman (Lacon.) (H.);
aV9pW1tE'1, -1t� [f.] 'human skin' (Hdt., Poll.); aV9pW1tOT'1C; [f.] 'humanity' (Ph., S.
E.). Adjectives: av9pw1t£loC; 'human' (Ion. ete. -�'ioC;), av9pw1tlvoC; 'id.' (lA),
aV9pW1tlKOC; 'id.' (PI., Arist.). Denominative verbs: 1. aV9pW1tl(OflaL 'to behave like a
man' (Ar., Lue.); thence av9pw1tl<JfloC; 'humankind' (Aristipp.); 2. av9pw1t£UOflaL [v.]
'to behave like a man' (Arist.); 3. av9pw1toOflaL 'to be human' (PIu.).
ETYM uv9pw1toc; resembles Hitt. antuyabbas- / antubs- 'man', but it has nothing to
do with it, as the latter derives from a compound *h1en-dhu(e)h2-s- 'having
breathlspirit inside' (cf. 9ufloC; < *dhuh2-mo-). As no IE explanation has been found,
the word is probably of substrate origin. The occurrence of -oq- in Mycenaean does
not prove Indo-European origin, as the substrate language also had labiovelars (e.g.
�a<JlA£UC;, Myc. qa-si-re-u). Kuiper had already given a substrate interpretation on
the basis of opw,\! (Kuiper 1956: 211f and Kuiper Lingua 21 (1968): 275f., defended by
Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 13-15). Rosen KZ 99 (1986): 243f., incorrectly assumes
that the laryngeals had an aspirating effect. Improbable suggestions are offered by
Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 312 and Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 655f.

UVla [f.] 'grief, distress' (Od.). � ?>
.VAR Att. either l or L; Hom. always -1'1. uVla [] 'id.' (A. Pers. [lyr.l) is taken to be
a back-formation after e.g. <pIAla: <plALOC;.
DIAL Aeol. OVla (Sappho I, 3).
.DER aVlapoc;, -'1POC; (Od., lA) 'uncomfortable, grievous'. Denominative verbs: aVluw
'to grieve, distress' (Od., lA); also aVlu(w (epic since ll.).
.ETYM The connection with Skt. amivii [f.] 'disease, pain' requires an unwarranted
dissimilation m y > n y, and should be rejected. Kuiper AION 1 (1959): 157ff.
assumes a pre-from *an-is-yii < *1'}-is-io-, from the root of Skt. i?- 'to desire',
comparing Skt. an-i?ta- 'unwished for'.



.). avo1taLOC. UVOKaLOV ' lJ1t£pcpOV 'upper part of a house'. mean. banna. <pauAov. � GR> VAR Also avaKwx�. anna. .). a<J£�EC. Bechtel 1914.'face'> . ETYM Probably the same word as � uv'190v. 216). The formation is clearly recent.).] 'to hold back.) . Delos Ira) . livTa [adv.VAR avw in ace.. as there is no trace of the initial aspiration (root *hekh-). Hitt.(sic!).).'grandmother'> .'to refresh.l.'. 877 [Larisal).'mother'. anna 'foster-mother' and OHG ana 'grandmother. han 'grandmother'. 51). � IE *h2en. KaKov. ypU<pETaL Kat avwY£lov (H. . cf. etc. 21). However. derivation from *h2eis. also IG 7.). face to face' (ll..ETYM Perhaps an elementary formation. bad. � GR?> .VAR avo1ta.: fn. ETYM Unexplained. aKu9apTOv. � PG(v» VAR uV'1<Jov (v. S.was introduced after the formation had become opaque. thinks that it is a hypostasis of avu Tft 01tft 'on high through the hole of the roof.) because of the short -a. like Hitt.and Lyc. 7. • UV01tala [adv. malodorous. � IE *h2ent.] ? hapax of uncertain mg. Connection with � Vl(W is improbable.demonstrate substrate origin.] 'over against. hinder' (Hdt.). etc. He proposes instead to connect the root *h1eis(h2).] 'anise. � ?> .ETYM Already unclear in antiquity (see DELG). uV'1<J<Jov (Dsc. 2. oU<JwOeC. [f.] fl'1Tp6C.'grandmother' have an initial laryngeal. fl�T'1P 'mother of one's mother or father' ( Hdn. ancestor' .UVTa 107 As remarked by Nikolaev 2006. but a collective *n-His-ih2 > PGr. � 1taTp6c. The suffrx -ijo. xnna. in codd..VAR aVlYpov. avwv (IG 9(2). who adduces a suggestion by Bechtel that the PNs ITau< assumed to explain the length of L. *anihja would do better both formally and semantically (the transition to a feminine is trivial). uvv'1<J<Jov (inscr. Pimpinella Anisum' (Hp. especially 'cessation of arms. also avaK-. perhaps 'up by the hole in the roof(?). The form with ava. • • UVVlC.] 'cessation'. also the mountain (in the Oeta) and the pass through which the Persians circumvented the pass of Thermopylae (Hdt. livv'1<JOV [n. and AU<Javlac.). Chantraine thinks it must be an adverb (ntr. � aKwK'1. truce' (Th. (a 320).] 'unpleasant' (Nic. reconstructing *1'}-(hl)is(h2)-ijo. See � EXW.. 133. .plur. contain the genuine Aeolic variant.'to search' is semantically not very convincing.). Lat. like Arm. The reflex of the vocalized nasal in Aeolic is debated: see the discussion by Nikolaev (ibid. like OLOKWX� from OIEXW.ETYM Reduplicated derivative of aVEXw. as this had a labiovelar • * _gW_. epithet of fire (Emp. aVlYpoc. impure' (H. UVOKWX� [f. [adj. => avwyaLov. The variation v/vv (perhaps also <J/<J<J) and the intervocalic -<J. . 'foul. 3380 [Boeotial).). avaKwXEw (Hp.DER Denominative avoKwx£UW [v.

the case form is still apparent in £VUVTU = ev aVTu.). with aVTTj. Probably an adapted foreign word. Tfj 9upq 'warp. we may compare especially Go. 53: K�T£a T£ fl£yaAu CtvaKuv9u. For the formation in -LOe.after the suffix -LO.. <.as a first member. thus *CtVT(L)-6.. The second member is the zero grade -aT. liVTT)o"TLC..) <'!( Etr. the locative is � CtVTI. bar placed on a door' (H.. see there for further etymology. support' (E. cf. The first is Etruscan. nA�v. to Blanc RPh. See Bechtel 1914 s. <. aVTa is the accusative of this noun. � aTjflL.'blow'� VAR CtVTae. etc. . guarantor (Cretan) .. Denominative verb CtVTCtW 'to come towards. [f...with suffIxal -L-.!(LW� .ETYM Backformation from CtvT£pdow 'to lean against'. see Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 91.ETYM From CtvTudpw 'to raise against'. with lengthening of the initial root vowel.. • . cf. Lith.] 'prop.gave rise to a derivative aVToflm 'to meet.!( GR� ETYM From aVTTjv 'LaTaa9m.' (E. CtmlvTTjme.. . ant and OLith.) and CtnavTTjflu 'id. -iSoc.] 'set over against.).'breathe' (see � av£floe.). < *£�-uv-aT-Le.). cf. ..).(as in eYKple. Ct�TUe.] .ETYM These are clearly two glosses. breaths' (H. nUyle. aVTTjv was perhaps formed after o�v. • livTap [ ..VAR Also adjectival (Antiph. eyKAle. m. 4. implore' (ll. only in KaT' aVTTjaTLV 9£flEVTj n£pLKUAAEU OI<ppOV (u 387). cf. > �ALOe. "who pays (gets the damage.or *clTm < *h21}h. CtVTI etc.. GR?� . anti! 'towards'. DER CtVT(l£le. Arist. • liVTUL [f. (cf. meet with' (ll. 'breezes.FEp-Tje. £�uaTLe. to eflnlvw. LXX). Eu<p0plwv O£ oluo"flu 'warp' (H. uno TuppTjvwv 'eagle (Etruscan)'.) is impossible.!( IE? *h2ueh.] . with the inanimate suffIx -up (or from � CtpuplaKw?). [m.) .!( GR� .'against'. <. Hdt.VAR Also aVTTjv.)..).. See discussion on Ct�TTje. 66 (1992): 247-254. 'surety. CtVTT)piC. KUL KUVWV 6 npoaKdfl£voe.VAR CtVT�pLOe.v. • UVTUKUioe. For the meaning.? Derivation from *h2enh. for the second.-t. acc. 'hostile' (PL). etc.ETYM The root noun *CtVT. ETYM Unknown. opposite' (S. aV£floL 'winds' (H.] a kind of sturgeon (Hdt. cf. to eyKAlvw. <. *�F£ALOe. S.V. �wflie.). UVTUTUC.). CtVTlov '(part of the) loom'.-t-). : naYLOe. KuAtoum (the fish is found in the Borysthenes = Dniepr). [?] 'confronting'. aTTj) for another". 'encounter' (S..108 . Ta CtVTaKUIOUe. CtVTqPT)C. CtETOe. [adj.· nvoae.' aT�flWV. : �WflLOe.ETYM To be corrected to Ct�Tm.!( GR� .). as this would give *CtVETm < *h2enh. <'!( GR� .ETYM Lit. Ctn-uvT(lw 'to meet' (lA). so it probably derives from CtVT. and reshaping of -p£lO. <.. and the old instrumental *h2nt-bhi is continued in � Ctfl<Pl. and(a).

CtVTiu [adv. aVTLKpUe. opposed to' (ll. It is the old locative of a root noun preserved in Hitt. but in this case the word cannot be Indo-European. hold of a ship' (S. DELG). but this may be doubted. 16. DER CtVTAIU 'bilge-water.DER CtVTloe. Another case form of the same noun is � aVTu.'front. KUTUVTLKPU (with stress after teu?).ETYM Cf. with the original meaning 'a match for men' (cf.] 'opposite.). 1. 'godlike').] epithet of the Amazons (ll. although it requires an unusual suffIx -TAOe.).ETYM Identical with Skt.).pl. 56 (2003) argue that the -u is short. Herael. liVTOfl0C. . participate. post-Homeric is CtVTLa(w. Ar. • liVTOflUL =>avTu. forehead'. steep' (Hdt..would give a-. etc. [f. .ETYM Assuming a compound with CtVTL. and Hitt. CtVTAlOV 'id. .).ETYM Connection with Lat. a vase.!( GR� . [m. <. form would exclude an original *5-.).does not help much (the connection with CtVTLKpOUW 'to come into collision' by Kretschmer Glotta 4 (1913): 356 is improbable.). . the Myc. etc. • liVTAOC. (psilosis) < *afl-9Ao. <'!( ?� . but often taken as 'hostile to men'. Beekes and Cuypers Mnem. pump' (Hdt. aVTATjflu 'bucket'. KUTEVUVTL (Dor. l2). KuoL-av£Lpu and �WTL-aV£lpu. Att.). biin-i 'to draw water'. not uV-. KUT-. Quite convincing is the proposal by Benveniste BSL 50 (1954): 39 to compare Hitt. CtVTLaV£LpU '(faction) in which man is set against man'. <. <'!( ?� . The words is a compound from CtVTI and CtV�p.'front.). Denominative CtVTLooflm [v. 5entina 'bilge-water' (Solmsen 1909: 189. Denominative verb CtVTAEW 'to bale out bilge-water. thence CtvTLao£e.DIAL Att.COMP £VUVTL.. (cf. ante 'before'.DIAL Myc.] 'bilge-water' (Od.. banti 'opposite. Chantraine 1933: 375).] 'tonsils' (medic. 'container' (pap. but metrically lengthened in Homer.plur. instead of (ll.] 'opposite'. This is accepted by both Puhvel HED and Kloekhorst 2008 s. is impossible in Indo-European terms.. for which preforms *avTAOe.). anti 'facing'. The comparsion with Lat. probably not 'palisade'. CtVTI9£Oe. has been interpreted as /antla/.] 'right opposite' (ll. prose has evuvTioe.).). Hell. further only in Pi. CtVavTTje. If reliable. as are other attempts).). poet.are assumed.' (Ar. CtVTLKPU [adv. as *51'[1. a-ti-pa-mo /Antiphamos/. face'� . bant.] 'to oppose' (Hdt. The Attic form may have developed from CtVTa-KPU with anticipation of the p and assimilation U > o. CtVTATjafloe. aTame. over against.] 'country road' (Tab.!( IE *h2ent. Lat. late verbal nouns aVTATjme. al... CtVTLUV£lPU [f. CtvTLaw 'to come towards. CtnEVUVTL. sentina remains tempting.) was derived from the ntr.v. see also � CtVTLaV£lpu.. a-ta-ra. [m. 'uphill.DIAL Myc.).aVTofloe. . . which seems quite well possible for a technical term.' (epic Ion. 12. separate'.. 109 UVTi [prep. 'opposite. Ctn-UVTpoKU (lG 2\ 1672: 25 and 1668: 88) perhaps from *CtVTa-KPU (see Beekes and Cuypers below). <'!( PG?� VAR Att.

-. UVUTW (see Schwyzer: 704: 1). Giannakis Glotta 76 (2000): 192-198 incorrectly explains the form as from *anti-trh2-om.] 'living in caves' (Antip.cannot be related.e-h. (uv-) 'feasible' (E. �vwyEa.).'to cross'. but the semantics are not very convincing.DIAL Mye. sa(n)b-2i 'to search.). Pl.g-.). -KO<. cf. uvu(a)nKo<.) < *Ku0uVEl<. The disappearance of*-ti­ and the loss of the laryngeal are both improbable. cf. perf.] 'to effect.).. Cf. without end' (Od. Civuaflu 'id. see De Vaan 2008 s. accomplish' (ll. below). If this is correct.ETYM Previously explained as uva plus a root noun -TU� as belonging to n:uxw.'win. 'success. whence uvumflo� 'successful' (X.YAR Thematic UVUW. 'with many caves' (X. TETUKElV. uv-�vu(a)TO<. -�u (Schwyzer: 767). (Schwyzer: 532) is formally impossible since the root is dissyllabic *h2enh. ETYM avufll is related to Skt. � ?� . which has no etymology either. [f. Att. • avwya [v. .. [f. aio < *iig-jo-H (probably from *h. exactor (Just. Phryn.ETYM Explained as *uvaToflo<. Kp'lvlaoE<. • aVTU�. * av Fw > avw. accomplishment' (epic poet. See � uu0£vT'l<. since these have -x. 'living in caves' (E. Glosses KUaaVEL<..· ou TEAw0'laoflEvov 'not about to be fulfilled' (H. aor. Ace. adagio 'proverb' is probably unrelated. Delebecque 1951: 177f.e-h. 'unfeasible.) . accomplish'� . aor. uvuw. . uvwyw. = UVToflou<.-s.] 'edge. the etymology is highly questionable.or -K-. Related to Lat. UVUT�<. a-nu-to /Anutos/. arac • • . mean' < *senh2. Connection with CiVEflo<. �lKEAO( 'anything pointed (Sicilian)' (H.' (sch. which is unclear as well.). aio). ayr 'grotto' from a pre-form *anter (De Lamberterie BSL 73 (1978): 243f. to UVUT£flvW 'to cut open'. as was shown by Clackson 1994: 98. from this uvua-ro<. .).. see also on � KUTQiTu�. late prose). see Schrijver 1991: 485. a2-nu-me-no /hanumenos/. OpWTlCtOE<. secondary pres. ETYM Originally. �vuau (secondary.110 aVTpov .eg. try. uuv£<.. � IE *senH. but the development remains difficult. uVTplaOE<. sanoti 'to win.. to Strunk 1967: 116.] 'cave' (Od.· aKoAonu<.). asani�am. antrum is a loan from Greek."u [v.. Also related to Arm. or *h2eg-� YAR Plpf. Arist.). (H. also the group of OHG sinnan 'to strive for'. enlarged with dental UVUTW.. rim of anything round. The word resembles � aflnu� (gen. However. . Lat. rail of a chariot' (ll. a compound Civ-wyu 'to proclaim loudly' < * -h.).DER avuau:. order' (ll. It is best to return to Chantraine 1933: 331 and assume a substrate word. antemna 'yard' (as per von Blumenthal l930: 16).· UVUEL<. with the root *terh2.) is impossible. .). AaKwvE<.pl. 'effective' (X. Sid. avu.. � PG?� DER UVTPW0'l<.ETYM Derivation of CiVTpOV and Arm.'say'.). X.og-. see below).v. Arist.). Hardly related to Lat. see Ruijgh 1957: 128ff. uVTp'lT<..] 'to command. obtain' < *s1..DIAL An Achaean word.] 'cave nymphs' (AP. ablauting with � 'he said' < *h.l-n-eu-. the aorist �vwu < *senh. -yo� [f.).). �vwu (Strunk. with present mg. Hitt. uVTpmo<. aVTpov [ old and corresponds to Skt.).). � IE *h.

� �flL uvwymov [n. 231 [lyr.DIAL Myc.. n£AEKu<. 267C = Eust. a�wv. Denominative U�lOW. ba��ina are so close that they must be the same word. but this is uncertain. 'high in rank' (Hell. • a�lVf\ [f. NaToflo<. . 56). OCS OSb. OHG ahsa [f. but his connection with Gr.]. aqizi. a�o<. 0EpanovTE<.).DER uo�(u 'service of a god' (epigr.DER Abstract u�(u 'value. 121). 54. Th. Lat. asem 'say' (s < *g)..are found in ON Qxull [m. thence u�(WflU 'estimation. 976 [Corcyra. denominative uo�£w [v.l).] 'axle. followers' (H. wages' (lA). � IE? *h2eg.]. E.. Some doubts remain. as no such derivative in -ti. O�E(U (cod.] 'anything raised from the ground' (X.) .ETYM Clearly a compound ofy� with avw. inscr. fr.).) known from Ciyw. � PG?(Y)� . *h2eg. . Go. See � y�. a�ouyyia -O�uyyLOV. a-o-ze-jo probably does not belong here.. Call. has been considered identical with � o�o<. agina). � Ci�w is improbable. a-ko-so-ne /aksones/. in epic o�o<.is a typical substrate suffIx.ETYM Generally assumed to be derived from Ciyw in the sense of 'to weigh' (cf.'carry'� . decree. gloss. 'two-edged axe' (H. Lat.before consonant would be regular.). cf. .DIAL Myc.] 'to deem worthy. -OOflat [v. . IG 9(1).).' (Att. perhaps first from *a�l<.]. fr. � IE *h2eks-� . pres. but this does not lead to an lE reconstruction. I propose that the Semitic and Greek words are loans from an Anatolian language. 'prison'.[m. It is improbable that Ci�wv is contained in � aflu�u. uKoAou0ol 'servants. etc. etc. Hackstein 1995: 332-4 assumes initial *h2. W echel [f.).]. ascia 'axe' and Germanic words for 'axe'.). ha��inu and Amm. .< *h. = 0Epanwv or 0Epanatvu (Seleucus. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 656 remarks that Akk. 1024. 'AP'lo<.).ETYM Compared with Lat. attendants.). axis'.). u�(wm<. The word has been connected with ayw (Benveniste 1935: 7. metr. H.YAR ao�Ol· un'lP£Tat. Ag.] 'axe' (ll.] 'to serve' (A. ak�a. 'weight'. : . 6. require' (S.). this is followed by LIV2 s. all 'axle.] 'servant (of a god)' (A. apud Ath.. O�El£u} 0EpunElu (H. esteem.). -ovo� [m. lA).III 'proverbium'.. and that the sign for a in Linear B is a double axe. axis.] . Derivatives in -1. 'valuation. � GR� YAR Also uvayatov and � UVOKatOV .v. Lat. requirement. 24. axis' (ll. ala 'arm-pit. a.because of ToB ak�iif!1. adjective u�lwfluTlKO<.ETYM Old noun. Lith. diminutive u�lwflanov (Arr. � LW� .'sagen'. . a�Lo� [adj.] 'worth' (ll.. This o�o<. axilla). Cf. 44 and 1090. 353. if this means 0Epanwv. 'branch' from antiquity onwards: 0 KACtOO<. Hell. ao<o� [m. Ruijgh BiOrbis 54 (1997): 540" notes that -in. opinion' (Hdt. TOU nOA£flou 'the branch of war' (H.).ETYM In the same sense as o�o<. asis. assessment. and the semantics are not really strong. also found in Skt. wing' < *aks-la (cf. Arm.

] 'to help. welL Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 312f. and Lith. All in all. o COMP xpuaCtopoe.-aoo-10-e.'follow'� oVAR Only aor. asi.). following Frisk) that ao�oe. does not have this meaning. but Frisk and DELG do not reject this. (to 006e. has a secondary copulative 0. a root *h2uer.).OAA� preferable. aopov [m. -<! IE *sekw. porter (Cypr. -<! IE *uel.).'sword'� oVAR For aopae. but it is not very convincing semantically. Scholars have also pointed to PaL hasira.. cover'� oETYM Comparable forms are OCS za-vor'b 'flOXAOe. but this must remain uncertain.).] 'all together. He assumes (374.112 Modern scholars have taken it as 'sprout'. -I (11. ensis 'sword' and Skt. 110). see Lubotsky 2000a: 315-325.-F0Av�e.(both from *1]s-i-). and Lat. Previously. though the Skt. word means 'butcher's knife'.OAA�O'lV 'together' (Mosch.] 'to press together. an action noun *slTl-yoro­ 'locking' was assumed for the Greek word.: 341 cites the form a�oe.] . [adj. with the o-grade from an Aeolic (or Achaean) zero grade. from *0. but *h2ns.(prefIx 0and zero grade of sed./ 0 that the word is Pre-Greek. [acc. Therefore. but the meaning of *SITl.pL] p 222 read aopa y'.'press'� oDER o..'dagger'. gateway.. su-verti 'id. The acute in the Balto-Slavic forms is probably secondary. 8upwpov. the etymology remains a bit uncertain. Although DELG accepts the connection with 6�0e.'sit down').] 'sword' (11.'shut. but others take it as 'with golden pendant' (below). floXMv. rejected this.oAAI�w [v. aop'T� VAR o.. who explained ao�oe.). o DIAL Note the tribe of the Aopde.would have given Gr. assuming *1]S-[. nUAwva. l . ap'iv[ta-. o. [n. K1J1tplol 'bar or bolt.under influence of � o. -<! IE? *1]S. assemble' (epic view of forms like avar.'.OpT� p.oaa�aa.).v-.) and o.). -opOC. in throngs' (11. as it could also be a real Pre-Greek prothetic voweL aOAA�C. but DELG notes that 6�0e. related to OCS za-vreti 'to shut' < earlier *ver-ti. o ETYM o.'. also of Orpheus. Ru. in Corinth and the AFopo[ on Corcyra. also xpuaCtop-a.oaa£w 'to accompany'.elpw with the original meaning 'what hangs'.)' (H. < *o. za-vor 'passage blocked with bars'. Skt. is probably the AeoL form of *o. see � aA�e. (EM). support'.. 0 aO<J<J£w [v.. Adverb o.-FaAv�e.would be unclear.elpw 2. £C. 'with golden sword'. vPJoti 'to shut' as *Huer. operiO 'id. 4. also PN XpuaCtwp (Hes.L (Mosch.'. and concludes from the interchange 0. epithet of gods and godesses. apiiv[ta-. this would fIt xpuaCtopoe. api-vpJoti 'to lock'. Fur. whence aoAA'l0le.. This would be cognate with Lat. *o. o ETYM aop was taken as a root noun related to o. Opp. See Trumpy 1950: 60ff. - aop.oAAd· auvCty£l 'brings together' (H. -<! IE? *h2uer. which nicely confIrms Lubotsky's analysis of Skt. Brugmann IF 19 (1906): 379 argues against Schulze 1892: 498.). < *o-sd-o. => o.

cmaXoc.'one' (cf. Gallium aparine' (Thphr. o.) and -na�.. but the forms are unexplained.).] 'all.] 'to deceive' (11. apud Zos. protector' (11. 3). cf. Denominative o. 'brilliant. related to � n�yvufll 'to fIx.. *o. solid'� oETYM From a.). cf.)... unfortunately. explaining o.). deceitful' (11.. but the so-called Lex Pinault is still under debate.L.naTCtw [v.. with the metrical variant o. o..(cf.] the plant 'cleavers. [m. weak' (11.) � 6nCtwv. anapyia [f.Tewv. (Hp. ana� [adv.] 'tender. we know nothing about the latter.) and � mxe.). �0'l8ov 'assistant' and £oa0T]T�p· £nIKoupoe. o. -wvoe. note the suffIx -iv-.).naTCtw (Xenoph. POxy.). o. perhaps from o. Pinault therefore adduced this word as an example for his rule that a laryngeal was lost between consonant and yod in PIE (Pinault 1982: 265272).nCtT'l0le. on the mg. 1082 fr.oaa'lT�p [m. [adj. Denominative verb cmaAuvw 'to soften' (X. -<! GR� oETYM From a. thinks it comes from o. The formation may be compared with oflaMe.(an old formation. oETYM Unknown.naTCtw (Chantraine 1933: 241f.naT'lT�e. anac.mhuAAa (Cerc.v)� oDER o. Democr. cmaAuafloe. 11). which is typical of the substrate language.). uncertain). s. HP 7..). one often fInds the reconstruction *sokwh2-i-.g.). deceit' (11. Tlflw poe. Thence o. � o. < *sm-sokw­ io. Phld. -<! PG?(S)� oETYM Andre Latomus 15 (1956): 295 connects it with o. o.naT�Aloe..: 224 compares aflaMe..). e-qe-ta.napLVfJ \[f.pyoe. -<! PG(S.) (but the text is doubtful). 8. de.p�v (?).naTeuw = o. OeAq>CtKIOV 'victim. socius) from the root of � Enofla. usw. However.TaMe.)' (H.naT'lTIKOe. Hp. sakhi. (Zonar. lA).). amlTfJ [f.naT'lMe. anaAuvT�e.. o.] 'deceiver' (Hp.] 'fraud. This is morphologically unconvincing. .). see Luther 1935: 97ff. -<! IE *peh. � de.. this is possible.] 'once' (Od. Fur. oETYM Kuiper Glotta 21 (1933): 283 connected �neponeue.naT�flwv 'deceitful' (Orac.oaa'lT�p 'ally. cf. (Od..Pyeflwv'l) because of the color. white' (cf.) and (maAlae. assuming variation n/ fl. 'sucking-pig' (D. Lat. See on � Enofla. Leumann Glotta 32 (1953): 219. o.< *SITl.ny­ nx from an rln-stem *anap.oaa£w is an iterative deverbative or denominative from *aoaaoe. associate'. � apyeflov. avenger (instead of 0. 8.).nCtT'l as *o.nCtT'l fla 'deceit' (Gorg. sucking-pig' (H. 'deception' (LXX.). On account of the aspiration in Skt. o. o.'fIrm. L. 39) is found in £�anaTuAAw (Ar. 'fraud' (gloss. but uncertain. oETYM o. -<! ?� oETYM Stromberg 1944: 30f.).' (PL. 20. coagulate'.v. Arist. 'id.) .). see Chantraine 1933: 245.VTL mu o.] a plant which has its leaves on the ground (Thphr. whole' (11... -<! ?� oDER (maAla 'tenderness' (Gp. CmCtAlov· 8ufla. [adj.L. o. 'fraudulent.l 113 oDER o. Lat. and Myc. sequor. Pl.] 'helper.). 6aa'lT�pa. with adverbial -e.'ally.

Cl1tUCPlVLOV [n. Kretschmer Glotta 4 (1913): 336) < *urru1'oPFOe.). (see on � 1lT]1'pUlCt). spill [n. ACtKWVEe.] . oETYM Old celebration of the Ionians. Van Windekens connects it with 1l£llcpollat. 11. poet.). lEpov' (Str. on the occasion of which new members were accepted to the phratries. so *sm-ph2tor-u. and Go. S.< *1J1bh. the root would be *h2pel(H)-. 'carrot (Lacon. which is possible but not compelling either.] 'to promise. 'id. rrCt1'Oe.. arrucpoe. � GR. but reduplication of ucp.' (D.1'T] < *uFU-1'T]. . [m. arrucpl<JKw [v.: 234f. cr1'ucpuAivoe.). urrucpELv. frequent in animal names (see Chantraine 1933: 263). Could it stand for *cr1'UCPOUA-? al1£lAI1 [f. Lat.. UrrElAT]1'�e. The variation with erro. finJ:lan as per Pedersen 1926: 65 is improbable. with the substrate variation rr/ F.). 1'0 0PVEOV 'hoopoe.: 341.g.114 l\rrClTOUpIU Connection with rrov1'Oe. he also connects it with urrCt1'T] (234). Assuming s­ mobile. of which the explanation is lost. oETYM The present was probably built on the aorist. Upupa epops' (H. pitrvya. as this has the same meaning. patruus 'id. note the suffIx -orr-. filter' does not fit semantically. suggests substrate origin. Phanagoria). The -F.).] 'threatener. .). which is also a substrate element (Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 18-25). � IE? *h2peIH. � PG'fy oETYM Onomatopoeic.' (PL. suggests a substrate word. also the back-formation l\rraLoupT] (Troezen. connected o.)' (H. oETYM If related to Latv. Adjectives: UrrElAT]1'�pIOe. also l\rru1'opIWV (Amorgos). Differently Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 656..and the o-grade of rraL�p. Lat. l\rrU1'OUplU [n. KCtpOOrrov AI8lVT]V ( . The form urrocp£iv.). al1ucpouAl<J1'WP [?] . -EWV.) (H..'of the same father'. if it was not influenced by urro. His comparison with urruqJf:iv is attractive (for which the variant urrocp£iv shows substrate origin.] the festival 'Apatouria'.. which consists of copulative u. boaster' (ll. 'id..\. 10).). UrrElA� has further been compared with the Germanic group of Go. . lA). Pantikapaion.).'. Ul1ElAT]1'�p [m.] 'to deceive' (Od. 'threat' (Phld. with the suffIx -ucpoe. 2.\" -rroe.).is compared with Skt. Cf. agent nouns: UrrElA�llu-ra 'threats' (S.). � ?'fy oETYM Latte comments: "Ucp-UAlcr-rWp cum u. urrocp£iv· urraL�crat 'to deceive' (H. further l\rrCt1'oupOV '1'0 1'�e. Month name l\rrU1'OUpIWV. l\cppOOl-rT]e. Perhaps here � urrocpwAIOe. UrrdAT]me. � ?'fy oETYM Unknown. 'threatening' ( threaten' (ll. X. see � urrucplcrKw). etc.). also 'promise' (ll.'father's brother'. If �m:p-orr-Euw is cognate.. ) 'stone kneading-trough (Lacon. fem. UrrEIA�1'ElpU (Nonn. pelt 'to revile'. also urrucp�crat (h. � PG?'fy oVAR Aor. J.] 'threat'. as assumed by Fur. ACtKWVEe.] . Fur. but the meaning of UCPUAl�ElV 'to strain. IE *sm-ph2tor-uo-'fy oDER As a name of Aphrodite l\rrU1' highly improbable.) and UrrElAT]1'lKOe.(?) 'speak publicly''fy oDER Ul1ElA£W [v. erro. (e. It derives from an intermediary adjective *urrCt1'OUpOe. upupa. DELG compares UCPIVICt�El. Ap.).l.] . urr-". l\rrU1'OUpICte.

[adv. this seems rather far-fetched. -atWV Doric month name (Delphi. KU1'E�-. has the same meaning..would be the most easy possible in principle. pello 'to push'. H.with secondary full grade and copulative U-. Also 01-. Does HG Vielbaum also belong here (Kluge and Seebold 1989 s. Pappef)? o.. oETYM For *urrEp£mOe. immense' (ll. LIV2 assumes a nasal present *(s)pelnH. 1'�V y�v IlELU�UAW· epu yap � y�. � GR?'fy oDER urr£pume. �EPVW. � epu�E). to Debrunner IF 48 (1930): 282. which is possible. [n. 15. the e-grade root is remarkable in a formation in * -eto-.> urrEA. al1£AAOV [n. 39). populus. fr. and also with Arm. (Od. I have argued that the name of Apollo (see on � l\rr6AAwv) has nothing to do with the urr£AAat (Beekes JANER 3 (2003): 1-21).). vomit' (NT). In this case. Although lE ongm is improbable. with unclear -1-.). cmdpl1'oe. arriAAm [f. but there are no obvious cognates for such a root. see Gregoire Byzantion 13 (1938): 399f. and compares ToA palliintar. oDER l\rrEAAuLoe. the word is a denominative of epu 'earth' (cf. 993: £�EpCtcrW· de.). or from the root of Lat. oETYM Acc. on which see Adams 1999. in which case the s. also urrdpl1'oe.> Lat. a reconstructibn *h2pel. 'dye extract' (PHolm.] 'wound' (Call. oDIAL Doric. £KKAT]crlat. � ?'fy oETYM The word has been connected with Lat.. highly uncertain. etc. £�£puIlU 'spittle.. 1146: 41 [Gytheion Pl)o � ?'fy oVAR = crT]KOl. with po-h2pel-o­ > *popelo.). KU1'-. Th. £�£pucru. is improbable. In Greek.). Vesp.l1£AO<. fold'. £�£pume. meeting place'.). ToB palliitar 'to praise'. populus. ara-spel 'legend. urrEAAUKCte. On MoGr. As Vine 1998: 26ff. and compare crCtKWcrE· Urr£KAElcrEV. Laconian for £KKAT]mCt�W (PIu. Note that crT]KOl in the gloss cited above means 'pen. 'black poplar' (H. IlEL-. elections of magistrates' (H. proverb'. Van Windekens Orbis 15 (1966): 256 compared ToB pile. � ?'fy oETYM Unknown.· lEpwv KOlVWVOUe. � GR'fy oVAR urrEpElmOe.urrEpCtW 115 'fable'. cf. Hes. al1£lpimoc. the scholion to Ar. enclosed space. (H. we find a gloss Urr£AAElv· UrrOKAdElv.). remarks. 1144: 21.from *u-rrEp-ELOe. ToA pal 'wound'. La urrEAAaiu 'sacrifice at the apellai' (Delphi). a privative verbal adjective to � rrdpw. and this may well provide us with the original meaning of urr£AAat. (K 195. assemblies. Epidauros.). vomit' (Hp.). al1£paw [v. with metrical lengthening (Chantraine 1942: 101).). u'lyElpOe.v. a connection with lE *h2pel.] 'to pour out' (A.pL] '(people's) assembly' (IG 5(1). Tenos). 109. (Thphr. . Beside it £�-EpCtW 'pour out.would pose difficulties as Armenian also vocalizes the initial laryngeal. 343). UPXatPWlat 'precincts.] 'endless. £�Epav originally meant 'to pour out on the earth'. Denominative urrEAACt�W. a derivation in -10.. 'skin' with privative u-.). oETYM Formally. In view of the many additional hypotheses required. cruv­ EpCtW (Hell.] . A derivation from rr£AUe.

ETYM From ano.vq<. 22496 compares ycmo<. aVTlo<. from ano (npo. . S..). � IE ? *h2en-os. � GR� . R. lA prose)..) (H. Banateanu REIE 3 (1943): 141 thought the word is Anatolian (which amounts to saying that it is a substrate word). pirus. pirum.[n. see Fur.. -E� [adj.).] would be an attribute of drawing animals. [f.. Ctmvua<J<Jw =>nEnvuflat.) and npo<JT]vq<.does not exist.] 'face' is traditionally assumed. one has compared afluvav· uflu�uV (H. cf. which has a variant AunlvT] without prenasalization.). This means that some of the other variants adduced by Furnee must be left aside. OC 1685 it has a long a-.) with a second element for which *�vo<. TuppT]vol 'wagon (Etr.'face'� DER anqvnu [f. see Delebecque 1951: 174. there is the synonym Kumlvo. ETYM Formation like npo.vo. Szemerenyi JHS 94 (1947): 149f. The word appears in the formula (TT]A08EV) £� anlT]<.] 'harshness' (Thphr. In S.] 'unfriendly. and that tmana.). Fur.] 'boundless.). on variation AI zero see Fur. WackernageI 192o-1924(2): 17. Further. for the formation. which is doubtful. � PG(v)� . Cl1tQV'l [f.] 'distant. nqvu· Cl1tqvT] 'four-wheeled wagon' (H.· 6XT] flu. time.. not related to � nAE8pov. said of the sky. immense' (Emp.] 'pear tree' (Thphr.). cf. CtrcA£To� [adj.)..116 Ctm:p£[O'lO� =>Cl1t£LpE<JlO<.] 'four-wheeled wagon' (ll.vq<. but Cl1tqvT] probably had -o. This excludes a morphological analysis an-T]vT]. which is improbable. • • Ctrc'lupwv =>anoupu<.: . [n. ETYM The gloss nqvu· cmqvT] (H. also adducing (285) AUflnqvT] 'id. *anas. • an'lvq�. which seems even less likely. A problem with this analysis is that Skt.. Generally considered to be a Mediterranian LW..VAR amo<. Thess. ETYM Related to Lat. amov [n. (npT]vq<. Berger MSS 9 (1956): 15ff compares Burushaski phe�o. (see below). So there is no clear an unknown second member. � ?� . far away' (ll. see � Am<. because of the variation K-/ zero.ETYM Privative a. Blanc CEG 1 connects � avulVOflat.: 392. probably under influence of Anlu 'Peloponnese'. Steinbauer 1989: 68 argues that the word could be from lE *h2pis-o-.] 'mouth' is of uncertain interpretation. thought it could be Semitic.'.). synonymous with uflu�u. Further. npo<. yu1T]<. with interchange K-/ zero. Myc.] 'pear' (Pl.: 391f. See Hubschmid 1963: 121. height.).) suggests that the a. See � ano. as per DELG. a-pe-ne-wo /apenewon/ [gen. (Xenarch. � ?� .). harsh' (ll. The comparison with Kunavu is the most convincing and shows foreign (substrate) origin.).is a real prothetic vowel and that the word is Pre-Greek. but these are not always distinguished. (npo<Jo. 11. A. • amo� [adj.

ETYM cmAOo<. omAou<. and Gm.. Arist. Cl1tAo"LKO<. (of 'EPlVU<. Rather.or *uers.-Cypr. • Ctrcoe£<JTO� [adj. duplus. of XAUtVU. H.. cmAOTT]<. <'mAoT�Oflat 'to act modestly' (X. ..).'to fold') is problematic. away from' (11. � OmAa<Jlo<. with haplology. so derived from anoTlvw 'to pay.).). .] 'despised.'tear'� VAR Only this form occurs. said of Odysseus's dog ep 296).> OCS po. � IE? *uer. Denominative verbs: 1.VAR Contracted cmAou<. 'twofold.) and late omAO<. Ox.anoKUvov 117 CtrcA6o� [adj. Cf.). . 'much desired' (Call. Direct connection of cmAO<. (all late).COMP omAOo<.. ' the sense of 'equalizing payment. simple' (A. as Gr.. see West Glotta 77 (1999): 121. /ap­ edoke/.v.from the root for 'turn'. forms like Go. also seen in � EPPW < *uert-ie!o-. Ctrco£p<J£ [v. [f. .] 'to develop. (Opp. � ?� . also omAO<. but this probably has a root *ur­ eh2-. is the opposite of omAOo<. Diminutive cl1tAoTOLOV (pap. Aeol. a-pe-do-ke /apu-doke/.] 'doubt' (assuming a root *pel.). plainness' (X.] . ab.VAR ano [adv.) � IE *h2epo 'from'� . is late and rare compared to -nAOo<. atone'. Kretschmer Glotta 12 (1923): 218 considered secondary influence of -nAOFo<. which was also supposed in � anoupu<. fana that would also have given ano. a-pu-do-ke. � GR� . . (Opp. -nAo<. . hapax cmAO<.] 'swept away' (11. 1389: 1. with Lat. Incorrect hypothesis (a-no8wTo<. plain' (Hell. Ctrco [prep. atonement'. � GR� ... appa 'after' (see Kloekhorst 2008 s. whence UnAW<Jl<.] 'ransom.] plant name 'Cynanchum erectum' or 'Marsdenia erecta' (Dsc.. and a-8wTo<. far from' (Schwyzer: 628.).] 'far away. • CtrcOKUVOV [n. double' (11. fine' (11. Lejeune 1939: 332).).). • Ctrcot5U5pU<JKW =>OlOpU<JKW. 2. which has a variant *h2p6.] 'single. Forssman 1980: 192 more convincingly reconstructs anoEp<JE as *uert-s. � GR� VAR Sing.ETYM Formerly analyzed as *anonOlvo<.pl.ETYM Old adverb and preverb. 'twofold. cmAOw [v. 231).] (11.. aj 'down'.ETYM Formerly interpreted as the s-aorist from a roo\ *uer.ETYM The opposite noM-8wTO<.DIAL Arc. modelled after nOlvq : Tlvw. 'sailing'.) by Leumann 1950: 64f.).(Gil Emerita 32 (1964): 181).) and PNs such as 'EPf..DER cmAoT<. 10). Boeot. » PGm. simplus. D.). DER Beside ano-8Ev also anw8Ev 'from afar. 2. identical with Skt. (An..). anu. Lat.lo8WTO<. and unAwflu. Note Myc.. EhO-<pEl<JTO<. twice' (since 11. From PIE h2epo.) show that the word belongs to � 8E<J<Ju<J8at. CmAWTlKo<. probably also to Hitt. it is simply from *sY[l. root *gWhedh_. arcOlva [n. anolvov (IG 14. C. unfold'. uncared for'. apa 'away from'. . related to � nAEw. omAou<. tweifl [acc. double.. and Go.).). See � amo<.] 'simplicity. [f.

which could be from *lukla. in anupTa CtnoAavTlou (PMag. AneAA�<. see Wackernagel l896: 91. AnEAAwv.< *lh2u-tl6. AUKWVe<. latra-. Moreover.). which was generalized to the other tense forms. Perhaps in Myc.). oETYM Schmidt KZ 32 (1893): 327ff. (Att. .'seize. In spite of repeated attempts.). acc.g. chase' would require *lh2eu-. such vowel assimilations cannot be assumed so easily in Greek (cf. Dor.). AnelAWV (Cypr. and Hitt. � PG (v) � oVAR Voc. lata. a kind of grass. laviti 'to catch. 'delicious' is uncertain. [m. oDIAL AnEAAwv (Dor. AnelAWV points to a pre-form *AnEA1WV for Dor. DINGIRIAppaliunas.'booty' (lex. -WVO<.).). ]pe-rja[ /A]peljo[n-/.. Van Beek filic. 'producing enjoyment' (Arist. 209 [IIIP]).) . adjective CtnoAaUaTlKo<. Cf. laptra-.). � ?� oETYM From CtnO-nOAelV (Thurneysen Glatta 12 (1922): 145). oETYM Mostly connected with Aela 'booty'. which is an improbable formation. Land. laun [n. see Ruijgh 1967a: 56. The appurtenance of � Aapo<. oETYM Substantivized from an adjective *CtnoKuvo<. � IE? *leh2u.] 'to enjoy' (Ar. AnoAAwv.] theonym (ll. The name is probably Pre-Greek. � PG (V) � oVAR naAAaVTlOV (Hippiatr. which suggests that the words are Pre-Greek. "von Haus aus kein feines Wort" (Wackernagel I916: 229). one looked there for a connection.) had initial q-. .] 'reward' < *leh2u-na-. 1.could be assumed. Thess. Ct1tOAEiv[a] [?] CtnoaTpEcpelV. As Apollo was assumed to come from Asia Minor. 'AnoAAov. PAdans Artimuk (see on �'ApTelll<.(Schrijver 1991: 240). CtnoAaualla (late) 'enjoyment'. Plb. and in Go.) (H. etc. 'turn away (Lacon. 121. 'hostile to dogs'.: 344 compares naAAuvTloV. lucrum 'gain'. mentioned in a treaty . and that the other cases (with accented e) introduced the a analogically.] probably a herb. However. This root is also assumed in Lat. CtnOAuV'tlOV [n. Ctvalpeenv KUVWV 'cake mixed with a drug against the killing of dogs' (H. Burkert's idea that the name was derived from CtnEAAat is impossible (see detailed argumentation in Beekes JANER 3 (2003)).b). which is from MInd. Aala « *AaF-la) 'booty'. there is no lE etymology. Fur.(e. � CtnUAlWVat.. capture'� oDER Verbal nouns CtnOAauen<. in the s-aorist) yielded *AauC-. Unrelated is Skt.). The e-vocalism is found in the PNs AneAAlwv. 'AnAouv (Thess. It is best to assume that anteconsonantal *leh2u-C. for which an lE root *leh2u. But Lyd. to Stromberg 1944: 26. However. assumed that the vocative 'AnoAAov was assimilated from 'AneAAOV with unaccented e. the appurtenance of OCS lav7J 'catch. 'AnAouv perhaps derives from Pre-Greek *Apel>'on with syncope and -ouv from *-on (Ruijgh apud Beekes JANER 3 (2003). chase'. oETYM The proposal of Stromberg 1944: 27 to connect AEVTlOV 'linen cloth' is improbable. anOAaUW [v. Cypr. see below). See � Aela.) . 66).CurOAUVTlOV 118 oVAR = Ilu(a llelllYllEVfj cpapllUK41 npo<.

'foster father' (H. CtnOll£Al [n.ptc. � ?� oVAR -CppUTfj in Eust. Ctnoup�aouen or -plaaouen (X 489). IlUTatO<. See � CtnacplaKw. oETYM Acc. Ct1t0X£lpO�IOTO<. amta [m. Ctn-fjupa is supposed to stand for *Ctn-fj­ Fpa with long augment. the word is Macedonian. with -cppu<. in which case the word originally meant 'deceiving'. oETYM Unknown. 267e). [lyr. wicked' (Pl.). 57. � ONOM� oDER unna<. Ct1t0CPWALO<.). An elementary word. after the nouns in -0. but this is doubtful. Not related to OcpeAO<.<. -uc5o<. apud Ath. 6. anOUpu<.). (Chantraine 1933: 351. nunna.Fpa<. may well be the Pre-Greek proto-form Apal>'un. 3sg.). tear' (?) � oVAR Ind.] 'living from his hands' < 'who obtains his livelihood by his hands' (Hdt. see Strunk Glatta 37 (1958): 118-127. not -�lwTO<.] 'fast.] term for 80UAfj (Seleuc. continously' (A.). CtnOup&lleVO<. 309). -a. 32. The 3sg. [adj. The e was then assimilated (in Pre­ Greek) to a by ilie following -on. Se. title of a priest (Magnesia. Ct1tocppu<. ana. (Poll. For the formation cf. � GR� oVAR Also CtnoXelpO�lO<. med.] 'unlucky. made from the water used to wash honeycombs (Dsc.] kind of mead. Lydia). to EM 167.] 'worthless (?) ' (Od.. This became e before the palatal *l>'. root aorist 2Sg. 173).). which is not known from other languages. Ctnfjupa<.). (see Lejeune 1972: 181 and 228). � GR?� oETYM Glossed as CtVeIlWAlO<. anplyc5a [adv.). [aor. ancpa. The Hittite rendering shows that the oldest Pre-Greek form had *a. tight. � GR� oETYM Derived from ilEAL.).] 'father' (Call. which is analogical since a zero grade -urh2. see Chantraine 1933: 43· Derivation from *Ctno-cpaFo-ALO<. which is unrelated.. depriving' (ll. [adj. (Hes. is doubtful. fut. -wv (after the type hllla : £Tlllwv). Probably connected to Ctnocpeiv· cmaT�aat 'to deceive' (H.would have yielded -Fpa-. � ?� . and Ctno Xetpwv. the prefix has a pejorative meaning (Stromberg 1944: 29f.. � IE? *ureh2.). and ToB appa-kke 'father'. but also msc. Christian priest. (Eup. See further on � CtnOepae.] 'taking away. oETYM For *Ctno. 'use'. anOllUO'O'w =>Iluaaollat. The barytonesis is Aeolic (Wackernagel Gatt. Pers. Schwyzer: 507). cppa8�.]). like in nauo-cpopOl· AloAel<.. 1090. 1914: 119). CtllapTwAO<.'draw. oETYM From cppu(w. (of �IlEpa). oETYM Compounded of �IOTo<. cppu8llwv. (as per Neitzel Glatta 57 (1979): 1-20). 'futile. also = TpOcpeU<.). � GR� oVAR Mostly fem. Naehr. anocppuO''1 [f.. Ptc. cf. LEpetat 'priestesses' (H. as if from a root *ureh2-. [adj. idle'. ISg. see Wackernagel Glatta 14 (1925): 55.anply8a 119 between Alaksandus of Wilusa and the Hittite king.

ETYM From amepoe.DER u<p� 'kindling. n aKav9'1e. Adesp. [f. DIAL EM 132.a. Perhaps � aua\jl� and xopoa\jloe. a\jlle.v.DER amepuaaollaL [v. apio and 'to kindle' with Gm.). kindle' (ll. plur. 'connection'. Hdt.).).is attested only late. grip. Pl. 626.'.). whence late ullllaTl(w. apud Plin. The ending -EWe. 'winged. -[60c. et al). 'who speaks words that should not be spoken' (*1J-uekWto-uekW-es-). but this may be doubted. Parm.). grasp. etc. fit'� VAR Mostly med..would also occur in � aamoe. 353 took a<paw as evidence for Pre-Greek origin. Hell. [f.) after u<puw : a<puaaw. Cf.). and the root-final aspirate -<p. see Chantraine 1933: 421. quick' (Trag. touching. etc.).. which has analogical aspiration.. etc. *1J-sngwh-to.] 'connection'. u\jIle. sengen 'to singe'. cord' (Hp.] 'to flap the wings' (Archil. apt'. Arist. ullllanalloe. � mepov. assuming an original mg.' (Hdt. aptus 'fit. diminutive ullllanov (Gal. (K{mplOL). a\jloe. OCS pre-s9Citi 'to • • .). HN 24.).. mepuaaOllaL to mEpu�. Neither hypothesis is really evident.] name of a shrub. etc. bapp_zi 'to join' and Lat. as quick as lightning' (Hes. (s. amw derives from the root *h2ep. -�. . cf. • urcTOerc�c.) and a<pa(£l· aVaOEX£TaL 'undertake. from the root *sengWh_ in E sing. Urc"t£pEWC. rim. this is rather dubious.'sing'� .). attach.. etc.ETYM Unexplained.120 .. aKa<p-. .). but it was neglected e. 53 also yEvoe.ETYM Analyzed by Wackernagel BB 4 (1878): 283f.and mepov.seen in Hitt. which is built on copulative a. further a<paaaw 'id... H. Pl. [adv.' (S.. Pl. 'joints' (Od.. unknown. -100e.g. both formally (rrply.'what cannot be sung'. by Frisk. ETYM Fur. � GR� . U1tTW [v. � IE? *sengwh. is metrically conditioned. � xopo�) contain a derivative of amw. DER arrply06rrA'1KToe. amepuollaL (Arat.and � rrplw 'to saw'.can be explained by analogy with Ta<p-. The initial aspiration is secondary after verbs like errw 'to take care of < *sep-. Frisk analyzed it as containing intensive a. treat' (ll. but it is rather a denominative to u<p�. lengthened from a\jlle.] 'promptly. 'Dictamnus albus' (Pythag. alllla 'noose..VAR cmpl� 'id. see Clackson 1994: 98ff. give security. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 656 separated two meanings: he connected 'to fasten' with Lat. etc. thence a<paw 'to handle. see Schwyzer: 620. On the relation between a\jloe.. [n.] 'mesh. Meier-Briigger MSS 50 (1989): 91-96 suggests that it contains *1J-sngwhto.).' (Ion. As will be argued in Van Beek fthc. 'joint' and other Indo-European forms.'join. 158)..] said of Hera (8 209). (also -TO-) 'struck unceasingly' (A. only pres.: 324.' (H. DELG) and semantically.ETYM For adverbs in -(y)oa. exact mg.. cf.. � IE *h2ep. • • urrpo�[(. as *a-emo-£Tf�e. The same proposal was done already by Kretschmer Glotta 7 (1916): 352.] 'to join. which is not really convincing. 'handling' (Hp. � ?� . 'as tight as the teeth of a saw'. [adj. see apm�.

). since we expect -'1 after *r Perhaps it is from (-)apaollaL or from the frequent plural apal (cf. KaT­ apaollaL (lA). R. not apa. ka-ta-wo is doubtful.'to dry up'.). see Giintert .g.DIAL Ion. urc<pa [m. etc.ETYM An elementary form of address.). Not connected to Arm. who proposed that the Hittite verb derives from thematic *h2oruo-. If related. ap�.). � apaocie. as its root is reconstructed as *sek.DER apmoe.). xxxvi D 1. ii'. Cypr. unaspirated arrrra. curse' (ll. and would require *h2r.. e. of armor or teeth (ll. compared apu£l 'cry'. Smyrna). (Chantraine 1933: 260). � ONOM� oDER arr<plov (Eust. Kova�Oe. but this is impossible since *h.] 'rattle. 'belonging to a.(see Clackson 1994: 102f. etc.). � IE *h2(e)r 'thus. cf. apa [adv. 59-60 (1946-1947): 245 and Kretschmer Glotta 16 (1928): 184. which often occurs with preverbs. However. so' (ll.). 20 [Tegea IV"]). Latv..). ap�mpa (Call. ring'.DER Denominative verb apa�Ew 'to rattle.' (PIu. enclitic pa.] 'of course.). arr<plOtov (sch.). 'cursed'. ep( a) (H. however. (Od. see Schwyzer: 622f.' (ll. priest' (ll. . then. ring' (ll.COMP rroAuaa p'1TOe.' (trag. � IE? *h2eru. aruyae-zi 'to prostrate. 10.).ETYM Thurneysen Glotta 12 (1922): 145 supposed haplology from *arru-rrOAlWVaL 'to give back'. . who understands it as 'to regulate.).'prostrate'� . bow'. Thence ap'1T�p [m. For the stem cf.). Latv.[ would have given *tpa. fern. also. ir 'and. � arroAelv[a] . The connection with Hitt. DIAL Cypr. arr<pue.) . (-'1-) 'prayed for.ETYM The same suffIx is found in 90pu�0e.] 'papa' (Theoc. � GR?� . This is now abandoned.). [m. with iotacism and the ending -WVaL of the infinitive. see Ruijgh 1971: 43376• . ai'. trr-.121 dry' < *senkw-. H.) 'much prayed for'.] 'prayer. Arc. A.). � PG (v) � . The final -a in Attic apa poses problems. which neatly explains the difference in quantity of a. poet. Denominative apaollaL [v.] 'who prays. Greek would presuppose a noun *h2(e)ru­ eh2-. . [m. apcnoe. even' and (with full grade) the question particle Lith.. Related to Lith. Schwyzer: 1882) . Perhaps the word is onomatopoeic. � apa(w. • • upn [f.). � apn is possible. arr<pla (Poll. so'� VAR Also ap.ETYM On final Ionic and Attic. Meillet BSL 26 (1925): 19f. with elision p' . uranam 'to deny' < *or. ar. UrcUAIWVaL [v. against Latte. ap'1T�plOV 'place for praying.. with a pure velar (see LIV2 s.). ep(a) (if trustworthy) would point to *h.ETYM Arcadian shows a pre-form *apFa...). apa�oc. the interpretation of Myc.. See Chantraine REGr. cancel' and connects it with arro-A£low 'to erase' (see � A£1oe.] uncertain (IG 5(2) p. KaTapFoe. . cf.] endearing address between brothers and sisters or beloved ones (Eust. A better hypothesis is that of Buck 1955: §162. assuming an original sense 'accordingly' vel sim.] 'id. expressive but unexplained. is revived by Kloekhorst 2008 arr<paplov (Xenarch. etc. accursed' (ll. Connection with the root of � apaplaKw.. .v.

Fluv. of dogs (D. • ' apat6<.: 127f. <1: PG (v) � . H. PN a-ra-ko? DER Diminutive apaKle.).] 'bowl...).­ Dsc. 319 further compares liPOKAOV = CPlaAll (Nic.). which points to substrate origin (with interchange a/ 0). Perhaps onomatopoeic (but is it primarily used of sounds?).). apay6TJv vAR lipaYfla. Tapa�£l 'make noise. 'looseness' (Hp.). • apa�a [?] mythical plant growing near the Araxes (Ps.DER apalk�a>£l· eOpu��a£l.. . TO O£ mho KaL Meupov 'a pulse.proves substrate origin (see Fur. . apa<K>ll<v>). also in mss. but there is no further explanation.: 339 etc. � lipa�oe.). 'porous' (Gal. (H. fr. Gr. is confounded' (H. 76). opposed to 1tUKVOTlle. auYK€xuTat 'has caused to hasten. Fur. <1: 0NOM� . also apa�oualv· £pEel�oumv 'provoke' (H. Arist. [adj. DER apatOTlle.] 'thin.). see Schwyzer: 310. apaKOl· Oa1tplOV Tt.' (H.2). (Chantraine 1933: 359). whence apalwfla.).] 'to rarify' (Hp. ..] wild chickling. lipKlawv). apaKO<. Is it onomatopoieic and/or Pre-Greek? Cf.).). (Gal..] 'disturbance.).. it is unnecessary to assume -a.VAR ap.). p<t�w (Cratin. <1: PG� VAR Also appa�w..122 1914: 145f.. Cf. T�V CPlUAllV lipaKlv KaAoumv).ETYM The form with -KT. Fur. derived from apaKTllv. pan' (Ath. Variant lipaxoe. Fur. oETYM The interchange K/ X and the suffIx -lova. agitate' and apaOllTat· KEKOVllTat (?) . Arist. . <1: PG� .: index). £� apea)KlOWV (cod.] .). 11. DER appl�w (AB). .. a word can be both onomatopoeic and a substrate word. slender. (Gal. apaYfloe.) if this gloss stands for (or derives from) *apa�oe.ETYM Cf.(Sommer 1905: 114). apatWolle. clooe...). As Furnee remarks.).. [f.. • apaKL<.). apaxvoue.VAR Also [n.. 23. Unrelated is Lat. reduplicated apapl�w (Ammon. Cf. <1: ?� .ETYM The word probably had F. .). [m.). with open spaces' (ll.ETYM On the anlaut. � lipa�oe. apalwme.). £AacppOe. The interchange a/ 0 is well-known in substrate words. [m. also pu�w (Hermipp.. PIu. apatow [v. Given this. 'Lathyrus annuus' (Ar. K€AaoOe.). Oa1tplOU 'kind of pulse' (H. apaKlaKOe.).DIAL Myc.. oflaooe. growl'.: 308. etc.£K cplaAwv 'of bowls' (H. also a consonant stem lipa� [m. for which he gives parallels. 3.CPlaAllv KaL apuKTllv 'bowl or pan' (H. • apa60<.DER apaKT�pa· aflEAKT�pa 'milking-pail' (H. apatOe.). (cod. 'Heracleum sphondylium' (Ps.: 142 compares apo1t�aat· 1taT�aat 'to tread' (H. .in apKlowv. apuxvll a plant.).clearly prove substrate origin (Fur.· OlWTOe.ETYM Unknown. and � lipaooe.] (pap. arinea 'kind of spelt'. but this is highly uncertain. <1: ?� . => apaaaw. the same as A.(Hdn.] 'to snarl. compares ap�oe. palpitation' (Hp.VAR lipaKle.). Further apuXlova (Thphr. 129) with KT > KA. apa�w [v. 502b: AioA£1e.

).plur. aor. H.. apapElv.).g.).).'proper'. corn. �pellv. a-ra-ro-wo-a /ararwoha/ [n. lipaat. � apfla. by decomposition. arari 'I made'.] . � ap€aKw.). 'well-fitted' (A. which also has a reduplicated aorist. � lipa�oe. apaxvlWOlle.+). apfloe. 'clashing. ETYM oAoaXOe.). 'union. � apElwv. aor. • apaxu�va =>lipaKOe.lf.). pres. � lipflEva. � ap£T�. oaXll gives opwXaoa.DER Many etyma derive from the same root. 'pedicle of the pomegranate' (Nic. lipaxvoe.· TO aUV Tole.). spider' (Hp. On possible connection with � puaaw.).) probably arose from av­ upaLOe.g.). of rattling. 2 • apaaaw [v. arii. from Harp. etc. .VAR Aor.] 'to beat. . rattling' (A. with neutralization of the laryngeals before *0 .123 apapLaKW [v. with substantivized ntr.). ka-ka-re-a /khalk­ areha/ 'equipped with bronze'. .v. lipmov· OlKatOV 'just' (H. The root is found in other languages too.) and apefl€w [v.). AI. R. perf. arnem.DIAL Myc. [m. . a-ra-ru-ja /araruia(i)/. e. � lipTt. apa�at. I reconstruct arw-ask-at-. 'dit de branches d'ormaux'. may have A for p. 'tie. PIu.� . intercourse' (Delph. ara.. friendship' (h. strike'.pl. lipfla f.). iira.. equip.] 'spider' (Hes.] 'spider's web.: 302.'fit'� VAR Them. lipefllOe. pass. � apflo�w. 1tEpumva. <1: ?� . <1: IE *h er. KA�flaTa 'last year's vinetwigs' (H. equipped' is an isolated med.] 'to ..ETYM Unknown..). . and further to oAoaXOe. OpE-.VAR Cf. Further ape floe. � apTUe. also diminutive (Arist. 'like a spider's web' (Hp. Pl. root ptc. liPf.] Ta. E. rh. Atist. (as in Nic. 870) . ap€axat· KA�flaTa. lipapa (intr. 524).). (ll. The nearest cognate is the Arm.) and opwxue.). 37).. <1: LW Medit. there is also an old perfect lipapa.) denominative apaxvlooflat [v. �oTpumv acpatpEe£V KA�fla 'twig with bunches of grapes taken off ('rite'.] 'to fit together. Lyc. � lipepov. apfl� 'junction' (Hp. [m. Arist. s-aor. apap£1v. 'fitting. 342. Av.. construct. ariim 'fitting' and Skt. apaaxa6e<. clashing (ll. Is the word onomatopoeic? Cf.v. erawazije 'monument' are connected by Kloekhorst 2008 under the assumption of an o-grade *h20r-o­ (etc. From the perfect lipapa derives apapoTWe. In Pre-Greek. apE-. See also � aplefloe. Hitt.VAR apaxvlle. It is rather a vocalic variation in an evident substrate word (Fur.' (ll. 348).. which explains interchange a-/au-/o­ and -pa-/-po-. A.). 'vinetwigs.] (A. �OTpUV KA�fla (Eratosth. � oap . 'allied' (epic Ion. Dsc. bunches of grapes' (H. apaxvTJ [f. also name of a wine (Parth.ETYM The present is based on the aor. .. I am convinced that the four forms of the word (apa-. <1: PG (v) � ..'order' (see LIV2 s. [m. �OTpUEe.). Mere. 109 [not in LSJl).DER apaYfloe.. rta. = TO KaTa.)..'friend' and Lyc. � apflovla. .] 'to unite' (ll. e. Hitt. Clearly related aupoaxae. p�aaw 'to beat' see there. aupo-) are not old compounds (certainly not if we connect oAoaXOe. DELG s..DER apaxvLOv 'spider's web' (Od.

).) (H. cf. <!! PG� YAR Cf. also o. Chantraine 1935: 69ff.y)� . .: 20114) and variations �/Il' ap/apa. ETYM Clearly a substrate word. (Nic. *argehi-kWhon-ta-) and assumes that it originally means 'who kills by his flash'.] 'spider's web'. lluPllllKEC. As the word looks non-IE and since it is limited to these two languages. too. TapavTlvOL 'earthenware frying-pan (Tarent.paxvllKEC.TOD lJ1too�llaToc. aranea [f.). =>aAyoc. araneus [m. to von Blumenthal 1930: 16. as evidenced by the suffix -UA. Kretschmer Glotta 27 (1939): 33): "killer of Argos". arvfna 'fat.). Also o. . Kretschmer Glotta 24 (1936): 236£. seen in £vapy�c. Koller Glotta 54 (1976): 211-215 (unconvincing). (Arist.). Namenforsch. • upPUA'l [f... denominative o.. is unconvincing. which seems quite possible. non-Greek sandals' (H. is impossible in IE terms. meat (Sicilian) (H.. and for a substrate element it is difficult. • .] 'shoe that covers the whole foot up to the ankle' (Hp. especially around the intestines'.YAR o. 423).ETYM A substrate word. Further literature: Chittenden AlA 52 (1948): 24-33 ("dog-killer"). and o.). • apaxoc.ETYM Connected to�uAac. Knauer Glotta 33 (1954): 1141). Ace. assuming a sense "shining in splendour". z. Adjectives o. <!! PG(s. assumed to be a metrical reshaping of *ApY0<poVTllC.). <!! ?� ETYM Unknown.124 be covered with spider's webs' (Arist. crKwAllKEC.) is reshaped after cr<pfiKEC. upPUA'l [f.. (Banateanu REIE 3 (1943): 145..: 1155 on the suffix.vap�IlAa· TO.] 'semicircular knife'. See Gil Fernandez 1959: 24f. (AP).paxvwollC.paxvll can be from *araksna-.. 'reaching down to the shoes' (S. o.DER KaTap�uAoc.PpuAllC. KaElap�uAoc. Th.). [m. and KaT-/KaEl-ap�uAoc..) and o.(Fur. o.. the word is Messapian and cognate with arvfna.). LLKEAO( 'flesh. <!! ?� ETYM Since Kretschmer. .).] . And aplluAa· lJ1too�llaTa. Also metaph. 'sandal' (H.).v. it is probably a borrowing. =>apaKoc. like Lat.] .). • apP'lAOC..paxvat (H. of a geometrical figure (Papp. from the s-stem *apyoc. Ael. T�yavov ocrTpaKLvov. see Mugler 1958-1959 S. Il� £�Ecrlleva. <!! LW� . (Kretschmer Glotta 10 (1920): 45ff. KU1tPLOL 'sandals (Cypr.paxv�£lC.).· iJ1tOo�llaTOC. ETYM o.).. o. West 1978: 368f. The connection of the second member with EuElev£la by Heubeck Beitr.paxvaollat 'to weave a web' (Eust. Connection with apKuc. 5 (1954): 19ff.. the many-eyed primordial Giant.)' (H. Kpeac. see Fur. ApyE"l<pOVT'lC.. Nonn. upPivv'l [f. epithet of Hermes (ll. Ruijgh 1995: 8io6 takes the form at face value (Le. dOll <pOpnKa KaL �ap�apLKa 'kinds of coarse.] 'spider'.PYEVVOC.· o. etc.. yap Ta oepllaTa <�eou<JL> (H. XAav(C. .).p��AOLC.. thinks of a Pre-Greek word. • upyuAtoc.P�uKll (read o. used by cobblers (Nic. from which it is a loan (Campanile 1969: 318t).

).is unexplicable) or from M<poc. 160).in o. The word clearly denotes the useless parts of a sheep(skin). but how could his audience have understood him? It is rather a word that we simply do not know. 1166) .] 'brilliant white.pyEVVOC.. See also Pagliaro Ric. comparing it with o. Strabo V 244 = Ephor. Further connected to � o. Not from Hebr. cf..pyoC.] 'legs and feet of a sheepskin.: 358 adduces the gloss with -L-. to the scholia = £KAEUKOL 'very white'.). [pl. cf. ling. the word is Attic for 1tOOEWVEC. also plant name (Plin.DER o.Py(AL1tEC.YAR Also -en.' (B.ETYM Derivation from o.) . apylAu [f. ace. Abh. Th.). oi O£ 1tPWKTOV. e. 672 only). ad D. white'� .). (see � o. Related to apyLAAoc.pYL-Kepuuvoc. AouovTat 'Macedonian dwelling-place.pyoC...YAR apyLAAu. Chantraine 1933: 132. white'� . One is inclined to consider it as a momentary creation of Aristophanes. (see Chantraine 1933: 267) from � o. .YAR Also -oc. => o..) (PL). Eust. ete.ETYM Formation like YUllv�C. . sheepskin' (H.ETYM From this word comes Alb. where [men] bathe while warming up' (Suid.v. like avElEllov to � avEloc. YAR o.. <!! IE *h2erg. *arg-afY-ap-.PyEllwvll 'Papaver Argemone' (Crateuas). cf. gleaming' (11. ete. of IE origin.DER Poetical enlargement o. apYE!10v [n. 01tEP ElEPlla[vovTEC. upylAL1tqC. in o.] context and mg. V. ] . The interchanges ElL and A/AA clearly point to a substrate word. -a£lC. The ablaut -IlT-/-ET.pyWT�C.. 'white clay'? See Kalleris 1954: 104· UpyEAO<pOl [m. <!! PG?(Y)� .'fat'.YAR o. 35 (1888): 205.] (Nie.'brilliant. upyEvvoC. Lewy 1895: 49f. unclear (Archil. . yet the latter derivation is difficult. (in which case the -E. Fur. on the mg. [adj. "kann jedenfalls unmoglich richtig sein" (Frisk). -eTa (11.] 'subterranean house' (Magna Graecia. .DIAL Acc. contr.125 apyEAAu [f.)..ETYM Connected with o.pyac. 'argaman 'red purple' (Lagarde Gott. o. .]? .YAR Cf.PYllcr-T�C.pyOC. offal' (Ar. . and AB 8. 213). 1. <!! ?� . <!! IE? *h2erg­ 'brilliant. 'id. <!! PG(Y)� . (Dor. o'(Klllla MaKEoovLKov.pyOC. 'ragged ends of the skins of animals'. raged' 'cottage' (Jokl IF 44 (1927): 13ff. • upyqC. albugo' (Hp.] 'white spot in the eye.ETYM Connected to *apyoc. KUL llllAWTu( 'anus. [adj. cf. of £XLOVat. [fr.). apy�£lC. but see Frisk III s. . cf. -qTOC.pyen 01l1l<P 'with a white greasy shine'. P. the meanings 'anus' or 'membrum virile' (attested for 1tOOEWV).pyE<JT�C.Py(AO<POL· AU1tapat KWO(WV [read: KqJO(WV] 'the flanks of sheepskins' . to the sch.PYL.. 1 (1950): 145f.) . 45] . [m..? (Schwyzer: 5001).. because of the mg. DELG relates the second member to AL1t. a remedy against apyEIl0C. Chantraine 1933: 208. . and Hubschmid 1963: 81.). after wllllcrT� o.). which probably demonstrates substrate origin. .

See � apyEj. in Nie. 1. for which cf.. [m.PYlAbtT]e..). and connection with�e. and must have developed via 'brilliant.. but the suffix (Chantraine 1933: 249. • &py6� 2 [adj. A neuter s-stem in £v-apy�e. dissimilated to o. o. with privative 0. As a second member in nooapyoe. 'shining white' (ll.COMP As a first member o. is semantically not evident. o. [m. COMP Frequent as a first member e. <!I PG?� .PYl-KEpauVOe.] 'shining white. (ll. Schwyzer: 483) could be non-lE (cf.).) the wind itself..PYl-OOWV. <!l IE *h2erg. o.DIAL Myc.'white. in compounds rji-. The meanings 'white' and 'quick. to-ma-ko /stomargos/ (?. of aj. see � mOj. Lat. [m.).).with Skt. also substantivized ApyEOLT]e.pyuplKoe.) 'shining white' (A.].).pyoe.. Acarnan. and in: 1.· o.pyL-noue. > o. argilla is a loan from Greek. o. nimble' are both found in Skt. o.pyae.). 'rich in silver' (X. with regular shift of accent. contracted o.). 'Apyoe...pypoe.pyoAae.] 'to be white' (E. which suggests that *h2rg-r6. o. and Apyw [f. o.pyw-L�e.. a substrate word is quite possible.) and the west wind ZEq>upOe. rh.pyoe. ToA arki. o. tu-ma-ko /thumargos/? .PYlVOEle. arjuna.).] . o.'white'� . barki.' (Gal.pyupoue. o. � al-.pyaLvw [v. Pi...PYl.pyw-voe.) 'with a foot of silver'.pYlonoUe. -avLOe. an Aeolic form. < *o.] (Suid.�Ele.. agile' (ll.VAR apylAAa [f. Given the meaning. It is also found in epic o.pYl-OEle. Skt.] 'idle. of the dog of Odysseus. 'id. As a PN.lnEAOe.).ETYM Generally derived from � o.pyLnoue.. rjra-. .py6� 1 [adj. [lyr.pyEvvOe. ToB arkwi 'white'. <!l IE *h2rg. light'.). read o. money' (lA). 'concerning money' • • . (Arist.).g. Nonn. (Dor. (B 647.. as well. types of snake (named after their agility). See also � o. 'the nimble one'.DIAL Myc.) is just an enlargement of the t-stem � o. note the interchanges AlAA and -oe.llAAa).] (Achae.). sparkling'.is found in several formations in various languages: Lat.] 'id. o.l. o.pyupwoT]e.DIAL apyRoe. o. MaKE06vEe. lazy' (Hdt.126 apylAAa apYlUa etc.). Orph.pyupElOe. o.pyCtEle. which means 'brilliant white'.).'white.ELOe. 2. apYlUo� [f. po-da-ko /podargos/ name of a cow.] (Od. 'with quick feet'. DER Denominative o. DER o....ETYM Wackernagel already pointed to the similarity of Gr. <!I GR� ETYM Contracted from o. epithet of Thetis. (Verg.).pyae.and (F) o. Plin. (ll.] 'clear'.pyUplOV 'silver coin..pyhle. o..lov.> *o. brilliant'.] 'silver' (ll. a-ku-ro /arguros/�e. . o. name of a mythical ship (Od. argentum 'silver' (further cognates see � apyupoe.).pyoe. 656).' (Att.. -a [m. Hitt.+).-(F)Epyoe. ApYlvoUOOal. o./­ a. with a v. (inscr. 592 it is an enlargement of o. • apyupo� [m. epithet of the south wind VOLOe..'brilliant white'� . For o. also 'quick. with regular shift of accent.pyoe.pyupo-nE�a (ll.).). 'of silver' (ll. Opp. . The root *h2(e)rg. bright'.. (Hes.] 'white clay' (Arist.

-hle. £VlOl yopyupae. 880 [lyr.VAR Long 0. <!l IE? *h2erd.poEUaLj. also 'av8pwnoe.). 2. also 'concerning money' (X. direction'. Nie. o. independent of this is o. Silver. Hitt. Gr. KaAOUaLV 'the bottoms of tiles.o. o.). . etc. Is it simply loss of 0. or does the interchange o/zero point to a substrate word? The ending has been explained from *-rdja > * -rzda > -poa. 2. ace.). Isoe.PYUPEUW [v. = o. also as a plant name (Stromberg 1940: 26). verbal noun o. o. ETYM Connection with o. incite' (but its connection with Skt.pyupwj.loe.l� Ka8apwe. 53).poj...'point..). apOEUaLe.] 'to dig for silver' (D.. o.v. J.laL [v. ToB arkwi 'white'.loAuoj.pOtKOe. .. o. argat.loe.lLowv. PIu... which some call y. a'i8aAoe.(on which see Chantraine 1933: 263).). arkuyaeJi 'to make a plea'.).. diminutive o.ETYM From the u-stem also continued in � apyupoe.lOe. derives from a u-stem also seen in � apyu<poe. LXX) . with the suffix -<po.' (Plb. whence o. o. bright'. fern.pyu<pwe. Lat.'white'� VAR Also o..[n. Av. Pr.poda 'irrigation' (Str.pyupL�Oj. On the realia see Mallory & Adams 1997 s.ETYM Probably related to OIr.).] 'to be covered with silver'. 'recently watered' (<1> 346) . Ph. -OW 'to cover with silver' (Pi. 'silver vessel' (Pi. ON erta < *artjan. oue. • ap6l�. Purely formal enlargement in o..] 'dirt' (Pherecr. 109 ... Other languages have a thematicized nt-stem in the word for 'silver': Lat.'to spur. (Lyc.lOe.). [m... diminutive o. muaAov for the suffix (Chantraine 1933: 245).ace. -lO� [f.poT]8j.DER apoaAOe. S.). arguo 'to make clear'. cf.PyupLOtov (corn . enlarged o.). to Erot.). but the short -a may also point to substrate origin.. 3. aird < *ardi.lOAUVEl 'defiles' (H. 'watering place' (ll.)..).pyUpEUl'lK� [f.. OIr.. Plb. 'filth' and oapoaLvEl· j.).pyupwj.] (scil. Skt. (Alcm.) .] 'irrigator' (Man. o. Denominative verb o.' (Erot.lEvae.. Pr. DER o. ..] 'to defile' (Hp.COMP vw-apo�e.through dissimilation.pyupwj.] 'gleaming white' (ll. LEXVT]) 'art of the silversmith' (Eustr.pyupLe.. (Ephesus). Arist.pOW 127 (Hell. • . 852. <!I ? PG?� . [m... 'id. arazata-. 'id.-.).poaAla· LOUe. • apyu<po� [adj.). to Hdn.. o.l). o.pOEUL�e. nu8j.) .pyupwe.lCtl'lOV (Arr.Pyupooj.pyuplOj.] plant name (H. These glosses cannot be ignored. o.pyUploe..). adjective o. Fur.pow 'to irrigate' is impossible because apoa has short 0.. 6 j.). �wv' . Dialex. Pherecr.] 'to irrigate.] 'point of an arrow' (Hdt.pyupwLaL [pl.' (H. arju-na­ 'white. 'containing silver'. o. <!I PG?� .). Str.laL [v. (Str.] name of a government authority in Sillyon (Fraenkel 191O1912(1): 170. and in Skt. rajata.. all < *h2rg-nt-o-. <!l IE *h2erg. (H. cip6w [v. Denominative verbs: 1.] .).la 'silver plate' (Lys.pOEUW (A.] 'to squeeze money from' (Din.: 391f compares oapoa· j.). ardati 'to be scattered' is semantically unconvincing)..). • ap6a [f.)..pyupLLT]e.'point'� .DER o. water' (Pi..). A. Antiph.poaA6w [v.. ETYM apyupoe. LWV KEpaj.laLlKOe.· <papELpa 'quiver' (H.

� apap[0Kw is formally unclear (origin of the -E-?). fInds this positive in iipEIOe. Relationship with e1t�pEla depends on the question if this contains PGr. . as -00e..) (254).COMP aivapETll [voe..COMP See � e1t�pEla. H. (M. apwKE[a 'flattering person' (Arist. the prothetic vowel of which he explains as a substrate element. A further comparison is with iipoe.). 'benefIt' (H. Seiler 1950: 116ff.).DER iipWle.). the meaning is different. � ?� . and connects it with iipoe.). .. satisfy' (ll.). Furnee also follows the proposal by Kretschmer Glotta 3 (1910-1912): 294f. to Giintert IF 27 (1910): 67.).) and apWKWTtKOe. apElll [f.) .). that a.ETYM The connection with eppaoaTaL < *FEFpUOaTaL is most probably wrong. ETYM Not directly related to � apE0Kw for semantic reasons. notes DELG. is a pre-Greek suffIx. yet. apE0KEufla (PIu.] 'excellence' (ll. The latter proposal is attractive. DER Denominative apnuw [v. loss of laryngeal before yod).] 'terribly brave' (ll.). Acc.-es. 'humid' (highly doubtful) and iip0W' AElflwVEe.). beside which stands a superlative � iipI0TOe.). PIu.).). Backformation from apwKE[a: apWKEUoflaL [v.: 241 compares 1tapOaKOe.. � IE? *h2erh.). but rather formed from an old positive.-. but connection with apE[wv. Hell.(with the Lex Pinault. � ?� . satisfy' (?)� VAR Aor.. damage is not the same as menace.-� . but formally not clear. due to a pre-form *aFupow (comparing vEOapo�e. apdwv (like AwTwv) was not a primary comparative. Epicur. ApE<JTWP PN (Hes. *e.] 'threat(s) . ETYM Formerly connected with Skt.] 'to please.(see Peters Sprache 32 (1986): 371f. ETYM The word seems to have a disyllabic root *h2erh. � IE? *h2erh. name of a sacrifIcial cake for appeasing a deity (inscr.. whence apwT�ptoe. flattering' (Arist.).] 'to prosper. 'grace' (Priene 11"). Dion.] 'better..DIAL Myc. The connection with *h2er. From the present iipWKOe. 'pleasant...· 0'PEAOe.'please. stronger. Ka[ pAUpOe. suggests an • • .). Fur. The Mye. .in. . � ap�. ap£0aL.l28 . • apdwv [adj.] 'to flatter' (Clearch. (ll. irasya 'malevolence'. cf. • • apeTq [f. be envious'.) and apE0flloV 'fee' (Stiris). 'humid meadows' (H. Thphr. iipEloV (ll. irasydti 'to be angry. • ap£0Kw [v. nobler' (ll.DER Denominative apEluw [v. seen in TEixoe. apn� is semantically not compelling. Connection with � apE[wv is semantically attractive. .-ios.] 'to threaten' (Hippon. apwTllP[a (8u0[a) and apwT�ptoV (inscr. because the 0 in eppUOaTaI (which belongs to � pa[vw) is secondary (thus already Frisk). 'expiatory' (D. Neumann 1961: 91 noted that several technical terms for irrigation are pre-Greek (� yopyupa.). aKOU<JlOV (H. � iivollpa).).] "reconciliator".). apwTOe. if it does not stand for *h2erh. comparative is formed differently and suggests derivation from the root *h2er-. 'pleasing' (Hdt. Vine 1998: 61f. ETYM A primary comparative. Ael. Ant. a-rjo-a2 larjoha/. thrive' (Od.). under the assumption of *h2rh. apwT� p [m. ete.

. ) pAc'tpoe. and tries to reformulate Rix's Law. etc.] 'id. (Tarente). like a'(YEIOe.). language. Popular iiplxa (acc) iipPEV 1tpOpaTOv 'male cattle' (H.from the word for 'man. . Athens. apqv. haplological fem.) (Chantraine 1933: 403). � ? � . ON r6kja. 129 analysis *h2(e)r-eteh2. pava· iipva 'sheep. [m.).). * due to a reshaping.· ( . gen.-en.). lamb' is probably Elean. ruin' (ll.).). MP varak 'ram'. garn.iipVEe. ace. . 'healthy' (H..-n-os > *Fapllv.? Uncertain is the appurtenance of � apvEIOe. . *urh. apv6e. *h2rog. Finally. . 'ApEWe. urm. 'sheep' (H.. for 'war' (Triimpy 1950: 152f. OS rokjan. metonym.-en.[m. 8) like aiYEa ete. aKOU<JlOV 'involuntary damage' (H. Possibly comparable with Germanic forms such as OHG geruohhen. rego. which derives from *FEPFoe.).) .. *urh. for which there is no indication. *urh.) . pOElOe. Nikolaev 2005 wants to reconstruct *h2nr-eteh2. It is confIrmed by the PN FapIXOe. also god of vengeance and oaths (Arcadia.were root nouns. (Chantraine 1933: 50f.). With old ablaut apwy� 'help. support'� . p�v (A. [m. aPllflEVOe. etc. Kat Ta puvvlfla TO mho (H. Skt. -in 'lamb'. 'to care for' and MoDu.' is a thematization of *urh.] 'to help.poses diffIculties.a.).). apvEa [f. if so. taken from compounded forms .ETYM ap�v < Fap�v < *urh. Meier-Briigger KZ 103 (1990): 26-29. Gr. which would be formally excellent and for which he adduces semantic arguments.. found as a PN in the class. 6pEYW. Also apvEiov 'butcher's shop' (Didym.. see Gonda KZ 73 (1956): 151ff. DER iipVEIOe. 'of a sheep or lamb' (Hdt. see � iipoe. � PG� ·VAR On the inflexion see Schwyzer: 576. but the absence of the nasal is unexplained. damaged' (ll. 'sheepskin' (Ar. roekeloos 'without care' (with old 0). perhaps also with � apEl�. raja 'king' seems to be connected (on which.). and � apvwT� p. unless *h2reg-. wa-ni-ko Iwarniskosl.). hero'.).ETYM The forms require *h2re/oh�-. but the long a. 'Apewc. 1497). .). 2.· uylEe. .). with 11 > a.. This means that the oblique stem Fap-v. apvaK[e.] the god of war..'Aplle.). � IE *urh. 4.-en matches Arm. -ovoe. f. see Kretschmer Glotta 11 (1921): 195ff.COMP 1tOAU-PPllv < *1tOAU-FPllv < *urh. also 'sheepskin' (Lys. 'helper' (ll. and a1tapEe. � IE *h2reh�.. The original inflection was nom.] 'sheep. support' and apwyoe.). we-re-ne-ja Iwrenejal in a list of leather the root of � apap[0Kw. from *apvo-vaKOe. apq [f. cf.] 'sheepskin' (Hdn.DER apllYwv. 'wool'. ap� 'prayer'.DIAL Mye. For Ion. diminutive apv[ov 'little lamb'.is found in Fap�v (Gortyn) and pUvvEla· Ta iipvEla. apqyw [v. one may consider a connection with � 'Aplle.. • • 'Apqe.-n-.-en-. wo-ro-ne-ja Iwronejal may perhaps also represent Iwolnejal 'woollen'. -OV 'helper' (ll.-en-m.ETYM Probably related to the ptc. (Chantraine 91). see � apu. with which Skt. R. The F. Unrelated is � dpoe. support (against) (ll. lamb' (ll.. Further connected with iipoe.] 'bane.'lamb'� VAR Nom. f.'help. *FapEva. Cf. PUplXOI (= F-). m. 'pEpAaflflEVOe. 297. .. also 'sheep-breeding' (POxy. not related to Lat.

APl�O'l acc.13 The form is confirmed by Apl�Oav· -r�v AplaOv'lv.). Denominative verb ap0pooflaL 'to be articulated'. (H..DER apelVOC.and a second member which was formerly connected with � 0'l0EXa-raL. Unheil. to Zenodotos at L 592. An lE etymology is improbable for a Cretan goddess. whence Apeo1tay[-r'lC. aK01)mOV (H. adj . (Bechtel I917a: 11). very' (11. abducted by Theseus (11.are verbal governing compounds..are mainly bahuvrlhis (possessive compounds)..] Doric for <peAAOopuc. see � epl-.130 . 67. Kp�-rec. AP�'(OC. Lesb. DER Fern.] 'most famous' (11. related to Hitt. Willi accepts Heubeck's connection of epl. <"!!l IE *h2er-� . etc.). (Zeuc. See � apap[GKw. 'ApWC. up'. cf.'to fit' with the instrument suffix. ETYM Unknown. <"!!l IE *deik.DIAL Myc.: 348.. as a first member in compounds. On the flection Schulze 1892: 454ff. Bechtel (above) and Kretschmer Glotta 15 (1927): 197. 1tayoc. (Schulze 1892: 242). -ow 'to articulate' (Hp. Hp.. ap0plKoC. under the assumption of metrical lengthening for *apl­ O£KeLOC. articulation' (Hdt. 'Ap£la in Arc. -1tp£1t�C... (VOGOC. ap0pwo[a (Gal. dat. as yv > Ov is not a Cretan development (Brown 1985: 25).as *ser-i.'good. and the group -Ov.).'fitting'� DER ap0pi-rlC..) 'gout' (Hp. Call. apl6dK£LOC.ETYM From *h2er-dhro-. ap0pmKoc. Hermipp. 'articulation' (Phld. . • AplU6vT) [f.). Str. adj. ap6pov [n.. • ap(a [f. EM 140) connected ap� 'Schaden.from epl.. Lesb. (Hp. This means that the word probably does not contain ayvoc.). ser 'above. ap0pwmc.). a-re-(i-)jo.).).g.and maintains the widely accepted connection with aplGLOC. 'of the joint or article' (Gal.. who thinks the element is Pre-Greek because of the variation e­ I a-.COMP In ap[-yvw-rOC. 'of oak' (IG 11(2).) is artificial. gramm.ETYM The ancient grammarians and lexicographers (e. . Kp�-rec. Epirus. Athens.).). <"!!l IE *h2er-dhro. -Oe[KeLOC.. -rav A0avav -rav 'Ap£lav.) (H. while those with apl. AP£1J"(OC... The connection is • improbable: lE origin of such a name is not to be expected. Boeot. the form is read oeloExa-raL and is • . derived from *h2er. S. 'Ap£lOC.· �ACt�OC.)' PN AP'l-rCtO'lC. ap6!lOC. Gal.). E. 'ApeLOC. Ion. cf..'show'� ETYM A compound from � apl. . • apl. Verderben'. Arist.. <"!!l ?� .is found in other Pre-Greek words. 'holm-oak' (Thphr. 161: A 70. 'Ap£lOC.] daughter of Minos. PN a-re-(i-)me-ne.. ap0pwo'lC. 'provided with joints' (X.. <"!!l PG� . Gal. ETYM Willi KZ 112 (1999): 86-100 convincingly disassociates apl..). This is better than the analysis by Fur.). Delos). a-re. X. [adj.VAR Aplayv'l on a vase.ETYM The gloss aovov· ayvov.). Nowadays. also 'article' as a grammatical term (Arist.] 'joint. with psilosis (95ff. =>apap[GKw. 'pure (Cret. He concludes that the forms with epl.). . apoc.).

ap(oapov [n. aploupoC. <"!!l ?� .). aK[C.. ap[c.ETYM Unknown.ETYM Technical term of unknown origin.ETYM See � ap ov and � aGapov (Stromberg 1940: 157f.] 'account'.). OOK[C. Shipp 1967: 50ff. • aplAAa [f. -(60c.).v. appellative 'E1tapl-rOl 'the chosen ones'. cf. Chantraine 1942: 169· apl6!loc.-Dsc.] a plant. A problem is that omens coming from the left side were considered unfavorable in Greece. ap(c.). Av.stara. rltus 'religious observance.). and in Celtic: OIr. is mostly assumed. Lat. 'of counting'. Gav[c. Perhaps in the PNs 'E1t�pl-roC. cf..ed.ETYM Diminutive of apov? Cf. also � ap[Gapov. Probably. and the Arc. 86 (1931): 133ff. *h. taken in the afternoon in classical times (see Athen.. equivalent of ap[0'lAoC. Arc. morning'. rite' is related too « *h2rei-ti-). also derives from this root (which seemed obvious anyhow) .aplG-rov 131 considered to be related to � OelKVUfll.) . � O£a-ro by Schulze 1892: 244 (in pre-Iaryngealist terms: * -Ol'lAOC. DER Denominative verb apl0flEw 'count' (11.). rim 'number'. connection with aplG--roc.). Or is it unrelated to 'left'? .. with apl0fl'lLlKOC. number'. <"!!l IE *h2rei. (Schwyzer: 268) . easily recognizable' (11. (Ion.).ETYM A derivation in -0flo.from the root of � V�Pl-roC.] Just. Others want to read + as -00-. see Stromberg 1940: 153. 'Arisarum vulgare' (Dsc. <"!!l ?� . 4. etc. <"!!l ?� . agent noun apl0fl'l-r�C.] 'number.ETYM Explained as *-djeh2-1o. more favorable' (or are these old euphemisms?) . (Chantraine 1933: 337).251f.'eat'� .] 'bow-drill' (Hp. [m.)..'left. Hell. ( [Pl.. 1. 2. there are comparable words in Germanic: ON rim [n. [adj. payment'. also 'opaKov-r[a fllKpa' (Ps. OHG winister. [f.] 'clear. sinister (but see the doubts in De Vaan 2008 s.] 'left' (11.. which means that apl-OelKeLOC.). Groselj Ziva Ant.) 'count. aplO-rOV [n.] 'row. <"!!l IE *h2eri­ dieh2-1o-� . 'arithmetical' (Pl. ITeoupnoc. OHG rIm [m. ap[0fl'lmc.DER the plant name aplG-repewv (PHn. 7 (1957): 41 connects eplwA'l.] unknown (only IG Rom. judging by parallels like Lat. ap(�T)AoC.] plant name.). whence ap[0fl'lfla (A. -(60C.'count'� . 373b) . . For the formation.) = 1teplG-repewv 'dovecoat' was perhaps reshaped after the latter form. 'countless'.VAR Through metathesis afll0poc.] 'breakfast' (11. <"!!l ?� . payment' (Od. <"!!l GR� ..). <"!!l IE *h2eier. [adj.ETYM Formed with the contrast-marking suffIx --repo-.). Secund. Outside Greek. 'Arisarum vulgare'.'day. [f. 1349). see Wackernagel 1916: 250 and Wackernagel Phi!. 11b ff. It is thought that the left side was considered favorable in earlier times.

'hold. but this seems improbable to me. Further numerous PNs. suffIce' (11.COMP Often -apKT]e. � ?� DER aploTLvoT]v [adv. PIu.] 'to be the best. .). the gloss apynoe.). aploT£Ue. 'belonging to the aploTOl' (D. It is sometimes considered to contain the prefix apl-. 'net' is improbable. -L(oflaL 'to have breakfast' (Hp. On the suffIx see Fur. Salix fragilis' < * arkiltii. excel' (11.e. S. ete.] 'juniper.).] 'according to birth or merit' (Att.). is doubtful. 'strengthening the limbs' (Pi. Thera). 5. AploTLwv. DER apKw8Le. In view of this. The suffIx is also seen in opmuvT].. see Chantraine 1933: 198f.).] 'to have breakfast' (lA). could be a back­ formation from aploT£uW. aplaT�£e. � PG?.. aploT£La [f. 'self-sufficient'. aploT£Ue. (OlVOe. first. ETYM A primary superlative to the comparative � apdwv. also apKOe. ete. • apUJTOe.] 'meed of valor' (Hdt. chiefs' (11. Further .] 'defense' (Ale. like ApLoTwv..] 'the best. (H. noblest' (11. when they are setting it up in the loom' (H. Ion.'eat' (see � eo8Lw) + To-suffIx: *h.).) 'wine from or perfumed with juniper-berries' (Dsc. [m. as 'the fittest'.aplOTOe. Also aplaTda. ETYM Within Greek.) 'they who excel. whence substantivized aplaTLVoa.). Sprengel). . 132 .DER Verbal noun apKWle. apKw80e.] TO pUflfla 4i TOV oT�flova eYKaTanA£Koum ola(ofl£VaL 'iliread with which the warp is intertwined.] 'deed of valor' (Gorg. aploT£uW [v. Probably a loanword. Perhaps it is related to � apapLoKw. apKw8l0LTT]e. aploTT]T�e.).eus-er-i.: 115\ on the material cf. 'who eats twice a day' (Hp. S. aploT�'ia [n. • • • apKEw [v. see Bechtel 1914..d-to-.).. [adj.). is certainly cognate. Note. aUTupKT]e. EUR?� VAR apY£TOe.. cf.. a contraction of a locative apl « *a'(£p-l) and the zero grade of eo. 'help' ( [f. � PG?� . Brown 1985: 25. (mostly plur. if the latter was derived directly from aplOTOe. 46 ed.' � apKw80e. aplaTT]TlKOe. 184). aplxaollUl =>avapplxuOflaL. Juniperus macrocarpa' (Hp.] 'to ward off. KanuvT]. rak£ta 'willow. ETYM An old compound meaning "eaten in the morning". H. however.. apKaVTJ [f. apKUe. Beekes 2000: 27. that � �Pl 'early' is now derived from *h.: e. [n.). 'who loves breakfast' (Eup.] 'juniper-berry' (Hp. etc. which is rather deverbative to apK£w because of its limited distribution.g.).. aplaTL(w 'to give breakfast' (Ar.) . but aplaTdoe. contain'� .). defend. these can be combined if we assume a loan from the European substrate. -Looe. aploTT]T�pLOV 'refectory' (BCH 15.] (Sparta). yUlupKT]e. Perhaps � no8CtpKT]e. Kp�T£e. is clearly a substrate word. The comparison with.DER Denominative aplOTUW [V. � IE *h.erk. • • aplXu => ap�v. perhaps Pre­ Greek.). [f.) directly from aplaTOe. apK£u8oe. 2. inscr..).eieri-h.) .ETYM The connection with � apKUe. 8T]yuvT]. The word has always been connected with the Slavic group of Ru.

cf. [f. . 'Arctos Ursus' nhTl� (Arist. (Poll. Ar. or is it from before the metathesis? The old etymology as 'destroyer' (Skt.ETYM Old name of the bear found in Skt.DER Diminutives apKTUAOe. �O£lOe. [f. also name of a constellation: 'Ursa Major' (Scherer 1953: 131ff. 'wheel' in confirmed by the derivations.).. . certain. see Thompson 1947: 17. Perhaps here apKLOv 'burdock. (Eust. also apKuAov. apKTlKOe.. after Et90e.). but it means 'wheel'. m. Lat.' and Hitt. a-mo-ta. a-mo larm(h)ol. = • apKUe.). sch. Stromberg 1940: 118.] 'skin of a bear' (Anaxandr. apKUAAOe. • uPIlU 1 [n. 'Inula candida' (Dse.. 'surveyor'. if it is itacistic for apKUACt 'bear' . .] (LXX).) . see Dobias-Lalou 2000: 6.VAR Often plur.). It is uncertain whether the ethonym ApKUO£e. etc. -£UOflaL 'to serve Artemis as a female bear' (Lys. Celtic forms like Mlr. contain.). Ace.). Late ap� (OGI 201. after oLKTuov.] 'northern' (Nonn.). to Liden IF 18 (1905-1906): 507f.] plant name.'damage') has become untenable with the laryngeal theory. Opp. especially 'war chariot' (11.. 'the north'. Av.). ETYM Unknown. 'belonging to a bear' (Dse. etc. flLflapKue.). have'. see � <ppoupoe. � PG?� . • apKTJAOe. porcupine (Cret. Arm.] 'young panther. sure. Further a-mo-te-jo-na-de larmoteiona-del 'to the wheel-maker's shop'. and apKuvT] and the Slavic words for 'willow'. . 'id. the form appears at an early date in names.. belongs here. apK(T)£lOe. is difficult).). sufficient' (the development of the mg.). It is probably just a simplification of the cluster. . on the use in Homer see Delebecque 1951: 17of. and perhaps also to the noun Arm.).. • apKTOe.DER apKuov 'id. Lys.. bartagga. etc.).VAR Perhaps apKT]Aa· . oLKTuov 'net' (H. apKTlOe. kind of panther' (Callix. arcea 'to hold off. in the sense of 'twined.'some wild animal'..' (EM). This is improbable. -uoe. I pu<pue. as one expects a derivative suffIx. .'bear'� VAR Younger form apKOe. T�V UaTplXa = 'hedgehog. Av. ETYM Related to Lat.) (H. a-mo-te-i. nik$as-.' (Lue. apKTlOV [n.] 'net' (A.COMP ApKTOUpOe.?] 'bear' (11. Kp�T£e. � PG?� VAR Mostly plur. fk$a-. related to apKw80e. (Hes. [m.). dat. arj. f. epic) 'to be relied on. ursus.DIAL Myc. 'eastern' from £we. Denominative verb apKT£uw.'join'� .. apKlAOe. .) . (sch. On the suffIx (as a substrate element) see Fur. see PanagI 199:i: 137-44. with -opoe. woven'. [m.: 1155• It is not clear whether the gloss belongs here. for the u-stem. (11. 'northern' (Arist. 645). also a crustacean.] 'wagon. argel 'hindrance'.). A technical term which may well be a substrate word. . after a'(Y£lOe. bark-zi 'to hold.). ras.. apKTt90e. On traces of the mg. The late Greek form with single -K. ... . see Sommer 1934: 63f. arsa-. [adj. art. � IE *h2er. punue. � IE *h.. These (especially the latter) lead to a reconstruction *h2rtko-. car'.) . 15). and Hitt. plur.ETYM Unknown.Cipfla 1 133 apKlOe. apKT� < -£T] [f.rtko. Arctium Lappa' (Dsc.

� apfl£vu in the meaning 'food'). o.). -ea (pap.. Dor. Arab. or the other way round? • • apfluAlu [f. epic Ion. see s. • • apflo�w [v.).) 'wheel-maker'. OL O£ Ta fl� ei<. xop-raa[uv.134 apflu 2 . apTuflu-ra. (Dor. note that the Mycenaean form has no initial aspiration. e. cf. aAAa Tpuq:>£pa apfluTu (H. connection with � aPfl£vu 'food' or � apflu 2 'id.). X. However.). apfluAu [?] a plant. Ta apTufluTU.)..' (Critias).ETYM Derived from the root ap. -01.). see Chantraine 1933: 82. o. arma [m.] 'food' (Hp. DER apfl£v[(W 'to sail' (gloss.).). Furthermore. diminutive apfluTLOv (gloss. etc. . Unrelated is the word for 'arm' in Lat. apud Phot.ETYM Connection with u'(pOflat 'to take for oneself.) is due to an original suffIx -sm-. With -y-: apfloy� 'fitting together' (Eup. • apfl£vu [n. since only a thematic suffIx -smo. aOflo�at. apflUTl-rTj<.COMP apflaTO-rrTjYo<. 411). � IE *h2er.ETYM Literally 'what has been fitted out'.L for o. food' (Hes. Th. 'tuning of an instrument' (Phryn. fit together. 'rue' = rr�yuvov aypLOv (Dsc. (Theol. 3.). etc. � LW Sem. -T�p) [m.).S.] 'arm'. � ?� . 639). 'using chariots' (Philostr.] 'weapons'. lead' (see Browning Class.' is hardly feasible. arms 'id. Arm.. (ll. . n':t Kunl A£1tTOV £O£afluTu. 19 (1969): 68. 45).] 'to drive a wagon' (E. DIAL Att.v. Theol. On � �TjTuPflwv. a substantivization of apfl£vo<. ApKu8e<. 994). apfloaTwp (A. Dor. instruments. from � apup[aKw. Go./rma. to Hellad. because of Skt.?� VAR Syrian for rr�yuvov KTjrrulov (Ps. Lat. 'condiments (Arc. arma [pI. tackle. harmal 'rue'.).pL] 'sail. Cf. .] title of an official.g. TUPUVTlvOl . Or.DER apfloaT�<.'to fit' in � apup[aKw.pfloaflu 'joined work' (E.) and apflwAu. Th. This presupposes that thematic � apflo<. especially of the Spartan governor in dependent cities (inscr. Ar..PflOat<.' < *h2rH-mo.). ETYM On the suffIx.'id. apfluflu�u contains aflu�u (Ar. Also apflupu (pap.with root-final laryngeal. Is apfluAu from Semitic.) (H.).). Rev.-Dsc.'fit'� VAR Aor. It is assumed that the rough breathing (also in � apflo(w.).. y-armar 'fitting'. acc. further �PfluAwauTo· auv£Au�£v 'collected' (H. or with � apup[aKw has been suggested (cf..) 'commander'. apflUTO£[(:. food' (Hes.Pflo�u. Denominative aPflun:uw [v.suggests a loanword. apfloanKo<.'fit'� VAR Rarely sing. -wA. unless it is an adapted Persian word. • • .). pap. ETYM Cf. -onw. is the older form. DER apfluT£lo<. MoGr.] 'to join. 'equipment'.is known. Ar.] 'ration. The variation -uA-..Pfl£vU Hes. connect' (ll.'. Hel. 'of the chariot' (E.. apfloaat. Outside Greek. several forms have a suffIx -m-. � IE *h2er. . N. o.). it is mentioned in the gloss vwyuA£ufluTU � vwyuA[afluTu. • apflu 2 [n. 'condiments (Tarantine) (alphabetically wrong) and apflwfluAu (read -flUTU?).pfloKTat. � ?� . [po 533 B].VAR Also uPfloAlu. aor. also v. action nouns o. Other glosses may contain mistakes: apfloyuAu. � apflov[u.). 'id. also 'to deliver.

therefore appears to belong to � apaTjv 'male animal' (see there on the absence of an initial digamma). inscr. (S.' (ll.) .'fit'� . We thus have to reconstruct *ar(s)nejos or *ar(s)neyos.DER apvTjat<. 'three-year-old ram' (H. apfloviu [f. � GR� . VT?1:l1-. apv�auaeat. The old connection with (F)ap�v was rightfully rejected by Meillet IF 5 (1895): 328f. =>ap�v.. � apveuT�p).).). 'fitting.. assuming a nasal present *h2r-n­ es.pL] (AeoL. also Beekes MSS 38 (1979): 10-11. UTU aflvov.for Greek.). E.] 'jumper.. is found in Skt.'joint'� . varsni-. and E�­ upvo<.DER apvTju8e<. 15). (lA).m). connected the word with Av.'to fit' with a suffIx -men-. apvElo<. aPflo8to<. acc. .ETYM Derived from an adjective only known as a PN: 'Apflwv. � IE *h2res. Unrelated is Arm. apv£oflaL [v.).3 644. apv£lo<. .] 'joint' (S. *apvTjo<. Del.] 'ram' (ll. also a bird (ll. [m. rah. £hu apV£lOV. An alternative. cf. [m. Apflov[oTj<.] 'means of joining. Numen.ETYM See � apflo(w. -111'0<.).. The form with £l in Homer may have arisen by reinterpretation of spelled E. oETYM As the glosses indicate. agreement. D.). For apvTjo<. see Clackson 1994: 102f. both because of the meaning and because the word had no digamma.PflU 1. £hu Al1toyvwflovu. to Ruijgh 1967a: 48'7. Att.ETYM Denominative verb from apfloTCt<. � IE *h2(e)r-smo. acrobat'. . riiratiiei1:lti'. See � apup[aKw. apfluAu =>ap�uATj. uranam 'to deny'.] 'just. apflo� [m. covenant..ETYM Mayrhofer KZ 71 (1953): 75ff.VAR Cf.] 'to deny. which itself derives from � aPfl0<. etc.).. 'joint' (S.'ram'� .).'to be disloyal.. shows that the original form was *apvTjo<. but less convincing etymology derives the word from the verb apveuw (s. Hdt. deny'� VAR Aor. . PI.135 . 'negative' (Chrysipp. apflwAu =>apfluAlu. [m. KPlO<.. 'denial' (trag. Arat. refuse. frame. this adjective derives from ap. -uowv [fem. r?l1Jhaii. � IE *h2er.) seems to be a back-formation to � apflo(w. see below. The same formation..'refuse.)..' (Thgn.. This etymology fits both form and meaning very� well. see Bechtel l914. also meaning 'ram'. perhaps after aflq:>la�TjT�atfl0<. caus. etc. Also found in � �TjTuPflwv.. unfaithful' (3PL intens. Av. who cites Istros apvu..v.] .· 6 TPl£T�<. decline' (ll. apvTjTlKO<. lately' (A.DER Hence the old locative apflol [adv. but from a different root. apv£w<. apv�atfl0<.DIAL Att. Probably deverbal: arr-upvo<.). which is confirmed by AeoL apvTjuo£<. Like � o. for which cf. the word was a designation for a ram of a certain age (Benveniste BSL 45 (1949): 103). apvuKi<. (ll. � IE? *h2ers-n-i. • apVEUTllP.). . apv£w<. Also in Pausanias 159 Erbse.

thence apo-r�(JLo� wPTj (Arat. . «po� [n. Defner 1923: 47 compares Laconian apE· MKKO� 'cistern'.) and apw(JLflo� (S. � LW? Eg.. acquire'� YAR Aor.. see LSJ. Hist. apud Ath.). it is also contained in � ap(� and � ap(uupov.] 'to plow' (Pherecyd. 'Arum italicum' etc. 30. 2. Nic.). Doric *apa-ru� (on -u. acquire' (ll. apo(JL� 'plowing.] = 0'P£AO� 'advantage' (H. «pov [n. Hitt. hollows of rocks in which rain water is collected. KUt �Aa�o� aKOU(JLOV 'advantage. after adjectives of time in -�(JLO�.). Arat. cane'. DER apvw-r�plU [n.). • • = . arnum 'to take'. Stromberg 1943: 50 . ap6-rpwflu 'plowing' (Poet.'take. � IE *h2erhJ. 5. corn.] 'diving tricks' (Arat. etc. apOLo� [m. arnuJi 'to transport.' (ll. cf. secondarily ap6-rTj� [m. deport' is related to � 0PVU!1l. r 'reed. 5. ETYM An old nasal present apvu!1m < *h2r-nu-. a-ro-u-ra /aroura/ . apOLlK6� 'fit for plowing' (Gal.DER apo� [n. Perhaps. DER apo-r�p [m. Bion.).). Comparison with Lat.] (lA. ev ul� Mwp aepO(�£LaL 0fl�PlOV. For the second.). • • apoKAov =>apuKlv. also involuntary damage' (H. .) was formed.. metrically conditioned (Arbenz 1933: 48). See Fur.] 'plowing. Plin.. apoufl6� 'plowing' (pap.. gain. Nat.). • apvu!1Ul [v.). For the third. 2. H.).' (AP).. and in Av. sometimes with secondary length apw(JL� (pap. aranuuail:tti 'they grant'.) (Latte reads apvaplov). apOLplaw ap6w (Call.] 'benefit' (A. whence ap6(JLflo� 'arable' (Thphr. Babr. . � ?� YAR ap o�· 0'P£AO� KUt <1tE-rpU�> KOlAa�.. Supp. poet.).pl.). usually compared with � apvuflul. ram (for they tumble while butting with the horns)'. (plowed) land. the verb fllUeUPVEW 'to work. ·COMP Starting from the expression f. ah.). cf.).'plow'� YAR Aor. 95: est inter genera et quod in Aegypto aron vocant.] 'to win. apEUem. 1053).YAR Acc. Lyc. .' (Arist.] 'to plow.. seen in Arm. (h)arundo 'cane' is less probable. apOLpw-r�p 'id. apo-rpov 'plow' (ll. perhaps directly from ap6w.: 235 on apvu1tov· -rov apvu (H. 'farmland' (Horn.] 'plowman' (ll.ETYM The connection with � apv£l6� 'ram' is uncertain.).. thence denominative verbs: 1. • ap6w [v.).).)..see below) is perhaps contained in the month name Apa-ruo�.). 569). AT on M 385. Ael.). etc.). serve for hire' (Hp. apOLp£u� 'plowman' (Theoc.DIAL Myc. Eust. 3. cuckoo-pint (Thphr. but this may be a folk-etymological interpretation after apv£l6� 'ram'. � IE *h2er.ETYM In the first sense. he prefers a separate root for 'jump'.] a plant. apud Stob.). ap6uaL.] 'to dive' (Lyc. 1tUpa -rou� apvu�.136 . 4. Str. 885 [uncertain reading]. apwflu 'farmland' (S. apvEuw [v. Also apvw-r�� [m. plant' (ll.] epithet of a fish (Numen. Arat. the apv£ur�p is 6 KU�lU-r�p.. 19.llUeOV apvuuem.ETYM Hemmerdinger Glotta 46 (1968): 244 and Hemmerdinger Glotta 48 (1970): 54 derived it from Eg. see on � ap�.� . aor. to sch. Ant. OD-rOl yap KU�lU-rW(JLV WU1t£p -rov aepu Kup(noVL£� 'tumbler. apo-rp£uw [v.

all from an instrument noun *h2erhJ-tro.).DER From ap1tuy-: ap1tu� [f.lU from a verbal noun *apo-Fup 'plowing'. arvum < *h2erhJ-uo-.or -dhlo-. apo-rpl6w = -law (LXX). also a bird of prey. ap1tuy£u� 'robber' (Them.).). arbor < *ary[.).] 'surface measured by apoupaL' (substantivized adverb).). Less probable is connection with � ap1tu� and � ap1tUlU. ap1taYTj 'hook. arti. The formation of apOLpov is matched by Arm. this may be based on folk etymology. IE? *serp. Vett. . on the details see Peters 1980a: 143ff. Adverb ap1tayoTjv 'snatching' (A.). Val.] 'robbery' (Call. the etymology is far from certain.(this is one of the very few counterexamples against Pinault's Law in Greek). Apa-ruo�. OCS ralo < PBSl. ariu.(from which ap1ta�w may have been derived directly). harra) 'to the Doric forms (apu-rpov. *arH-tlo. crush' is cognate. . arawr. Lith.). apoup(-rTj� 'id.. arjan. 3.ETYM An old yod-present derived from the dissyllabic root *h2erh3-. ISg.' (Babr. ap1ta�w [v. airim. � PG? (S). ap1tUKnK6� 'rapacious' (Luc.).ETYM ap1ta�w seems to be a denominative verb from a stem ap1tuy-. . R.'arable land'.). and perhaps also in the present if this directly continues *h2erhJ-ie/o. fut. apouplufl6� 'measuring in apoupm'.).. gen.' (Lyc. apoupu is a derivation in . ISg.] 'robber' ( seen in the aorist.) was probably taken from ap1tuy�. Men. Cognate yod-presents are Lat. Forms deriving from the aorist ap1tauaL are less frequent: ap1tuuflu (Pl. .) . apoupu 'arable land' (ll. The reflex of -hJ. 4. OIr. The word for 'sickle' is derived from a root *serp-. Opp.YAR Aor. gen. ap1tuYflu 'id. ap1tU(JllK6� (Arist. Deverbal from ap1ta�w: ap1tUK-r�p [m. aratrum (with secondary length). lengthened ap1tuylflulo� 'id.. Lat. too.. the same formation is continued by Lith. action nouns ap1tuYfl6� 'robbery. ap1tUK-ru� [f. LXX). Opp.). ap1tuy� 'robbery' (Sol. Mlr. ap1tayLOv 'vessel like the KA£\j!tlOPU' (Alex. evapa-rov) is probably due to influence of the verb apaw. S. it would originally m�an 'to snatch'.).' (Orph. urvara.). rake' (E. *ap1tuywv is found in the Latin borrowing harpago 'grappling-hook' (Plaut. ap1taao� name of a predatory bird (Ant.). If ap1ta�w is derived from this..' (Lyc.). Thence apoupulo� 'rural' (lA).] 'robber' (ll.).] 'to snatch away' (ll. apo-rp(u(JL� (LXX) and apo-rp(uflu 'plowed land' (sch. ap1taum (Horn.'prune'� .). apo-rplU(Jl�� (EM) and apOLplaafl6� (sch.. Go. OCS orati.). Herael.). arti. apo-rpla�w 'to plow' (pap. apauuvn (Tab. arare.). Adjectives: ap1taylflo� 'robbed. arbe < *aryens 'corn'.137 Thphr.] 'hook' (A.). which must be analogical (though it is hard to indicate a precise model). as found in ap1tTj 'sickle'. diminutives apouploV (AP) and apoup(olOV (pap. a-ro-u-ra. ap1tUK-r�� (Call. ap1tu(JL� (Phryn. Mlr.). Skt. Aphr. and ON arar.). [m. ap1taafl6� (PIu. *h2rhJ-uen-s is continued in Mlr.stem *h2erhJ-u[.). a similar formation is found in Lat.). booty' (PIu. Ar.'plow'.). ap1tuyo� [m. arathar. as DELG remarks. ap1ta�aL (ll.] 'plundering' (Hes. Aret. Phld.. stolen' (Call. orjp . This old rln. from Egyptian papyri: apoupTj06v [n.). The -u. However.. Lib. It is possible that Hitt.).).). This may be related within Greek to ap1t. AP). Ther. ap1tUK-r�PlO� 'id. in which case 'to plow' was originally called 'to break the soil'. already Myc. Rhod.

the names of instruments in -owv. since the zero grade *srp. KU1tplOl 'kind of thorny plant (Cypr.). beat level and firm' (H.DER Denominative ap1taA[�w [v. DER ap1t£Oov[�£lV' AW1tOOUT£lV. oi O£ TO.). verpti 'to spin'. T01tOUC. Connection with � apmx�w is improbable for a word for 'cord'. <{ ?� . consuming'. further apmaat· aiflaO'laL � Ta<p pouc. ETYM Connection with ap1t'l.. also a bird of prey (after its claws.)' (H. 'walls. ditches' and apm�· £1ooc. is improbable: the ap1t£�a is clearly something in the terrain.. 'level. ? *ser(p). amxpTou 9'lpav 'to steal clothes. eoa<p[aat 'to make even or level. Groselj Ziva Ant. -Mv'l (Schwyzer: 529f.. 420). KAlflaKWO'l xwp[a 'places that are hedged in. it is a substrate word (Frisk refers to ep9uplC. ap1tuAto<. yarn'. Kat Olo.] (AP) .] 'to be eager to receive. -tOY} ayam]TOV 'amiable'. CtKuv9'lC.).. 7 (1957): 225f. for ep. .'sickle'� .· TOUC.e1t[1t£OOC.).. Hdn. Denominative verb ap1t£o[aat· 0flaA[aat.] 'id.).vAR Also -£owv [f. and so perhaps connected with ap1t£Mv'l 'cord'. <{ GR� . <( IE?. ap1t£Mv'l. O£xoflat 'to receive gladly' ( a suffIx -ay.).] 'hedge' (Nic.' (Mylasa). alluring' (Od.must be analogical after -£p-.] 'cord. Nor can ap1t. • ap1t£�u [f.. attractive.). aiflaO'lWO£lC. The secondary connection with ap1ta�w explains the spiritus asper and the development of the meaning.] 'sickle' (ll. ete. Cf. rh. Cf. [adj. but this is rightly rejected by Frisk. which belongs to � aA1tVlaTOC. 207). (Antim.] 'flat' (Nie. hunt by rope' (H.ETYM Dissimilated from aA1taA£OC. connects the word with Lith. The variation -£�a/-laa (in apmaat) is typical for substrate words. functioning as a boundary (aiflaO'lu). ap1taA[�Oflat· aafl£ reliable. cf. . Chantraine 1933: 361f. Also apmxvat· fluVOpat �oaK�flaTwv 'cattle folds'. used to ensnare game. and forms which contain it seem to be substrate words (Chantraine 1933: 397). • • • apm:Mvl) [f.). DER ap1t£M£lC. Col. The original form is recorded by Hesychius: aA1taAaiov ( easily explained as an lE form.).. (Hdt.ETYM Unknown.). Since antiquity. = ep[9uplC. the word has been derived from apl-1t£O�C. oi O£ T£[X'l Kat 1t£pl�OAOUC.cannot be explained in lE terms. 'flat') leads nowhere.] 'devouring. but then the -ap.).). ap1t£�ac. [adj. flat' (H.would be expected to yield pa1t-. 490.). to exact greedily' (A. greedy. If the gloss with e. (Did. see Bechtel 1914 and Thompson 1895).). walls and enclosures. <( PG(v)� VAR Also ap1t£�OC. « PG?(V)� VAR Sometimes with rough breathing ap-.from epl-). ap1tu�w is not convincing. epm:Mwaa (-ooaaa ms. thence 'with pleasure. ETYM Connection with 1t£OOV (for which one compares a1t£OOC. • • ap1tl) [f. cf. Chantraine's suggestion that the basic meaning is 'limit of a terrain'. terraced places' (H.. apm:Sq<. [f.

such as of wickerwork' (H. 139 . « PG(v)� . connects the word with Ap1tUla. -WVOC. ap1tl<. = KP'l1t[C.). The appurtenance of OIr.] ? . . ete. apm� [f. A formal variant is � pa1t[C.VAR Old dual l\p£1tu[a. [f. serr is also doubtful.] 'love' (Parth. ] usually plur. aKuv9'lC. by which they must mean that it is diffIcult to explain. [f. Not related to Hebr. <( ?� .VAR Also a1tpl�. "ap1t'l a un vocalisme ambigu".). If we suppose an lE origin.DER appa�wv[�£Tat· appa�wvl O[OOTat 'is presented with caution money' (H. -iSo<. acc.) and ap1t£Tov. and a1tplyoa· £I00C.). . ap1tuy'l. AioA£lC.ETYM ap1t'l agrees with OCS sr'bp'b.) . For a hypothesis of an Oriental origin. . EM) . a kite (Cretan) (H. ayma.g. see Grimme Glotta 14 (1925): 17.ETYM The expression Ap1tUlat aV'lp£\jIavTo (� 371 = a 241) was once suggestive of etymological connection with � ep£1tToflat 'to feed on'. The variation with -yoa and the form itself suggest substrate origin. but this is impossible in view of the e-. see Vendryes. See Szemerenyi 1964: 203-213 and Beekes 1998: 24f. perfect forms without reduplication do not exist.. the bird comes from the interpretation of Homer.).).VAR ap1t[o£c. • J\. 'kind of thorny plant' (H. [m.)' (H. I agree with E-M and am inclined to assume a non-lE word (for the concept of European substrate words. Furthermore.). Fur.VAR ap1t'lC. (Aigina). one compares Lat. see Beekes 2000). � iJ1to O� flaTU 'soft boots or sandals' (H. demons (ll. aKofllaTOV � iKTivoc. opv£ou 'kind of bird' (H. 'the Harpies'. ETYM The word is Laconian. pa1t[C.p1tULU [f.ETYM Unknown.ETYM Unknown. It must be concluded that the name is a substrate element. cf. though Hesychius's gloss may indicate that the door was twisted or twined. Latv. sarpere 'trim. 9upa. The aspiration may have been taken from ap1tu�w by folk etymology.ETYM Unknown.] . ap1tu<. so the word must be Pre-Greek. but the vocalism is difficult to accout for (see Schrijver 1991: 493: from sarrio). EM 132. flaAaKat Kp'l1ti8£c..appa�wv 1. a'(9ula. <{ LW� VAR Also Ctpa�wv . . apart from oloa. not convincing.DER Ace. <{ ?� .). like e.] 'kind of shoe' (Call.VAR ap1tuv· epwTU.. sarpio and sarpo. aKav9'l C. Moreover. sirpe 'sickle'. 21. The suffIx -Ula is typical for substrate words. to Hesychius. . <{ PG� . as per Lewy 1895: 130. say E-M. 'love (Aeol. 'arab 'twist'. It is improbable to take ap1t'l as the basis of ap1ta�. = KP'l1t[C. Kp�T£C. appa�l) [f. the same form (but with -uiat) is also found in EM 138. 213 does . . 'untended...' £1ooc. and the variation £1 zero is also a substrate characteristic. olov y£p<p>ov 'door. prune (vine)'. <{ ?� . 53) . -wvo<.). 'man's high boot' (EM 148. ap1tu�w. EiA£l9ma. 'id.] 'caution money' (Antiph.: 327f. (H. appu�wv 1. • . 36)..). as Szemerenyi 1964: 205.' (Cypr. £I00C. to Leumann 1950: 294.

ayplov. Kat <brl> YUVaLKt· npo<. 407d. as DELG suggested. � ?� oDER apP'lv£1v· AOlOop£1v.. [f.. 8'l plov. -ew (inscr. said of a dog.). oETYM Unknown. Egyptian has 'rb.). howl'. � ?� oVAR Delph.> -pp.would be spurious. oETYM Unknown. Resp. Ta apP'l<popla (sch.). Does it derive from *a-FpaT-o<. S. to Lewy 1895: 120. But the Semitic character of the word is not certain. = apP'l<popo<.. denominative apP'l<popew [v. Din.). afl£TCtmpo<po<. 'wild.]? · ayKlmpov 'fish-hook' (H. Masson 1967: 30ff. 535C. applxaoflal =>avapplxCtoflal. Ar. o DER apP'l<popla 'procession of apP'l<popOl' (Lys. In antiquity.). also epo£-. acc.. Cra.. apo£a [n. 'basket'. 'hard. epoo. An attempt at an explanation in Lewy 1895: 130. 94 (1966): 1ff. to quarrel with a man' (H. � ?� oVAR epP'l<popo<. m. � ayy£"iov AUYlVOV 'basket or vessel of chaste-tree wood' (H. -la. apma (F.: 348 hesitantly compares apuoo<. 'meadows' (H. An analysis -Fpa-To<. abuse.] (Ath. Chantraine 1933: 402). [ long. remodelled after OTP'lvq<. arra. and ep0'l<p0po<. Ax. from PIE *uert. Ar.). [adj.). perhaps the word is a loan from elsewhere (Cohen GLECS 8 (1957): 13). sch. A£lflwv£<. with a suffIx -00<. 25. appwc5tw =>6ppwoew.] 'growling'.).). oETYM Uncertain. Cf./ epuoo<.. the same suffix occurs in the synonym OUplX0<. 3.(inscr. diminutive applXI<. 'unsaid.. arrabo. sdl. = app'lvq<. applX0<. it does not belong to a£pm. E.appa�wv 2 140 oETYM A Semitic loan acc.'to twist'? If this is correct. � ?� o ETYM Unknown.).(a£lpw).). ouox£pe<. appaTO<. etc. the length of the -a. 4. to H.'. appa�wv 2 [m.] (Ar. Schwyzer suggested a relation with apOw 'to irrigate'. 13)? oETYM Unknown. who compare Hebr. 83).] . 316. See Adrados Emerita 19: 117-133 and Burkert Herm. 'erabon 'id. mysterious' (with an inexplicable loss of -TO-). (Theoc. Is it from ap(p)Ct�w 'to bark. only in �CtKOTOV T£ Kat apP'lve<. Cf.? See � apCt�w. avopa ola<pepw8aL 'to slander. 42. 365a). or from ep0'l 'dew'. Probably a substrate (Schwyzer: 513. The development -po. (D. oETYM Unexplained.] 'basket' ( normal in Attic (Forbes Glotta 36 (1958): 265). [f. cf. intractable'. Lat. � ?� ovAR In Euph. is more obvious. also the name of a daughter of Kekrops. o DER apmxo<. of a woman. EM) .] name of the Athenian girls who carried the symbols of Athena in procession (Paus.· KO<plVO<. Fur. like in aAoo<.. the word was derived from apP'lTo<. followed by Schwyzer: 153. (Schwyzer: 498.] OKA'l PO<. � PG?(s)� oVAR aplo'Ko<. Forbes Glotta 36 (1958): 254). unalterable' (Pl. 24 the -a. The suffIx . [f. Delph. or an'lvq<.).

ToB kaur�e 'bull' and ON kursi 'bull calf (a brilliant find by Kroonen. ep0'lv. (Att. Ion. or *apTo-Taflo<. forms show no trace of a digamma. the zero grade ap0'lv corresponding to Skt. may be a substrate element (Fur.'man. app£vlKO<. apoevlo<. apP'lv. (and . to my mind. oETYM ap0'lv and ep0'lv reflect IE *u (e) rsen 'male animal'. ultimately from MP *zarnik 'gold-colored' (cf. male'. apTa�'l [f.'. (Teuthis). apo'l<.: 345 thinks it is a substrate word. (or -l£1o<. (pap. zarnika) and reshaped after apo£vlKO<. -�la) 'tax for one a. the whole etymology is m�st improbable. apTa�l£lo<. For the former.). Lat. Ph. abstract apTa�l£la (also -�£la. acc.). • ap0'lv.). apTaflo<. 'id.).was lost in Greek. app£vlKq (Gal.� VAR Also app£vlKOV.c. � LW Orient. 'male' (Arc. this is a priori the most likely solution.'. [f. apo£vlKO<. � LW Iran. arn 'ram'. � ?� oDIAL Perhaps Myc. ap(J(tJfllc5£<. KOTUAI£lo<. Denominative verb app£vooflaL 'to become man.] 'male' (11. apTla Teflvwv. .] 'arsenic' (Arist.). � apv£lo<. epo£vlKO<..� oVAR Also apTe�'l. Arm. The Gr.) 'id.) are probably secondary after 8'lAlmpo<. 'male'.). cook' (S.) from KOTUA'l (Mayser 1906-1938.] 'butcher. apoevwfla 'masculine seed' (sch.: 25427). oETYM Eustathios 577. [m. 'artful cutting'. apo£vlKOV [n. abstracts: app£voT'l<.). masculine gender' (Stoic.).] 'male child' (pap.'. cf. Fur. however.).v. and full grade ep0'lv to OP arsan. oETYM The word is of Iranian (Old PerSian) origin. versis 'bull calf.] 'masculinity. Adverb app£vwOw<.] a Persian and Egyptian measure (Hdt.b has argued that initial *u. arsi.). 45 explains it as 6 £1<. Cret. Pronk fthc. especially Gortyn £po£v-.). Lesb. oDER appevT£po<.. DELG objects that we should expect -Toflo<.) and epo£vaIT£p0<.). attested in ToA kayur�. Lacon.. oDER In papyri: apTCt�lo<. � ?� oETYM Unknown. textbook view see the discussion in Peters 1993a. -£VO<.. See Schrader-Nehring 1917 s. cf. verres 'ram'. � apv£uTqp. p. Cf.'bull'. Lith. 'male' (LXX). Opp. 'measuring an a. apTa�laio<.' and see � XA6'l � XAWpO<. in which case it would be haplological for *apTI-Taflo<.'. a-to-mo. behave like a man' (Luc. I: 3: 95)... apoevLOv [n... Gusmani 1969: 512 compares Hitt. Schmitt Glotta 49 (1971): 100-102. probably via a Semitic intermediary ' (Syr. although. MoP zarnix.l£1o<. Armenian and in part of the Indo-Iranian cognates in the compound *gWeh3u-ursen 'bull'. to R. apoLOv =>avCtpmo<.. · imoo'lfla yuvaLK£1ov 'women's sandal' (H.141 -00<. zarniq 'id. (v)r�a-bha. [adj. � IE *uers-n. -pp-) 'male' (Hell. there is no further evidence. oETYM Word of oriental origin.'male'� o DIAL Att.'plantation'. fern.)..). (El.

Artimu-).. [n. A1toAAwvlo. The Indo-European interpretation by Peters 1989: 214ff. with a v. 'ready' (Od. [m. but the derivation is unusual (Schwyzer: 705f. The variation t/d is due to a recent replacement of the suffix: Myc. [f. (SIC 671.] plant name. 'id. as if from *apTEfllOlCt�W.. i _ 1 . -ovo" [m.). DIAL Myc.. it also means 'principal pulley' (Vitr. hang'.).] 'festival of A. Against the interpretation as 'bear-godess' and connection with apKTOe..). but this does not prove that the name comes from Lydia or Asia Minor. Cf. The s-stem in £7to. apTlOle.] 'to be healthy' (Nonn. apTEfllO'lo. AP. artemo(n) name of a sail (since Lucil.]. such as 'ear-pendant' (Hdt. etc. which seems very improbable.) does not presuppose an s-stem noun..).COMP Prefixed av-. ApTo. a-ti-mi-te /Artimitei/ [dat.. designation of several objects. Ko. either from *apTl­ oEfl�e. -1 ?� . (to � T'lflEA£W). see Kretschmer Clotta 27 (1939): 34. :=: 'l\pTEf1l". 2. apT'lO'floe. attach to' (Hdt.pT�e. make ready' (Hdt.] 'fresh.).too. a-te-mHo /Artemitos/ [gen. 10. and the forms in -OlOV. 9). Dor. � apT�p and � apT'lplo. etc.). cf. The name is found in Lydian inscriptions (Artimus.] . and Ruiperez Zephyrus 2 (1951): 89ff. -1 ?� .). Ap. from apTl�w. 'id.l. ETYM The forms show an interchange eii. cf.O'Tal (Chantraine 1933: 316) . Improbable is Illyrian origin (Ruiperez Emerita 15 (1947): 1ff.fllTloe.ETYM A technical word.To.). also the month name ApTEfllOlWV (Th. after 1tAEKTCtV'l. or as a compound from ap.presuppose a -t. (Hdt. apTtof1«l [v.pTl�w (Hdt. ApTEfllOlo. We further find e/a (see Fur. • apTEf1�" [adj.). . 'butcher'.DER ApTEfllOlOe.). -lOOe.l [m.p-o. The word has been explained as a haplology.). apTEfllo.' (Delphi).). Arr.).). 'weight' (Arist. mg. who assumed Illyr. who connects apTo. apTEfllo�'IOV [n. . from adpw 'to bind.iTEw : o. apT'lOle. Pick & Bechtel 1894: 439.142 apniw apnlw [V.flle.ETYM apTCtW is reconstructed as *aFEpTCtW.) .) ..' (Thphr.(but see on � ap1tEO�e.) and *TEfloe.] 'to prepare. also -LTOe. see Stromberg 1940: 100. and Lycian has ertemi. 12. -1 PG� VAR Gen.). for which a precise explanation of meaning and history is .] worhsippers of A. -1 GR� .iTl�w.] 'temple of A. Borrowed as Lat. -1 GR� DER Verbal nouns: apnlllo.). aVCtpT'lOle.DER apTEflEw [v.: 185).. 27. . uncertain in Lyd.).). . Cf. hang upon. Further apTCtV'l 'rope. *artos 'bear'). Connection with � apTEOflaL or � apTCtW with a suffIx -flwV (Chantraine 1933: 172.] 'to bind to. healthy' (n. Both are unconvincing. equip' ( Schwyzer: 522) does not explain the meaning. Mens. 'hanging' (Papp. -lTOe. has -t-. 'ApTaflle.floe.] 'foresail' (Act.. (Athens). ApTEfllOlOV [n..). Vart 1887: 101-106 and Rouge 1966: 58f. the pair o. 40)..flLTlo.DER apT'lOle. • • • apTtf1wv. noose' (A. which is rather an old phenomenon than a recent assimilation. Boeot. apTl�w 'to prepare. (to O£flo. ' involves many difficulties and should be rejected.] name of the goddess (n.].ETYM Unknown. -u50" [f.' (AB).e. -LTOe. 2. Delphi 'ApTEflle.' (Hdt.. Prod. which may point to Pre-Greek origin. 'health' (Max.apl. ApTo. etc. 1to.].pTEOflaL (Hdt.

apT'lplo. and considers it to be a substrate word (or is it a loan from Greek?). if not from � apTEOflaL. -1 GR� .'. apnoT'le. 'bronchitis' (Isid. . has been suggested. 'baker' (Hdt.'.ETYM Unknown.ETYM Like the semantically comparable aopT� (see � adpw 2).'fit'� . (Arist. (GaL). kind of shoe (Pherecr. in Homer only in compounds and derivatives).Koe. derives from *aF£P-T�p. 4. 14).DER apnoe. artal 'especie de empanada'.. . See � aVCtpOlOe. In later compounds. kepu beside OCS pek9). a-to-po-qo /arto-pokwos/ 'baker'.COMP Frequent as a first member. ard-a-cin 'just born.). 97). fitting'.ETYM 1. apTl-1tOe.. from the simplex apnm�pEe. etc. 'id. just now. art! 'dose by'.] 'decoration of the ear' (Poll. (all Horn. etc. . -1 ?� .'fit' is improbable.'order'.plO'Kw. 2. Arist. not apT�p [m. .).DER Diminutive apT10'KOe.] (Hp.DIAL Doric. Lat. ard 'just now'. from � aElpw 2 'to bind'.'. Perhaps apTl�w 'to order.] (Arist. or from apTCtW with haplology for *apT'l-T�p. apTl­ yEv�e.. Gal.DIAL On Myc. Connection with apnoe. (Pl. see Chantraine 1933: 81 and Scheller 1951: 59 .] 'just. 4. Lith. -'1'-.). The word neatly corresponds with Arm.'flour' as a borrowing. . hang up'.. intelligent'. e�-. OSpan. 17 [n]). cf. apTlo.plO'Kw. apTl1piu [f.i _ 1_ 143 . (medic.) 'right. also 'even' (of numbers). \IIwplo. 38.).] 'artery'.] 1. H. Hubschmid 1953b: 104 adduces Basque arto 'id. Etym.) and apT'lplWO'le.) with metathesis (cf. apTo" [m.(Schwyzer: 483f. cf. from the root of � apo. Chantraine 1933: 245f. with a number of derivatives. -1 GR� .). 7.Ole. [pI. first meaning 'right. -1 lE *h2er.. [f.. PI.] 'an even number of times' (Pl. -1 ?� . etc.) and apT10'KlOV (Damocr.pTl�w. with a suffIx -o. [adv. artis reminds of apTl<ppwV and apT1X£lp. • apTiuAu [n. as if from a verb of disease *apT'lplCtW. apTl-<ppwv. from � adpw 1 'to raise'.COMP Frequent as a first member. 2.). Dsc. 1 (1950): 141 derives it from Iranian *arta. 'who knows well how to use the word'. via an intermediary noun in directly from � apTl .). and with Lith.).). where the first element may mean 'skillful'.] 'to play at odd and even' (Ar.). note apTO-K01tOe. ling. which is impossible for a word already attested in Mycenaean..] title of an officer in Elatea. could be analyzed as 'what is bound to'.] 'bread' (Od. � apo. apTl-flEA�e.. usually a1t-.DER apT'lplo. apnCt�w [v.'sensible. Pisani Ric.ETYM Derived from the root ap.Ole. [m. On the formation. apTl-X£lP. ars. see Stromberg 1944: 60. see � 1tEO'O'W. apn [adv.).' (X. connection with ap. recently' (A. 'windpipe' (Hp.). equip.). apTlCtKle. it means 'recently'.ETYM Unexplained. ETYM Probably a locative of the t-stem *h2er-t. fitting': apTl-E1t�e. it probably derives from aElpw 'to bind. (11..Ao.To. further apT01tOlOe.O'floe.Ole. . . that by which anything is carried (LXX Ne. Ko.

).(Schwyzer: 704): Att. apTufliie..)' (H.from h2er. order. apTUV' <ptAiav Kat mJfl�aow � Kpiow 'friendship. gen.).).. S} 3. Antiph. cf. see Chantraine 1933: 391. 'globular oil flask' (Ar. 'arrangement. £�-. apTUO"Le.).).)..). riesas.ETYM apuov is considered a variant of KUpUOV.. (com. Lith. seasoning' (Ph. . [m. -us [m.).). apupuAAO<.) .] 'wicker basket' (Hdn. rldutas 'nut'. 'soup ladle'. also of food 'to season' (ll. followed by .or zero in Greek. diminutive apuTaivlOV (Lebena [IP]).). see Schwyzer: 727f. � ?� VAR Aor.] 'ladle' (S. pap. decision' (H.). pap. names for utensils like A£KUVTj. [adj. apuw 1 [v.).). rule' < *h2rtu-.). -�poe. Lesb.] 'bag or purse which can be tied together' (Stesich. forms have *alor. apTUT�p name of an official (Thera). apuauvTj 'id.DIAL ap�uAioa· A�KU80v. It is a derivation in -tu.L<lnOV.] 'nut. buccareisis 'beech-nut' (first element bucus 'beech') are too different to be compared to the Greek forms: the BSI.COMP As a second member in £TV-�pUO"Le. AUKWV£e. and apTuflaTiie.). � IE *h2 (e) r-tu. ardu 'order'.g. apuT�fl£vOl (Alc. � LW� VAR Cf. etc. [m. coming together. Skt. DER 1. oiv�puO"Le. Aegina). diminutive apuanxoe.' (Timo). auapu· Ta IIovnKa Kupua 'nuts from the Pontic area' (H.] 'spice trader' (pap. rieksts 'nut'. for apuaoe.'order'� .] 'to draw water' (Hes. The variation K!zero points to substrate origin. rtu. Alb. (Delos) probably denotes the profession 'water drawer'. aPTUTlKOV [n.). 'oil flask (Lacon. Latv. prepare'.). Thphr. S.. apTuflaTWOTje.beside *r-. Hdt. arre [f.] 'fit for seasoning' (sch.. artus. This explanation (though defended by Chantraine) is folk-etymological and is not worth discussion. [m. D. ETYM The verb is denominative in origin. aUTOUe. apTuflanKOe.. Also apU�UaaaAOV' KOTUATj � <pAuaKwv 'small vessel. cf. see Stromberg 1940: 155f. 50).).ETYM Hesychius explains it as apU�aAAOl' Ta. apuane. and may well be old. One would conceive of a Pre-Greek form *qar-. fem. A variant is apllJVW apllJW (ll.. • -ei-. � PG?(s)� .' (Ar. ana TOU aPU£lV Kat �UAA£lV de..[m. cf.COMP Frequently prefixed.] 'spoon' (Ale. aPUTW. is scooped and put into them'. apTufla 'condiment' (Hp.] 'joint. 'because sth.. Most probably Pre-Greek (note the suffix -aAAOe. (AP) . apuaiie.] (com.] 'herb' (Sammelb.'to fit' as in � apapiaKW. It is not even certain that the meaning 'flask' is primary. apuUTp-ie. . flapaumna 'pouches'. • • .. nut-tree'. Lat. . flagon' (H.). KaT-apll)W (ll. 'ordering'.] 'fixed time. 4. DIAL With an enlargement -T. after aPUTW. apUT�p (Dsc. more common aPUTalVa 'id. thus also Fur. TUfllaOe. of which the first phoneme (a uvular) was rendered as k.. -iooe. [m. 2. [f. OCS orex'b 'nut'. • == • apuu [n.apllJW 144 aPTlJW [V. and OPr. gen. aPTUTlKOe.DER apUaT�p. e. �Wfl�pUO"Le. aptam. 5224. Arm. with late derivations apTuf. [m.] Ta'HpaKA£wTlKa Kupua 'Heraclean filberts' (H.).] 'to arrange. limb'. � �aAAuvTloV.. but the noun is found only in apllJe.. ard. .' (JlJVTa�le. Semon.). cf.

). cry'.' (Men. apXivTj (Syros). 'reign' (Pi. From 2: apXlKOe. thence 1. 2 [m.COMP aPX£KaKOe. which is also used as an official term (Paphos.] 'to wish to command' (sch. or be an enlargement of apxw after �aO"LA£UW.).).. 'begin. (Dig.).] 'to speak. � IE? *h2r-ske!o.'start..] 'commander'. origin' (ll.). both incorrectly written with -£l-.creates difficulties for iliis etymology. anupWaTa (Ar. deny'. [f. and apXTjTe. Frisk asks if it could be a joking formation for � apxoe. Astr. apX£lWTTje. 2. 'to begin' (ll.). apuT�O"LflOe.145 n£TaaOe. H.). apxovTie.' (A. �09..) 'aged' (pap.. etc. see Aura Jorro 1985-1993 . -OVTOe. � ?� . and connects it with Arm. DER apxoe. 'ptng.. apx6<.). The usual term is apxwv.] 'leader' (ll. old' (Pi. oETYM Unknown. apxlne. apxovnuw [v. . Dorianized apX£Tae. [m. short form apxie. � ?� . 'old-fashionedness.' (Olbia). (Thasos). D. (Cat. It could be from a u-present *urh. For other doubtful attempts see DELG. £upiaKw 'to find'.ETYM Unknown. apXa'Lafloe. Not related to � apv£Oflm 'to refuse. apX£uw [v.VAR Aor..] 'to be a. ( never found in poetry. On � apX� see s. � GR� .) . 2. (Tenos). only in glosses: aPU£l' aVTt <TOU> MY£l.. aPX�'LOV. ' • • . 1.). also apXflaTa (H:) with restored -X-. anapXai. aPXOVT£uw [v. [m.. o-ka. Op.).). and apUO"LflOe. of style (D. to BM 134. ETYM apX� is a verbal noun of � apxw. PIu. 'ptng. apUanKOe. 550). H. a-ke. anus' (Hp. PI. apxmw8de. to the a. == apXJ1 [f. [m. PNs: /arkhe-/ or /age-/? Uncertain too is Myc. apuouam· Myouam. .).ETYM Unknown. (?). etc.).) . apxw [v. D. Also apxa'LKOe. command' (epic since ll. • apx0<.. aPXLT£KTWV (Hdt. apxmOTTje.). which could derive from apxw directly. ap�m .). gerem 'to take prisoner'. H.] 'to be the first'.. etc.). Cos) could be denominative to apxoe.] 1. Cod. 'shouts. assuming a root *uer-.] 'to be old-fashioned'. Hes.] 'to be the first. rule'� .] 'ruler' (E. poet.v. 12.). Antiph. Frisk Branos 50 (1952): 1-8 takes it as *Fapuw (comparing [F] apuaaufl£voe. 'fit for scooping' (Ael. to power. aPlaT£UW. (Phld. DIAL Uncertain is the interpretation of Myc. (Amyklai) are names of priestesses . apuaaa8m· £TIlKaMaaa8m 'to summon' (H.) and aPX£lWTlKOe. as per Meillet BSL 26 (1925): 19f. Lyd. instead of speaks'. 'to rule' (ll.' (AP. Th. apX£tOV 'government building'.. diminutive (scornful) apXiOtov (Ar.). later also taken to 1.] 'first fruits' (� 446).] 'rectum. 'old-fashioned' (Ar. (xpovoe. late denominatives apXaT�w [ 'potable' (sch. VIP). apXl. apuw 2 [v. ancient.) . pap.).). K£A£uouam 'who are speaking. but there is no further support. but the Greek -a. apwaTa [n.DIAL It is Syracusan acc. Latte corrects it to anU£l �nU£l.DER From 1: apXalOe. Late derivations: aPXOVTlKOe. name of the highest official in Athens. 'original.] 'antiquity' (PI. urging'. 1 =>apxw.) after T£pTIlK£paUVOe.).-u-. 'who initiated the evil' (ll.). fem.

The variation a-I 0. aao. This seems possible only if we assume a root *h2rJt-.ETYM Derivatives from this old athematic root aorist are � iio'lv and � aa'l' PIE *seh2-lsh2. . s6tis 'satiety' (all < *s(e)h2-ti-).] 'condiment. OIr. see Chantraine 1933: 184ff. aO'£lV. > ClTo<.A'l in the sense of cppoVTI<.DER a-aTo<. the word derives from ao. For the suffix -wfla.). . care'. stir' and Liili. Laur. pres. thoughtless'. gasopjan 'to satiate' (denominative) ete. uO'aA�" [adj.'satiate'� .1. aromatic plant' (Hp. to EM..). 49 = A·fr.: 342.. Lat. which may be athem. fut. See Schmeja 1968: 133.. if we are dealing with one and the same word. a-se-so-si lasesonsil [ found as a verbal root in Hitt. saith 'fullness'. ete.] 'bathtub' (ll. 'careless. <!I ?� .). Beekes 1995: 148). afl£plflvo<.. The reconstruction was pleaded for more recently by Matzinger KZ 113 (2000): 287-28827. . EWflEV < *�-O-flEV. 'insatiable'. and further in isolated nominal derivations: Liili. Modern scholars derive it from 0'0. asam.aor. LIV2 s.(cf.]).] . ao.(�)W 'to satiate' see Peters 1993b: 89ff. ansammum 'earthenware water-vessel'. See Solmsen 1901: 93f. sotus 'satiated'. iliem. subj. (wiili regular transition to an s-stem). Se. .lO<.DIAL Myc. Improbable speculations by Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 6S7. . <!I ?� .Aa H. but this proposal does not seem compelling. or stand for contracted *(hat. cf. which is glossed by Hesychius as cppovTI<. thoughtlessness'. Tapax� 'agitation'.ETYM a root found in MHG ragen.pres. *reJt. to stuff. 'commander' (11.] acppovTl<.A'l (also ao. however. = UO'llfllv6o" [f. Go. take one's fill' (11. 'DAuv80<. Frisk and Chantraine only mention the connection with � OPXClf. aflEVat. assammu(m). a-sa-mi-to lasaminthosl.] 'to satiate.between these words has been taken to point to substrate origin by Fur.inf. It is uncertain. <!I PG(s)� . apwfla [n.ETYM A clear substrate word because of the suffIx in -v8-.v. since the morphological analysis of oPXafl0<. 101 cod. satis 'enough'. but also because of the Greek imperfect �pXE. regeti 'to watch'. is unclear. EM = Sophron (113). and Lith.DER aao. the other mss. sab-i 'to clog. Akk. Gaerte Ph W 1922: 888 and von Blumenthal IF 48 (1930): so pointed to Sum.A£la (cod. and aaaAElv (cod. «O'aL [v.) <!l IE *seh2.. have aa-rat. like in the TNs K6plV80<.Ao<.follows Tichy. and is identified with � ao. who reconstructed *(h2)rJt-ske/o.VAR Inf. attribute of flavla (EM lSl. On *Eo.. regen 'to rise. because a PIE root could not start in *r.DIAL Myc. 'iliought. aaaHa) = aflEplflvla KaL aAoYlaTla 'freedom from care. aCTat (Hes.0 <. The present apxw may have specialized its meaning from 'start to join' to 'undertake'. ark'ay 'king' from the same root.) would be a back-formation of aaaA�<.A£lv} acppovTla8�vat. (hat· 1tA'l pOUTal 'is filled' [H. 319).ETYM Klingenschmitt 1974: 274' suggested to derive apxw from a present *h2r-ske/o­ '(der Reihenfolge und dem Range nach) der erste sein'. .ETYM Ace. 'turbulent movement'. who also derives Arm..

'soot' (A. perhaps � aplaapov. AO'Y£AuTa<. � Aa�uplv80<. [f. as the ' final remark says. .: aC-/aiC.). 1tapa�ap�apl�wv 'fearful' (H. fl£Aav 'big.). . we only have aiC. has a Pre-Greek prothetic<. cf. aO'�£O'To<.VAR A1t6AAWV AtyAaTa<.). The variation in these epithets is typical of Pre-Greek words. apud Ath. also 'unslaked' (11.. (Macho). It never means 'asbestos' (afllavTo<. (apTo<.AAW. wanton. A priori. Cf. Lewy 189S: 47 thinks it is Semitic. (Dsc. aa£AY'lfla (Plb. see Fur. U\jI'lAOV. aO'�oAo<. unadapted form aaap (Aet. Denominative aaEAyalvw 'to be elated' (D. see also Pre-Greek). ETYM The explanation in Greek terms by Schwyzer: 27 (who assumes a development aa > at[a]) is rightly criticized by Chantraine s. This led to the interpretation of u\jloAoEv as U\jI'lAOV. note that the latter is unnecessarily corrected to *a1tOOEu<. This means that aa�oAo<.ETYM Fur.] epithet of A1t6AAWV on Anaphe.] 'unquenchable.).: 293.). must be abandoned. a Pre-Greek word is most probable. Fur. 'dirt' is less obvious). indifference' and aaaAyo. <!I GR� .. <!I PG� .: 393. by Frisk! For the interchange oil.). of olvo<.v.] 'soot' (Hippon. as can clearly be seen in the name � AaKA'lm6<.. unextinguishable'.. In the gloss aa�oAOEv· fl£ya. Thus. which must be correct in view of the rare cluster -a�.ETYM Unknown. it indicates either unslaked lime (TLTavo<.).'to dry' and �o. Furnee's (ibid.). the word is probably a loan via (Pre-)Anatolian and Pre-Greek. sporadically aaEAY£w (sch.DER aa�oAwo'l<. Asarum europaeum' (Crateuas). aa�oAalvCTat· fuseatur (gloss. which was hitherto unexplained. Finally.] 'elated. Latte reads the second as \jIOAOEV: for fl£ya. The resemblance of Akkadian azugallatu 'great physician' (Burkert 1992: 78) is remarkable. which is also called a1toAEu<. and Stromberg 1940: lS8.). afl£AElav 'insolence. it was semantically unlikely anyway.) or an unknown combustible mineral. 114e). this may be just a vulgar or 'barbarian' pronunciation.VAR Short. 3. with elements derived from *h2eh. Furnee further points to a1tooIT'l<.s. whence aaapIT'l<. [m. 'soot'. (Philet. [adj.. As a substantive. <!I ?� . In ilie present case. but its final v was read as u. beside Mye. also aa�oAaw (Aesop. unconstrained' (Lys. <!I PG?� . but the principle remains the same (Fur.147 aO'upov [n. a'iyA'l. On variation a1tI\jl in Pre-Greek words..Ayav· U�PlV.) 'bread baked in hot ashes'. A connection with � a'iyA'l cannot be proven.). dark' (H.and asC-/aisC-. 33S) further connection with aYAa(F)6<. • UO'£AY�<. 'sooty' (Dse. posits substrate origin. deserves consideration.VAR Unclear aao. Thera) . . 29S. [adj.: 234. e'iP'lKE 8£ OUTW<. denominative verb aa�oAOoflat in �a�oAwfl£vo<.and asC-.).and the variant a1tooo<.). high.· cpo�Ep6<. The analysis as a compound aa-�oAo<. and ayAaupo<.). pap. da-pu2-ri-to-.VAR Also aa�6A'l [f. (Anaphe.] 'hazelwort. <!I PG(v)� . see Diels KZ 47 (1916): 203ff.).).: 39321 asks whether the group is identical with \jI6Ao<.: lS4f. which seems most probable to me (but identification with \jI680<. . part of Schwyzer's evidence is itself Pre-Greek. .).] (Semon. m.DER aa£AY£la 'licentiousness' (Pl.). we may also posit fl£Aav.ETYM Verbal adjective of � a�£vvufll.

). [adj. The -a. but this is semantically difficult.. uncertain uaellCt0llaL (pap. Ion.'to breathe' (in � QVEIl0<.VAR Cf. denominative uaellalvw [v. It would be better to posit *(h)ad-s-a.< PIE *sh2-.would be due to epic influence acc. '(ella). ao'l [f. Unlikely is the suggestion by Solmsen 1909: 242ff.. Havers IF 28 (1911): 194ff.). QCJLAAa is a substrate word in view of the suffix -AAa.. cf.]. <! PG (s) � ETYM An improbable Semitic etymology is offered by Lewy 1895: 110. • • aoe�u [n.' (Hp. Gil Fernandez 1959: 238). <! ?� . feeling disgust' (Aeol.).. h'sidhah. <! PG? (v) � . uawoT]<. dissatisfaction' (Hp. an old collective from the s-stem in QOo<. Chantraine offers an unclear comment: "dans le cas de Qaella.] 'locust' without wings (Dsc. panting'. but the formation poses difficulties. Hebr. amAAu [f.. le a donne une certaine valeur d'harmonie imitative.] 'short-drawn breath. as a medical term 'asthma' (ll. ame. but all in all. but derivation from *h2enh.. QOellT]CJL<.. but it is unclear if the glosses belong here: UaCtAya could perhaps be a Pre-Greek formation meaning uaEAyEla. I am not sure whether the conclusion of a substrate origin is admissible. � uOlloAlT].ETYM Fur. to Schwyzer: 321.). 'limping upon' (H. uaCt0llaL [v.ETYM A loanword from Semitic. 'satiation' (ll. etc. rejecting a pre-form *sh2-tj-eh2-.from the zero grade root u. Sapph. is the failure of a geminate -aa. ualOa (-ov cod) epwOlov 'heron' (H. however.' (Simon.] 'yoke for carrying baskets.� . the explanation is not entirely convincing.). The simplification to -a.ETYM Considered to be an Egyptian loanword (Stromberg 1944: 16.-. • um6u [f. stated that the word is Boeotian for *UeEAy�<. 77) to appear in Aeolic.).is also found in [-aell0<.DIAL Aeol.: 391'4 takes it as Pre-Greek (adducing other cases of variation dental/zero). <! LW Sem. <D 321). then QaT] is from � aaaL. Arist. <! ?� ..] 'disgust. Qaa. loathing. 'id. -ella is known as a suffix (cf.] 'to pant.] 'stork' (LXX). also uaellmla<.. Ion. UOlUpOe. � ualOapo<. cf.] 'slime. -tOe.ETYM The interchange alE is frequent in Pre-Greek words. ETYM If the word originally meant 'surfeit'.] . <! ?� DER Medical term uaellanKo<.). who assumed an analogically preserved suffix -aa..).] 'to feel nausea' (Aeol. [f. • UOlPUKO<..(only in uaaapoTepa<. breathe with difficulty' (ll.). . but the formation of the second gloss and its semantic relation to our word are unexplained. mud' (ll. but no argument is given. even as the result of a zero grade *h2nh.). Most probably.).) seems impossible: it would have to yield UVE-.ETYM Unclear.. probably denominative. (gloss.. � CilllAAa. (-a-) 'causing discomfort. See � QOT]V. late uaellCt�W (AB). problematic. A substrate word is more probable. DER uaT]p6<.). bnaKCt�wv. the same could be supposed for the word itself. uaellaTwoT]<.). [m. <! GR?� . .." If he means that it is onomatopoeic. [adj.

(LXX). yaAEwTT]<.).· KaAapwTT]<. whence MoFr.'dark.] 'lizard. . cf. to yaAE6<.) and uaKoAaxa (read *uaKCtAapa?).ETYM Probably identical with � aKOA07ta�. arguing against the Lex Rix.] 'woodcock. is often found in animal names..). Nikolaev 2005: 50f. .: 80426 compares Qa' (J1)crTT]lla MaTo<. 'st'nyk 'messenger'. asgandu (Happ Glotta 40 (1962): 198ff. (H.. see Chantraine 1933: 266ff. as well as Bab. Buddhist Sogdian zy'nt.). ascalonia. (Arist.).po<.for these words. Ascalonia. but see the critical remarks in Kloekhorst 2008 s. aKaAapwTT]<. was preserved after *-1)-. KaAapwTT]<. after the homonym that belongs to QaT]? Ancient commentators derived the reading l\alw (instead of l\al<jl) in B 461 from this word (Eust. <! PG (v) � . ACtKWVE<..).. see Fur. Several variations are typical for substrate words: prothetic vowel.VAR Also uaKaAapwTT]<. The ending . 12).] of Kpolluov. <! PG (S. CtKxaAlpap). compare Skt. .: 283f.. astandel 'waner'. <! PG (v) � . Clearly a substrate word. <! LW Iran. further Argive KaAapucrTT]<. 31). UOKCtv6'le.). Supp. in animal names is well known. Fur. (H. MCtyvT]TE<. UOKUAW7tUe. 'messenger.] QYYEAO<. UOKCtAU�Oe.ETYM An Iranian word.). (H. perhaps for *UCJLwoT]<. Also a PN (ll. UOKCtAU<pOe.). KWAWTT]<. pleads for a reconstruction *h2nsi. cf.).VAR Ending with long a (DELG)? .'black'. (A. (Ar. perhaps an owl (Arist. instead of from l\ala.. On the suffix -WT-. Cf. (H.).'id. . [m. (Orac. Lat. ·DIAL CtKXCtVeap (codd. see Thompson 1895 s. Nic.KpCtppaTo<. �IlEpoop61l0<.v.DER uawoT]<.). Chantraine 1933: 403. apud Eus.. 'couch (Laconian) (H. .ETYM The comparison with Skt.ETYM The variations are due to substrate. banzana.v.] name of an unknown bird. Arm.. Schmid Glotta 40 (1962): 321). <! PG (v) � . bier' (Ar. Stromberg 1940: 125 and Andre 1956 s.v) � VAR Also KCtAacpo<. • UOKUAWVlOV [n.).149 . Scolopax rusticola' (Arist. see KWAOV. asita. rather than "vulgar" or "popular" origin (which solves nothing). gecko' (SGm 3123 [Corinth]. hari­ 'yellow' beside hari-ta. [m. [m. etc. 'onion from Askalon'.).. in Palestine (Diocl. courier' (PIu.] 'pallet. Less probable is a connection with � aKCtAo'/l 'mole' (Fur.· UaKCtAacpo<.') presupposes that the s in QCJL<.. A substrate word with typical variations.). • UOKCtVT'le. was borrowed from Greek. a-mobile. but variation a/zero is further unknown in Pre-Greek words . The etymology must be regarded as uncertain. [m.ETYM The suffix -cpo<.ETYM Clearly a substrate word. <! GR� . but there is no compelling evidence for *h2-: Cop compared Hitt.ETYM Cf. uaTCtv0T]<. [m. echalotte > MoHG Schalotte and MoE scallion..: 154) . . aKCtVeav· KpCtppmov 'id.' (H.. PE 5.� VAR Also uaYCtvoT]<.v.). cf. like � UaKCtAapo<. KaAapCt<. black' (for -ta-..

added to the sense 'dried up. a kind of shoe. . hard').: 348 compares � aaKapOl. Lg. aaK£Aq� [adj. [m.] = aaKTjme. soft'? (ll.DIAL Myc.).. wrong for aaKeA£We. also a-ke-ti-ra2.).? . Protr. The gloss aaKapo<popov· <pOpTTjyOV 'carrier of cargo' (H. . or with copulative a.).. Fur. 13).· ayav aKATjpWe. 'athlete' (Att. � PG?(V)� . analyses the shoe as a suffIx -apoe. shape by art' (ll.). X. Poll.LeUpav T�V alJT�v £lVaL TiP aaKap<f' 6vofla�ofl£v<f' vOfll�oumv.).DER Adverb aaKeA£e.). Also in Attic inscr. it is rather a substrate word. • aaKll6q� [adj. bag made of a skin'. [adj. where it seems to mean 'weak'. unscathed' (ll. in Stromberg 1944: the sense of 'not withered. cf. aaKTjfla [n. JtePL-aKeA�e. a-ke-ti-ri-ja lasketriai/. aiel.DER Diminutive aaKeplaKoe. -ewe.. • aaKapo� [m. 60: £VLOL o£ T�V .DER aaKTjme. aaKapi�. aaKEpa [f. [m. � ?� VAR Aor. either with privative a.). of textile or wool? .] 'winter shoe with fur lining' (Hippon. Corn. 'very hard' (H.!. aaK�aaL.] l. or from aaKTjme. . also 'weak.. (PI.ETYM The musical instrument was a square with strings. 4. larva of the gnat' (Hp.. [f. Masson 1962: 125) or a substrate word (it is also attested in Attic inscr. it could be a denominative of aaKOe. but not K 463. so it probably has nothing to do with the shoe.ETYM Generally taken to be from aaKapl�w 'to jump'. also 2. soft' (cf.] 'industrious' (PI. 'skin. 806a).). aaK�TpLa 'nun' (Cat.Hirwv � aavoaAlwv (H. -Tj. pack. a musical instrument. 'ascetism.] 'unhurt.ETYM Mostly derived from � aK£AAw 'to dry up'. 'workers'.] 'to process raw materials. aaKela (H. Astr. aaKTjTLKOe. Vq. � GR?� .] 'worm in the intestines. aaKapOl· y£voe.). UJtooTjf. or even directly from aaK£w). -iSo� [f.).). e. means 'bag. apud Gal. but is it from Lydian (see Kretschmer Glotta 27 (1939): 37.).). � aaK£pa and � aaKTjpa. .ETYM A loanword.) is unclear. train' (Hdt. implying an original meaning 'to prepare a skin' .] 'exercise' (Hp.DIAL Ion.] '(gymnastic) exercise' (Hp.. 13: 148.150 CUJKap[�w =>oxalpw. As DELG remarks. deverbal aaKTj [f.] 'skilled worker'. Frisk thinks this is semantically not strong. aaKEw [v.] 'obstinate'.)? Fur. German Springwurm is a calque from Greek. way of life' (Luc. aaKTjT�p (Poet. In view of the prothetic vowel. SEG 13. 'of an athlete' (Ar. embellish or refine it'. Agent nouns: aaKTjT�e.). Cod. but this remains uncertain. 'to exercise. � PG?(v)� VAR Also aKapl&:e. 'ascetic' (from aO"KTjT�e. Note the gloss aaKaAeWe.). cf.ETYM The oldest meaning may be 'to fashion material.] (Hippon.).).g.). hard' (note the contradiction).· £looe. 'hermit' (Ph. fern. � ?� . load'? Cf. o .). does it imply that aaKapOe. The latter meaning fits aaKeA£e. with the notion 'obstinately'. 'completely dried up. � ?� . .llVeWV 'kind of worm' (H.

l\aKaAmoe. AiaXAamoe. (sc. 'tree without fruits' (H.). opue. £l86e.g. aaKloLOv (Ar. uopw'!') [m.] 'animal skin..or -aKAaJt-1 -axAaJt/p-.can be understood. AaKATjmaaml (-uJt-) [m.). (H.' (Plb. (Epid. AaKATjmaonOe. .ETYM Presupposes a noun *aK�eOe.DIAL aKKop· aaKOe. • aaK6� [m. for alternation Klzero.ETYM Fur. see Kretschmer Glotta 30 (1943): 116).). [f.] name of worshippers of A. However. .] 'festival for A. later god of medicine (ll. the loss of -a. beside � JtVUTOe. furnishes a PN FaaKwvoae.: 335-339) followed by -yAaJt.. 233f.] (ll.v.).: 13159 compares Arm. assula­ 'well-being' and pai-/pi. as per Eustathius (see Leumann 1950: 263).DIAL AiaKAamoe. aaKpa [f..l\aKaAamOe.).in Homer. (Rhodos).. Go. 'ApTeflLe.] .DER Diminutives aaKlov (Hp.. (Lac. as it does not explain the velar..VAR aaKTje£ee..< asY as in Asklepios.).� . (Gort. Str. on ApTeflLmamal s. . AaKATjme10v [n.ETYM Szemerenyi's etymology (Szemerenyi JHS 94 (1947): 155) from rare in Greek. [m. See � KaaTava. AiyAamoe. -umoe. hide'.l\aKATjmaoTje. (Aristid.. aaKATjmae. . the comparison is impossible. not aaKee£ee. 'the shining one'.was probably palatalized and we must reconstruct *(a)-sYklap-.. (� 255).). especially before another consonant...] name of a plant (Dsc).). (on a bronze figure from Bologna with Corinthian letters. see Stromberg 1940: 99. we find al aL (a well-known variation. this must be rejected.] hero. KI Xl y). Stromberg 1940: 99.'to give' cannot be correct.] plant name (Dsc.] 'dropsy.l\aKAIlJtl6� [m.. = 151 -ee1e. cf. Boeot.l\axAamoe. TL TWV Kamavlwv 'kind of chestnut' (H.). See � aaKwALa. cf. Posidon. . which has been connected with a Germano-Celtic group: e. but there is no trace of F. Dam. AiaXAapLoe. Not related to <paaKwAOe.ETYM Unknown.). As the group -ay. skapis [n. name of a metre (Heph. kask 'chestnut'.' (Pl. see Fur. mostly 'bag made of it' ( . ] ? . � ?� .).. .). of the hole which served for the rowlock (Ar. � PG(v)� VAR Dor. . as per Fur. aaK1TTje. The name is typical for Pre-Greek words: apart from minor variations (PI Jt.).). However. as e does not match Gothic p.). � PG(v)� .). Patronymic . .). To my mind. Denominative verb aaKWaaTO· �Xe£aeTj 'was vexed' (H. aaKwfla 'leather padding'. Fur. .). .] 'damage'. (Boeot. � aooL�.] 'temple for A. [n. Crates Corn. [f.l\yAamoe..: 24l.aaKpa . (Thess. aaKllpa [f. GaL).). patient with this illness' (Epicur.. AaKATjmaKOe. AayeAUTue. � LW Medit. or a voiceless velar with -a-. The -a. . this goes back on a voiced velar without -a-. aA(a)1 Aa. � £�aJtlVTje. as here there are no variants with aia. and � mvuTOe.). as found in the epithets of Apollo AiyATjTTje.). AaKATjJtlna (-lo£La) [n.DER aaKATjmae. Troiz. cf.] 'damage'. The palatal character was sometimes expressed as a preceding or following L (see on � £�al<pvTje. 296 attempts to connect aiYA� and ayAaoe. AaKWVee.

from aO'Ko<.' with a suffrx -( o)lo-. and aYKw.DER CtO'KWALa�w [v.) .] 'well-pleased.VAR Only pres.) (AB 1. word. perhaps IAspasioiol. 'satisfaction' (Ph. from eating u. which suggests that it is a Mediterranean. Ar. CtO'TT<l�0!lUl [v. -<l PG(V)� . aonaouo0aL. but given the different meaning.). -<I ?� . aesculus 'id. .­ • CtO'KWAlU [n. 74).ETYM An isolated participle. .'kick with the foot'� . 'cheerful. On aonuKa�oflUL (Corn. Th. caress'. (Schwyzer: 466. 327. etc..] festival for Dionysus (sch. 'welcome' (Od.).is a prothetic vowel. 5). [f. Plo 1129).'.] (Call. but then the a. the connection with aOKo<. aOfl£v£w [v. 'hide. compares Basque azktif 'kind of oak' and Lat. (Thgn.] 'St..). Better seems the comparison by Schulze 1892: 1412 with oKwAopuTl�w 'to .) see Frisk 1934: 62ff. derived aOKwA.DER aO'fl£vl�w [v. glad' (ll. DER o"Kupaw [v. . which has been interpreted as a sigmatic aorist *Fa8-o­ fl£vo<. aYKwALa8£v· aAA£00UL. John's wort. which acc. See Andre 1956 s.VAR O'KUpOV (Nic. derives it from *av-ona�ofluL. 'pole'. aonaGTu<.). Chantraine 1933: 41). aOKupl�w to � oKulpw. Kp�T£<. to the sch.] (Ar. greet' (ll. to be content' (Plb. means 'to hop on greased wine-skins at the a. walk upon stilts' (Epich. jump up and down with the legs held together' (Arist. (Nic. cheerful' (ll.] 'to welcome kindly. However.. • • CtO'nu£pw [v. O'KwAOpaTl�W itself is clearly derived from � O'KWAO<.). Not compelling.] 'to receive with joy. aO'Kupov [n. Verbal adjective aonuoTo<. (Poll. -<l IE *h2sperH.DIAL Myc. cf. Hypericum perforatum' (Dsc. DER Verbal nouns aonaGflo<. Connection with � onaw in the sense of 'to draw to onself has been proposed.ETYM The prothetic vowel points to a substrate word (Fur.). -<I ?� VAR Aor. DELG derived the forms in aYKwA.). Schulze assumed that *aO'KwAo<.). it seems clear that the a. struggle.) 'greeting. -<I ?� . likewise. 'welcome. aOfl£vLofl0<. m. also onulpw (Arist.).pl. friendly' (Plb.ETYM No etymology. whence aO'KwALuofl0<. Ph. but note that the form has no aspiration. from the root of � Ctv8avw.).. [adj. aonuKw<. also Dsc. l21). • . aonaGTLKo<. after other adjectives in -OLO<. 0uuflaoLO<. == aALO'flu (Ps. 'friendly' (H. bag. � �80flUL.· <PLAO<ppOVW<. assuming an original meaning 'safe' (see DELG).: 373). must be secondary. Adesp.. cf.).] (Din. aonuoflu (E.).] 'to pant. An old adjective is aonaOLo<.).). Plo 1129). ascyron.). 'to jump (Cret. DER aonupl�w (Arist.).).152 aO"KUpOV .ETYM Hubschmid 1953b: 83f. derives from *av-oKwAO<. Wackernagel 1897: 6 proposed connection with � V£OflaL 'to return' as *1Js-s-menos. T<9 £T£P4l n081 (H.v.).).'.DER Note the place name 'AO"KpU in Boeotia. elsewhere it means 'to hop on one leg.from avu­ and � KWAOV 'member'. .would have to be the Pre-Greek prothetic vowel. PN a-pa-si-jo-jo. ETYM Chantraine 1933: 243f.>\la�wv· CtAAOfl£vo<. Kretschmer Glotta 12 (1923): 189f. • aO'!l£vo<. 9.] 'to go mad'. resist' (ll. .

g. Sphalax typhus' (Arist.). CtAL£U<. K6pu�.] (Babr. Rather. Cf.DER aonuAlu· TOU CtAu�W<. aO'nuAov ==>onoAa<. spiriu 'to kick with the foot'. [adj. [f.'say'� .). aonuAloaL· CtAL£UOaL. tear off (Pok. ==>aona�oflaL.(Kretschmer KZ 33 (1895): 566.'to beat. -<l IE *spert.'foot' and *per(H). e. f. DELG strangely doubts the connection of aonuAL£u<. m. n/<p) in combination with the suffrx -UK­ virtually ascertain substrate origin. and aonuAo<. -<l PG?� .ETYM The suffrx -u� in animal names is well known. immense' (ll. . 32 (1918): 9ff. ON hvalr 'whale' must be forgotten. etc. Lubotsky 2006 reconstructs the verb as *TsperH­ 'to kick with the heel' in view of the irregular correspondences in the anlaut. -<l PG(V)� .. Rather a susbtrate word.. . epyuolu 'trade of the fisherman' (H.] 'endless.'to split. Alessio Studi etruschi 15 (1941): 219.). the suffrx -00<. OKUAU� (Chantraine 1933: 378). 'skin. aonuAov· OKUTO<. often occurs in plant names.) (unrelated?).· TOU<. ==>ao<papuyo<. ao<paAu� [m. . (see aonaAu�).ETYM Cf.VAR aonaAou<. CtO'TTt:PX£C.VAR Also onaAu� [m. sperno 'to despise'.\! may be a variant. hide' (H. aonulpw is secondary (Frisk) has no basis.) and o<paAu� (Paus. It is rather a loanword (substrate?). CtO'mlO'lOC. . see Chantraine 1933: 427 · aO'TTt:TOC. but this is semantically unconvincing. see Thompson Class. CtO'mlAu6oc. see Dawkins JHS 56 (1936): 7.ETYM Solmsen 1909: 21 connected onUAUOO£TaL· onUpaOO£TaL. 74 (1940-1941): 737ff. . -<l PG?(S)� . it does not derive from avu.). sting' (H.) for *aonuAL£lu? Cf. [adv. o<puAaoo£Lv· T£flv£LV. A0uflo. see Andre 1956: 234. [m. The variations (prothetic vowel.). The words may be old compounds of *pd. CtO'mlAu::u c. palla 'genesta alba' (Alessio RILomb. Lat. 1950: 172-176..] 'mole. 985) is hardly credible. CtO'mlAu�. [m. etc. the form without a..). Rev. with copulative (intensive) U-.). TUpaOO£TaL 'to rip. See also Fournier RPh. iX0uu<. 'fish (Athamanian) (H. catch as in a net' (AB 183). oUYf]v£UOaL 'fish.).'hurry'� .v£<. The synonym oKaAo. among others... the old comparison with Lat. 153 .aon£To<. -<l IE *sekw. The etymology is unknown. CtO'TT<lpuyOC. Alessio compares Lat.ETYM Derived from on£pxw 'to (be in a) hurry'. K£VT£lV 'to cut.). or a recent metathesis. with Huber 1921: 21.).. kick' . -UKOC. squalus name of a big fish. ON sperna. The connection with a root *sp(h)el.] 'unceasingly' (ll. agitate' (H.'.] name of several types of thorn-bush (Thgn. � onaAu0pov 'poker' does not belong here. sphurati 'id.ETYM The conviction that a.] 'fisher' (Nic. Related forms are Lith.).] (Arist.will be secondary (perhaps after the pair aOKupl�w : OKU£pW?).

). Ag. more common UOJtL8L<'llT'lC.).] 'shield' (11. Hubschmid 1953b: 98 compares Basque tSapaf 'oak'.in Lat. aOTuKoc.ETYM From *n-skW-eto-. m:o IOLo.). (Aristom.v. who finds the root of CLuw. 404 [lyr. (D. 1. For the later history of the word.). asper. . E. Att. . anu. Tft JtpuflV<.l 'plates of shields. H. 'hollow of the ear' (Poll. 'Coluber haie' (Hdt. anu = aTlvu.). in Frisk) until Melchert 2007: 253-8. aonic. OJtLOEOC.). probably after oJtAIT'lC. see Chantraine 1933: 327 and 325f. � oJtI8Loc. and LfgrE s. and the Greek -r. .. � GR� .. UOJtLOf:LOV mg.. (11..vAR Also -OC. starting from an i-stem *h2esp-i-.'cut'?� . further details s.would remain unexplained. aoJtl6t\c.ETYM Perhaps identical with � UOJtIC.).] . which some read instead of Ola.-rule..DER Diminutive uoJtIOlov (Hermipp. Doubtful. 2. � LW Lat. Theocr. H.VAR OOTUKO<.] name of the Egyptian cobra. Denominative uoJtI�w 'to shield. 3. leather'. T�C.] kind of oak.] indefinite pronoun. 1. [f. -i6oC. 'the smooth lobster' (Philyll. [ Attic acc. *en-hekw-.). uncertain (inscr.). I: 3: 12ff. aonic. 1 . protect' (Lydia. UOJtLOloK'l and -loKOC. which is probably due to the preceding 0-. with meaning specialized to 'skin. etc. � GR� .). UOJtLOTqC. pap.] 'rough' (Ael. basp.ETYM A loan from Lat. =>OJtLAUC. inscr.ETYM No etymology. as opposed to � OUKOC. [f.. Rather not a loanword. Hitt. but this does not fit well. metrically conditioned in origin.]). Suid.VAR Att. Fr. after the shield formed by the snake's neck when it attacks. has given rise to the name aoJt£Toc. harsh' and also in Gr.).and OJtAqV: the plant would cure anthrax. 'consisting of shields' (Opp.154 . Rather not a loanword.ETYM No remotely convincing suggestions have been made (see older litt.. = Tlvu. aoou [n. aonpoc. literally 'unspeakable'. note the gloss UOJtLO£LU· TaC. also a part of the ship near the stern' (H. thence 'shield'. to Ath. see Stromberg 1940: 55.v.). also as a plant (Dsc. [f. aOJtlAOC. 2. m:oIOLo. uoJtIC. It is not related to OHG aspa 'asp'..)..). JtPOC. see Triimpy 1950: 20ff. 'Quercus Cerris' (Thphr. cf. secondary UOJtL<JTqp (S. JtTUXUC. 'warrior with shield' (11.). UOJtLOIOKlov (inscr. UOJtLOTlKOC. (LXX. [m. a round shield. Further UOJtLOIT'lC. [m. v£WC. a negative verbal adjective to Evvbtw < PGr.).] 1.).) and uoJtI<JTWP (A. asper 'rough. • aonplC. � ?� . UOJtLOOElC.. => Tlc. The omission of *kwe > n: in this word.). aoou. l05b.. aOnA'lVOV [n. see DELG.).] a plant (Dsc. ETYM Perhaps from privative u. (S. -i6oC. forms in -dov in Mayser 1906-1938. UOJtL8LOKUPlOV (Lyd.. � IE *h2esp. l. as this originally had -ps-.. TWV uoJtIOwv Kul flEpOC.ETYM A hapax in 8L' UOJtLoeoC. � PG(v)� .� .).).

ETYM Previously connected with OHG stanga. � O<JTEOV.] JtOAUJtOUC. asthi. � ?� . we are dealing with a substrate word. This cannot be substantiated. aOTuq>ic. Gp. aonlv6f)C. The u...). [adj. (Hp. substrate origin is unlikely for the latter word. (11. with variation u-I 0-.: 379 compares (1.] ? .).) and <JTu<ploIT'lC. raisins' (Hdt. £VlOL OKWA'lKU oupav £XOVTU 'worm with a tail' (2.. TO JtEpl T�V KleUpUV oePflu 'the skin around the thorax' (H. Unrelated is • . [f. Tegea [Va]). as if from *OTa<plO£ assumed to be either copulative ("stamped tight") or privative ("unmoved. aOTEAEq>OC. K£<puAIC.+).) . but this must be a mistake. with the wrong stop). the stem recalls � OTa<pUAq 'grapes'.DER <JTuq>l8LoC. lA. but these are not known in Greek (only � oTofl<p0C. or a verb *OTEfl<pw 'to press.). with variation piA and prothetic vowel. and � OTEflPw. with prothetic vowel and variation u/o-. . which is the meaning given by LSJ). The comparison with Skt.: 373 compares � <JT£p<pOC.).ETYM Fur. A typical substrate word. =>UOKUVO'lC.: 137. and the assimilation U<JTU. aOTaAf) [f. Undoubtedly a substrate word in view of the prothetic vowel. see Andre 1956 s. � O<JTpUKOV. � PG(v)� .) with a<JTAlY� and O<JTAly� 'anything curled'.).v. etc. • aOTaXUC. which is also used for the arms of the cuttle-fish. . asth(a)n-).).). This presupposes a noun *<JTEfl<poC. ETYM Unclear.'without bones' (Frisk) is irrelevant: it is formed with a suffix productive in that language.ETYM Unknown. pedicularia herba.VAR OTUXUC. -i6oC. Chantraine adduces UOTUAU�ElV.). obl. inscr. stamp'. this etymology dates from a time when every Greek word had to be given an lE origin.1 155 ..) (H. See � uOTpUyuAOC. and other parts or products of plants. so *h3esth1-tJ-k6-. see � UVUOTaAU�W.VAR UOTf:fl<pEWC. uyplu 'stavesacre. (Cratin. The formation is unparallelled in Greek... [m. [m. See Fur. Rather.. 0 EV Tft flUKT�Pl 'excrescence in the nostril' (1.] 'firm. or *<JTU<plO£UW. stiff (11.] 'to dry grapes.). However. (E. Also OTU<plO£UTaLOC. stengil.). The etymology of (2. an-astha-ka. Fur.ETYM Often analyzed as a k-derivation of the word for 'bone' (Gr.'. etc.ETYM The formation reminds of K£oPI<.] (Od. produce raisins' (Dsc. atthi-taco 'lobster' < *asthi-tvacas­ 'with bony skin' prove anything for Greek.). � ?� . <JTuq>lC. � PG(V)� VAR Also oOTuq>lC. (Orib. Delphinium Staphisagria' (Hp.). � ?� . as it has a decent Indo-European etymology. Skt. However. neither does MInd.. [adv.< highly improbable. 'bandage' (Gal. OTaq>lC. Denominative verb OTU<plOOW [v. unshaken". -vc. of olvoc.) is completely unknown.] 'dried grapes. . OOTEOV. . see � <JTUXUC.] 'ear of corn' (11. 'skin. aO'TEI1q>t\c.). (Hp. (Hp.

For the semantics of the formation. acr-r£pw8T]C. plant name (Ps. (Call. Denominative ampamw [v.). more importantly. (Suid. splendour' and akn 'eye'). [adj.). am£pi-rT]C. as well as Arm. (sch.). 'like a star' (Cleom. 50. 'id. From the zero grade in iicr-r pa (iicr-rpov): iimpLOv 'star-like ornament' (inscr.). Call.. mpona· cw-rpan�. Thompson 1895: 57.DER Denominative amT]ve1· a8uva-r£L 'is unable' (H. (sch. amT]pi8Lov 'star-like ornament' (pap.. A variant which occurs in poetry is cr-rpamw (S.). 'distressed.] epithet of Zeus (ll. 641) after apy�-ra K£pauvov (Horn. <'!I PG(v) � .)..).' (inscr. splendour' is not the same as 'star' and. • .) and ampamLKOC.). acr-rPLKOC. Note cr-rpo<paL acr-rpanai (H. Adjectives: am£PO£LC. whence secondary sg. ntr.). Phlp. acr-r£PLOV. epithet of Zeus (Tegea). aor.' (H. <'!I GR?� VAR Remarkable is the athematic plural in acr-r�v£C. one would expect *acr-rpacrcrw from the IE pre-form. cf. From acr-rpan�: acr-rpanaLOC. DER am£ponT]-r�C. <'!l IE *h2ster.). cw-rpan� (Hdt.VAR Plur. iicr-rpov. Heph.). 'starred.' -raAainwpOl.). the variants m£pon� and acr-rpanT] cannot be explained in this way (also note n/<p in cr-rpo<p�). 'glow.1012. lurn:pon� [f.and tile second member of � Mcr-rT]voC. 'belonging to the stars' (Philostr. which is also found as a plant name (Crateuas). However. DER Diminutives: acr-r£picrKOC. .).).-r�v ampan�v 'id. L-ropmioc.). *stem. ofAiSoc.).'eye'. TIa<pLOl 'lightning (Paphian)' and mopnav (cod.).ETYM The gloss of EM is clearly a guess. Arist. -OD [m. ampanT]86v (Aristobul.'star'� . meaning 'star-eye'.).).. A. (Arist. acr-r£PLKOC. acr-r£PLOC.] 'miserable' (Call. . Thphr. Arm. lIP). ampaLOC. • • ao-rT]VOC. See Beekes MSS 48 (1987) : 15-20. am£PLLLC.). am£pw-rOC. [m. if acr-rpamw is not a very recent formation. p'ayl-akn 'lightning' is compared (p'ayl 'glow.).] 'to thunder' (ll.. to EM 159. Stromberg 1943: 28. of the stars' (AP. R.VAR More common is crn:pon� (ll.-Apul. Ar. 'starred' (Nonn. see Stromberg 1940: 48.). (Orph. acr-rpa'\lm. (*stebh. 'starry' (ll.. Possibly from privative a. acr-rp{floc. as DELG points out.). Also. am£PLUtOC. Substantives: acr-r£piac. 8ucr-ruXe1C. acr-r£ponaLOC. 'belonging to the stars' (Theol. • ao-r�p) -tpoc.). unfortunate' (H. fern.. fish and bird name (Philyll.). areg-akn 'sun' (arew 'sun' and akn).).). --rLav).).). mostly iimpa. ace.). name of a mythical stone (Ptol. ETYM Mostly analyzed as a compound from acr-r�p 'star' and 6n.) and acr-rpamOC. acr-r£pOn�La K£pauvov (lG 14.] 'lightning' (ll.] 'star' (ll. acr-r£picrKLOV (Apollon. late ampa'\lLC. 11 napa -ro Il� cr-ramv 1lT]8' o'(KT]mv £X£LV. Appurtenance to the PIE roots in Pok.Cl(Jn:pon� � m£ll<puAa. The word must therefore belong to the substrate layer.. as Kuiper and Furnee already saw.).). whence the back-formation mpan� (EM). (Corn.1021) is difficult. 'star-like' (Arat.

in (Vita Aesop.ETYM The reconstruction of the word for 'star' is straightforward: hysterodynamic nom.ETYM Formation like Kpu�8a. of unknown etymology.. 'bull finch'. but -ba.: 143 mentions ampanT]v (-an�v trad. .] . Lat. *h2str-os. 157 Rare denominatives: acr-r£pi�w [v. see LSJ Supp. 3. 'kind of iris' (Gal. but these are probably loanwords too). Chantraine 1933: 305. ao-rAlY� =>omALy�.). 1:Jasterza IbstertS/. (llamL�) '(whip) made from 0.] 'straight. dice' (ll. On the internal derivation of the word. ampayaALLLC. provide with stars' (Placit. � acr-r£pon�. Variation ap/an is well-known in substrate words (Fur.DER acr-rpapaAi�£LV' 6IlaAi�£Lv. 64) .). . [m. Note Lat. anklebone. with privative 0. 'covering the ankles. Neumann Inc. so it may well be a Pre-Greek word. used with 80pKamv nai�£Lv (Hdt. ete. referring to Sturtevant Class. This analysis is rejected without good reason by Neumann (who points to other words in -pa/oc..] 'to change into stars. Hp. crooked'.-.).'to sit'). where the -m. 'squinting'.). astl. lliy8a (Schwyzer: 626) .).).]. OIr. 'twisted. direct' (H. see DELG Supp.VAR ampayaAT] [f. Ku�8a.). 1792.ampayaAOC. see most recently Pinault 2007: 271-279. acr-r£pow [v.] 'one of tile neck vertebrae. acc.DER ampayaAW-rOC. star-am [acc.. � cr-rp£pA6c.may point to (Pre-Greek) substrate origin.VAR On ampanT]v (Anon. Go. £USUV£LV 'to make even or level. unknown. ser < *h2ster-h2. [adj. is highly improbable in view of the initial laryngeal. *h2ster-m. astrama = rare in Hittite.] 'to arrange in constellations' (Hipparch. Fur. 1I 22. opyavov -rL WC.). talaris' (Aq. see Schwyzer: 503. stairno « *h2ster-no-. see RE 4. sch. Also a plant. Phi!.).] 'id. tarab [nom. <'!I GR� .. mpayaAoc. Denominative acr-rpayaAi�w [v. <'!I ?� VAR Accent unknown. stella < *ster-Ia or rather *stel-na . *h2ster. on the other hand. 'steadfast' (as per DELG) is improbable. Pl.). (Dionys. aOTpaYUAOC.' (Crates rigid' (Pi. knuckle-bones (used as dice). seen in Hitt. 6 (1911) : 208. 8. aOTOC. lmono8Lov (gloss. asatar 'seat' (from as. 1 (1974) : 103-8 connects Hitt. gen. acr-rpayaAW-r� a plant (Philum. steadfast.'to burn' seems quite unexplained). ling. acrTpu�6a [adv. as that for seeing through' (H.] 'comfortable saddle for an ass or a mule' (Lys.). see RE). 8iompov 'an instrument. 668) see below..). stf-bhib [instr. Skt. (G) 69. =>amu.).] ? mg. <'!I PG (v) � . <'!I PG (V) � .' .ETYM Connection with � ampap�C. . 15. Sumerian-Babylonian origin (IStar 'Venus').. .: 107) .s. . ete. Av. ToB scirye.for -b.] (the absence of the s. do not belong here. acr-rpayaALvoC. The connection with PIE *h2eh.' (Anacr. ampayaA£LOC..).pl. Arm. • aOTpa�'1 [f. aOTpa��c.) .] 'to play with 0.ETYM Commonly assumed to belong to � mpapoc.) -tc. ampaPLcr-r�p..

a(rr payaAlaT�e. • • aOTpanTJ =>aan:ponTJ. vastei [dat. -ewe. but this cannot be correct.).) (H.. like Lat. Delos). 'dice player' (corn.. abode' (younger vastu [n. polite' (Att. is extremely rare (the nom. => a<HpayaAOe.] · 6 '/Iapoe. aor. aOTpaAOe. Thess. Arc. VAR aaTplXOe. or *ATp£01ae.ETYM aaTu < FaaTu resembles Skt. .). which could also be derived from a<HOe.] . Together with a<HU. [m. Val.) after noAlTlle.). whence a<HpayaAl01e. (Vett. . (Call. assumed by Schwyzer (see Frisk). the reconstruction *aaTpyA6e.'town'� VAR Att. (ll.). son of Pelops.] (Eust. [adj. ETYM Generally considered to be a derivation in -A.. � IE *ueh2stu. 'dicing' (Arist. it is probably a substrate word (Beekes 1969: 51). aaTITlle. with the hypocoristic suffix -X.and -10-. this requires ablauting *ueh2stu-. = aanKOe.). a<H£loaUvll (Lib. [m.). Faaa-ru0x6 [gen. the latter form being generalized in a<HU (see Beekes IF 93 (1988): 24).).) or by -IWV (ATp£lwv occurs as a patronymic). etc..v. • • .(Chantraine 1933: 247) of the inherited word for 'bone' (see � 6aTtov).] 'town' (ll.. ToB ost 'house'. Stymphalos. a<HpayaAlanKOe. while 'ATptoe. vastu [n. occurs 11 times). live'. Boeot.also aaTplXOe. in Homer only in B lO6. wa-tu-o-ko /wastuokhos/. . is improbable.).] = a<HpayaAOe.: a man with the same or a related name. etc. *uh2steu..).] 'residence.J. Crete.= Achaea. Pl.ETYM West Glotta 77 (1999): 262-266 remarks that the form in -cue.for Greek and *h2stor-no­ for the European branches.] . aaTeLOe.(corn.). after aaTu. (iOTPU. Arist. Recently. . ATpt:Ue.] (Str. � LW?� ETYM Closely resembles words for 'tern' and 'starling'.) < *a<HFOe. This possible form explains the Hittite name Attar(i)ssija-. wlsati 'to dwell.. denominative a<Hd(oflat [v.] father of Agamemnon. Nic. The name was interpreted as aTpWTOe.. Gr. J. (Demetr. West supposes that the name may have had ATp£(h). sometimes a<HUKOe.'. . [gen. See Thompson 1895 s.. DIAL Myc.). see Schwyzer: 498 . Although we may mechanically reconstruct *h2str-lo. [f.). mentioned as a man from Abbijaya. Myc.DER aanKOe. However.). uno 8£lTaAWV 'starling (Thess. Therefore. (see below). Ion. D.).] and ToA wa?t. aaT£·taflOe. buisJi 'to live'. (there is a variant ATptae. • (iOTU [n. it is more likely that the word is non-lE. Messap. some scholars have therefore assumed metathesis of *h2us.). 'id.. thing'). This name may represent *AT£p01ae. A much simpler solution is to assume independent suffIxes -no. FaaTlOe. uioe. thence aaTlOe.] 'place. There is no good explanation for the -y-. 'of a town' (A. a<HOe.). Curious formation in a<Hupov '(small) town' (Call. whence aaT£loTlle. The same etymology is often assumed for � aaTaKOe. � O<Hp£lOV. H. Hypocoristic a<Hple.] (Antiph.] 'fellow citizen' (S. aaT£"tafla (Tz. and � oaTpaKov. sturnus. [m. OHG stara [f. Hitt. (inscr.).followed by -lae. also 'fine. The root shape implies that the word cannot belong to Skt. -we. . � a£aa 'to spend the night'..).. [m.. wa-tu /wastu/. 'undaunted'.] 'citizen' (ll. further a<He"t£UOflat (sch. FaaTFoe. Bloc. [m.

disappear'. [adj.· O£lVOe.] uncertain. 4. whence aaq>ahwOeuOflat [v.· navoupyoe.ETYM Unknown loanword. still. young shoots' (Cratin.. Denominative verb aacpahow 'to smear with a. fns 'empty'.: 337 further compares the gloss aiaUcplOe. filthy' (Hdt. etc. . � PG(v) � VAR Also aamlpayoe. litter'. treacherous' (H. � LW� VAR auucp� flWV (v. (H.and *aUpoe.)..' (Arist. etc.. . • aoq>upuyoC. with privative 0.ueh2. either restricted to Greek or in PIE (see litt. noted that sources occur everywhere in the Greek world. OHG wuosti 'barren'.) are compared. In view of the interchange at-I a-.). deceptive.aa<papayoe. � PG (s. (Suid.).).). The combination of the variations and the suffix -ay-/-a)')'­ (prenasalization) proves substrate origin. Dsc. � PG?� . sweep'. '/Ioq>oe. TpaXllAoe. this semantic point makes the etymology weak. (codd.] 'to cover with a. aupcp£TOe.l.). (H.] kind of Kaala 'cinnamon' (Peripl. which seems to fit well. 'gorge' and compares acpapa)')'£e.). anaT£WV 'awesome. -)')'oe. insulting' or 'foolish' (ll. which rather belong to the root *h.) sine expl. '/I£Uo�e...). 2 [m.] 'asparagus. but this does not convince. 12.). aOTUAa�t:l =>aVaaTaAU(W.] 'throat. [adj. Perhaps copulative a. 1. neck. . 'headstrong. with the same semantic shift as in aupfla. m. • . It is rather a substrate word.] 'asphalt. [f. and atuucpoe. (iOq>UATOC. Thphr. Latte).ETYM Fur. Psoralea bituminosa' (Dsc. viistus 'desolate'. UOUq>'1 [f.�poyxoe. For the vocalism.).] 'to smell like a.] .. Fur.: 227 connects cpapay�. 'windpipe. PIu. Plb. e. (Cyr.) ? � PG? (v) � . which would be an old verbal noun to � aupw 'to drag. named after the smell (see Stromberg 1940: 62).ETYM The scholion on Ven.). 1 [m. • uoUq>'1AOC. on Zakynthos and near Dyrrhachium.g. ' (Dsc. aacpaAThle.VAR Also -ov [n. 'like a. OIr.). aacpahl(w [v.. especially Neri KZ 118 (2005 [2006]): 20832). M. in Balles 2007: 17.DER aacpaAnOV 'treacle clover. aacpaATwOlle. substrate origin is more probable than the traditional etymology. A and Bechtel 1914 connect aocpoe. [not given separately by LSJl). 'refuse. Rubr. under the assumption that it denoted the material that protects walls from tumbling down (acpaAAw8at). throat. gullet' (X 328. Diels KZ 47 (1916): 207ff. ' (LXX). 2 159 *uh2s-.. (corn.ETYM Uncertain.. For the 'causative' meaning of the verbal adjective one compares aflt8u<HOe. -te.ETYM Generally taken as a negated verbal adjective of acpaAA£a8at.). (acpapayoe.. AatflOe.] 'lewd..v.). Lluucpoe. � GR?� . It is not probable either that the group of a<Hu is related to Lat. bitumen' (Hdt. -oe. noise' (H.v) � VAR acpapa)')'oe. He further compares flapayOl· oi anoKPllflvOl TOnOl 'overhanging places' (H. .'to lack.. uoq>apayoc. ' . see Andre 1956 s. Str.-. 13). = cpapuy� (Apion apud Phot. which seems improbable to me. UOUpTJC... asufi. 'bituminous' (Str. 51).. whence aacpahw01e. of �WAOe.).

).. onovouALoV 'Heracleum sphondylium'. . Possible at best. => awo<. 152). fut. oETYM Commonly derived from *aoxaAo<. proposed a Doric form *uv-oXE-ooPF-o<. 'rough (Cretan) (H. =>TuAavTov.. UOXlOV [n. Fur. UTUAUVTOC. who finds the same suffIx in OTU<pEA6<. Comparable formations are flEv-£YXIl<. � GR� oETYM Cf. [adj. Tpaxu.. . on the accent see Schwyzer: 420. 4. o<pooEA6<. The suffIx -ITIl<..). 'who cannot hold himself. Gr. 160 o DER ua<papayla 'rootstock of the asparagus' (Thphr. UOXUAUW [v.). 'who resists the lance'. � ?� oVAR uoXunw (Od. oDER uo<po8£A6<. � ?� oETYM Latte notes: "non coharens ideo que asperum".' (Thphr. 2. a kind of bread from Rhodes (Sopat. However.� oETYM See the note ad loco in the edition of Legrand.. [m. =>UOX£ALOV. Asphodelus ramosa' (Hes. . Redard 1949: 88. � LW Iran.] 'wild boar' in Magna Graecia (A. 191). aoxu [n. ono8£A6<. oETYM A substrate word. apTo<. aOXESwp0C. nUAUL (H. to which a suffIx -aAo. PUKEAO<. 'made of a. 0 aTa =>ou<. with privative u.] 'inspissated juice of the fruit of the bird cherry (Prunus Padus)" used by the Scythians (Hdt.). Prom. E. (H. � ?� oETYM Kretschmer KZ 36 (1900): 267f. aTu�uphTJC. .). cf. and corrects to UOX£OLOV.) and the mountain 'AnlpupLOv. but it is rather a substrate word. cf. Highly doubtful. which would originally be an epithet.) and uo<papaywvla 'wreath of asparagus' (PIu. Tpaxu.ll. Lycoperdon giganteum' (Thphr.. ATa�upla· � 'Pooo<. (U<pEAO<. � PG(v)� oVAR Also O<pOOEAO<. lA) is more usual. ' (Luc. to Hdn.: 288 further compares O<pOVOUA(E)LOV. uoxaAEi (A. aaWTOC.Ua<POOEAO<. which would show prenasalization.. etc. UO<p66EAOC. teem'. 'like a. 'grown with a. as is shown by the variants. ua<poO£ALvO<. (Ar. � ?� oETYM Unknown.] 'to be distressed.] sdl. Kp�TE<. [m.would have been added. DELG connects the corrected form with aXEo-ov and EXW (which may be what Latte meant). grieved' (ll.). acc. 23). is common for kinds of bread. poowvla.).' (Od.). *UOXESLOV . aOXEALoV .. oETYM The word has been compared with � o<papay£oflUL 'to burst with a noise.and the root of oXdv. �puwvla.] 'puffball.). uo<poOEAWOll<. . flEv-alXflll<. (v.] 'asphodel.).). Archil.. as is made probable by the variation n/<p. VAR uawTlu. A speculative attempt by Biraud 1993: 35-46.). Semitic etymology in Lewy 1895: 31. Kp�TE<. 764). 'rough (Cretan) (H. Fr. Latte's correction is too uncertain to be printed in the edition of Hesychius.

� ?� oDER uTaaSaA1UL (always plur.] (Od. emiAullvoC. in Hom. The proposal by Frisk Eranos 31 (1933): 21ff.] 'fearless' (Pi.'irresistable'. ?� oETYM A privative verbal adjective. � Tapp£w.).). oETYM Unexplained.. As DELG remarks. This is quite probable. The gloss from Hesychius uno TOU Tai<. [adj. 'foster father' (Gortyn).. UTaoSUnWV [pres. aor. 'unfatiguing'. which arose by reanalysis of uTaAa<ppov£wv..).: 219. See also Fur. not quite certain. mg. en"up�uKTOC.'to overcome').. This is impossible because the roots concerned are dissyllabic (*terh. tera 'to rub'.). oETYM Extensive discussion in DELG.. [adj.). baneful' (ll.: 379. See � TUpPO<. VAR uTapno<.). tend' (ll. (also Leumann 1950: 139ff. uT1TIlAa.. wicked' (ll.). to posit *UTEPF-�<. � U1hup and Ruijgh 1957: 43ff. = Skt. which presupposes an unattested *Tappc«Jaw or *Tap�u(w that would belong to TUPP0<. bring up (a child) (ll. with a verb that means 'to treat tenderly'.v.of T£pU) makes some sense. Nic. UTUPTtLTOC. [adj. Hdt. � ?� o DER uTapnlTUL' PAUTtTEl.) to � Tapfluoow 'to scare' (Lyc. Derivation from ana (Benveniste 1969(2): 85ff. (Euph. . is a desparate attempt. What remains is an adjective uTaA6<. B. from the expression UTaAU <ppov£wv. 0 UTapTTJpOC.161 UTaAOC. [adj. � PG?(v)� oDER Denominative verb UTUnW (pres.). but no doubt a substrate word (suffIx -uflvo<. oETYM Unknown. UTLTUATa<. UT£LP�C. Leumann Glotta 15 (1927): 153ff. Although it explains the compositional vowel u. comparing � uT£paflvo<. UTUAflaTa' nalyvLa 'toys' (H. � apa). *terh2. 'plum tree' (Nic.. of unknown origin.] 'tender..) derives UTaA6<. This is based on UTaAU<pPWV.. to posit *a-SapOTo<. sing. (with the *-u.'to pierce'.). emip [adv.). a-dhr?ta. see Fur.] = KOKKuflllA£a. stubborn.. SUnElV is clearly a folk etymology. ajJjJan 'but') and � ap (s.] 'indestructible.). Pi. grieves' (H. uTpamTo<.. Sturmer IF 47 (1929): 299 assumes a pre-form *aTapTO<. -la (Hes. to � T£pooflUL and an original meaning 'not dried up.ptc. aTUL<. UTuPfluKTO<. hard' (ll. � ?� oETYM Mostly connected with � TElpw 'to tire'. Aeol. but' (ll. connection with aTIl is impossible as the latter has long d-. at 'but' (also in Go. With internal reduplication (Schwyzer: 648) UTLTUnW 'to rear. and this again is the negation of TaAu<ppwv. and � T£lpW. � PG(s)� oETYM Unknown.V. [adj.] 'reckless. in which case the proposal by Bechtel 1914 S. Cf. delicate' (ll. [f.: 262 compares u(aAal' V£UL Kat cmaAal and concludes that it is a substrate word. to Supoo<.). fresh'.). the whole analYSis is too complicated. Cf. labors. Aund 'hinders. => uTpano<.] ? 'nevertheless.] 'mischievous. only) 'to skip in childish glee'.. uTuo6uAoC. trans..). 'to . Improbable is the proposal by Wackernagel l897: 14ff.) seems improbable too.). novd. � GR� oETYM A combination of *h2et = Lat. � PG?. who assumed *UTEpO­ �<. -Ill. Fur. Lat.).

. • .. hanara).DER UTEpaflvla (Hp. Lat. This is semantically a bit strained.. This is problematic.). ace.TEpaflwv. uncmp8Ev. � ?� .] 'to stare' (Hp. these words require a laryngeal (*snH-).).' < *seni.TepTjv. Again differently formed are ToA sne. ETYM Unknown.DER liTEp8E(v). The suggestion by Nikolaev 2007: 165 that liTEP continues *h2n-ter is unacceptable. but Frisk and Chantraine think that it may be secondarily derived from uTepaflvOe. � IE *sn-ter. tenus [n. � IE? *terh2. sanu-tar 'separate from. far away' (cf. =>ETEpOe. . dabhn6ti 'to damage' < *dhebh-. uTEpaflvwOTje. tarra_tta(n) 'to be able'. sine 'id.).] 'tense. fIxed. There is also an adjective '.] 'hard..).ETYM Analyzed as a privative formation to a noun *Tepafla.) by a false interpretation of cp 312. • unpoc. or even as u(F)aTeovTa. • = linp [prep. UTEWV [ptc. There was also a form *snH(e)u giving Greek . ToB snai 'without'.) and uTevlme. tirate 'to overcome'. stretch'� . (Thphr. if derived from a substantive *TevOe.TElvw. [n. The fact that the word is psilotic shows that it is a poetic (epic and Ionic) word. identical with OHG suntar 'separated.] 'cord' with copulative a.] 'to maltreat'.). which is impossible for liTEp. • • unv�c.). there is no evidence for *h2 in this root (*terh. as found in Hitt. merciless' (Od.]). stubborn. uTEvlafloe. far from' (ll. liTEp8a 'id. (Paul.).C1TEIl�W [v.).liVED (which he derives from *h2n-eu).'draw. from the root of '.Tdpw.. Aeol.] Lat.' (Pi. It has therefore been proposed to read Y 332 as CtleOVTa with synizesis. Av. � ?� VAR Only pres. different'. an-aTOe. *snHu. .. (Gortyn)..).DER (hEVl�W [v. uTEpaflvOTTje. Aeg. med. (Thphr. sain 'particular. to Leumann 1950: 33.. 'criticizing' (EM) . Skt. ETYM A psilotic form (perhaps Aeolic) from *ctlep. 'to be bereft of (ll. It seems more natural to connect *terh2. 633). and worse. which implies an original meaning 'without weakness'.'overcome'� VAR Athematic uTEpaflwv 'id.). [adj. &TT) [f. '. • UTEpallvoc.(and Ionic psilosis). but' < PIE *s1J-ter. Traditionally connected with Skt. (Gal.DER Ctlefl�LOe.-).] 'without. dazzlement' (ll. -EC. fIne' (Gortyn). 'mad' vel long. (ll.] 'damage. Olr. However. but remains unsolved to date (in spite of Meier-Briigger Glotta 66 (1988): 137-141). (ll.). also as adv. 'penalty. also 'to revile' (A.' (Ar. in view of the problems this creates for .). blindness.VAR UTeEl (Call.· flEfl'/'lflolpOe. from the root of '. attentive' (Hes.'to overcome'. [lyr.ETYM Connection with liTTj (Bechtel 1914) seems impossible because there the u. A. . � IE? *ten. � ?� COMP aV-aTae. but aspiration is not lost after nasal in Greek (Schwyzer: 333). [adj.liVED and remade in Skt. *snHi 'without'� .] unknown. and S. ETYM Perhaps 'with tension'. R.).fr. guilt.

[m. It cannot to be expected that this ancient Titan carries an Indo-European name.). Pre-Greek words often end in -ant-.). Orb is 17:1 (1949): 69ff.] 'not to heed. be fIned' (Gortyn.).. 383).TlW. 8. to despise' (ll. Com. wastul 'fault'. . Cf. = UTT)Il£A�C. Op. *uFaTTj is a verbal noun to *uFa-am (see . The u. � PG(v)� . • • u'nruAAw =>UTaAOe. (E.) and denominative uFaTiiTm (Gytheion). uTTjpla (Pl. .).. 'blinded. but has been reshaped after Tlflaw).VAR liTflEVOe. The assumption of initial *51]1.] 'servant. DELG Supp. the synonym OUK uAEyl�W. 131 (where Hermann reads liya). [m. thence ATAaVTlKOe.).is clearly a desperate guess. . antithetic to '.: 234 compares uFaTTj with unaTTj (interchange Fin). (Critias). the older form . See Beekes Glotta 73 (1995-1996): 121. Gytheion) . cf. uTaoflm (uFaTaoflm.Ct'q. bringing disaster' ( long except in Archil. 'to lose a suit. L. ETYM Formation in -(l)�w to the stem of . 73 (where it is possible to read liYTj... which is semantically very neat . � GR� VAR Aor. 'jhAac.. 1087 column 2. -evoe. Brandenstein Arch.] 'to dishonor' (Thgn. POxu. Ag. aTTj derives from *uFaTTj. s. 38.. ATAiiYEvewv Hes. which could mechanically derive from PIE *h2ueh2-. � PG� . X..uaw on the parallellism with Hitt.. 62). plausibly interpreted as Minoan Crete (Castleden 1998).) and ATAaVTElOe.) . plausibly suggested folk-etymological reshaping of Berb.. =>TTjfl£A£W .). Note uyaTiia8m ( uFa-} �Aamw8m 'to be damaged' (H.TlW after the pattern of Tlflaw : uTlflaw (which derives from aTlflOe. UTL�W [v. Call.DER j\TAavTle.] 'Atlas' (Od. fr. Cf. A.] (Archil.DER UTTj pOe. and that it was later reshaped to an nt-stem (cf. moreover...] (Hes. see below) 'to suffer or sustain damage' (S. adriir.ETYM Originally the name of an Arcadian mountain god.. u-rIl�V' -EVOC.but this does not prove that there is an etymological relation with liTTj . (H. see Solmsen 1909: 24.uaw). see Page Entretiens Hardt 10 (1964): 110).). Fur. also as an adjective = OODAlKOe.l� V. 538). The old interpretation is that the word is built from copulative a.v.and the root *telh2of TA�vm. Orph.). and in A.). UTLW [v. -aVTOC. .ETYM As appears from auaTa (Ale. 621. The name of the African mountain is also compared with Berber adriir 'mountain' (Steinhauser Glotta 25 (1936): 229ff. slave' (Call. uTla(a)m. among other things the name of a mythical island. [f. [m.UTl�W. E.ETYM Incidental formation. . name of the god who carries the pillars of heaven. � GR� . the name was transferred to the mountain chain in Western Africa.

).)? Compared with � ullflL. In lE words with this variation.. [m.). CtTpaKTUA(A)LC. EUR?� . etc. but this seems impossible here: the root has a full grade II TPW-. but it derives from tark.). which may also derive from CtTfllC. (EM). (lTpaKLe.? CtTfl£vla 'slavery' (Man. atman.VAR CtTfl� [f. CtTf10e.VAR aopaKToc. CtTapmTOC. though the formation is strange (cf.ETYM The connection with Lat.). Thphr. tropa 'id.DER CtTfl£VlC. is impossible in view of the -K-. also Ct8fl£vl8eC. • CtTpuq>a�Ue. • ihoe. =>uaToc. kind of thistle (Gal. the doubts in DELG). (s. -lOOC. Arist..). the a-grade of which is seen in TP01tEOVTO· E1tUTOUV 'were treading' (H.has formerly been compared. moreover. 4. -uoe. [f. 'spindle-thistle. CtTfll�W [v.seen in � Tpa1tEW 'to tread (grapes)'. CtTpamToc.DER CtTfllC. 10. ueTfla· <pA6� 'flame' (H. . (ll.). this may find support in uopaKToc.) after afla� LToc. (AB 460) . tarku. A. -<l PG(v)� .).VAR CtTap1tOC..). It is rather a substrate word.'soul'. other instances of A-lzero are found ibid. AP). Not to Skt. liTpaKToe.. OHG Mum 'breath' < *h.] .). to-ro-qe-jo-me-no /trokWeiomenos/.DER Diminutive CtTPUKTLOV (Epic.] 'to be changed into steam' (Arist. of which the interchange apt pa could also be an indication. torqueo. after oflwC. for *CtTfl£v£uw.. Pap.and the verbal root Tpa1t. the glosses CteTflov· TO 1tV£Ufla 'wind'.: 179 (also 95) adduces AaTfl£v£la· oouA£la (H... Skt. Also CtTflwollC.' (FraenkeI 1956a: 104) could point to a European substrate word (cf. Thphr.] 'steam' (Hdt. CtTpa1tIlTOC.).] 'to steam.] 'steam. ETYM Contracted from CteTflOC. CtTflEVLOC.t-m-. Arist. f. TpE1tW and Myc.(foot)path' (Hdt.] 'orach. [m.. (Arist. 1740. -<l ?� .)..). =>uTpaKToc. see Stromberg 1940: 105. [f. cf.). one of the variants is analogical. so we cannot understand the vocalization -ap-.). Atriplex rosea' (Hp. and CtTpaKlC. 40. PI.] 'id. to Th. POxy. . 139). denominative CtTfl£uW (Nie..). evaporate' ( Possible.. .. whence CtTflLOWollC. Laconian ace. ETYM Often taken as copulative a. vapor.' (Hes. if the variation K/KT is old and not due to simplification. � aflu�a). Theoc. Fur.) and CtTflL060flaL [v.would remain unexplained.. X.: 392. 14. (H. 'female servant' (EM).'to turn' and is unrelated.v. Beekes 2000). odor' (A.). also 'arrow' (S. 7. Ru.). fr. the Ct.. 'laborious' (Nic. ..] 'spindle' (Hdt. [f. (Od. CtTpaKlC. . gloss.). -<l PG?(v). see LSJ Supp. Carthamus lanatus' (Arist.). and further with � CtUTfl� ' but the vocalism is unexplained. 9. in Arch.ETYM The variation T/O points to a substrate word.. ctTpa1tOe.. (Arist. DELG points to the difference in meaning with ullflL (see Solmsen 1901: 271f. 2). It is rather a loan from the substrate. (ll. -<l PG(V)� .

' (E.).DIAL Thess..VAR un£LV [acc.Ctnayac. The analysis as a compound of privative a. this is less probable. -<l IE atta 'father'� ..DER CtTpEK£La 'what exactly happened. 54.. -<l GR� ..' (sch.. -<l PG?(S)� . as is shown by the variants ofT. Tetrao francolinus' (Ar. (Opp. atta-. atta inflected Hitt.. Leumann 1950: 304f.VAR Ctnay�v.] kind of partridge. == (lTpUyEToe.: 179. assuming the sense 'strongly murmuring'. cf. .VAR CtTpEflac. -ins.v. truth' (Hdt. Gr. the prenasalization and perhaps the interchange u/l. -a VAR Ct8pu<pa�uc. ete. atriplex is a loan from Greek (Frisk) rather than a parallel borrowing (as suggested by Andre 1956 s. • CtTP£f1a .v. • (lTpEKqe. [adj. 777. See Fur.)..). Ion.ETYM In antiquity connected with � Tpuyuw and interpreted as 'unfruitful'.] 'grandfather' (Thespiae). suffIxed OCS otbCb.). torqueo is impossible.DER Also 1tpaT01taV1taLC. He convincingly interprets the first element as 'second' (aT£poc. -<l IE? *trug. but this is formally not easy. and CtTP£KEWC. ihpuy£v· E�IlPuv81l and TpuYIlTOC. [adj. and may be inherited: Lat..] 'father' (ll. cf.'dry'� . ana�uyae.). See Thompson 1895 s.). PL). == . also Cinay�c. => TpEflw. in the sense 'undistorted'. -�VOC. ana 1 [m.. (aop-).voc. . ..] uncertain (ll.] 'to be sure. see Szemerenyi 1964: 271. 'francolin. 539. Leukart 1986 analyzed it as intensive Ct.and an s-stem *TpEKOC. 1. 315) . (Arist. which is the scientific form. Hdn. used to address one's foster father. etc. ana 2 == TLVCt . (also Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 211) reads aoP01tUfl1taLC.ETYM Clearly a substrate word. Denominative verb CtTP£KEW [v. atta. -<l ?� VAR Homer has only adverbial CtTP£KEC. Lat.ETYM Kretschmer Glotta 3 (1911): 269f.ETYM Unknown. 467 and Stromberg 1940: 160. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 658 objects that a boy cannot be aopoc.. Vine 1998: 62-64 proposes *1J-trug-eto. acc. fr. CtV�p) does not explain all the variants. epithet of the sea and the aether. finds no further support: connection with the root of Lat.and TpU�W. 2. == �llpa(Jla. without a-: Tay�v anay�v (Suid.] 'exact. gen. IP]).'.. to Eust.. 278 [Lacon.. See also � u1t1ta. etc. 'the ripe 1tUfl1taLC. CtTP£KOTIlC. .] uncertain (lG 5(1). =>Ctnayac.). because a reflex of the labiovelar would be lacking. => TlC. . also -elll (-lll).). -EOC. CtVopu<pa�uc.ETYM A nursery word which is found in several lE languages. Folk etymology (after aopoc. if he is in his 5th year (LSJ Supp. precise' (ll. -u [m. This is quite possible. CtTpu<pa�LC. see Luther 1935: 43ff.). [adj. Go. .'un-dry-able'. • VAR ana == anva. anayue. 49. 'id..).) of state education (at the age of l2). aTp01taV1taLe.

Kretschmer Glotta 11 (1921): 282f. also Thess. • anapayo<. (Hippon. � PG?� . Cretan device' (H. [m.] · nAavw!1al. TO EAUXl0TOV. sops' (H. Unexplained.. perhaps after the color (Stromberg 1943: 120). (Ath.� . Eust. N. � LW� . urr£A£�ocp8aAfl0C. On the variant without prothetic vowel. anapv!1a [n. cups for religious service. atanulus. L lK£Ao l 'to cause to wander (Sicilian)' (H. [IP] .] . Ernout 1946: 28 = Ernout BSL 30 (1930): 92 compares Lat. (LXX). anaAI�0!1at [v. . morsels' (H. KaAOu!1£vae. cf. atanuuium. He derives urrupufla from the place name 'Amapa (with Cretan assimilation).pl.YAR urr£A£�Oe. (LXX).ETYM Probably a loanword. antAa�o<. • an'lYo<. [m. 4. Bjorck 1950: 63 and 272.] 'male goat' (Magnesia Mae.). -OU . (Eub. � ?� .).) and TaYT]vITT]e.).. see Fur. a-r-nlK'l<. 42. Like Latte.· nAaKouVT£e. -£lVOe.). 00CPl0!1a KpT]TlKOV 'drink.DER Diminutive urravI8£e. see Redard 1949: 87f.. ETYM Unknown. Masson 1962: 119. Also urr£Aa�T] · uKpL8ae. (Dorio apud Ath. flat cake which is prepared on it' (H. T�yava. � urr£Aa�Oe.). Ph. 'locusts' (H. Stromberg 1944: 45. Stromberg 1944: 16 reckoned with Egyptian origin. � LW Anat. A.DER Diminutive urraYT]vuplOV (gramm. Kat nAaKOUe.. Ent TWV apTwv cpAuKmLvae.).ETYM On the formation see Chantraine 1933: 31 and 167. 6 (1937): 295. � GR� . ms. Call. morsel of bread' (Ath. ] . ot 8£ TUe.. specialty'. 'frying-pan. or from the substrate? See Gil Fernandez 1959: 238.. Helv.). . 'blisters on cakes or loafs of wheat­ bread. 'a cake'.] 'crumb. Because of the form in Hippon. linava [n. � LW� . which he considers to be Etruscan (but the Greek words are not cups). arraKOe. [m.).]? · nofla. ETYM Clearly a substrate word (note -�oe. £v8pumol 'flat cakes.). [m. supposed that the word was Anatolian. also Hubschmid 1963: 119. adtanus.ETYM Brown 1985: 35 thinks 00CPl0!1a should be understood in the sense 'invention. -OV [m. see O. class.: 172"8).).). UT(T)£A£�aLa Masson Mus..). 43 (1986): 486. but see Lacroix Ant.: 374. it is called onomatopoeic (after the cry) by Ael.166 urrUKT]e. Further urravITT]e. It could be a substrate word (note the suffIx -T]v.] 'kind of locust' (LXX). 6 En' aUTwv 0Kwa(ofl£voe.] an edible locust (Hdt.. PN Arr£A£�£l [oe. but from the orient. beside TT]yavITT]e.ETYM Acc.). possibly Pre-Greek.YAR Also urraKUe.] (Aristeas. he considers a mistake for *arraplKu. � PG(s)� .). mYT]vuplOV (Suid. Fish name urraYlVOe. ot 8£ nle.).ETYM Certainly a loanword. ad l 222). this remains hypothetical. to Lobeck 1843: 147 it is a denominative of uTaAOe. atena. '\ILxae. for which see Fur. Cf. Semitic etymology by Lewy 1895: 17'..

� IE *h2et­ 'stick. It is frequently found in adverbs and particles. dc.ETYM Concatenation of aiioe.] = auavT�.. again'� .).TOI<. the verb was restricted in its meaning to weaving.. XIX 86. gloss. ETYM To Lat. • avalvw YAR auaA£Oe.DER UW(T]AOe. connected � �TplOV.. see below. [adj. and unaspirated rr. � PG(Y)� . start the web' (Hermipp.c. arrT]yoe. displaying 8. uTux8£le. 6 calls the word attagus 'hircus' Phrygian. 'terrible' (A. later UTU(W . .. aii8l. battAn) 'to pierce. as *h2nt. autem.COMP On fl£Aavauy�e.'away from'. � GR� . AT8Le. .is 'to push. A8lKOe. to Eust. aiiTle. pierce'� . 'dry' (auaLvw. tujyate 'to be seized by panic' (the usual mg. In Greek. l\. � PIE *h2tug. 2). cf. Connection with umw 'to fasten' may be doubted.DER As a prefix in � auxurr£lv. UTU�at. also � £�a0Tle.g. � IE? *h2eug. and MoDu.DER a0fla 'warp' (AB).TTlKO<. R.) proposes to connect Hitt. e. aiiTlv (aMLKa). end. auti = Lat. i. etc. cf. on the other hand.ETYM arro flat derives from *aT. was used by certain Ionians. etc. e. Osc. see DELG.e. insteken 'to insert' (in knitting) . further to Skt. 'disease in the great guts'.y� . 18 K) [not in LSJ] . 8l-U(oflat must be analogal after verbs in . 8Laafla (Call. of Skt. amazed. . Arnobius 5.] 'light. ray of light'. geminated T8. atrophy' (Hp. Cf. 102).in au-fugio.). au. on the contrary' (ll. aut. aM£.lo flat. which are typical Pre-Greek variants.] 'to set the warp in the loom.'shine'� . au-.) from 8lU(Oflat = arro flat (Nicophon). � IE *h2eu 'away. . See � A8�vat. aiiT£ (auTup). lino!1at [v. and Lat. • => aiioe.'terrible' and Skt. (IG 42(1).. aVYll [f. prick' and reconstruct *h2et-ie/o. Cf. and a second element.] 'Attic'.ETYM The comparison wirh Hitt. 104).. batuki. • aii [adv. glow. The connection with Alb. auavT�). . The development of meaning is trivial.] 'again. cf.] 'to be frightened.. tuj..(in spite of Nikolaev's recent attempt.YAR Also AT8lKOe.). Van Beek (p. xop8a'\loe. compare MoE stitch beside stick (into)...ETYM Derived from the same source as the name of Athens. Nikolaev 2005). and in the pronoun � auTOe. ind 'to set the warp in the loom' (for which Klingenschmitt 1982: 1138 reconstructs *h2nt-ie-) is impossible. Lith.).for arroflal. ava'\lll [f.. terrified' (ll. 'Attic'. which may derive from * -h2et-ti-. aor. m38le. l\.). set in motion') convinces both formally and semantically..gave Greek *UVT.(wo Bechtel l914: 130f. (IG 42(1).ETYM Acc. '�T]paVTlK� V000e. ava 'down'. aT1)�O!1at [v. So probably an Anatolian loan. Fern...'be terrified'� YAR Aor. arrw8at· 8lU(w8at 0T�flova (H. especially the land 'Attica'.g. of the sun (ll. OCS u.

DER Thence aUeao£la 'conceit. south wind'.' is probably unrelated. vadinu 'to call. � ouo�waa. (AteOC.DER auo�£lC..3. � GR� .). < *h2idh-. as we would then expect aspiration of the stop in Sanskrit. Denominative verbs: 1. but DELG considers the glosses unreliable. which is not certain (see Van Beek 2009).e. speak. .). It means 'having a voice [to speak with]'.-Dsc. .' (Pl.'.LaL [v. See � Ctvoavw. auya(Y't£lpa 'lightening' (Orph. Note that this would presuppose the Saussure Effect (loss of tlIe initial laryngeal before o-grade of the root). Denominative aueaol(of.. ETYM Probably an old verbal noun.LaL (-a(w) 'to see assumed for the name 'Hal­ (F)OOOC.beside *h2u-ei-d is suspicious. see Redard 1949: 67.). meant as 't111Y£lOC. • auepuw =>tpuw. verbal nouns auyao'f. thing.] 'to be presumptuous. ete. aueaOtKOC. -ec.LaL (J. also aUeaola(Of.). in view of the limited distribution of the words meaning 'light'. Alb. . 70 and Stromberg 1940: 25).. There has also been discussion whether *h2ud. � IE *h2ued. Hitt. 'clear-sighted' (Nie. uttar 'word.).] name of a bitch (X. ag 'dawn' < *h2eug-.ETYM Mostly derived from a root *h2ued.). etc. story. plant name avayanlC. l. on this see Beekes Spraehe 18 (1972): 127f.). [adj. (Placit. vadati 'speak'.). presumption' (Att. A root-final laryngeal is not very probable either.'speak'� VAR *ouo�eaaa is a suggestion of Aristotle for auo�waa. = • aMq [f.Loc. au8MllC..).). shine upon' (ll. (Chantraine's opposition of a god(dess) with a human found in Skt. Outside Greek. A contracted Ionic form aUTwollC. denominative verb auMw. a root *(h2)ued(H). sound.DER auy�e[(. An o-grade *h2uod.'. ISg.ETYM From *auTo-FaollC. auylnc. aueaolaf.La (A. (Ar. also -la.) as an explanation of �WC. arrogant' (Hdt. and with lengthened grade for a(F)llo-wv.(Beekes) or auo. udita. Pron.) is probably a term of endearment. reason. The problem with this whole account is that an alternation *h2u-ed. name' points to *_dh_ on account of Winter's Law..and in OCS vaditi. auy£w [v. 72). language as opposed to the language of the gods is wrong. Connection with the root *h2eug­ 'to increase. teapoc. which may be 'human' or 'beautiful' as the context requires. 9 and H. aor.).] '(human) voice.with crasis.that is assumed for � aelow. auya(of. see Demiraj 1997.).(Peters 1980a: 65ff. speak to' (ll.] 'to illuminate' (LXX). See � allowv. presumptuous. while Lith.168 .). is given by A. (H. cf.) . cf. grow strong' seems plausible. lighten. � cDOlVlK� (Ps. FOoav (written y-} KAal£lv 'to weep' (H... Them. speech' (ll.). see Beekes. and that a long vowel in *h2u-ed. l28 n. LXX). Hell.La (LXX) and auyUO'f. 'with (human) voice' (ll. Auyw [f.) 'id. auo�aaL 'talk. 74. ptc. a compound of aUToc. D. Perhaps further to OCS jug'b 'South. aUYlTllC. poet. and the root of CtOelv < *swad. 2. Note ailyoc.) name of a precious stone (Plin. The zero grade is seen in �uo£w.gave uo.] 'conceited. and in F086v (written y086v} YOllTa 'sorcerer'.

aUAlaT�plov (Herm... UV(6£TOC. aUAlTllC. See � iaxw.. aDel arose from aUTOel by haplology (Meillet MSL 20 (1920): wM.).ETYM Acc.ETYM Probably. aDelv seem to be conflations of ailel and ailnc.DER Only late.).). accomplish'� . on -C. to Rikov Orpheus 4 (1994): 63-66. R. aUAa� =>o. perpetrator'.pl. and Rhegin.'see'� . [adj.] 'open court. aUAq [f. pap. aUAlaf. �£ eu£nn 1 1 a�p0f..).AO�. - - . The root is anit from forms where the laryngeal was lost before vowel.. . -lV.). KPllvlaoec. 'of the court' (Plb.ETYM Probably from *1J-uid-eto-. o-wi-de-ta-i as a dat.] 'to lie in the courtyard.).). aUAla· £l1auAlC. Mere. 'who passes the night outside' (ll. (Sm. acc. which is also seen in Arm. the full grade of the root of CtVUW 'to accomplish'.+ -ro-. aUAlov [n.).. acc. Diminutive aUAlolov (Thphr. meaning 'without a sound'.' (pap. fem. aUAlKoc. courtyard' (since ll. etc. also aUAda (Andania).ETYM The forms aUTo-£vTllC. The formation in 1 has also been supposed in ToB auliire. Vine 1998: 33-35 argues for the interpretation of Mye. Phld. (S. H. pass the night' (lA). Aeolic for *a-FIFaxol (Schwyzer: 224) which would belong to iax� < *FLFax�. (APl. [f.] 'right here.). acc. a. of vUf. ToA olar 'companion'.ypauAoc.). in au'(o£TOU' u<pavouc. are derivations of the root of � iauw. 'working together' (H.L<paL. wind. etc.La (sch.] 'night camp (in open air)' (ll. aUe£VTpla = Kupla (Lydia).] 'cottage. lowidetahil 'to the invisible deities (of the nether world?)' < *1J-uid-eto-. (Ael. is found more often.Loc.).] 'curtain' (Hyp. 'of the courtyard' (Od.] 'invisible'.1 aDnv (see Schwyzer: 629).). [adj.) and auv£vTllC. aopcnou (H.LaL [v. combined with aUToc. (LXX) is rare and late. � awa 'to spend the night'. -lOO<. auel [adv. A. Aq. H.).has potential value.).).' auvepyoc. to Frisk. aUeevnKoc.).] 'belonging to the aUA� or aUAlov' (A.). aUAlaf. immediately' (ll.g. cf. aw-t' 'place to spend the night' and aganim 'to spend the night'. less probable.LlKpa aUA� (AB 463). The application of �p0f. 'again' (Call. after EpKeloc.). late verbal nouns aUAlatC. if from *h2eu-l(e)h2. � IE *uid. ailelC.DER aUA£loc.. where * -eto. £l1auAoc.L0l aUlaxol � ?� .'win. and -v see Schwyzer: 619f.. . gen. also 'murderer' (Hdt. (Od.) point to earlier *EVTll<. � IE *h2eus-leh2� .). to fire. there. (auA�TllC.. aUAlaoec. R. . 'authentic. Denominative verb aUAI(of.VAR Another formation in ailAlC. cave' (h. aUAloc. e. � GR� . fold. � IE *senH. -OV [m.] 'author.).).). aUiaxOL in N 41-2 <pAoyl laOl aon£ec.. substantivized as aUAala [f. Ace.COMP o.ETYM aUA�. etc. correct. � � f. Thphr.L0C. aDAlC. . aUAaloc.au8€V't'l<. to Apion and Hesychius it contains privative a-. On the later history of the word see DELG .. aueevTla 'dictatorship' (LXX.. Att. camp (in the open).is copulative or intensive: 'shouting intensely'. later contaminated with ailelC. to Aristarchus.).) 'farm servant' (S.

vaxs. epithet of Dionysus (Attica).are noteworthy.. magnify. see Stromberg 1943: 127. Adjectives: aU�TJTlKOe. ai'JAl� (cod.] 'booster. furthering' (Hp.� *h2ues-. (lA).).are found.).. aUAwvl(w (H. aUAwv [m. promotor' (Orph.). (already Peters 1980a: 39f. pipe. f..'.'grow'� VAR u£�W (ll. alvus 'belly. aulis 'shin'. aUAl8Lov (Alex.).). On the mg. (dial. (e. OPr.. Ar.). etc. It is unfortunate that au�w and au�avw are not treated separately in LSJ. XOAl� 'guts.. Clackson sees no reason to assume a separate root *h2eu­ just for Armenian. Cicuta virosa' (Ps. A. also 'cow-bane. Av.). late ae��om (Nonnos). either from au�w or aU�TJ. all Greek forms may derive from *h2eus-I-. see Chantraine 1933:164. Go.). S. (lA).. wahsjan).. L.. [adj. Au�w name of a goddess of growth (Paus.). : Lith.). au�avw (Ion.] 'to blow (a flute) (Alcm. TN aUATJT�plOV (H. aUAlcu5ee. Arist.-Plu. aor. aUA1�)' <pAE\jI 'blood-vessel' (H. *h2ueg-s.] 'defile. [m.). also aUA�Tpla (D.] 'concerning the flute or flutist' (Pl. AUAwveue.).' (Hp.).[c.] 'hollow tube. aU�TJ (Pl. Lith. aUATJT�e. Denominative verb aUAEw [v.. MoNw. from aUATJT�e.' (with metathesis).). aulas. (Thompson 1947: 20)? ETYM Several cognates with a suffIx -1.Hpm. see Trumpy 1950: 44.). au�uvw (Aesop. aUATJTlKOe. au�w [v.l. KauA6e. etc.. growth'. aUAOe.' (Hdt. v. aUATJlla 'piece of music for the flute' (Pl. aUAL<. . Arist.). Lat. to � auA�).). perhaps = av81ae. of aUAwme. 'flute-playing' (Pl. Arist.-Att. <l' IE *h2eug-. Hitt. The words adduced all denote hollow or tube-like objects. auli. Hp..).] 'leg of a boot'. Arist.) and aUATJTTJpla· aUAwv 8�KTJ 'place for storing flutes' (H. ( found in Gm... aUATJTple. [m. aUAwvlcu5ee. [m. -looe. 'increasing. grow' (ll.DER Action nouns aU�TJ<Jle. on -wv. Poll. The correspondences auA6e. fern.. aUATJpa =>euATJpa. e.. diminutive aUAwvloKoe. aU�le.).).ETYM Derived from the PIE root *h2uegs-.) aul 'hollow stalk of Angelica'. or from aUA£w. flute' (ll. : Lith.). Phlb.).is probably presentic in origin. aU�TJola (Hdt. cf.'tube'� . 'provided with pipes' (A. =>�auvoe. Corn. Nic. a kind of tunny(?).).).] 'to increase. aU�TJlla (Hp. 42d) 'increase.DER Diminutive aUAlo"Ko<. aulas [m. vak$ayati 'to make grow'. au��om. 'flutist' (lA) and aUATJT�p (Ion. uncertain aU�TJPOe. . (Opp.170 aUATJpa As remarked by Clackson 1994: 104ff. aUAWTOe. (Nic. =>auA�. where the -s.. cavity. Hist. Agent noun aU�TJT�e..] 'young of the tunny' (Phryn.). • auvo<.) 'flute-player'. Trall. E. .). *h2ueg.] 'tube-shaped organ in the neck' < *h2ouli-. 'id. whence diminutive aUATJTpl8Lov (Theopomp.).)..).'id. epithet of the helmet (ll. <l' IE *h2eu-l.g.). bowels'. of vUf. ai'J�le.). Also aUAwnlae. strengthen. and assumes old Schwebeablaut *h2eus. Skt. See � EvauAoe. aU�llloe. Arist.). see Guntert 1914: 154. • . in Pl..g. kaulas < *keh2u-16. aUATJ<Jle. [f. (H. cf. avAO<.] (Thphr. glen.

). poet.are old. a<p-. ptc. .are Skt. bright' < *suzd.ETYM ui'Joe.'dry'. See � uUXlloe. cf.] 'big.)'. auov� (Archil. UUOTTJpOe.). Lubotsky further analyzes ui'Joe. as a perfect ptc. Zero grade *ug-s. strong'. Doubtful criticism on Lubotsky by Berg and Lindeman Glotta 70 (1992): 181-196. verbs like Skt. Denominative verb UUU1VW [v. also auoov· �TJPOV 'dry' (H. med. [adj.. huska-..v.. *ui'JOToe. OE sear all 'dry'. is from *h2eh. than 'dry'.[n. augti 'to grow'.beside aA£�w < *h2Iek-s-. they end with assuming IE * simplified to *h2s-. ai'ioe.. Thence ui'J<Jle. however (Schwyzer: 723). also UUU1VW (compounded with an-. 'dry' (Hes. augustus 'venerable'.'dry'� . With -S-. 6jas. From *sus-. the synonym KuuOTelpu. aUOTTJpOe. Lith. etc. The conclusion to be drawn from all these forms is that *h2eug.] 'drying'. cf. It may be denominative.' (Hp. which finds support in a<puuel (Ar.] 'to dry'.: UUOTaA£Oe.. uxsiieitl 'grows'.). Forms pointing to *sus. thence UUUV<Jle. aukan. area.] 'drought' (Arist. OP uska. aUTJpoe. sU$yati...) like a(aA£Oe. but cf. ugra. (EM). yauooe. poet. sausas. cf. ui'ioe. fresh air' (e 469. Skt.and *h2ueg-s. of *h2es. glow').. 'drying. see below.'to be dry' (not 'to burn. etc. 619). pres. augea 'to increase (tr. the zero grade in Skt. sU$ka. perhaps also Lat.)" Go. unnecessarily corrected in a<pave1 by Solmsen 1901: 277. Two adjectives with related found in Skt.= Av. �oov� (Chantr\line 1933: 207).). is found in Lat. A. KUT-.).).like in puooe. [lyr.DIAL Att. Lubotsky KZ 98 (1985): 1-10 argues that the Greek form goes back on *h2sus-.(but see De Vaan 2008 s. sO$a­ [m. Herod.'to grow (intr. but see below. (AP).DER Abstract auoTTJe. but this does not affect the analysis.. Skt. UUUA£Oe.v.. Ka8-auulvw). assimilated from *so$a-. and a prothetic vowel of non-laryngeal origin. <l' IE *h2s-us. UUUVT� name of a disease 'dehydration' (Hp. augur 'prophet'. is secondary. aupa [f. dehydration' (Arist.) with a suffIx -s.) presuppose a verbal adj. and perhaps in npoouuon (S. 394). and UUOTTJpOe. uk$ama1:la-. which has five syllables. This root shape is found in aUOTuA£Oe. where the full grade slot changed in the latter because of the root structure. based on the reconstruction of a proto-hexameter.. OCS SUX'b.with PIE *a can be avoided.s-. see Demiraj 1997 s. uuuolloe. Uncertain is the appurtenance of Alb.aupa A root *h2eug-.). 'harsh' (Hp.[adj. Ci(w < *h2ed-ie/o-.. In this way.). auaAEOe. *h2eugs. KaAAov�. sudus 'dry. On auoTaAEoc. (Chantraine 1933: 454). The reconstruction of the root has altered slightly: Lat. Ant. is cognate with Lith.. and Av.] 'strength'. Eq. Balto-Slavic and Germanic are derived from *h2sous. the awkward reconstruction *saus. sust 'to become dry' are derived. An s-stem is found in Lat.] usually 'breeze.).] 'dry' (ll. as seen in Ci(w and in Lat. and Gr. auo<. etc. The same phenomenon is found in aAK� < *h2elk. 'dried up' (Od. enlarged in Lat.] . . Latv. without -S-. A primary verb seems to be implied by the gloss uuw· �TJPU1VW 'dry up' (Hdn.. etc. . as a zero grade *h2h. uk$ant-. pres..s. 'id.).is found in ToB auks. [f.with secondary o-grade.

� IE *h2seut. � GR� ETYM For the ending cf. � aupoL avplov [adv. => auw found in Go. 'P'laL TO ovofla (Jr. -<! ?� . the old locative of an r-stem also found in Lith. Skt. and. aupoaxue. reconstructing *h2seut-.ETYM Perhaps related to aDpL' Tax£we. ausra 'dawn'. Greek ui.ETYM aupL�aTae.] ('¥ 765. R.] probably 'immediately' (only S 449). aVOlOe. 43 (1967): 619. => aDoe. auaTaAEOe. [m. fr. nor to � uTfloe. with the suffix -T'le. aU'rlKa [adv. Tax£we. E�auT�e.. Cf.) . MOD (WackernageI 1916: 414). Cf. . aupLov) EJtL TOD Tax£we. in � uqp (see on � £we. from *h2sut-.) from E� aUT�e..· AiaxuAoe. the o-grade *h2sout. 'id. Fritz also gives a discussion of the semantics.COMP vquTfloe. . aUTEW . • aUT6cSlOv [adv.). and especially aUTOe.).. • aupol [?] .VAR aUaT'l poe. 'steam.).). Etymology unknown. T�e. TO aupL (ms. usra.iTq. ete. aupl [adj. OKa..' (Thgn. See Monteil 1963: 296.'dawn'� . 207 M) Taxu�tlflwv (H. within Greek. scent' (11. to Keil Herm.... -<! IE *h2eus-r.ETYM Kiparsky Lang. 'quickly' (AB 464). • aihf.VAR ui. showing that aupa still dearly means 'morning mist' in e 469. -«60e. aDTLv. which itself would derive from the expression liYXL T�e. in the gloss aUpL�aTae. Perhaps the compound contained aDpL 'early in the morning' (see � aupLov) and was later misunderstood. ETYM Fritz KZ 106 (1993): 288-299 solved the problem by connecting OHG siodan 'sieden'. Not to li£Tfla· 'PA6� or u£TflOV' TO JtVeDfla (H.). derives from aDpL �alv£LV (��VUL).'seethe'� . Acc. we should read aupol (= a�pol). TLS'laL.My<v>oL Doubtful.] 'tomorrow' (11. 'walking quickly' (A. aupLOv. AayoL ['(aaupOL] 'hares' (H.DER aupl�£Lv' l:nyoDv KaL TO eie. (vu�) 'near the morning' (A.). 23 (1888): 317 and Latte Glotta 32 (1953): 41f. '¥UXOaTaal<. �vlKa. =>auTOe. 626 connects � uqp < *h2eus-er. T'lvlKa.] 'breath. vapor'. -£voe. perhaps for earlier *uyxaupLoe. aupLOV imepT[SeaSUL 'be cold or shiver. for the first element see aD.ltl [f. defer until tomorrow' (H. m). 280).[f. -<! ?� .] 'morning'. JtoKa. � IE *dieu. The same stem is also found in liyx-aupoe.aupL . .) and � � pL.). (H.] . aUTup =>uTap.COMP aupL-�aTae.'light of day'� . Kal 6 aUTOe. Y 289). =>upaaxaoee. ETYM Derived from *aDpL. saujJs 'sacrifice'. aD..t oihwe.. < *1:J-h2sut-mo-.iT.] 'immediately' (11.DER Also ctiiTflqv.

(see Kuiper 1956: 215). U-. TU1JTl�W [v.' (Th.ETYM For older *auTOKpaT'le. corresponds with Lat.. � aUToflaTOe. 'idle. Schulze KZ 29 (1888): 258 supposed *auTo-oLFov.(e.). see Redard 1949: 96.. back-formation auX'l 'boasting. T�e. On Go. 'at once'.)..173 . fl£flaflev..).). with -XaTT£LV standing for xa�£Lv (Buck 1955: 71).DER aUTlT'le. [m. � IE *mn-to. as per Latte). See � aD. auxq£Le. like it was. and the zero grade of the root of � fl£flova. � IE *h2eu 'again' + *to. also 'all alone' (Arist. -ov [adj. ete. pride' (Pi. See � Kaalyv'lTOe. aUaLOe. Aq.v..· flwpoA6yoe. comparing aUT-�flap 'on the same day'. aujJeis. f. Cf. aUX'laLe. wrong Giintert 1914: 153f.. plur.: 237. 'priest'. in vain' (Ibykos) reminds of aUToflaTOe. . MOD EASovTa.ETYM Fur. Lith. aufero). . Lith. AP). and DELG s.). (Opp. 'boaster' (sch. see Mezger KZ 82 (1968): 288ff.). [ almost certainly of substrate origin...] 'spontaneous. The second member -flaTOe. 'id.ETYM In antiquity. Prod. = Lat. also subst. � PG (v)� .) 'local wine(?)'.] 'id.ETYM Risch 1937: 312 derives it from *aD TOV.).COMP Very many compounds. olvoe. (-'l). S. aihwe. etc. . derived from the root *dieu.). Th.). in the oblique cases also as an anaphorical pronoun of the 3rd person.DIAL Doric . � ?� . aUXUTT£lV [v. independent'. Denominative verbs: TauTooflUL 'to become identified' (Dam.).: 316 compares KauaA6e. � Zeue. au.). � GR� .). au-. Fur. ete. [adj... Sommer 1948: 83ff. � fl£voe. [adv.] 'identity' (S. of one's own accord' (11. aUTOe.). Eust. extempore' (Arist. MoHG ode. aUTOKpUTWP. Kau'le..' (Arist.DER aUX'lfla 'boasting' (Pi.g.' (for the accent see Schwyzer: 384).. the word is cognate with Ko�aAOe.laTOe. aUT0f. 'buffoons. mate.).. dies. 'idle boasting' (11.). TauTOT'le.).. as a prefix.(Lat. with interchange �o/ �/ F.'that'� . whence aUX'lflaTlae.] 'improvised.). agrees with the second element of Lat. after the agent nouns in -TWp. � GR� . automatic. hapax).] . improvisers' (Eup. E.) and aUX'l flaTLKOe. See further � aUToSL. 'the same'. etc. cf.] 'one's own master. aUXEW [v.] 'to boast' (Hdt. auxav· KauX'laLV 'boasting' (H. mifitas 'thought'. . 153ff. Eust.ETYM Formed of aUTOe. merely. -opoe. imperator (Th. aujJs. sa-diva1.] 'self (11. Schwyzer: 502f... It is supposed that au-. (Eust. To my mind. Slav..COMP Keve-auxqe. commentus and with Skt. The group -�O.] 'to use as a synonym' (Prod../-. uvaxwpelv KaL TO Eflfl£V£LV EyxaTTeLv 'to go back' (H. (not to Lyd.'thought'� . � aUTlKa. Quite possible.] 'just like. 6 aUTOe. interpreted as E� aUT�e. [f. and Skt. [f.ETYM The forms are Cretan. aUToKa�6aAOe. Chantraine 1933: 303f. � aUTo8Lov. (se. aUTOT'le.).

). The Greek words are then derived from the lE u-stem adjective reflected in Skt. squalor' (Hp.. 'id. 8apaElv).] 'boaster' (Poll.. 'dirt' (Gal. Chantraine 1933: 232f. dirty' (Hp. as formal (*hzut. cf.). [m.). also aUXflaw.).. OCS QZ'bh... which is a controversial development (see Clackson 1994: l07ff. 6). I think we must compare the type oa<pvTj / oauxva-. Hom. etc.. Ox. 'of the neck' (Od. aUXTj1:�C. 'boasting' (sch. Denominative verb aUXEv l�w [v.: 229-233 explains as showing variation labiallr In my opinion. (h. 'id. 88) is probably an enlargement of aUXfl0c.] 'provided with bull's necks' (gloss.] (Lye. ufl<pEva (Theoc. whence rare abstracts aUXflTjpoTTjC.kamurj (Beekes Glotta 78 (2004)). One further connects Arm. dirty' (Od. but cf.with anticipation of the labial element (see Pre-Greek). Phryn. to 8apaoc. proud' (Xenoph.). Comp.] 'to cut the throat' (S. yE<pupa/ �E<pupa). awji-k' [pl. H. Hippiatr. aUXflwoTjC.] (Q. yE<pupa .). 'dry.). ETYM Unrelated to � EUxo flat. aUXflwmc. Adontz 1937: 10 derived the word from � aux� v.' (H. after a�aAtoc.] 'drought.v. Eust... 16. -tvoc. connecting � Kauxao flat with interchange K-!zero. Solmsen 1909: 1182• Further ufl<PTjv· aux�v.). S. which derive from the root *hzem/-. aUXEvlac. which either gave <p (in Aeolic) or -uX.). Hippiatr. .DER aUXflTjp6C. The Armenian form does not prove lE origin. Variation labiallvelar.).DER aUXEvloC. ETYM The variants ufl<PTjv and aux�v are generally assumed to reflect *amgwh-en with assimilatory loss of nasality in aux�v (Pisani Ric.174 auxoc. these forms had a labiovelar *gwh. 'neck. 'to bind by the throat' (Ph. [m. <p/xw p lafl6c. Denominative aUXflEw [v. So we have *a<p-Tj v beside au-x�v.). throat' (H.'narrowness'� . 19.).).. aUXflTjpwoTjC. Gramm.' (sch. lA).: 388.uegwh-. ling.. is rare (Fur. Go. most • recently Pronk fthc. au<pTjv in Jo.) . TpaXTjAoc. [m. � GR� . ufl<P-Tjv then shows the well­ known prenasalization.> Gr.. E.' (Hdt. Probably from a Pre-Greek uvular. Therefore..] 'neck'. unconvincing formally as well as semantically. treat by incantation' is followed with due hesitation by Kloekhorst 2008 s. uX-) as well as semantic objections can be made against it. also a/au is rare.. On Oettinger's connection with Hitt. [m.) . which goes back on a root *h. � IE? *hzem/-u. 28).VAR Aeol.. aUX!16c. buek-zi / buk. throat. diminutive aUXEvloV (An. 16 is very doubtful.. fl/F occurs mostly before n or intervocalically (Fur. • aUXllv.'to conjure. 8apaaAEoc. the variants may show that the word is Pre-Greek.). [adj.). ayt1hu-.: 242-247). aggwus 'narrow'. Arist.).] 'to be dry. with a similar assimilation of the nasal to the following labiovelar. cf. whence aUXEvlaT�p [m.). cf.] 'boasting. as it can be a loan from an Anatolian language. which Fur. . Fur. assuming an original sense 'to keep one's neck proudly'. auxaAtoc. aUXflTjpla. see � uyxw. ace. Hapax aUXfl�ElC. Late by-form aUXfl� [f. 30.a). Amynt. aUXflaAtoC. also afl<p�v· aUA� v 'id.] 'neck. Alternatively. see Pre-Greek. 1 (1950): 182f. aUXTlTlK6c.: 391 considers non-lE origin. isthmus' (Il. Discussion in Peters 1980a: 18ff.. (Choeril.. however. 3.

auaat. but nothing more can be said.). 'displeasing. all from 1tUP aUElv (see the Myc. Borthwick Class. The suggestion by Fur. : -Tj).). Quart.).DER aiiT� '(battle) cry' (cf. also of drawing water. most Greek forms show psilosis. Evauafla 'spark.).as a prothetic vowel and considers the word to be a substrate word (note the change of inflection -OC.). 'id.). ] . � ?� . Evauov· Ev8EC. 95) and 1tpoaauan (S. Corcyr.). odious' (EM) and a<pao loc. Also auov� 'shouting' (Semon. . pu-ra-u-to-ro /puraustro/ [du.] 'moth that gets singed in a candle' (A. (upaS[a [f..). etc. see � CtV0av w . haurio 'to scoop' (with hypercorrect h-). cod. Vicia angustifolia' (Pherecr.COMP £vauw 'to kindle' (Hdt. 'new'. 'to scoop fire' (lA). (Plu.). except for late �uTTjaa (Nonn. On the mg. lE cognates are ON ausa 'to scoop' < *ausanan and Lat. also Ka8auaat· a<pavlaat 'to hide' (H. take'. Specht KZ 59 (1932): 121 mentioned a�a· TPOX0C. and Galen think it comes from <paKoc.] 'id. KaTaVTA�aat (cod. 63 (1969): 296.). Cim. aFuTa. see Pronk fthc. � GR� .] 'pair of fire-tongs'. A similar formation may be preserved in VEO-Xfl-oC. Pl. . Uncertain are KaTauaElC.ETYM Derivations from a<pav0avw. KaTaUaat. With analogical loss of a: YOlVaUTlC.'scoop. The predominant connection with fire seems to be a secondary development of Greek. Triimpy 1950: 153ff. KpEaypa' (A.· oivoxoTj 'vessel (for pouring wine)' (H. Further 1tupauGTTjC.VAR The u is long auw may be from *hzeus-e!o. . 619 [lyr. � �o� (H.] 'vetch. fut. auw 4 =>aiJoC.a.] slaves in Crete (Str.ETYM Dse.DIAL Mye. � GR� I L_ _ . Corn. a<pa!1lwTal [m. � PG(v)� ·VAR u<paKoc. Gr. KlmplOl 'put in(to) [ipv. (UPUKll [f.).). go down' (H. only pres.ETYM The word may be onomatopoeic. call' (Il. 1tupauGTpov [n. aUTEw can either be denominative from aUT� or deverbative from auw (Schwyzer: 705f. auw 2 [v.� .). Ipf.: 373 is attractive: he takes a. auw 3 =>iauw. . 20). aUE (dissyllabic). £�auaat· £�EAElV 'to take out' (H.] 'to get a light. Epigr. ailw 1 [v. 'lentil'.] 'enmity' (Eup. .' (Herod. see Wackernagel KZ 33 (1895): If.175 .) and Evaumc.. Likewise Pisani Paideia 11 (1956): 296.] ' (H. with aUTEw = auw (Il.). (Alcm. whence £�auGT� p 'fire-tongs. � IE *hzeus.).).. [m.] 'to cry aloud. 1tU p aUaTp a [f. light a fire' (E 490). form above). 34). 7. med. 1tupaGTpov. KaTauA�aat).. auaw . KaTaOUaat 'to pour down. Also a<pafllwTat· OIKETal aypolKol 'rural household slaves' (H.from the word for earth (see � X8wv). 10).ETYM A compound of � auoc.). . See � a<puaaw. a<paoElv (Od.' (Hdn. inscr.DER u<paooc.). Ant. (Schwyzer 1950: 30). 'dry' and -Xfl.).' (Hell.. mostly aor.or from *hzeus-ie!o-.).l).

• a<paTElv [?] uncertain (IG 5(1).).q�. 8uvvou TO urro Tft yampL TrTEpuYLOV 'id. e. of the verb cited above. abrs 'strong'. -T]p0C. (compound from urro. 209: 34).6TT]C.. [f. 'those in a state of u<paflla ( u<pT]flouvTac. 'insignificant'.). a8ualamov 'caught.pKT) [f. <l>apKaowv. for -TOC.oc.: 175 refers to Schwyzer: 530.: 224ff.).and lipKUC. -t� [adj.£la. Cf. who connects <pEi\.ETYM Literally. see Fur. Van Windekens 1941: 28 connects Go.EuC.] name of an evergreen tree. 'indifferent. as an explanation of uflai\. ete.· KOU<pOC. 'stony terrain' and analyzes it as 'without a stone. = u<pT]flla) ' who have no <P�flT]. Chantraine 1933: 298 . immediately' (11. A substrate word is probable anyhow.). late u<pEi\. not an infinitive.i\. simple' (lA). .g. can hardly represent something lE (*-eh2u-ro-?).p£l DELG). ETYM One connects a<pvw.l. Vett..EOC. / flaupoc.: 330 compares <paupoc. 'quickly and indefatigably' (EM.176 . Note the v. even'. � PG(v)� VAR u<pVOC. a<pa. ete. KaL uKorrwc. 1.· UypOlKOUC.aflupoc. Fur. � PG?(v)� . Fur. a<paup6� [adj. • • • u<papEu� [m..a<puaaw/ i\. i\.ETYM Unknown.). <!\ ?� .] 'weak' (11. TOU 8�i\. uncertain).. but there is no reason to assume such processes. <!\ GR� .pTEpOC. <!\ PG(v)� DER u<paupoTT]C.) . Val. • U<pEi\. 'Arbutus hybrida' (Thphr..).). (\f 311) 'quicker'. -ElT] [f.ETYM Fur.ETYM Improbable theory by Stromberg 1944: 27ff. and � e�arrlvT]C.] 'forthwith.Taxewc.O'C:Jw VAR u<pa.w. HA 543a.). The suggestion in DELG that it could belong with li<pap is ununderstandable. ETYM Highly improbable is the proposal by Persson 1912(2): 7973. MoHG jah.. He also connected � airruc. see DELG. Suid. 4 and 124.] 'belly-fin of the female tunny' (Arist. [f. and further � ahva.] 'plain. which would point to a prothetic vowel. and note that -aupoc.). bad' (with inserted i\. Denominative verb u<paupOUTaL (Erot. u<papEl (U<pa. (H. v. comparing for the meaning MoE fast. U<pa.?) and <paui\.OUV£TaL 'becomes weak'. rr/ cp. DER U<pa.). (see index) brilliantly connected e�al<pVT]C. is also cognate (with interchange fl/ labial stop. comparing Thess.] (Act. Kurr pLoL 'flying. Ap.ETYM Unknown.). see Bourguet 1927: 110. I would suggest that uflaupoc.aupoc. assuming a neuter rln-stem. it only testifies to our ignorance. 'light' (H.).: 174 compares U�apTal' TrTT]val. Fur. see Frisk. => aTrT w. unsacrificed' (H. wings'. Unclear is a<papKlowTOV' UypEUTOV. Much more probably.' (H. in substrate words see liTpaKToc. cf. These words are often explained as contaminations (see Frisk). 'suddenly' (H. � PG?(v)� .DER a<pei\. This etymology is • .l. lia<pahoc.] (Hp. H.] (Anaxag. a<pap [adv. which is quite possible (cf. both 'steep' and 'immediate').. assuming a substrate element with variation a/ aL. uflaUpOUTaL)..). <pi\.' e�al<pVT]C...

VAR Also msc.ETYM The old connection with Skt. The agreement with Hitt. a<pEvo� [n. is improbable. ui\. (11. 71 (1997): 153f. ete.). As a second member in the PNs LH-. The recent attempt to connect li<pEVOC. informer. can hardly be correct. (metrical lengthening in Homer is probable as *U<pV£OLO is impossible in the hexameter and *u<pV£OC.and <PT]fll. and the adjective would be unclear. EUT]YEV�C.] epithet of Apollo (I 404).. after rri\.in Skt.i\. deprive' . a<pvuv£l' 6i\. TLfl-a<pevT]C. pu80v u<pVUVOVTaL' rri\. Ak.£1v 'to take away.] 'possessions.).] (Pi. suggests 'who sends off people on a journey'. .'rich'� . was one of the corner stones of the Pelasgian theory. be it positive or negative. to Fehrle PhW 46 (1926): 700f.E-. li<p8aL. / ui\. 6flo<P�TWp). the s-stem. Lengthened u<pv�flwV (Antim.V.). The accent and the form U<PVEOC. epflT]vEuC. ops). opulentus 'wealiliy' (which is probably not directly related to the Hitt.vnc. This cannot be correct.. Denominative verb U<pVU£l.DER With loss of vowel and remarkable final accent: U<pV£lOC. Balles KZ 110 (1997) starts from * doubtful).[n. word.. the whole construction is not convincing. It rather derives from u<PlT]flL. .). cf.).l.: the word means 'without quality'.'rich' is remarkable..EUC. also U<pVEOC.T]8�C. apnas. New analysis by Taillardat RPh. It cannot be connected with the Hittite word (reading *bpina.e. Thence back-formation li<pvoC. a<pea [f. among other things.'(the valuable animal which is) not to be killed'. She explains the adjective with final accent from *1:Jgwhn-es-o.). -v .). For Greek a root *h2bhen. from copulative a.] 'wealth' (11.. may be explained following Balles: *h2bhnes-o-. This could well mean 'archer' ('to discharge'). However. the explanation of the full grade as analogical after a8evoc. and the <p. . <!\ PG?� VAR Mostly plur.�l(£l 'is blissed' (H. with lE *h2ebh'stream' by Willi 2004 does not convince.> U<pVEO-.. parallel to a formation in -io. ops 'power'. Ki\.ouTOUO"LV 'are wealthy' (Suid.177 even given by LSJ as the meaning of the word! Chantraine points to the geminate in <pEi\. riches' is now generally rejected. 87: 51Mf.COMP EUT]<PEV�C. aghnya. <!\ GR� .] a pedriatic illness. • . after rroi\. The Greek word looks lE (ablaut. and is derived from u<pEi\. <!\ lE? *h2bhen. but cannot be correct in view of the more likely comparison with Lat. ace. [n.). . . interpreter' (H.yoC. li<pEVOC. as 'prophet' (Eust. Anz.). see Bechtel l914. bappina(nt).). flT]VUTT]C.ouToc. -opo� [m.ETYM Eustathios and the scholia explained it. (11. ete. are difficult). see DELG Supp.eyELvoC. also archaic EUT]<PEV� the obvious reconstruction. Kraus Wien.uKT�flwv. with metrical lengthening in Homer.). fr.VAR U<pT]TopEla· flavTEla 'power of divination' (H. 'true diviner. A loan from Anatolian would probably have K-. aa<p�Twp' fla. with ablaut as in lii\.. 219). in the sense 'who sends off. the better attested v. a<pqTwp. 'thrush' (Hp. see De Vaan 2008 S. 'rich' (11. which must now be abandoned (see my Introduction).. i.

1t£<pAOl8£vm· <pAuKTmvoua8m 'to have blisters' (H. (1943): If. Maa6 Arch. a<pla [f. � a'(<pv'lC. Schwyzer: 405. he proposes to compare a<pplaaa 'id. By-forms are a<pvoc. Kp�T£C.) in Thphr. <!l PG (v) � oVAR Late a<pvwc. reshaped euphemistically (after <popOc.' etc.] 'foaming at the mouth' (0 607).).cf. oETYM Hardly related to umw. 7.). apium 'parsley' (further to *ap. Fur.). d<pAaaLov [n.). Himself. 'step.] 'curved poop of a ship. Nic. Ranunculus ficaria' (Thphr. is untenable. 14). with its ornaments' (0 717. from privative a... and � £�a1ttv'lC. [m. For a PG suffIx -TO. Hdt. 468.'? d<pvw [adv. <!l ?� oETYM Unknown. =-<pAew. a<pploue. d<ppa [f. a<pvw (both H. a<p8uw (Hp. Nachr. see ibid. a<plac.. �wll0C. 15.] 'suddenly' (A..(but I see no reason to follow him in supposing that the dental is secondary). on ai<pvt8toc.and � <PAUW. 8ta1te<pAOl8!:: v· 8taKexuTm 'has been poured out'.] 'lesser celandine. (Schwyzer: 624) and a<pvt8ta· a<pvt8av.). iaxupoC.).copulative. [m. etc. Is the a. cf. altar' (H. More probable is Furnee's brilliant proposal to connect £�at<pv'lC. 'chaff (H. <!l ?� oETYM Latte corrects to a<ppaTTtac. 'strong (Cretan)' (H.). [acc. � aTpaKToc..'water'). 6245). with parallels for the insertion of -p-. [?] . aplustr(i)a. or after � a<ppoc. a<ppaLlae.' (ApuL Herb..).: 330.)... <!l IE? *He/obhri.c.'awn'� . <!l ?� oETYM Possibly a verbal noun in -all0C. see � <pAlMw.] 'kind of plaster' (Aet. improbable.: 167 objects that these are quite different plants.] 'excrement' (yaaTpoc. a<pAOlalloe. <!l PG? (V) � oETYM The connection with a<plevm (to av80c. <!l ?� oETYM Frisk suggests that it is from *a<po8tov (a<p080c. -orum. Borrowed from Greek: Lat.pLm. a<pop�lOv [n. (Epigr.178 oDER a<p8w8'lC. <!l PG?� oETYM BechteI 1921(3): 285 posited 'that which prevents destruction'. to £<pAl8ev· 8leppeev 'flowed out'. 'excrements'). often interpreted as a frozen case form of a heteroclitic stem (Schwyzer: 520). Krahe 1955: 44 connected Lat. 'id.) or drastically (after 1top8�)? Not entirely convincing. oETYM Related to � a<pap. Gr. 15).] .. Fur.: 3185 thinks it is a substrate word because of the group -<p8. Uncertain. HP 7. a development of *a<ppaKTlo. Rather Pre-Greek. a<pAETqpee. The word is rather a loan. from a<ppaKToc. .· £�at<pv'lC. <!l GR� oETYM Perhaps a shortening of A<pp08tT'l in the same sense (Aetius). f Religionswiss. cf.] a8epac. 3). 23 (1925): 228 can be forgotten. thus already Hermann Gatt.

A<ppo�hTJ [f.).) are now abandoned. but this seems not very adequate.suggests a Pre-Greek word. [m. d<ppLe. a<ppt(w 'id.a<ppoc. d<pPLaaa [f.[n.. A recent Indo-European attempt was made by Witczak 1993: 115-123.). The suffIx -laa.' (Theol. pudendum muliebre.] 'id. but he thinks it may well be of Semitic origin. Cret. denominative a<ppo8tatu(w [v.).' (Opp. cf. Less probable is the connection with Pre-Greek 1tpUTClVlC. 'lecher'. <!l PG (S.?� oDIAL Cypr. ' (Rhodos). it seems possible that the name came from the one languages which on historical grounds we should expect to be relevant: Cypriot Phoenician. (H. which Wackernagel accepts. 248'8• It may have entered Greek via another language. (e)prBni as 'lady. a<pp08tata [n. cf.) and a<pplaT�C.). 15). connected Arm. <i<pplnc.] 'foam. from which a word for 'pigeon' was formed. As the goddess seems to be of oriental origin (see Burkert 1985: 152ff. adj . mistress' by Hammarstri:im Glotta 11 (1921): 215f. not to � 01l�p0C.)..would give a. f d. A possibility is the Semitic name of the goddess Astoret. see Latte's edition of Hesychius.).' (lA)... 'kind of a<pu'l ' (Arist. <!l GR� oETYM Hypocoristicon of Aphrodite (DELG). a<ppo8tataKOC. see Chantraine 1933: 272). Etr.] (AP). but the a. A1tOAAWVlaaTm. a<pp08lataaT�C. Not to Skt. a<pp08lataaTlKoc. A<pp08LTapt8lov 'darling' (PL Corn. Burkert op. -l80c. Denominatives a<ppew [v. and the *bh presupposed by Greek did not give p'. f. the name probably comes from the East too. pickaxe'.. . <!l LW Sem. '. IlUPTOV (H. because the rule of de-aspiration before resonant is not valid. Not here � a<pptouc. 'belonging to A.pL] 'sexual intercourse'.).] 'cloud' (because of the meaning).e.] a plant = aaKA'lmuc. a<ppoe.). (ApuL Herb. (medic. A<pp08tatoC. oETYM The connection with a<ppoc.v) � oETYM Fur. Altertum 27 (1924): 457ff. A<pop08ha.. . whence a<pplalloc.] 'to foam' (ll.' ( Armenian). Ar. see Redard 1949: 81.] goddess of love (ll. klass. West Glotta 76 (1998): 134-138 rejects the idea that the name renders Astart (Ugaritic 'Aftartu). a<ppluw [v. metri causa.. However. slaver' ( problematic (*h2. [m.'hoe. (Kretschmer KZ 33 (1895): 267) and other older explanations (e.).). cit. For A<ppo8tataaTat 'worshippers of A. Maa6 N. a<pPlo£lC. 'id. A<pop8tTa.· a8epac. i. It is not easy either to connect the root prd. abhri. whence a<ppo8tataalloc. <!l ?� oDER a<ppw8'lC.' (lA). 'foaming' (Hp. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 658 rightly asks whether the meanings are compatible.: 330 connects � a<pta. Astarte.). Still.] 'id. West ends with the suggestion that the name may have rendered a title 'She of the villages'. 179 oETYM Hoffmann BB 18 (1892): 287 compared Skt. p'rp'ur 'foam' (which does not belong to a1t£lpw). oDER A<pp08LTuplOV an eyesalve (GaL).] 'to have intercourse' (lA). abhra. a<ppoollm [v. oETYM Meillet BSL 31 (1931): 51f.g. lb. substantivized A<pp08tatov 'temple of A.

.and cpuw (one compares nonnats 'Aphua pellucida' in Nice) seems folk etymology. acc. . Greek -aL.).) and acpumflo<. -oU<. Also acpuaTa' KOTUAll. DER acpuolov (Ar. acpu�w. [f. Also acpua.180 acpull [f. acpuwv nfl�' See Thompson 1947: 19f. pI. • • • • acpuoyn'o" [m. AXaLfl£VLTl<. a-pu2-we. 425. see Chantraine 1933: 431.DER acpuaflo<. Ar. Pl. acpuayno<.] 'small fry of various fishes' (Epich. etc. AXaLfl£v[a a part of Persia (St. 1.ETYM From OP Haxamanis. Jacobsohn • . (� 95). acpuwoll<. (sch. carried by a stream (A 495). 'filthy' (Nic.ETYM Oehler (see Schulze 1892: 311) explained the form as acp + ua. but is defended by Meier-Brugger MSS 52 (1991): 123-125: *YJ­ bhuH-o. S.found in � auw 2 'to light a fire' and Lat. not -wv.). 'cup (Tarantine) (H. haurio < *h2(e)us-. acpuaaav· T�V KOTUAllv <napa> TapavT[vol<. ancestor of the Persian royal house ( AXaL-flEvll<. Chantraine 1933: 300).. cf. lluAaL-flEvll<. Byz. only plur. .). 'Persian' (A. . [f.).(nom.). Denominative acpuw [v. Uncertain KaTllvopacpu�a<.). aTaflvo<. (Tyrannion). 'sprat' (H.] descendents of A. (Schwyzer: 448).apUTalVa (cod. and connected it with � acpuaaw.). acpuTpl<. *acpD-<. cf. to H. aXaLfl£v[<. is acpuwv. see below.). <!I ?� VAR As an adj .] Achaimenes.] 'to draw or scoop liquids' (11. in Att.).in Haxa-manis is probably an adaptation to names like TaAaL-flEvll<.ETYM Unknown.] epithet of Babylon (Epiphan. also acpu�lflo<. (instead of -a. which means it is ntr.). which probably means 'having the mind (-man-) of a friend'.). . Al. see Stromberg 1940: 134ff. cpuy�.] a plant (Ps.. The accentuation of the gen.). 13) points to an unextended stem acpD.] 'mud'. Hdn. aor. acpua(a)aL.). Nicander did not understand the meaning any longer..'grow'� VAR Mostly plural..).-Dsc.) with transition to the flexion with velar. -de (TNs) /Aphuwei/.pl. Formation like aupcpno<. which is a recent formation compared witlI Skt. DIAL Perhaps Myc. (Nic. The presents acpuaaw and acpuw are probably derived from the aorist. (Schwyzer: 501. and Andre 1956 s. .'without growth' (the root is actually *bhh2u-). <!I LW Persian� VAR Gen. fut.).). achaemenis.< *h2us-.v. • AXaLflEVll" [m. 'cup. with D (see Schwyzer: 199). 'whitish' (Hp. -[00<. also 'abundant' (ibid. <!I ?� VAR Also acpuw in £�-acpuoVl£<.).DER AXaLfl£V[OaL [pI. -£0<. (cod. (Suid. /Aphun-de/.'monster' < *YJ-bhh2u-o.). which is quite possible.] 'to become whitish' (Hp. • acpuaow [v. (H. abhva. a Persian clan to which the Persian kings belonged (Hdt. 432). ETYM From privative a.) and acpuTp[<. <!l IE *bhh2u.· KaTEKT£lva<... apnaLva) 'ladle or cup' (H. cpuya-8e. £�acpuoumv' £�avTA�aoumv 'they will drain' (H.). The gen. 584). the zero grade of aua.v. jar' (H. acpuwv (not -wv. but acpuaynov is better.(with loss of laryngeal). acpua· fl£flppa<. AXaLflEVlO<.. DELG also keeps open the possibility of a substrate word. Gr.

Abbijaya. 3).from the stem haxai. 'ikn 'pot'). He also compares ayavva· afla�a <tepa> Kal � £v oupav(f> apKTo<.g. nOlo<. The name is no doubt Pre­ Greek. made by women for the Thesmophoria' (Semus 13). No solution can be offered.axapvw<. AXaLal. Fur. (H. aKapvav (Ath. sing. <!I ?� .).. 'kind of fish' (H. sch. AxaiiKo<. aXEpva (cod. yuv�). flatters' (H. AXaitll. yala) 'the land Achaea' or 'the Achaean woman' (scil. fr. Keller 1909: 350.ETYM The name AXaLO[ < AXaLFO[ (cf.. 'Achaean'.ETYM Hemmerdinger Glotta 46 (1968): 54 compares Eg.] a sea fish. 'id. <!I ?� .). with gen. socius.).]. but this is doubtful. Recenly.. axaLv£1 [v.' (H. Kretschmer Glotta 21 (1933): 227). A. In spite of strong opposition (e. but this means 'bowl' (and is connected with Akk. . R. Kronasser 1962-1987: 245.) 'Achaean'. e. .). . the Thessalian and Peloponnesian regions 'Achaea'. -Aa). -w 181 KZ 54 (1927): 261f. /AkayWa-/. <!I ?� . who derive it from a town AxallvEa in Crete.'friend'. 79. box' (Phanod. later Abbijaya (e. etc. axaLvll [f. and with Eg. AXaLOL [m. and the Bear seen as a box?). axapvw". [f. R. -w [m. Lat. 175. to be read as Aqaiwasa.] (11. but the Hittite form has not been satisfactorily explained (why is there no reflex of the second a in Hittite?). 'chest.VAR Sg. axuALOv [n. they are both used as medicaments.. aKapva�· Aappa� 'bass' (H.). 566).] 'brocket.] name of a measure = 45 flEOlflvOl (Ar.DER Axait<.VAR axaTvll [f. <!I PG(V)� . fern.). <!I ?� .).iX8u<. (Hurr.).. hn 'chest' (Akk. cf.] 'deerskin' (A.] aa[v£l. [f. Sommer 1934. 11). also axalfvll 'roe' (Arist. perhaps trisyllabic. Achlvl) is known from Egyptian sources as 'q'jw'S'. with -bij. AXaLo<.). axa:fvll".).).]. he compares Aaxavva (H. iX8uo<. two-year-old stag' (Arist. bannu). = mOllPlTl<. AxciiKO<.g .g. ibid. which is cognate with Lat.) (with afla�a taken as 'box'. sakhay. agannu 'bowl'. Brands 1935: 81 points to EM. -a (see Schwyzer: 460) . AXilla [f. Att.= Skt. <!I ?� . (cf. also Axaiia<. Finkelberg Glotta 66 (1988): 127-134 derived the Greek form from Hitt. but tlIese are two different plants. the supposed habitat of the animal.).ETYM No etymology. nal�£ axapva<.] a plant..] name of a Greek tribe (11. and also in Hitt. Att. -ou [m.ETYM No etymology. Comparable forms: axapva· £100<. plays. Keller 1887: 77. Schwyzer: X. perhaps 'bass' (Callias Corn.DER aXaLlvEll [f. = 6pcpw<.).] (scil. 4.: 392. Abbija.] 'kind of bread. -[00<. KOAaK£u£l 'fawns. .ETYM The word has been derived from Axala.). the equation is now generally accepted. .ETYM No etymology. 91. <!I PG?� . Sommer IF 55 (1937): 169ff.).) aganni. explained -aL. .VAR Also axapvo<. also a town (Rhodos.. ax&vll [f. axapvou (Arist.: 138 compared Hitt. aA8a[a (Hippiatr.

TClWXO[ 'bereft. . Also aXaLOC. also frequent in such words. and the word a non-IE loan word. verb �xavw· mWXEuw 'to beg' (Suid. -fJvoc.). « *-osis) with Lith.. younger AXEpOVT(E)LOC. Connection with � axpac.DIAL �X�VEC.v. to Derksen 2008 s.). The stem aXEpw. pear' (H. the group -pv. The gloss aXEpouma· MaTa EAW8'l 'marshy waters' may be based on ideas of the Underworld river. ORu. -aa)· amoc. In this case. ezia 'boundary(-strip)'. • AXtpWV. fem.] (Theoc.(the group of Lith. (E. Populus alba' (ll. border' as PIE *h.) must be due to folk etymology (privative a and £xw). aytp8a (cod. on � axapvwc. [f.ETYM Theoretically. OPr. Indo-Iranian forms with a similar alternation • .. [m. � aKp[c.)..] 'white poplar. ezeras.). -ov [m. cf.) point to Pre-Greek origin. also the mythical river of the Underworld (Od.). under the influence of which AXtpwv has been interpreted as 'forming lakes'. see below.).ETYM Connected with the Balto-Slavic group of Lith. This reconstruction implies that the Greek name cannot be related. ezeras then goes back to *h.· TCtV'lTEC. in view of its initial A .).o/-er-o-). The river Achates on Sicily and the PN Achates are probably called after the stone. azeras. � PG(v» .). [f.DER AXEpoumoc.] name of several rivers. � PG?(s» . � ?> . VAR aEx�vEC.). the BSI. � PG?> ETYM Connection of -wTc. cf. lack' (A.). OCS jezero 'lake'. '(day-)laborer. poor (man) (H. axclT'lC.VAR Also [m.COMP KTEaV-�X'lC.). 1385) ? . . beggar(ly)' (H.ETYM Connection with txavaw 'desire' (Hom.e/.ETYM Borrowing from an unknown source. Semitic etymology in Lewy 1895: 56. a Doric word.] 'poor' (Theocr. Acc. aXEpw·fC.). Thompson 1947: 6£. ez'b 'fish weir'. -[�OC. Wackernagel 1897: nf.182 . x.] 'wild pear. -Lac.after the negation. [m. and cannot be used as a testimony for the original meaning of the name..· KEVO[. (PI. and also with Arm.).suggests a Pre­ Greek word (type � �pwc.ETYM The variation X/K and the ending -wec. axf]v..). . aKp[8a is changed by Latte into axpa8a. is evident.). '(day-)laborers. 'locust (Cretan)' (H. with short a. perhaps to be read *txavw. with Cretan development Ep8 > 'lP. with an alternation I / a. but there are no further indications. Pyrus amygdaliformis' (Od. group may be related to the group of Lith. . -Lac. (IG 3.) has been proposed (cf. ezr 'bank.. UXEP�OC. . Comprared with Alb. .] 'agate' (Thphr.· KEVO[ (H. Derivation from AXtpwv is a mere formal guess. fem.· TCtvllC.must be a real prothetic vowel. 0YXV'l 'pear-tree. Other formation in aX'lvdc. poor (men) (H. � LW> .. which is doubtful. the a. ax'lpov· aKp[8a Kp�TEC. uosis 'ash' is most improbable.).. assaran. dardhe 'pear' < *tord-.) must be from lA.). (A.DER aXllv[a 'poverty. Cf.. aytp8a could be Macedonian. aXEuw =>axvullaL.

uxOo!lm [v. azi-. �youv TCAllpwaac. which would mean that we have to reconstruct *h2edh/-. He connects it again with axoc.). cf.'squeeze. . (E.A (like aa .VAR Also AXLAEUC.ETYM Former comparisons (aXeOC. 501) . the word might be Pre-Greek (Chantraine 1933: 166: "vocabulaire technique et populaire".). ' ever spelled with a geminate in Hittite. Av. though he admits that it does not mean 'fear' as in Germanic: although he translates it as 'gri. or that it belongs to � axoc. iziieiti 'to strive. (ll. mostly of mental oppression: 'to be vexed or grieved' (ll. are hardly known (cf. Not related to '(xap (A. axeOllaL 'to be grieved' with axollaL. ToB akalk 'desire' are supposed to be Iranian loans.. (op)press'> vAR Aor.] 'weight.beside *h2i­ h. [m. which is far more likely.v. � aTIl�v and see Fur. but these can easily be . 96) .). Any metrical explanation of the origin of this interchange is vicious.a in '08ua(a) EUC. -OVOC. 'burdensome' (E.[m.(doubtful). "cette fois encore il semble s'etre produit une collision entre un suffIxe indo-europeen et une finale mediterraneenne"). the root should be reconstructed as *Hei/.] 'to be loaded'. batV 'to shut. aXe�ELC. close..(Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 273) and Greek ax�v cannot be connected. and probably points to a palatalized phoneme /IY/.). cf. Risch IF 69 (1964) : 78 etymologically connected axeOllaL with Hitt.). (for aXe[aac.exist: Skt. but the suffIx is well­ known in Pre-Greek. which has short L-. AX[AAELOC. axel18Wv. 'pain'. The meaning 'to shut' in Hittite must have developed from 'to squeeze'.ETYM The variation AA . 4. Since an IE etymology is unknown.. a-ki-re-we. also metaph. . Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971) : 659 proposes that ax�v is from a-EX. Both Kloekhorst 2008 s. [n. . 94.DIAL Myc.] the son ofPeleus and Thetis (ll.).: 172"8. IE adjectives in -'lv. ToA akal. 'stuffed. aezah. etc.v. Holland Glotta 71 (1993) : 17-27 gives a new proposal for Achilles. . filled' (H.).) is typical of Pre-Greek words. Chantraine ibid. One also compared � 6xetw. aAYl18Wv.] 'load'.).f.?} Y0!lwaac. also a plant. aXe�llwv (Man. accept this etymology. He cites instances where Homer mentions the axoc. azi. burden' (A.DER aXeoc. ihate 'to desire'.f-. [f.nor the -k. Denominative verb aXe[(w 'to load' (Babr. this alternation would continue *h2e-h.] 'desire'. and rare forms like axellpoc.).ef in some passages. aXeWe�VaL. of Achilles.DER AXLAA�" not well represented) . But if Av. Sid. and Puhvel HED s. Thence aXeELVOC. uncertain). (Hdt. noting that it is corroborated by the fact that neitlIer the -t. long for' beside Av. but this is more plausibly connected witlI £XeOllaL 'to be hated'. a-ki-re-u. In laryngealistic terms. I do not believe that the name is hypocoristic for an older compound. (Antiph. . axvullaL 'to be sad' were formally not very convincing (a verbal suffix -e. X. -'lVOC. trouble' (ll. in Greek it means 'distress'. (Marc. � PG> . � IE *h2edh/. Att.).). make tight'. dat. 'load' with ayw 'to carry'.). • AXLAAEUC.'desire' belongs to this group rather than Av. perhaps aXe�aac.

). Holland sweeps this explanation away as "nebulous pre-Greek" (17). * axvaflal. S. lament for' (ll. ETYM Although a difference in meaning exists. The most serious mistake is that he does not accept the evidence of Mycenaean. Go. aXAuo£lC. og 'to fear'. ahana 'chaff..] 'sadness. understood as folk-etymological explanations of the name. aKaXt(oflUl. -VOC. • • . aKaxdv.. thence a new pres. and the Go. and PIlr. assuming a suffIx -snh2-. Gm. ptc. Further. Arm. murky' (Hp. poet.] 'id. dangerous' (RV+). axvvc. chaff (ll.aXAUC.).VAR Ptc.. aya. perhaps by contamination with XAlOUV (XAlOtaV). axvuflUl [v. it contradicts his intepretation of the A as a remnant of Aaoc. Hp. but this seems ad hoc: the more obvious connection with � axupov 'chaff shows that it is a Pre-Greek word. [f.: 387). ax£wv (ll. un-agands 'fearless' is thematic. 'obfuscation' (Syn. Hell. aXAu ooflUl 'to become dark'.. DER "XAUWOllC.). perf.] . we find Lat. but here without any meaning. "XAUC. The name can easily be understood as Pre-Greek: note the suffIx -EUC. Arist.] 'rain' (which need not be a u-stem). -agadar 'id.ETYM With a different velar... 81) .] 'to become (make) dark' (Od. dark' (Epigr.[adj.> Skt. -OW 'to get dark' (Thphr..'distress. and then assumes an element -lAO. The meaning of the name remains unknown.. In doing this. 'inclined to anger'. apud Hdt.) and aXVaaOllf.). see below).). aKaxo flUl (Q. 'army'.'mist.] 'bad. ?). . a re-formation in -a(w from *axvllfll.'sharp'. -t(w. etc. corresponds with the s-stem in Go. Holland admits (19) that the word enjoyed a certain popularity. aXAuoulv. epic). dark weather'� VAR Later -vc.). agis [n..'. Achilles is clearly a hero taken over from other stories. • • axvll [f. Further cognates are 0Ir.for which he cites 6pYtAOC. darkness' (ll. agha.] 'to grieve. aKax�aUl.) after the verbs for diseases in -laW (Schwyzer: 732). aKaXllflUl (aKllXEfl£vll metro cond. S. but this is no argument. It shows that the name existed in this form centuries before Homer.ETYM Seems identical with OPr. aKax£a8Ul. � PG(V)� . where we find a-ki-re-u = l\XlAAEVC. and the variaton between geminate and simple consonant (Fur. DER An old noun is axoc. -VOC. *Hata. pain' (ll. bad.[adj.). and his interpretation must be fundamentally rejected.) after axvuflUl. Rare presents are aKaxvvw (Antim.). The reduplication is typical of Armenian. axoc. Denominative verbs: "XAVW [v. Hell.ll (Ale. and subsequent palatalization of t to j..).] 'fear'. � IE *h2et. like axoflUl.. aor. aXAvvoflUl 'to become dark' (Q. OE ege [m. has a preterito-present Go.] 'darkness' requires metathesis of -tl-.. axo flUl occurs only twice (Od. � IE *h2etlu. [f. from the root *h2ek. aglo [n. for which there is no evidence. 'cloudy.] 'mist. and that "the name was not invented for the Homeric hero". evil'.] 'evil..] 'foam. Holland explains the geminate as hypocoristic. alja-m-ulj-k' [pl. aXAumc. YAv. [n. also aXEvwv.' (Call. Aleh. fear'� . agna 'ear of corn' < *akna. 8pV1tTEa8Ul 'to break small' (H. 'hazy. _ I . froth.. Connection with this root has been proposed for axvll too.). -VOC. late epic). . he takes us back to the period before we knew Mycenaean. but this is unimportant.

until.. � PG(s. 15).). -6. idle' (see � Xp�). Note axo pa· nl 1t tTUpa.. [adj.beside a-xpao. the original form will have been axpaoafluAa.VAR Cf. Variation o ll U is well known in Pre-Greek Thphr. See Strunk 1967: 105ff. 25.] 'heap of chaff (Heraklea). the alternation can also be understood in lE terms. with metathesis and alE (cf.] 'storehouse for chaff (Delos). axvplvoC..). On the variant with -c. -WVOC. [m. (Arist.. with well-known Pre-Greek suffIxes. axplC. whence axvpwmc. xpaflaooLAUl' XEAWVUl 'tortoises'. it is possibly a loanword. one compares KpaT£wv to KpaTOC._ I aXEVwv is tentatively interpreted as a participle built on an athematic present *aXEUfll (DELG) or aorist *� XEUa (Frisk). -aSoc.1 TP£fll80c. collective sing. DER axupwollC.] 'heap of chaff (E 502.] 'to mix with chaff. For ax£wv beside axoc.). DELG points out that -aC.. 'snail' (H.00C.ETYM This is the zero grade of � fl£XPI. � PG(v)� .pl.DER axpol (Corcyra. Kat at vw8poTaTUl TWV KUVWV 'the most hybridized of bitches'. 'snails' (H. with a-XEpo.] 'to the uttermost. AP 9. also on Chios. axupoc. I aTpEYytc. 384. The analysis will be *(a)krad-am-ul-a. after the locatives in -01) . axpl.ETYM One connects � aXEpooc.] 'chaff (corn.] 'heap of chaff.. head' (H. see Diirbeck • . -COMP axup08�Kll (X. � PG(S. Pyrus amygdaliformis' (com. Admittedly. as the case forms do not agree. "xpaMflUAa [?] · 6 as far as. and cf.). axp£lwc.). Here the last explanation has clearly been added later. .. � GR� . see Schwyzer: 404f. to Frisk and Chantraine. or axupoc. aKpaflvAa· KOXAtac.] 'the wild pear and its fruit. The word closely resembles the town KapoaflvAll (ll. [m. TapaVTtVOlC. it is Pre-Greek. axupa [n.) . . . [m.)..ETYM It may be the same word as axpdoc. [f. to my mind. West ZPE 67 (1987): 17-19.. -ov. which is a form in -la from a noun in -flOC. Denominative verb axu po w [v. ot Oe TOUC.] (Cratin. axvpLOC. Fur. (H. The form in -at is probably an old locative. KoxAiac. is frequent in plant names.: 392 (JTEpytC. prep.). "xpac. 'useless.... £VlOl Oe KpaVtOV 'chaff. axpdov KA6.] not quite certain: axpdov iowv (B 269) .) .). as long as' (ll.). (Arist.ETYM As two forms have both 0 and fl.). conj.v)� . the syllable with 0 was probably lost in aKpaflvAa (either in reality or only graphically: in AI'1A?).VAR Rarely sing. 72) . for the metathesis see Fur.(£lV (Theoc. axpELov 0' tY£AQ(JaE (a 163). but such an origin is highly improbable for a word for 'pear'... Arist. Acc.). (PIu.).). skull. etc.).. axupwv. Since two forms end in -fluAa.COMP axp£lo -yEAwC.n.v)� . etc. (Arist. [adv. 650. "XP£ioV [acc. � IE *me-/sri 'until'� .: 392 (on T£Pfllv80C.). Remarkable is axu p fllat [f. YEAaV (APl.

skull. is an Attic word. Lat. u'/I[<. H.. in the epic language we find naA[v-opao<.. convincingly derives the second member from the verbal root F£PP.. =>liT]!l1. (Aet. The problem with the older analysis "with the oppo<. 'the scurf of the head' (H. -i()o<. [f.xwp. =>o. in Forssman l. EVLOl 8E Kpav[ov 'chaff. -01'0<. Cf o. m.xup6<. -ovo<. oETYM The suffIx -vS.would remain unexplained. a gloss not mentioned in the literature. The relation to lino. The form o. reshaped after p60<. backwards" is that � oppo<. � IE *h2ep. oDER o.).uu[ =>lixupa. said of li!lT]TO<. 63 has 6.). oETYM The connection with � lixupa 'chaff is proven by the glosses. 2.).). o ETYM Identical with Lat. (discussion . � PG(s)� oVAR Also li'/llVSO<.xup!l6<. The same formation is found in o.] 'wormwood. or rather from li'/loppo<.beside the more frequent suffIxes -VC-.'/l[V6LOV [n. away'� o DER li'/l£pov = UO"T£pOV. Zonar.. This explains the relation to lixvT]: Pre-Greek has often a suffIx with -v. oDER o. 1 . It shows that the word is Pre-Greek (Fur. a'/l [adv.) and o. 3) . 60 (1986) : 215-222. abs 'away. o. again' (ll. Doubtful o.] 'scurf.'/llvSanov (pap. 1 [?] a fish (Epich. v. Artemisia Absinthium' (Hp. cf.c.. The vocalic interchange points to Pre-Greek origin (Fur. in o. -wpo<. 410.'/l6ppoo<. moreover. after UO"T£pov.: 362) . 302. [m.] . cf.). well known. (Arat.'from.'/llvS1TT]<. 6) . with the expected treatment of -rs-.. [adj. (Dsc. (Ar. 1310. o. See also Skoda RPh.: 211. etc.xwpa. see � EppW. oIvo<. 362) .'to go away'. or -law (conj .). absinthiatum (vinum) . a'/l0pp0<. For the -<.xwpew [v. =>aaaL. � GR� oVAR Also -ov [adv.'/lo pp60u 'OKEaVOIO (2: 399.Ov£<. in Hp.. � PG(V)� oVAR o.). T�<. by Dindorf for o. Hdn.] 'back(wards). uwv. cpaypOl T£. axwp. � ?� oETYM Epich. head' (H.' (Ad.] 'going backwards' (ll.) and lixopa· Ta n[Tupa. H. conj. oETYM Forssman 1980: 185ff. £'(PT]TaL 8E TO 1tlTupw8£<.XUP!llO<.). (Alex. K£cpaA�<. back'.xwpa· TOV o.186 MSS 37 (1978) : 39-57. No etymology. Aeg. with compositional -o-..). V.). is unclear. Liqu. *aw 'to blow'. u 65) is either from li'/l and p60<. aw 'to eat one's fill'.xwpw8T]<. -up.'/llvSiiTOV 'drink prepared with 0. 3. £� and Schwyzer: 620. The word is clearly identical with lixopa (see � lixwp).] 'to suffer from lixwp'.] and a'/llVS[a [f. oETYM The analysis as an old rln-stem to lixvT] is impossible. o.). dandruff (Ar. naAlv ( 1097) .proves Pre-Greek origin. as the -u. uxuPf. 937) .].

� ?� oVAR Only present. with unvov as an object (K 159. to scholia H and Q. � ?� oVAR Also -ov [n. means unvo<.] 'to sleep'(?). 37.). awpo<.] uncertain. In SIG 1037 (Milete IV-lIP). (at6va nopcpupeav) shows that it was �wv. i.. down.. see LSJ Supp.]. . but without object.v. 21) . 177. to EM 117. But semantically. 2 'sleep' seems impOSSible.). tap'. liwpo<. but his comparison with Lat.. there is no support for the connection with 'blow'. 87 (1932) : 271f. glosses o. of Scylla (!l 89) . a kind of garment (P. 28 (Pfeiffer) has <bpov. <b p o<. sura seems impossible. it means liKWAOl: TaU<. as remarked by DELG. (cod. UWV. Rather the word is a technical term. o DER o. K 548) with unavS[(£T£ TOV unvov 'pick sleep (vel sim. MT]SU!lVruOl (H.� oVAR o. the flower of its kind' (ll. S. � ?� oETYM Acc. AeY£lv cpaal T�V KWA�V wPllv Kal wpa[av (sch. die keine Waden haben'.} liunvo<. may be artificial. oETYM In the same meaning. Van Windekens proposes to understand liWpOl (H. plan' (AB) . 57) . Amh. so *'blowing'. 2. see Latte Phil.v.). - awpOl 1 [adj. the choicest. but different from KWA�. Cf. The meaning in Philem. H. oETYM Acc. [m. uw'ttw [v.1 liWTO<.WT£U£lV' o.: KaTa nA£Ovaa!l0v TOU ii !l1l8Ev nA£ov all!la[vovTo<. 'wakeful' (belonging with <b p o<. s. 3a. 2 [?] Plur. � ?� oVAR Call. it remains without etymology. so 'legs without calfs'. Derived from � liWTO<. it stands for <bpo<. in Simon. epithet of the n68£<. translates 'Beine. An Egyptian word. (Philem. 2 [m. the etymology was merely suggested by the formal appearance. ovo<. 112. lio p o<. yap 'lwva<. 17. oETYM The text in B. also in opposition to the 6nlaSlOl n68£<. 'the a does not mean anything. Bechtel 1914 s.] 'flock of wool. wPll is a part of the sacrificial animal.)'. H. o ETYM Considered to be a verbal noun to � lill!ll..'iwv (al) (B. 145) . for <bpo<. and Latte Glotta 34 (1955) : 192.WT£lT£ (YAUKUV unvov. ucpalv£lv 'to weave. this was also argued by Jacquinod REA 90 (1988) : 319-323.e.). EAu!la. connection with � liwpo<. 5. K 548) .).] 'sleep' (Sapph. � LW Eg. !l 89) .'. See � o. Raman Glotta 53 (1975) : 195-205 shows that the word means 'nap. lI. assuming *h2yoh1-to-.wTew. 'sleep').navS[(wSaL 'to pluck off flowers' (H. 14.. aw'to<. yap 6 unvo<. fr.


.) = S. lyr. flavLwoTjC. probably also found in Lat.?� . as well as � n6nOL .] Exclamation of surprise (E. � � a � pa�w . = AaAOC. also � � ap � ap o c. The word is supposed to be Anatolian or Celtic. Cf... 'dancer... 45).) . pa�a�£lv [v.) . singer of hymns.). ETYM Cf.). Kretschmer Glotta 22 (1934): 254. 'talkative' (EM 183. shouter. � GR� . babae is borrowed from Greek.l. whence also Bacchus' (H. Supp. 892. � �ai3�w. £VLOL Oe �ouv 'to speak [in] articulately.?.] (or [n. and Cyrill. pa-ko-to [du. whence MoFr.. 'kind of earthen pot' (H.] /phakt6/.] imitation of the bleating of a lamb (Hermipp. ETYM Latte Glotta 32 (1953): 41 compared £ fl�aKav lT1W TO fl£TU TOU mplXouc.).)..) to reconstruct an unreduplicated form * �aKLvoc. uflvtp06<. to cry' (H. nu.: 171 connects the word with <paKTm· ATjVOl. o8£v Kat BaKX0C. fr. dooc. Schwyzer: 423 A. aLnum. Kat (JT£aToc. Kpauyauoc. bassin).ETYM Onomatopoeic word.VAR £K�a�a�m' £K<JaA£u(Jm 'shake violently' (H.] . The variation would then point to a Pre-Greek word. Lat. [m. � ��.) . Tur. �a�a�m' 6pX�(Ja(J8m 'dance' (H. �aKa·iov· fl£TPOV TL 'a measure' (H. mss. nU£AOL ( � <paKTov 2) and Myc.' 6PXTj(JT�<. • papaKTT)<. (JK£ua�6fl£vov � p w fla 'food prepared with salted [fish] meat and hard fat' (H.VAR Cf.ETYM Cf. �a�aKTTj C. 139.B pa 1 [interj. � ONOM� VAR Extended �a�ma� (Ar. Anat. XUTpac.). � ONOM� . like a madman. � ONOM� .). etc.] epithet of Pan (Cratin. (-ov). -u�w (Zenod. � �a�al. • • • papal [interj .) (see Maas RhM 74 (1925): 469f. . . papaKlvov. Cf. 2. Dionysus (Corn. uno IIOVTLKWV Oe �aTpaxo L 'frogs'.] 'chatterer' (Archil. Fur.).] ?) . 'cicadas'. 19).. � LW Celt. bacchinon (Greg.) . � ONOM� VAR Also �a� l�w.). and � �a � aAov . an abbreviation of naT�p. ETYM Onomatopoeic forms like these are frequent: cf. pa 2 Abbreviation of �aaLAei:. �a�aKOL' uno 'HA£lwv T£TTLY£C. �a�aKa· TOV yanov 'eunuch' (H. • • papaKa => �a�a�£ Lv. � � a � a�w and � nanal.). [m. there is a v.. � �a�upTac. 'king' (A. However. DER �a�a� [m. -0<. but this is uncertain. � �a�w. � �6fl�oC. TO <fl�> o L11P8 pwfl£v a A£Y£LV. cf.

75).] in PUPP'lKEC. ot OE nOALC. �a�pa�w [ the suffix.!f. Also related is papuALa 'cradle' (Oehl IF 57 (1940): llff. �a�qp [m. aiOolov 'private parts'. DELG considers the connection with Lydian to be an etymological speculation on Bacchus. o napuflwpoC. � papUKT'lC. AUKWVEC.] 'baby' (Dam. PlPPWUKW . � AUAOC. 600umv ano T�C. -<! PG? (V) � oVAR pepp'lKEC. TpO<p�C. See � papu(w and Pok.) (H. which were not limited to one language only./f. just a mistake? The meaning of pepp'lKEC.).. ineptus'. n'lA6c. ot OE mayovac.. The meaning suggests a Pre-Greek word: sometimes it is connected with � puPP'l�' �u�PTJ� [m. see � p UflpaAo v . Robert 1963: 368. o ETYM A nursery word used in Syria. H..' TO evOov TWV mayovwv flepoc.). shouter.may sometimes have included other expressions of joy etc. unclear: flepoc. 1 . Is PUP'l KEC. [m. derives the word from a root pp. cf. -<! ONOM� oETYM Onomatopoeic word. cf.· o t OE £V TOlC. imOUTWJLC. � papu(w. � papu(w. -<! ONOM� oDER See L. cf. poppopOC.1). earth' (H. �a�LOV [n. earth [Tarent. Lat. [read papuac.). n'lA6c. The word is probably Pre-Greek. 'an almost foolish man' (H. -<! PG?� o ETYM von Blumenthal l930: 20 suggests Messapian origin (with the ending -uos).). �a�uac. On the -A. However. 91f.?] · poppopOC. 91 (E baby). Laconians' (H. (H. -<! ONOM� oETYM Onomatopoeic word. uno TapavTlvwv 'mud. There seems no apparent reason to connect this gloss with papp�v. -<! ?� o ETYM Unknown. 'mud.).. babit. 0 'AP'lC. the type puppapo<. can hardly mean 'piece of food'. [read n'lA6c. oETYM Kalleris 1954: 114f.] . Kpauyaoov.. as per Kalleris and DELG. -<! PG?� oETYM Hoffmann 1906: 73f. paKlac. of cicadas (Anan.). particles of food stuck between the teeth' (H. See � papp�v. and should not be lost in this formation.] (EM 186. £Aalou KaTa MaKEMvac. -<! LW� o DER Also a PN (Wilhelm 1909: 321).190 pupaAov oETYM Onomatopoeic word to express joy.). the meaning rather suggests a Pre-Greek word.). �a�upTa<. o ETYM Cf. 'sediment of olive-oil (Maced. The terms with papa(K).). papuT]' XElflappoc.. [m.. . which is doubful. in view of the variation a/ E.]? . 'the part within the jaws'(?) (H. On pupaAov .. �a�pqv [?] .] . (?) and E-M s.? ] 'winter-flowing mud' (H. baburrus 'stultus.] 'to chirp'. KaTExoflEva 'the gums of the teeth. . 'bawler. � papu(w.] . cf.). �a�aAov [n. the jaws. on bal-. relates it to PU1tTW . see also Pok.v. Isid. � PUpT]KEC.' Ta oUAa nov 6MvTWV. but this root ends in * h3.

see Solmsen 1909: 1391• One may think of a connection with OP baga.).).). (11. cf. � puuKavo c. BUKLC. Possibly from *PUK-UKELV (Schwyzer: 708.. accepted by Pok.). -PUTaAOC. ex Philet.' (lA. �MTJv -palvw. [m.. [adj.'lord. 'rich'. 2.. -<! PG (S) � . 'warm (Lacon. is not analogical after neveOC. high'. (Horn. 'depth' (11. [m..)' (H. 'foolish/idle. Pers. paeLaTOC. or � pueOC. KAciufla apTou <�> flu('lC. -TaTOC.. Not related to PU1tTW (and poepOC. AciUKELV).) (H... -<! GR� oETYM Probably a contamination of piyoC. might be Pre-Greek (Fur. fleyac.).). �aeu<. oETYM Cf... but Heitsch Glotta 46 (1968): 74f. PUUKE LV ' AeYELV (which Latte deletes). AUKWVEC.: 217). noAuc.) and pueOC.1 191 �ayaio<. � papa(w (the objections of DELG are hardly decisive). pUYflaTa [pl. peveOC.] 'deep. -<! ONOM� oVAR Only present stem.] (A. See also � aPaK�C. � ZEUC. -<! ONOM. sink (intr. �ala [f. �a�pua -flaOpua. rumour' (Emp. �ayapov [adj. say' often of nonsense (11.. etc. Taxuc. 'piece . the people's name BayaMovEC.) (cf. which suggests lE origin. <DpUyLOC.]).] . -UKO<. 'go down.) -<! ?� oETYM No etymology. XALapov.. but there are no further etymological connections. Schmitt Sprache 9 (1963): 3847 reads BaAaloc. oDER Grades of compar. returns to Bayaloc. many. (as per Schwyzer RhM 81 (1932): 201. swift' (H. (ayvuflL) and ayoC...). 1950: 52). H. �MLOV -PUTOC. �aepov -palvw. (Seiler .. see Leumann Glotta 32 (1953): 218. -AELfloC. rarely pUe LOV. � pauuoc. -UAAOC. KaL aTpaT'lY0c. 'word.). Onomatopoeic. great.). 465). 56: 64ff. of cake or barley-cake. �ayo<. -<! IE?� oCOMP Many compounds with paeu-: e. [m.] 'grandmother' (Str. -<! ?� oETYM The gloss consists of two or more elements. puuuov. KaKoAoyETv (H. (Latte). � puyoC. and Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 197· �a�a<. On BaeUAOC. metaph..). PG?� oETYM Nursery word. or the Phrygian Zeus. as per Szemerenyi Glotta 38 (1960): 211-216. [n. paeUTEpOC.). = OP baga. Factitive verb paeuvw (11. [Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 232]). only an alternation * -en. �ai�u�.g..). except for pepaKTaL (e 408) and epa�ac.'god' (cf.. AUKWVEC. Besides peveOC. KaL pamAEuc. �a�w [v. -KoAnoc.: -1}. both a king and general (Lacon.] 'id.can be reconstructed..] 'to speak.] 'pelican' (Hdn. mainly in an ethical sense). god' (cf.. Pisani KZ 67 (1940): III thinks pamAEuc.). cf. Gr.] ? .] . 637 [lyr.. can hardly be separated from PUUKELV. but see Petersen AmJPh. nor to � p� uua. 0 flUTaLOC. (H.) (Ph.). oETYM Related to peveOC. Choerob. oDER PU�LC.

] 'step...). (ll.] 'step'. -0. further. Other presents: 1. • • �a16.). �aT6<.). 2. Further. perf. from *gWanje/o. �o. seen back in Skt. qiman 'to come' and Skt. agamam [aor. The root pair gWem. �a8fl6<.Pflwv.­ TT]<. £K-.). etc.ETYM The verbal root *gWem.l)l .) = Skt. £fl-�a[vw.DER 1. ��(Jw after £<JTT](Ja.[n. ��(JOflat. gaman. e.<.' (Ar.1-sk-. etc. (Tp(TIOU<.< *gwrJ. [m. From the root �T]-: ��fla. slight' (Parm. in compounds: uva. [f. etc. �Ctfla [n. <JTUAO-�o. �a[vw [v. (Chantraine 1933: 397). COMP uva-.). -OU [m. ��(J0flat (factitive £�T](Ja.. etc.from *gwrJ.] in � £fl�a8E<. . ga-man.TT]<. 4.) base' (Pi. 'stride' (Chantraine 1942: 300).(J8wv in flaKpa �. [m.) [m.). = Av.).] 'threshold' (ll. -�aTo<.TT]<. (ll.) see � �aT<. For �[�T]fll.). (�CtA6<.] 'to go' (ll. 3. 2. £fl. -6vo<. assimilation?). The non-presentic forms £�T]v. in compounds ll.(JKW.�o.'go'� VAR Only present stem.] Pi. -OU [m. Hence tlIe adverb �o.).<W. (ll.=>�o. etc. cf. [f. gdti. the noun ��fla corresponds to Av. (lA). also with nominal first element. Suppletive aor.ll (�[�Cll. cf. jigati 'he goes'.) . the second is a present in *ske/o. Mere.. �l�o. fut. ��at6<.). seat'. OpTU�.] 'step. Morphologically. etc. and Go. On the meaning of flETpOV TIapa l\A£�av8p£u<Jl (H. 5. Abstracts in -(J[a are derived from -�o. also denominatives in -£uw and -EW.. � ?� VAR Cf. like £fl�aT£UW. like tJ7t£p�a<J[a 'transgression' (ll. �l�q..(JKW).<Jl<. are derived from a different root �T]. as a simplex. <JT�(Jw). (Hell. inscr.). etc. �o.).(see � 8pafl£'iv) :: * dreh2. 4. �[�Tlf.<. �E�T]Ka. etc.8T]v 'step by step'. -ventus.8pCt.(see � 8l8po. see Chantraine 1933: 302ff. eon-ventio.(JKe..).. 'circle.] 'step.(�Ct-) < *gWeh2-.. £�T]v agrees exactly with Skt. £�T]v. and �a(Jfl6<. • • �au)<.<W (post-Horn. 6.. -�aTo<.80<. etc.] a small worthless fish = �AEVVO<.w (to £�T]v.) is very rare.).[n.<Jl<.] = TIE8tAa (Panyas. Lat.8pov 'basis. (H.192 �a[8- VAR �aU�UKCtV£<.. etc. etc.. 7. is comparable with Skt. pace'.(JKW (ll... � �a(JTo. �T]A6<. mostly causative. See � �E�atO<..g. cmo-. metrical lengthening of �l�o. �o.<. l�u�. � �wfl6<. cmo-. (-)gata.and Lat. Unrelated is � �afl�a[vwv. Shipp 1967: 39). -o. Skt.) and � UflCPl(J�T]TEW. causative �l�o. �l�o. �a8fl[<..] 'step'. �o. Also -��TT]<.] in compounds with uva-. cf.:: gWeh2. agam 'I went'. �c{(�u� seems to be a typical Pre-Greek word (�au�uK. DER �atWV.) 'standing over the fire' ('I' 702). (ll. The first is a yod-present. -�o. (Epich.TT]<.). �l�WV. The aor. 3. �o. -T£ (ll.. � �T]To. see below) in �l�o. mostly ipv. see also � 8ta��TT]<. 5. Chantraine 1928: 10. [m. identical with Lat. � IE *gWem-. �o. 'accessible' (X.. -�po<.(ufl-)�aT6<. • • . and -�aTo<. gaeehati. �aT�p.may be compared with *drem. basis' (Amips.] 'I went'. *gWeh2. � �E�T]AO<. = Skt. (h. Greek �a[vw and �o. The full grade is seen in Go. gati-.] 'threshold. etc.] in £flTIUpl��-TT]<. -�o. venio. [f.' TI£A£KCtv£<.has a number of exact matches in otlIer branches. ETYM For the suffIx.TO<. at verse end (Chantraine 1942: 327.(JKW both go back to the root *gWem-. . Stri:imberg 1943: 32. see Chantraine 1933: 240.1-je/o-. basis'.] 'small. �E�T]Ka (all ll. [adj.(see below). �T]A<i [n.).

�o..Va�OV (Lex. 9. .. �ahT) [f. . for the gloss �ahlov see � �A[TOV. are borrowed from �a[TT]. �ahLOv [n.). interpreted as 'House of God'. See Hemmerdinger Glotta 46 (1968): 245f. . b'j.� ..] kind of (magical) stone (Sotacos of Carystos apud Plin. � �o. in my view.S. cf. Also �o. 8lKTo.VAR Cf. bai. et Med.] 'shepherds' or peasants' coat or tent made of skins' (Hdt.VlOV (POsl. [m.).. in turn is Fi.N. see � �Ahov (not accepted by DELG).] 'id. 135) which fell from heaven (Dam. . If the Albanian continues *paitaka. Deities Demons (s.) . � LW Sem. to Hesychius and others. Also name of a god (t�li BnuAtp. Ao. 9 (1959): 12f.VT] £flCP£P�<. Diet. Mantinea.v. or rather pennyroyal' (H.] . �o. . Copt. H. also seen in Sem. Cf. S. and in the context of northern Syria. 203). of a greedy person. see Gossage Class. Rev.) 'made of palm leaf.).XaVOV and see Chantraine 1933: 199. Zuntz postulates a pan-Mediterranean substrate as a common source. yuv� H. The fact that the word appears very late in Greek. � ?� . paita 'shirt'.DER Adj.ETYM Unknown (see Pisani Spraehe 1 (1949): 138). �a'Lv6<. Bethel). With a suffix -k-. rather opts for Semitic origin. 123 (1995): 363-9)..flvtp. coat' etc. � LW� . �a't<. the word may have been taken over from a European substrate (Fur. words.) . An old Pre-Greek word is therefore improbable (cf. bethel. 94. Isid. and likewise Ri:illig. like OHG pfeit [f.: 378 takes tlIe �.] 'shirt.. Davidson Herm.VAR Acc.DER �aLTUAlOV (Dam. �youv yA�XWVl 'plant resembling dittany.] 'branch of a palm' (LXX) . we can probably connect Alb. 8 (1966): 169ff. from Gm. Parisinus gr.VAR u (LSJ Supp. .ETYM From Eg. Hemmerdinger Glotta 48 (1970): 99f.KaVOV 1 [n..ETYM The word has been compared with � � �at6<. �atV� [f. pap. Fur.'LOV [n. measuring rod' (Ev.). � ?� .). further West 1997: 294f.KaVOV 1 193 .DER �aKo. 37. with special attention for the sources. 2419) ..<. also 'covered hall' (Magnesia.KaVOV' TO UyplOKo. �o. Acc.] 'palm leaf (LXX.KaVOV 2 and DELG Supp.. etc. pap. the stone was given to Kronos instead of Zeus. Dura iiiP). �ahuAo<. [f. allegedly indicative of Pre-Greek origin. this remains uncertain.ETYM �a(Tlov was supposed to be a mistake for �A(TlOV. paida 'XlTWV' and other Gm. petk 'coat'. -LV. which is hardly acceptable.: 158 argues for Pre-Greek origin).ETYM For the suffIx. �a[TuAov av KaTE1tl£<.DER �ahwva· TOV ellT£A� av8pa 'shabby man' in opposition to �aLTo.24. (Srn. � PG?� . makes this tlIe most probable solution: Bayt-el 'House of El'.as prothetic. Unfortunately. N. �OTo. thought tlIat it was a Mediterranean word.· ellT£A�<. Go. fo. • �aiTu� =>�AETU£<.v. . Apostol. ETYM Zuntz Class.).] 'Althaea cannabina'.

93 gives other.] · TTWOV.. (with prenasalization). A. YUVUlKWOfj<. Lat.) (doubtful) and � �aKov (improbable). �aKTfJPla [f. a Gallus or hermaphrodite or a weakened man.. liAAO! TTapElllEvo<.: 311 etc. stick.'solid. Ouavyoallofj<. The suffIx -fjAo.).). with comparable meanings. The word is not of Gaulish origin (WH 1.DER Also �UKTpOV 'id. in S. whence �aKTpEuw [v.· cmoKoTTo<.. From baculum in turn is borrowed �uKAov 'stick..� ETYM See � �uKavov 1. E. KU�fjAo<. �aKTfjploLOv (H. and Nehring Sprache 1 (1949): 165 assume metathesis. �aKTm [m. -LC50� [f.-Dse. Cf.?� . 'camel' (H. nor is a connection with �UKTPOV (.YAR Ace.] = liaapov (Plin. given the a-vocalism? • �aKTpov [n.. lP-lIP).) <! LW Anat.194 �UKavov 2 �aKavov 2 [n. connects the word with Hitt. stick'.� . -100<. Maa6 RhM 74 (1925): 472ff.). Pers. �uKTpEulla (E. � a�aK�<. cudgel' (Aesop. . cf. On the meaning. �UKKapl<. . Pok. and KUAfj �o<. �aKTfj pl<.). pa-ka-ra (LSJ Supp. which points to *bak-tlo-. <! LW Eg. with a by-form �UKTpOV.] . aor. scepter (as a symbol of judges) (Ar.). 91). <! EUR� . according to Sch.] 'woman-like man' (Antiph. Kretschmer Glotta 16 (1928): 192 compares BUKX0<. Kp�TE<. durable' and Lycaon. see � �aKTfjpla) or �UKTUl· iaxupol 'strong men' (H. *£�a.] 'to prop' (arg. BUKfjAo<. bacc 'hook. this is improbable.. Ot O£ avopoyuvo<. 6 im' £vlwv yUAAO<. �aK6v [adj.). . KUllfjAo<.).ETYM Cf.). 'eunuch in service of Cybele' (Lue.] (Ps.� .is well known in Pre­ Greek. [f. [Fur.).'.stick'. .).).] (Achae.).). �UKTpOV [n.) <! LW lran.) by influenced of �aKTfj pla. <! PG?. .· .) very likely. . quite doubtful. Cf. DC). 'a castrated man. see Lucas RhM 88 (1939): 189f..). Whereas Fur. Also �uKKap [n. <! PG(s)� ETYM Fur.) (H. forms. suggests that it is Anatolian.DIAL Cypr. also OIr. ete. baculum 'staff.KOV (as per Bechtel 1921. baccar ete. 93 (1967): 229· �aKfJAo� 2 [adj.). Is it a European loanword. LW Lyd.. 2: 782).ETYM The word is Lydian. just as apoT�p beside lipoTpov. 42. metr. yakturi. and Masson RPh.] 'stick.] (Aret. <! ?� . Masson 1967: 100f. -LV. cudgel' (A. .] · 6 llEya<. iaxupol (H.) and �uKxapl [n. iaxupol 'strong men' (H. �uKxap [n.] 'Brassica napus oleifera' (pap.] 'staff.. are borrowed from Greek. <! ?� .). crook' etc.YAR Also �aKT�ploV (Ar. • �aKfJAo� 1 [m.: 115 compares �UylOV· llEya (H. The word is not to be derived an unknown verb *�aKw. The word is probably Anatolian (so perhaps Pre-Greek. in Hesychius.. which remains very uncertain. It has been compared with � �UKTUl .).ETYM Fur. ETYM �aKTfjpla looks like an abstract formation from *�aKT�p.] .ETYM Unknown. 'falling (Cret.: l28 argues for Pre-Greek origin (words in -ap are well-represented there). [?]). a woman-like man' (H.: 116]?). • �aKKapl�. liAAO! O£ llUpoV Au86v (H. 'big or great man' (H.] 'unguent from asarum' (Semon. �aKTfjpEuW (Suid. The word is related to Lat.

kind of KWTPEU<. 'stopper'.ETYM Old IE word. <! PG� . etc.)..DER �aAuvlov 'acorn-drink' (Nicoch.). and objects like an acorn. pap.). The closest kin is Arm.YAR �aAwaTlov (pap. The structure of the word is frequent in Pre-Greek: �aA-av.ETYM See Thompson 1947. For a term for bathing in warm water. -a-. Not related to �aAAw.). 'mullet' (Hicesios apud Ath. 306 e). From �aAavciov comes Lat.). Alb.. ace. fruit like an acorn.).ETYM DELG attempts to derive the word from �uAavo<. 'made of dates' (Thphr.).-.. Still.v.: 192) .].· iXeu<. -andis (*gWlh2-nd-). �aAavwTo<. although a pre-form *gwJh2-eno. 'to administer a suppository' (Hp. e. A different formation is found in Baltic. kind of carp (Arist.).] 'acorn'. bathroom' (Ar.] 'bath-man' (Ar.: 116 compares �upaKo<. date'.YAR Also �uA(A)Epo<.] 'flower of the wild pomegranate' (Dse. gen. Perhaps PG because of the geminate -KX. �aKXo� [?] a fish.).. Zen. gile 'acorn'.).). the word is certainly Pre-Greek because of the variants (Fur. (�aplvo<. �aAuvlvo<.(with �-. �aAavl(w 'to shake off acorns' (AP. �aAavl<. 'kind of fish' (H.).' (Parm. Fur.'acorn'� .).(so the -in. Lith.g. amd Stromberg 1943: 39. • �aAaUaTlOV [n.). . -av-). glans.] (pap.) 'bather' (Plb. 'kind of chestnut' (Plin.). �aAAlpo<.] 'warm bath. also name of a fish (Od. �aAavuplov [n.-/ -AA-. �aAapl� plant name = �puov 'oyster-green'.-Dsc.(> �uAavo<. which derives from *�elh.. . like � aaulllveo<.. 'suppository' (medie. Auxvl<. bal(i)neum. probably analogical)..).)? Also �aAavlTfj<. to H.] 'acorn. lend [m. �aKxvAo� [m. �aAavow 'to fasten with a �.).ETYM If the gloss is correct. �aAavITl<.] = lipTo� aTToolTfj<.) would also have to give Arm. 'bread baked in hot ashes' (Nie. Gal. 'fastened with a �. 2. �oTavfj TplqmAAo<. we might expect Pre-Greek origin. Saint-Denis 1947 and Stromberg 1943: 96. nta). e. 'rose campion' (Ps. Tosk lende [f.ETYM Unknown. HA 498 b 8) . kalin.. .and the suffIx -UA-. <! ?� . ETYM See Thompson 1947 s. �aAavo� [f.) with the Latin suffIx -arium..ETYM Unexplained. Perhaps Pre-Greek because of -11.). Kva<pElov : Kva<pEu<. this is uncertain. <! PG?� YAR Also �aAAapl<. which is probably an Aegaean custom. �aAavwofj<. 'stopper' (Hp. TTOlO<. 'acorn' as 'stopper'.' (Ar. rather 'Bactrian'. <! PG� . CS ieludb « *iel9db < *gWelh2-end-). kalnoy 'acorn'. but this is improbable. Several related forms have a dental suffIx: Lat. [m. <! IE *gWlh2. (-ElTfj<.] a freshwater fish. �aAaypo� [m.�aAauaTlOV 195 . -an. Fr. Verbs: 1. • �aAavciov [n. <! PG?� . �aAavfjp0<.). 121). Elean. <! PG(Y)� . as Bactrian camels were famous (Arist. �aAlvo<. 'three-leaved plant' (H. 'like a �.DER �aAavEu<.) (Arist.).' (Thphr. as a basis of further derivatives (cf. .

Since *b. For the Albanian word. and other color adjectives in -l(F)oC.). cf. name of a horse of Achilles (11. (Iber. 'dyer'? . the genuinely Greek cognate would have to be � cpaAloc. 'provided with cavities' (Hp. who connects it with �aAAw. KV'lf.] = aLKuc.. a�aA£ (= a.: 301 compares � �aAAwT� 'Ballota nigra' (Dsc.DER �aAaU<JT(p)lVOC. therefore. � PG?� VAR �aA6. Krahe (see Frisk) thought it was a word from the northern Balkans. . 635): BaALoc. �aAie. related to Lat.g. Older litt.tlC. turning post' (Att. Macedonian (Schwyzer: 683. 2). 69 (1934): 345. (Call. 1tOAlOC.: 118 posits * bhel-. [f.). • • �aA�ic. If so. �aAI6e. Wendel Herm. is mentioned by Frisk. ETYM The variation au/w is typical of Pre-Greek words. 1. �aA£) with ind. Moreover. (Chantraine 1933: 123). � PG� DER �aA�l8Wo'lC. 4 (1954): 164ff.. of �aAAw.ETYM See Andre Et. -100C.ETYM Formation with -10.DER �aAl8tKa (Kapua 'nut-bearing tree'. -iSoe. However.). it is perhaps Pre-Greek because of the variation -A.ETYM Probably an aor. [adj. and inf. after apyoc.. COMP �aAaU<JTLOupyOC.] 'purse' (corn. 24 (1956): 40-2.).). uncertain.). Cf.). Demiraj 1997 assumes • *bhh. Alb. .)? ETYM Cf.). 'wild cucumber' (Ps. who compares the Lithuanian permissive particle te-gill (quite uncertain).. � �aAALov. dappled' (E. 'swift' (Opp.). class. . • �an£Ka [?] . Athanassakis Glotta 78 (2000): 1-11 demonstrates with an extensive discussion that the word is of Illyrian origin.). (pap.. � PG (s) � ... is a technical term borrowed from the Pre-Greek (already Groselj Ziva KP'l1tLC. the meaning already suggests substrate origin. �aA�LC.ipv. . Jollis.). Fur. Pok. �anavTlov [n.�aA�LC.] 'spotted. ayploc. grain of gold' (WH s.).). • �aA£ [interj. � ?� .is rare in PIE. which is very rare (compare � aAW1t'l�). � GR� . hesitantly). . � ?� . form and mg. it has been considered a loanword from another lE language: e. since the gloss does not refer to gold.ETYM Unknown. Apparently.) bal(0uca 'gold-sand. we opt for Pre-Greek origin. etc. (Alciphr.).�cpov 'pebble' (H.).DER �aALa· 6cp8aAflLa 'an eye-disease' (H. [f. ".-Dsc.. the word contains a suffIx -£K-.VAR With a different accent (see Schwyzer: 380.] 'rope indicating start and finish of the race-course. balux. Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 198) is improbable.vTlov (less frequent). balle 'horse with a white spot on its forehead'. .v.ETYM The connection with Lat.VAR Also a�aA£. Huld 1984: 40 reconstructs *bhol-. pap.] with optative: '0 that!' (Alcm. because the fruit throws out its sap and kernel. Thphr. Illyrian (Groselj Ziva Ant. cf. Thracian/Phrygian (Solmsen KZ 34 (1897): 72ff. 3 (1953): 203).l-.� -AA-.

xop£uw 'to celebrate. and DELG. 1tpO�A�C. DELG accepts a morphological analysis �aAA'l­ + -TUC. Cf.. debilis.).ETYM If cognate with � cpaAAoc. �aAA�-aw). 2. see Paessens RhM 90 (1941): 146£f. e.: 172.. � GR� .).DER 1. but = KWfla(w. [m.] Festival in Eleusis during which stones were thrown (Ath. � �aAAwT�. � �aA(A)aplC. -flat.COMP ava-. and others. 4. . � ?� . 16). Lat. � �£A6v'l. . �aniov [n. the word might be from another language (Thraco­ Phrygian?). Stud. 'projecting' (11. -fjvoe.] 'throw(ing)' (11. �aA£lv (�A£L'lV. at any rate.). According to H. see below. �OAOC. etc. in compounds 1tpO�OAOC.). The ending -'lv is a common feature of Pre-Greek (Fur.g. the word is Thourian or Phrygian.. . �anle.VAR Less certain �aA�v = 1taA'lv (inscr. �£A£flvOV 'arrow. . �A�fla 'throw.)..).] 'projecting land'.).' (Procop. ava�A'l<YlC.DER BaAALwv PN (Axionic. Chantraine 1942: 235?). ballista 'catapult' (since Plaut. �aAALaTpa 'id. see Deubner 1932: 69). -�TOC. [f. �£AOC.). perf. 'dance' (Alex.-Plu.). ETYM Unexplained. from *�£�oAa. £(£A£V (EM. in compounds.. Many derivatives of �OAOC.] 'to throw..).) . (Od. � ?� . Lat.). See L. in compounds.] a medicinal plant (Xanth. 3.] = �aAAw 'to throw' (Sophr.). 9. and � �aALc.] 'king' (A. • �anTJT\)e. See also Fur.'Hervorspringendes'. � LW� .DIAL Arc. �anw [v. �OA� [f. . Ballio (Pt. e. � LW Anat.197 �aA(A)�V. -ewe. -�A'l<YlC. [n. who assumes a Pre-Greek root *cpaAJ �aA. the word is probably a loanword adapted to �aAAw by folk etymology (Schwyzer: 291). it is an Anatolian loan (Solmsen 1909: 138f. �aAAl<JT�C.'hit by throwing'� . a1to-. 'phallus' (Herod. The word is not related to Lat. .. 8. �£�A'lKa. known from the western colonies (Ath. Radermacher RhM 91 (1942): 52ff. hit by throwing'.ETYM Derived from �aAAw.ETYM Because of the incomprehensible formation of the stem (in spite of fut.. see below). etc. 7. (�£�OA'l! l£VOC. -�A�C.� .] 'throwing.) = �a<YlAlK6v 6poC.). �ani�w [v.] 'throwing weapon' (11.. Robert 1937: 156-8. (Shipp Glotta 39 (1960): 149-52) from which Lat. �OA�: see DELG.). also name of a mythical stone in Phrygia (Ps. On the meaning.DER �aAA'lvalov (6poC. . . cf.). �aAw. [f. efl-.] = cpaAAoc. �Ufl�A�T'lV.. but is not directly borrowed from it. O£AAW in ea-o£AAw = eK-�aAAw. 406d ff. hit' (11. £�A'lTO). Note also � �a(flWaAov 'aioolov'. See Haas Wien. also �aAA�aw (see � �aAA'lTuc. to dance (Ath.. net' (A. throwing weapon. as a constellation Scherer 1953: 203 .).). etc. originally probably 'to reach. javelin' (11. wound'.g..ETYM Unknown. 5. 71 (1958): 161-7. eK-�aAAw.).: 143) . ba'lena 'our Lord'.). also (£AAW. nor to Aram. IVa Lycia). On the other hand. ballare 'dance' is related to �aAAL(w.DER �aAAlafloc. Thracian people's name Tpl-�aAAoL? (but see Detschew 1957: 526).VAR Aor. 362b f. fut. [m. [m. 6. � IE *gWelh.

<!!! PG? (V) � oETYM Cf.). Schrader-Nehring 1917 (s. *gWal-je/o. �ap0aflov).(Insler KZ 81 (1967): 259-64). oETYM lA �aAAw and Arc.*gWelH-). and in �£AEflvOV (note that Fur. On the meaning OH�AT]V. and adverbs in -OT]V. and Stromberg 1940: 151.-t (see Haroarson 1993a: 162ff. Adjectives: from the compounds we have derivations in -�AT]nK6<. and -�A�0Lf. Few derived agent nouns.) in o.] ?) .-. 178 convincingly compares <paAOV' TO 0TEpEOV KUKAWfla TOU 0TEpVOU 'the solid circle of the breast' (H.. �Aa0aflov. � �aAapL<. � Amfl6<. The geminate -AA­ derives either from a yod-present PGr. 'breast' (H. *gWlhco-nt. galati 'to drip'. cf.). Balsam) state that the plant originated from the far south . but see Chantraine 1942: 435.: 172.' (Lewy 1895: 41). Deverbative �OA£W has been assumed for the perfect forms in �E�oA�aTo. from a simplex only �A�T£lpa OL0TWV (Alex. apr(a)sam and the variants TIaA0aflov.) = oLa�oAo<.. and OIr.)... argues for Near-Eastern origin on the basis of the -A­ (and Arm. According to Groselj Ziva Ant. However. For the suffIx.).). were derived from the compounds. 'Comiphora Opobalsamum'_and 'Chrysanthemum balsamita'.v.: 143 etc. *gWal­ n-e/o-.v. also 8La�A�Twp (Man. Fur. oETYM Assumed to be Semitic.g.). and Arab. See � �aAAT]Tu<.: 151 considers the latter to be a substrate word because of the suffIx. O£AAW (�£AAW) was taken from the aorist £�EAEV' £�aAEv (H. Hebr. = £KaTT]�6Ao<. 0T�80<.-).] a plant. Not related to Skt.and <paA. oDER �aAO'afllvT] '�ou<p8aAflov' (Ps. �£AAW.) < *-gWelh. ni-yniire probably stands for *ni-yna. (= LIV2 s.). TIapa�A�OT]v (ll. Av. Fur.... <!!! LW� oVAR See below. which represents an old root aorist *h. Formation in -(£)TT]<.e-gwelh.J. OHG quellan 'to bubble up'. e.(PI�AT]0Tpov 'net' (Hes. . ud-gurIJa-. 3 (1953): 196.v. see McCullagh KZ 115 (2002): 59-78. cf.). The old full grade �EAE. the interchange aul W is well-attested in Pre-Greek words. (ll. (Hell.g. Fur. while the appurtenance of ToA kla­ .'to fall'. � �EA6vT].. this seemingly old verb has no certain cognates. also found in � £KaTT]�EA£TT]<.). [m. atbaill 'dies' is highly uncertain (notwithstanding LIV2 s. The form �AT]. �aAO'a�ov [n. 8.: 301 compares � �aAau0TLOv (also -w0nov). basam. basam 'id.] ([n. both the shrub and its oil (Arist. *gwelh..'delay' (ll. ToB klayii.. <!!! PG� oETYM Unknown.). which is certain for £�AT]TO (see Francis Clotta 52 (1974): 11-30). and connects TIEAEfll�W).). perhaps for originally athematic *gwJ-n (e) h. etc. cf. -O£AAW point to original *gW_.fl<PL�OAEU<. The variation bertween �aAfl. Skt. �E�OAT]fl£vo<. basamu. the word is Pre­ Greek.lO<. � �A�TpOV. Akk. �aA�OC. etc. Remarkably. Stromberg 1944: 38.-Dsk.f. 'OTIO�aA0aflov' (Plin.-C-.. as is the suffIx -WT-.or from a nasal present PGr. while £�aAov continues the zero grade of the same root aorist: 3Fl. Aet.] 'balsam'.). nouns in -w<. The full-grade in Arc. See � �ouAoflm. 2. 'Ballota nigra' (Dsc.-teh2-. in £KaTT]�EA£-TT]<. e. �aAAwT� [f. -�Ar10Tpov (on the 0 see Schwyzer: 706) in o.�OAEU<.points to Pre-Greek origin. � �MAL<..derives from the zero grade *gWlh.

� �afl�aKLov.· KaXAaafl6<. others: women using charms. 3.. <!!! LW India?� oVAR �afl�aKou<. � �a�a�£lv. Robert 1963: 153 (the treatment of Campanile SSL 3 (1963): 83-85 is incorrect). <!!! LW India?� oVAR TIafl�aKI<. stammer' (K 375.l.).). oDER �afl�aKo£lO�<. Unclear is whether � �U000<. XapLV' <papflaK£la<:. under the improbable assumption that the fish was named after the sound it makes (e. Cf. as per Schwyzer: 647. See Weber RhM 82 (1933): 1932• Not related to �alvw. (AP 6.). <!!! ?� oETYM Probably two words.6. genitals (Phrygian) (H. Theophrastus says that it was found near the Persian Gulf.] kind of sprat (Epich. Another Gr.] 'cotton' (Suidas s.).). The basis is identical with that of the word for 'cotton'. � o. �afl�aKu�w (Hippon.' (AB) . TOU<. 'not seasoned'. by comparison with �afl�paafl6<. for which there are no obvious cognates.] 'of an artisan. designation is £pL6�UAOV. etc. �E�paOa· o.�avaU00<. -OV 199 (Africa) and became known only after Alexander. Hal.. as well as �afl�aA£iv (H.. TIafl�a� (Suid.). �a��pa()wv. KIALKE<. Cf. -ov [adj.). Oss. the meaning 'AaAou0m' must have arisen secondarily. in Pausanias also means 'cotton'. Bion. -aflo<. m. 'vulgar' (rA).v. bombasin.<puT]. bambax.. xapLv 'thanks to sorcery' (both H. [f. �a��aKEUTpLaL [f. through the influence of �6fl�U� (because of the formal and semantic resemblance?).). OL O£ AaAou0m 'tricksters. �avauO'oc. bambagia.)..v. bcembceg. Cf. Chantraine 1933: 360f. See L. Hdt. animal names like � TEV8pT]owv. -OVOC. 'a garment.254. �afl�aAU�w (Phryn.�afl�aKwTO<.] 'to chatter with the teeth. TIafl�a�).). <!!! PG (s) � oDER �avau0Ia. see Schwyzer: 494 and Chantraine 1933: 133. bambagium with Hal.). Stromberg 1943: 63ff. AP). oETYM Cotton is first mentioned in an inscription by Sanherib. <papflaKou<. TEpT]OWV (Schwyzer: 529f. For the formation. oETYM A word for medicine or charms. oDER flEfl�pa<pua s.). Myrin. others: chattering women'. metaph. see also � KapTIa00<. � �afl�aKEUTpLaL.(Dsc.] . also TO O£ �afl�aKEla<. 3. flayyavEuTpLm. From Greek were borrowed Lat.106 describes it as Indian. . the word is rather Pre-Greek. �a��aAov · Lflanov· Kat TO aioolov.. � �a�aAov. artisan'. On plant names in -aflov. <!!! PG? (V) � oVAR �Efl�pa<. flEfl�pa<. OL O£ <papflaKL00m. whence Arm. cf. For 'cotton'. Pliny uses the word gossypium. MoHG Baumwolle. <DpUYE<. bombagio. oETYM The word has been derived from �pa�w. KaAOU0LV 'the Cilicians call drugs �. <!!! ONOM� oETYM Onomatopoeic verb. We find the word in MP pambak..).16).. v. yoyyu�w. �a��aKLov [n.g. Given the formal variants.8EplvT]v 'kind of smelt' (H. cf.. 'splashing of water' and �afl�pa00£l' 0pYI�£Tm 'is angry' (Cyr. H. of food (Pyrgion apud Ath.. MoFr. Also o. for �Ofl�UK. bambak. (Aristomen. cotton was thought to have a medicinal effect. �a��a[vw [v. .).

<! PG� .:. (see Pre-Greek).. �anTw [v.. ATTLKol 8E: p�p'1Ka. Evidently. H. and that the gloss contains *Fapv-.(?).:. pa'\laL.VAR p€pe0pov (Horn. 40. we have to disregard that as folk etymology (Kretschmer Glotta 21 (1933): 178). ETYM Often considered to be a yod-present comparable to ON kvefja 'to press down. The by-form pUTITeLv· paTITI�£Lv (H. also. <! PG� ..:..) . <! ?� VAR Aor.).:.:. verb paTITI�w. see Beekes 1969: 193 (on alleged Illyrian cognates.] . any metal worker or goldsmith is a pavauao.v. in common usage. the word is rather Pre-Greek. • • • �apa6pov [n.ETYM Pre-Greek. 2.:. � xpuaoxoo.). DER 1.] 'vase used as a measure' (pap. immerse. as in pavv£La 'piste des moutons'.). For the suffIx -ao. Fur.:. [m.). KUPlw.VAR P�P'1� (Ath. 6801 napa TapaVTlvOl':.). xaAKeu. cf. napa� (Test. at Ao�ol Kal fl� ieuTeVeL':. a haplology from *pmyvauao. like � cpapay�. . Kafllvou. attractive).).) is perhaps formed analogically after OUTIT£LV (see � ouw) or KunTeLv. it is rather a Pre-Greek word.:.] 'to immerse..:. . the same as pavvaTpOl' (H..200 pavv6:raL . abyss'. choke' and OSw.:.).). �aVUJT()':. cf. [m..:.: 116 compares paAaypo.:. However. KOflnaao. see Pre-Greek (the -w probably goes back to -au-.). kvaf [n. fla�'1':. which appears metathesized in pL1tTa�W (Epich. Chantraine 1942: 114). Epict.] a kind of cake (Epil.:. and opu�o.] . pavauao. <! PG?� . �apa�) -KO':.). Uncertain. see Krahe IF 58 (1942): 220). �€AAW = 8€AAw s. papKa10.. <! PG (s. pacpeLOV (Str. *pap(0) . Kal nil.· Ta npocpupaflaTa T�':..). also p�pa�). Arc.:. 'dough kneaded in advance for a cake' .:. which makes comparison with pavauao. the art using furnaces. In view of the variants. .?.:. 3.'.:.VAR Cf. Callix. and Lacroix 1938: 52.v. in turn a compound of � pauvo. light a fire'.:.:. 'id' (Antiph.I *gWrh3. n:xvIT'1':.· 0'11.ETYM DELG suggests that p. it does not reflect an original zero grade.01 0£ Kal T�V TOAun'1v 'it also designates the ball-shaped cake' (H. temper. pacp� 'dipping. Although this would fit Hesychius' explanation pavauala· nilaa T€XV'1 OLa nupo. 'dyer' (Pl.). for the suffix -WT-. H. � paAAw). this does not explain the -a-. Aeo!.represents F-. [m. pa'\lL':. �apaKO':. from which (through *P€p0pov) P€0pov (Euph.would give *oepo-I ppw-. (Theognost. Thompson 1947 s. papaKe.ETYM According to EM 187. pacpeu. nI'.:. tx0U.v) � .).ETYM Cf. paflfla 'dye' (Pl. 'furnace' and � auw 'scoop.ETYM The connection with � pLppwaKw 'devour' cannot be maintained: *gWerh3. a freshwater fish in a Boeotian inscr. so as to temper or color' (Od. <! ?� .] 'cleft.· TO O£ mho Kal pavvaTpoL 'slanting and non-straight roads (Tarant. 'any art using fire. o£ � m:pl Ta. �avv(iTaL [f. dye' (lA).:. nOlO':. .] 'depth' (thus Frisk). �€pe0pov (representing 0-.

ETYM A foreign word (thus already Bechtel 1921.).ETYM Foreign word (Phrygian? See Str.:. Not convincing are the solutions by Pisani RhM 97 (1945): 6214 (of Illyrian origin.:. 21. barbar 'foreigner' not of Babylonian or Sumerian origin. 'use of foreign language or customs. pappapLaTI 'in a foreign way. �ap�lTo. 'dirt'). language mistakes' (Arist.) -ov [m. 93 (1967): 231. 14. 37ff. a designation of non-Aryan peoples. Bechtel 1921.. called Aeolic).v. �ap�apo.] = fluaTpov 'spoon' (Ar.ETYM See Fauth Herm. 17). One may compare Skt. in foreign language' (Ar. 3..] or [m. <! ?� . . The word is most probably Pre­ Greek. <! ?� . etc.:. <! PG?� VAR � papaKe.). (sch.).] 'foreign(er). �aplJK£':.:. Tz. �ap�a� · t€pa� napa Alpum 'hawk. et al. PIu. forda 'pregnant'). .:.. (Phillis apud Ath.]? = Ta oDAa TWV OOOVTWV.).]/ [f.. from *bher. lO. and Pischel BB 7 (1883): 334 (to Skt. cheeks. also papflLTo. pappapwo'1':. 'ToAun'1 ' 'ball-shaped cake' (H.). can be explained from *barWm-? the variant papwflo. 96 (1968): 257f. 'foreign' (Simon.'bear'. to side with the barbarians = Persians' (Hdt. Masson RPh. Cf. • L .. adv. mayove. 2: 282 (as original *Fapo�v related to CipoaAo. Comparable formations in other lE languages are mentioned in Pok. with a suffIx -LT-. 'uncivilized. TO pLa�w0aL yuva1Ka. also adj .]. one might consider the possibility that this -w­ is the result of epenthesis.:. etc. clew of wool'. whence pappapLaflo.. <! PG (S. .).VAR Later also -ov [n. 2.:. In spite of Sumer.:. (Ath. �ap�l1v [v. Denominative verbs: 1.201 . raw' (lA).:. 636c) and papwflo..).). [m. A PN on Thera.) (H. was borrowed Lat.v) � . Arist..] . 91f.:. TOAun'1 'the gums. <! ONOM� .:. also papflo. fr.COMP pappapocpwvo.. . variants pin).: 173. 'of foreign speech' (n. as does Fur.ETYM Unknown..). etc. non-Greek'. 341). (post-Vedic) barbara. become uncivilized' (S. � pap'1Ke.ETYM An onomatopoeic reduplicated formation. . mrdnati 'squeezes').) wiili pappaplKLOv name of a garment (pap.).:. which originally referred to the language of the foreigner. and Mayrhofer EWAia 2: 217 s. [m. and typically Pre-Greek (suffIx -aK-.'stammer'. �ap�6. (EM 188. falcon (Libyan) (H.:. pappapl�w 'to behave like a foreigner. pappapooflaL 'to become a barbarian. Perhaps the strange -w. Hell.). AflnpaKLWTaL 'to coerce women (Ambrac. X. which would also be the source of Lat.:. From pappapo.).:.] musical instrument with many strings (Pi.). Th. balbala-. <! ?� .DER pappapLKo. 2: 368). [f.ETYM Unknown. barbarus . (EM 188.:. Groselj Slavisticna Revija 4 (1951): 250 connects it with CPOPflLY�.

=>ap�v. 'lambs. Av. lipve<. -T]TO<. Kal nepovT] 'the genitals [Tarant. l28. 2. is borrowed Lat.'. [m. related to Lat. *barw-ak-? or simply reduplicated. � IE *gWrh2-u. Alternatively.�up-.).'heavy'. � ?� .� VAR Gen. � �a�p�Ke<. baris. 3. �apu<. �aphll<. Toponym.LO<.). ETYM The word is of Egyptian origin.] name of a bird (Dionys.. . The ptc. oiKla EM (Messapian) and � �UplOV. on the other hand. oivo�ap�<. cf. see L. �apuvw 'weigh down.ETYM Cf.VAR �apov [n. . oivo-�ap�<. *ba-b[aJr-ak-? �apu. 'id.e. etc. The word is hardly related to �op£a<. �aplXOl . See � li�AapOl. and to cpapuy�. 1 [f.. Is the word from Pre-Gr. ETYM Unknown.). as per Osthoff 1901: 48.VAR Gen.]. Denominatives: 1. �apva!lEvo<. 2).). etc. 25. [f.. � ?� . we may consider the possibility that the word derives from a Pre-Greek form *barw-. thence (?) �e�apT]f. since the -u.ETYM Unknown. ... Morb. �apo<.. barca « *barica) 'bark'. deep' (ll.). any connection with � �apl<. • • �apl<. �ap<U>Ka aiOolov napa TapavTlvOl<. � ?� .).. �opT]f. Supp.] (Att. metrically lengiliened oivo�apdwv l 374.. �ap£w (Hp. -ew<. 17) with Aeol. (Philist. [adj. [m.] 'heavy weight' (as a simplex Hdt. �e�apT]w<. from which oivo�ap£w (Thgn. i. DER �apuTT]<. • �apUE<.). Robert 1963: 14-6. On the 'strengthened' form �01)�apl<. verruca) is pointless. 56). bart 'boat' (Hemmerdinger Glotta 46 (1968): 241). From �apl<.). [n. (Pl. 2 is not compelling. 2 [f.] 'Egyptian boat.: 325. oppress' (ll.lOO<. � ?� . vocalism.ETYM Unknown. • . Further �apo<.Lapvaf.).ETYM Unknown. T 122) cf. � LW Eg. cf. 4.LaL. �apuSw 'be weighed down' (ll. (Pi.).]? · oevopa 'trees' (H. (A 225.] 'heavy'.). 62).) already ll. Comparison of ilie suffIx (Lat. [m. sheep' (H. a kind of raft' (A. see Chantraine 1928: 16. (o'(v<p �e�apT]oTe<. which would explain the interchange �ap.� ·COMP �apu-yoouno<..]/ [f. in compounds (XaAKo-..] .202 . that the word is a conjecture. � �aupla .LaL (Sapph.). K 555).?� .ETYM Probably Illyrian (Krahe 1955: 39.).L£vo<.�aup. foro. Completely uncertain is the idea of von Blumenthal 1930: lOf. .] 'large (fortified) house' (LXX). �ap£w see below. -u')o<. Copt.] kind of spice (Mnesim. a pin' (H. of tone 'low.. ferio. with a from au). Fur. 3. =>f. � LW Illyr. considers all these words to be loans from a Mediterranean substrate. -om y 139.

).. Stromberg 1943: 91f. prince' (ll. 'quickly satiated' s. <J)olvlaaa. �aaIA£Lov. Ptol. �aaIA£Lo<.). basaniten became basalten by mistake. Helv. adjectives �aatA�'io<. a stone. qa-si-re-wi-jo-te IgWasilewjontesl. substantivized ntr. 'king's palace' (lA). further � �aaK£uTal. which is the origin of basalt. . B.and Go..). � iimw? �aaavo<.)..ETYM The word is identical in formation with Skt. pap. compar. (Lyd. inquire . and further with � �a�w. It came to Greece via Lydia (Auola AISo<. � �pISW . . for �aaK(av)oaUvT]. cf. KaKoAoyelv.). etc. �aOlAEu<. fish. cf. =>�ap�lTo<. 3). �aalAlaaa (inscr.] 'touchstone. qa-si-re-i-ja.Sb.DER Feminine forms: �aaIA£La (Od.. Kretschmer 1896: 2484 unconvincingly considered the word to be a borrowing from a Thraco-Illyrian representative of CPT]f.. � ?� . �UO'ay[Kopo<. 22). also �aatArft<.e. �ap(W)!l0<. examination. also name of a snake.v. 989. (Hp.LI. �aaKavlov 'bewitching. The word is no doubt of Pre­ Greek origin (i.). The full grade is seen in the Skt.. formed to stems in . itself. 58.).. sorcerer. .). Schwyzer 491. differently Chantraine 1933: 205). �aatArft<.' (Poet. which cannot be a loanword from Greek. corn. gdrtyan. is originally an Oscan word. gravis reflects *graus < *gWreh2us. See Niedermann Mus. in Athens' (D. inquiry (by torture). (S..)� . qa-si-re-u Igwasileusl. hypocoristic.Ak. (ll. which was used by the Egyptians as a touchstone of gold. � �plapo<. Denominative �aaavI�w 'put to the test. etc.DER �aaKavla. However. Greek has two other words for 'king'. -OV 203 . witchcraft'. -ov [adj. the a for b is unclear. de herb. fascinum. 36. whereas Lat. �aaKoaUVT] 'id. brutus 'heavy. kaurus 'heavy'. . See Sethe Berl. labiovelars are well-known in this language. In Plin. 2 (1945): 127f.ETYM From Eg. Lat. . guru.ETYM Is this word corrupt? See O.] 'one who bewitches. fern. (Att.. not a loanword from another country). Kretschmer Glotta 24 (1936): 90. � PG(S)� .). which goes back to an extended *gWrH-u­ to-. (by torture) (lA). Masson 1962: 173. cpaaKw. brute'. � LW Eg.. � �aaKlOl.). fem. Cf. AISo<. � EUR?� .. One has also tried to connect Lat.ETYM Beside �aatAeu<. Shall we compare a'V1Kopo<.. see Wackernagel 1916: 209ff. (H. 1933: 894ff. <J)IAlvva. (Man.] 'king (especially the Persian king). Denominative verb: �aatAeuw (ll.ETYM Generally connected with �aaKelv· AEY£LV.lK. slanderer' (Att.�aaKavo<.. perhaps ilie Latin and the Greek have a common origin in a substrate. �a<JKavo<. Athens 337". mag. is the youngest.. Cf.).from words like KIAlaaa. Diminutive �aatAlaKo<.).] · 6 Saaaov auvouata�wv (Hippon. �aaK£Lv in the sense 'KaKoAoy£1v' may have been influenced by �aaKavo<. Koplvva. baban. and � liva�. �aatAI<. � Kolpavo<.). Gr. Epigr. (Od. �aatA�'iov. etc. m.DER �aaavlnl<...). �aalAlvva 'wife of the lipxwv �aatAeu<. [f. Denominative verb �aaKalvw 'to bewitch' . [adj. �aatAeu<. [m. agony' (Pi..DIAL Myc.

[f. pato. -aoo<. see Chantraine 1933: 31. can hardly be due to influence of �6aKw. Arist. (Orph. 'bacchante' (sch. unconvincing. Av. = �aKX0<. cognate with Lat. • �a(JKauAlJ<. 771. name of Dionysus (Hor. p. �aaKlol' oWllaL <ppuyavwv 'bundles of firewood' (H.. basor (Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 660. Libyan). 109. see Beekes 2000: 21-31.] (Alex. is improbable. • �a(JK£uTa( [m.(compared to the <p. He further recalls Talmud. Alex. H.). 1..of a fox... Latte suggests: "< IA>AUplOl? (propter � pro <p)". is his link with Bulg.).. For the gloss �oaKa<. ETYM DELG thinks it is derived from �aaKw after the verbs in -apl(w. • �a. 'to jump (Cret. fascia 'binding'. aKapl(£lV. �a<J(Ja. denominative verb ava-�aaaapEw 'to break forth in Bacchic frenzy' (Anacr. apud Ath.). wasar. 9.. On the assumption that <paaKlo£<. -aoo<.] 'fox' (sch. �aaaapo<. aTlayo. is nothing better). it could well be a phonetic development.] an unknown utensil (POxy. 'dress of a Bacchante' (EM. However. Span. ETYM It has been suggested that the word is Macedonian. 22.(JKW =>�a(w and �alvw. The 0 of the variant �oaKa<. -0.) Thracian or Illyrian. gives all forms.). 251. �aaKap« £lv [V.DER �aaaaplov 'fox' (Hdt.: 168.<.] .(JKa =>llaKEATj.� .pa [f. 395d.). HA 593b 17). ETYM Cf. £Aaao.) from the skin . � LW Celt. nor is the �. bundles' (H. adduced by Thompson 1895 S... Thus Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 660. �oaKa<.]J [f. Copt. 4. H.).]? . EM). bascauda (also m-) 'metal washing-basin' (Mart. � PG(v)� . however. the word rather seems to come from a European substrate. ibid. . l. Mynd. Szemerenyi KZ 71 (1954): 212f.v.204 �aaKapl(£lv ..) . Also �oaKa<. Mynd. without reference). Not related to � <paaKwAo<. Lye. • • �a. which seems to be confirmed by the etymological connection with Eg. Fur. 99 appears to prove that the word is Celtic (or perhaps a European substrate word). but this would hardly yield the Greek form. (Arist. However. WH considered it a loan from Lat. as shown by blm and dll. aYKaAm 'fascides. III-IVP)... AB. . vasculum. EM). However.VAR Acc.ETYM Grenfell-Hunt adduce Lat. 885. is the genuinely Greek reflex. which would confirm its Mediterranean origin. Kpfin:<. [m. and <paaKa<. v.) (H.ETYM Herodotus calls the word Libyan.. Szemerenyi further tries to maintain the connection with . 771).). � LW Eg. Martialis 14. but his proposal that the Greek word is due to a misreading of A for fj.� VAR Perhaps also � llaaKauATj<. the variation has to be taken seriously: it clearly points to Pre-Greek origin (Fur. �aaaap£1)<.<.of <pa<JKa<.!f. Al�lOl (H. but this hardly explains the meaning 'jump'. and other bird names. 192. [m.· <pa<JKa<. �a(JKa<. Sardian busciu. proposed that it is Illyrian.).] kind of duck (Ar. 'impudent woman' (Lyc. ibid. <paaKlo£<. � EUR� VAR Cf. maskel 'basin'. patka. Lye.: 212 thinks that the word is Pre-Greek.

Lycia) . late �aaTa�m.)' (H. 2. this is uncertain.DER �aTaAl(ollm 'to live like a �. 'wanton. . Tpax�Aou<.). from the island Hecate near Delos (Semos 3). = 11PWKT6<.vlJ . � PG?� ..ETYM Johansson IF 19 (1906): 121 takes �aaTa as Messapian and connects it with OHG.) (H.. i. thinks it is an Iranian (Scythian) Wanderwort.) proposes *�a9-ao<. 4 (1926): 11ff.ETYM There has been an attempt to connect the word with �aTEW 'mount'. (H. �aaTay� 'transport' (Lyd.).).). . ete. . u11oo�llaTa. Connection with �alvw (see Schwyzer 1937: 70) is not convincing. The suggestion of Kretschmer Glotta 22 (1934): 258f.: 154. from �aaTaKa<. convincingly connects it with � a11aTaAo<. would be formed after �aoTjv. 126.· 6 KaTa<p£p�<. BOlWTOl 'necks.(J(Jo<. w<. Corycos.). which proves Pre-Greek origin .TaAo<. � ?� . (who argues against the accentuation �o. which perhaps referred to a speech-defect. KaTa11uywv KaL avop6yuvo<. · Klvmoo<. that �a8ii<. .). �a. 'anus' (Eup..). 'haAl<inm 'sandals (Ital. = �aaaapa (EM).] kind of sacrificial cake. 1. .99). lascivious' (H. 11£lalla. of a horse) 'to turn to and fro' (Hippiatr. �a<JTa.] . . Oslo. bast 'bark'. £KAUTO<..: 245 adduces the variant with -Ilv-.) (EM). rightly rejected by Neumann 1961: 19. and that -ape0<. AIl£pla<. � ?� VAR Aor. Pre-Greek origin becomes likely. throats (Boeot. See � �fiaaa. See Meid IF 69 (1965): 232. ETYM See von Wilamowitz 1931: 264. along with the interchange TlI TI O. *llaaTa� and Bechtel 1921. see HoIst Symb.. fascis (see � �aaK£uTal).aao<. Not related to Lat. Shortened (cf.<w [v.' (Theano). OUO£TEPW<. • �aTa. Demosthenes was called BaT(T)aAo<. however.ETYM See � 11aTavfJ. [m. see below. and a11aTaAo<. • �a. �aTo.] . in his youth (D.: 25i6 notes that �aaao<..] . 'a lewd man. Jacobsohn ZfdA 66 (1952-1953): 238ff. raise' (Od. �aaTaam.<. we find Dor. and 0P basta. (from *�aaTa�. 'baker of �. [n. overpower' (H.) and �aaTpaxaAlam· TpaXfJAlaam.] 'to lift up.. �aol(w is quite improbable. Fur.). .aaa. basterna. bassus 'lowly' is borrowed from this word remains quite uncertain. �a(JTa. 1: 303) contaminated with TpaXTjAo<.DER �aaullvlaTTj<. TapaVTIVOl 'lecherous person (Tarantinian) (H. vale' (H.· TOU<. beside �fiaaa.). from carrying on one's back.' � �fiaaa 'a neuter word meaning glen.'bound' (cf. [ 82 apud Harp. Here also �aaTpaxm<. �a8ii<. Fur.ETYM Schwyzer RhM 81 (1932): 199f. which indicates Pre"Greek origin. 11£v9£p6<.e. 18. hermaphrodite. Fur. that Lat. � PG� .. ete. -l(w (Ta 011la9la.ETYM Unknown. lascivious'.205 Hitt. could be a variant of �fiaaa and �o. namely pronouncing A for p and thus �aTlaAl(£lv for �aTlapl(£lv 'to stammer'. 180. yassuyar 'clothing'.) �aTo. �a8ii<. further �aaTpaXfJAl(£l' TpaXfJAl(£l 'twist the neck.. �o. cf. catamite. if so. Aeschin. ' (inscr. Klvmoo<. � PG(v)� VAR Also �aTlaAo<.<. [n. • �a(Juv(a<. However.) is a frequent Pre-Greek suffIx.). so that �aaao<.DER �aaTaY!la 'load' (E. � �a9u<. �aaTEpvLOv from Lat. Chantraine 1933: 31f.)..

a common phenomenon (cf. �Atxa(<. �aTlov 'mulberry on Salamis' (Parth. �aTpaXtTT]<'. plant name 'Crithmum maritimum' (Plin. (H. see LSJ Supp. Kl8apa<. because of its spines (Stromberg 1943: 47). 'frogs having small tails' (H.� VAR Also �a80<..ETYM If the word is identical with � �6-n<.). �up8aKo<. see Stromberg 1943: 92f... see � �a�a�w..] 'bramble. �aTpaXtOKol' IlEpO<'. [f. compared MoP bad(i)yah < *batiaka-.. on the suffIxes Chantraine 1933: 408. but see � �aTo<. the vowel interchange points to Pre­ Greek origin. and the suffIx -aKT] (15864). �a80<. �aTl&K'1 [f. see Bechtel I921(3): 109).ETYM The word is Persian.. cf. A widespread Mediterranean word.). �a[8.). ETYM Probably a loan from Semitic (Hebr. � LW� . � �aTlaKT].. 272.). 'Lophius piscatorius' (Arist... Alb...] 'skate. Thence the Lat.). Rudgren Glotta 38 (1958): 10-4.... points to � llaVTta 'blackberry'. 2 [m. also 'samphire..). Plin. LW batioca. Cf. name of a bird (Arist..] 'frog' (Hdt. S.). 37. and also to simple phonetic variation.. �p6yxo<. �p(JTlXOl' �aTpaxOl IllKpOt exoVTe<. 'a part of the lyre' (H. DER Diminutive �aTpaXlov (Paus. oupa<. Tl T�<'.' . (H. �aT[<'.).).).).. • �aTO<'.). man 'mulberry'. . see also Fur. �aT6£l<'. Dsc.) may also be a mistake.] and [f. Also a fish.). � PG(v)� . 'stone chat'? (Arist.. Stromberg 1940: 119). � LW Sem. 'skate' (Epich.VAR �an::u w => �atVw. �aTO<'.. �AtTaX0<'.). 'measure for liquids' (LXX).. [m.. s. 40. also �AtKavo<.).) (H. also plant name 'Ranunculus' (Hp. (B 813) and the PN BaTela (Hellanic. . which are rather Illyrian. �puw?).: 209. Suid. [m.: 179 compares �aTo<.. because of the color.. uno IIOVTlKWV 8£ �aTpaxol (H. bath). ETYM Several variants are due to folk etymology or taboo. perhaps after �puxaOllat. the variation a/ 0 points to this. �playx6vT]v· �aTpaxov.. 'cicalas'.. Also name of a fish. 784a. Crithmum maritimum' (Plin. �aTt<. Gheg mand.). as well.. identified as Dacian by Dsc. Rubus ulmifolius' (Od. Fur.] 'blackberry' (D.. if this • • • . (H.. (A(80<.] a cup (Diph.)... according to Ath. a mistake for *�p(a)T-ayx-?.. �6Tpaxo<. 1.v. • • �aTpaxo<. Lejeune 1972: 59f.206 �aTtw . 'thorny' (Nic.). This holds for �ap8aKo<. EM..).. 'skate' (Epich. e. as well as several other plant names pointing to *ma(n)t-.· �aTpaxo<. (H.). Pre-Greek) form is to be expected for all of these forms.· �aTpaxou<.). a local (i.. Not here BaTt£la = o�lla MuptvT]<. cDWKei<.).g. �aTpaxov 8£ Kunplol (H. .DER �aTta (�aTla?) 'thicket' (Pi.).) and �p6TaX0<'. ray' (Epich. also a bird.). 2.. �a�aKol' imo'HAelwv TEHlye<. � LW Iran. �AtKapo<. � PG(V)� VAR Ion. O'KWAT]Ko<payo<.).e.· �aTpaxo<.] a measure for liquids (LXX). which is to be expected for a fish name anyhow. See also DELG. �at8apa. �a8paKo<. -hl<.. further �pOUX£TO<'. (Hp. A priori. ETYM Bertoldi Glotta 21 (1933): 258ff. with displacement of aspiration.?� . (Xenoph. HA 592b 17: apVl<'. 4.).VAR �aTov [n.). (H.) (cf.. �paTaxou<.

Lat.ETYM A nursery word.] vase with a narrow neck (pap. prudish' (Arar. for �apaKo<. See Nencioni Riv. etc.. on �aHoAoyEw. 6 (1956): 235). affected'.207 is what must be read in H. 'nonsense' and BaHo<.). .. 6.and �a�aKOl are etymologically unrelated.'. 4 (1926): 11. also factitive 'to put to sleep' = KOlllt�W (H. Cf.). �auK6<. DELG suggests �auKaAaw..).DER �au�wv [m.' (H.).. � ONOM� . The forms �AlK/X.). bocal) Leroy-Molinghen Byzantion 35 (1965): 214-20.). Cf. � ONOM� ...ETYM One supposes Egyptian origin. the PN BaHo<.' (A.] 'affected. with which compare �peKeKe�. 20: �auKaAov· llaAaKl�6Ilevov. �pUTlX0<'.. For the meaning 'hearth'.). cry. nurse' (Crates) DER �auKaAT] 'cradle' (Sor. known only from EM 192. Lat.. �aHaplolloi<.ETYM The word is comparable to �aHoAoyEw 'stammer' (Ev.).. effeminate. Cf. � �au�aw . �p6yxo<. thin. �aTTap[�w [v. � LW?� . [adj. . 9).] denoting a speech-defect. �au�aw [v. � PG?� . . degli stud.) . baubti 'cry'. (Herod. cf. . 19 (1940): 98ff.. adespota 1304).vE<'. KauKaAlov (s. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 660 refers to Alb. .DER �aHaploIl6<. TpuA6<pwvo<. 4. �ai308w. of cows. vater. Is it onomatopoeic? Cf. see Latte).or weak-voiced' (H. • �auKaALOv [n. § 40. etc. 95.v.. (Herod.. 153) 'it means the womb/belly too. etc.) and � �iKO<'. 694. also �au�w· Tl8�vT] ��IlT]TpO<'.VAR Cf. The form may in origin have been onomatopoeic �paT-ax. 155). Cf. revile.] 'to lull to sleep.ETYM Denominative from �auKaAo<. see especially Blass and Debrunner 1959: Anh. like in Emp. Tpu<pep6v. nap' 'EIlne80KAei (fr.] 'to sleep' (E.). (is this form to be read for �pOUX£TO<'.) together with �aHoAoyta· apyoAoyta.: 1842. 6. aKatpOAoyta 'ill-timed speech' (H. w<'. baubor 'bark'..?) contain a (misread) prenasalized *(�paT)ayxo<. see Headlam and Knox 1922 to Herod. loxv6<pwvo<. � KauKo<. or. BaHapo<. which does not seem probable.] = aAlo�o<. .. (Fur. Kat wpa'ioT6v 'softened.).DIAL Dor. (Hdt. � ONOM� .· <pAuaptat<.. 'feeble. �au�w [v.. is a derivation from � �auK6<.. 0'1llatV£l 8£ Kat KOlAtaV. Cf. The hopeless forms �playx6vT]. =>�ai�u�.... . 19.(Groselj Ziva Ant. 'nurse of D.. See also � �aTaAo<.. 7. On the forms (including ' MoFr... Oslo. Lith. from which the forms with -u.. �au�uKa. . This in turn . (Phld. Fr. . perhaps 'to stammer' (Hippon.] 'to bark. �auKaAaw [v. Simp. on the formation Schwyzer: 478. or even *brt-ak-.) .may have originated (�up8aKo<. �au�aAt�W 'to make sleep' (Alex..ETYM Onomatopoeic form from �au �au (Corn.DER Also �au�u�w (pap. butubatta. . Matt. HoIst Symb. See also Pok.).· �apaxo<. 229) see � �aUKaACtw.). which would also point to Pre-Greek origin..

See Lewy 1895: 45 and Schrader-Nehring 1917(1): 84f. On � �auKaACtW. �S£Aup61:. 781. Moreover. 'suction' (Gal. Verbal adjective �O£AUKLOe.: 325 with '/IauKpoe. • �aup[a =>�UplOV. � PG?� .ETYM �O£AUpOe. the forms are doubted) and in �86AOe.). cf. Hebr.' (H. .).) (not a mistake for �£A6vf]). from �O£w is not clear semantically (in �O£AAWV· LP£flwV � �O£wv.). forms are often explained with fll(J£W): it is easy to understand that the verb was later L ..] 'women's shoes' (Corn. �auvf]· KCtfllVOe. PN BauKOe. 11. -t(w 'to play the prude.DER �O£Au(J(J0flUl (-n-)..).] 'disgusting. 'stench' (Corn. 'garfish. etc.. [pl. � PG� . �O�AUlO). see Rundgren Orientalia Suecana 6 (1957): 60f. is not evident). It is uncertain whether the gloss 'women's shoes' belongs to this lemma. etc. ETYM Cf.)...). .VAR Also �O£Ha (J. [adj. Kat <pM�£e. seems rather to be built on a A-stem (DELG.). 34) (cf. or a variant of *�o£HUl? . EN 1127b 27). A. bedola/:l and Akk.probably does not exist: 8�AUe. [m. '(stand for a) pot' (Eratosth.v. also = XULp01tOUe. misread for �OaAOt. YAauKOe. �£HUl 'id. (Arist. �Mnw [v. or *bYalY-). The meaning 'leech' and the group �O. see s. Corn. budul1:Ju.). Frisk). �O£Ha 'leech')..VAR Mostly present (rare aorists �MAae. as does the geminate -H­ (perhaps bdalY-.). � XWVEUL� pLOV 'furnace' (H. Adesp. 'a dance' (Poll. Tyr.DER �MAcrLe. 'varicose veins' (H.). �O£AUxpOe.). (Epich. �StnLOv [n. It is probably a Pre-Greek adjective (but the comparison in Fur. and -AU.ETYM It is deceptive that �MHw looks like a zero grade of �O£H-(a). these forms are just as difficult: there was no stem �Oc.] '(aromatic) gum of the oriental wine palm' (Dsc. the derivation of �8£AupOe. a suffIx -AU. fut. flauKUpoe. Herod.).to which a suffix could be added. Difficult �OaAOt· pa<pt&:e. � PG� .COMP �aUK01taVoupyoe. KPl(J(J(DOcle. . and <pOAKoe. �aple. A verb in -£w does not yield a stem in -£ to which suffIxes can be added. ETYM Technical term without etymology.).� . Also �O£Hw (sch.). �o£Aw8Ul· KOlAlOAUL£lV (H.). Belone acus' 8aAa. Theocr.208 �auVoe.: 236 compares aDvoe.(as in 8�-AU-e.).. .was certainly no longer productive (Chantraine 1933: 121).). (JauKOe.] 'furnace'.. For Iranian comparanda.VAR Cf.. act... for the suffIx. �o£Au�oflUl 'feel a loathing' (Hp. (�8£AUKLp01tOe. from *�O£AUK1"O-Lp01tOe. -u(J(Jw. yaA£o�OoAOV. -unw (LXX) together with �O£AuYflta (Cratin. cf. However. Moreover. �auKl(Jfloe. 8pumw8Ul' ( that it is a Pre-Greek word.DER �auKt8£e. If �oaAOt does belong here.(JcrLUl. • �aiivol:. it exhibits the Pre-Greek interchange -H/A-.] 'to milk (cows) (Pl. � LW Sem.. s. Fur. Max. One scholar assumed a suffIx -A.. � yaA£f]). PN BO£AU-KA£WV (Ar. but this is hardly possible. �auKt(oflUl. loathsome' (Ar.· KCtfllVOe. v. Plin. .ETYM An Oriental loan. . is mostly explained as formed from �O£-w with a suffIx -AU.

the word is connected with the perfect �£�f]-Ka. L£LU<pwfl£voe.v. cf. .] 'stupid' (Hippon. �t�TJAOI:. [= Fte.] 'stability' (Pl. for(c)tis.. to Skt. beautiful' (H.] aya8oe. xpf]GLOe. �E�p61:.. the word cannot be explained as an inner-Greek formation. Therefore. see Schwyzer: 326 add. (�O£VW8Ul H. � GR� .· L£LU<pwfl£voe. though the formation is unclear. Lith.. The word is probably Pre­ Greek.ETYM �O£w goes back to an old PIE verb *pesd. 289. For the ending. with the semantic development 'good' > 'too good. . useful/good. See Masson ad loco The prenasalized form indicates Pre-Greek origin. *pO-UG-lOe.DER �o-uHw 'break wind (for fear)' (Ar.reflected in e. strap'. 'leather straps with which the Lacedaimonians honored victorious men' (H. pedo < *pezdo.. etc. � PG(v)� VAR Also �£fl�poe.. to Groselj Ziva Ant. Cyrene �Ct�aAOe. • . m'/f. 5. 3 (1953): yte.DIAL Dor. also � 1t£pOOflUl. [adj. � GR� . bzdet'.with the frequent Pre-Greek suffix -01t.VAR The notation -£l.] 'allowed to be trodden. � �tppoe. �£�aAOe.] · (flCte. . bezdeti.. relaxed' (H.).). (?). � IE *pesd.. avaooucrL AaK£OUlfloVlOl LOUe. KaAOe. 'stupid. .. �Ct�aAOe. fart' (corn.). cf. �E�pCtSa =>�afl�paOWv. cf. � PG?� ..ETYM Like �£�aLOe. '/Iuxpoe.) Cf. related to Lat. 1tCtp£Loe.). lA). An. VlKf]<pOpOUe. correct? Debrunner IF 21 (1907): 97f.. bezdit. but the formation is not quite clear.'break wind (smoothly)'� VAR Aor. � apY£Ao<pOl) offer a persuasive hypothesis.ETYM Generally connected with ��VUl. Bourguet 1927: 9i . Cyren. [adj.).).).] (flCtn£e. > tOUlOe.L �£l£A01t£e.DER �£�UlOLf]e. Ox.ETYM We may compare �£�po�. 2. steady' (Parm. Cf. as per Wackernagel 1916: 113' (cf. [pl. and must be analyzed as �(£)l£A-01t. .. vieo 'bind. The word is probably non-IE. �O£w itself must come from *�zO£w. and � �8£AUGGOflUl.. is also problematic. stupid'. 'cold/stupid. it is hardly from *�£�a-UG-LOe.(KaAaup0'/l). ETYM Neither Solmsen 1901: 255 (*P£A.then seems more probable.was discussed in antiquity. . both components of which are probably Pre-Greek: �O. profane.] 'to break wind. See � �£� poe.). . plait') nor Kalen GHA 26:2 (1920): 105ff. • �t�aLOI:. � �pOKOe. An analysis as �O£A-Up.] 'firm. Thus. 'good. 'tie. [f. �86AOe.(see Pre­ Greek).. �t�po� [adj.. • �EltA01tEI:. permitted' (trag. [adj.and the suffIx -up. � PG?� .ETYM Acc. Ole. it is a foreign word.g. Ru. Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 235. 40 Masson).. 209 influenced by ilie meaning of �8£AUpOe..) and �O£VVUflUl· £KK£vouflUl L�V KOlAtaV 'empty the intestines' Suid. Lat.or -l. �O£GUl (AP) and �O£UGUl (Hierocl. � �O£AUpOe. �Stw [v. ve�tate 'wrap round' and *EAO<pOe. Lat. �(ppo� s. stupid' (H.).. denominative �£�UlOW 'establish' (lA). (*F£lG£A-£A01t£e.

Ballio. Aa8uptp fleYE80c. see Stromberg 1943: 36£· e ETYM Cf.: 389 compares YEA0"6v· (lTUXeC. assumes *PEAT6c. . Connection with Po. Masson 1961: 167f.KWVEC. PEAOVT) [f. MATOV' aya86v [Phot.] 'bread' (Hdt.� oETYM Identified as Phrygian by Herodotus. For the formation. [adj. � IE? *bhh. etc.. Kypros. � ?� oETYM As a hypothesis. EpEP(v80u £Xov 'pulse resembling a caper spurge (Euphorbia Lathyris) having the size of a chick-pea' (H..] oO"1tpl6v Tt Efl<PEpEC. But the formation is unclear.). just as Kretschmer 1896: 106£. bala.)' (H. l25 Masson) seems to identify it as Cyprian (which may have borrowed it from Phrygian as well). Peloponnesos) behauptet hat. (Att.Aeolic? PtA'TEP0<.v. fr.[n. .. On � apeATEpoc. 'unfortunate (Cret. Ao. OCS boijii 'bigger'. Lat. -uc. ptAE�va -Po. pdo�at -P(OC.).: 150f compares � 1teAEKUC. see O..2).l).). etc. Groselj Ziva Ant. . � PG?� oVAR Ms. � ?� oETYM Unknown.)' (H. On bala-. the best' (ll..210 PElKMiE<. peATtO"Toc. Ao. das sich in drei entlegenen Gebieten (Zentral-Kleinasien. (H. gelti 'sting'. Fur.] 'needle' (Arist. oDER From PEAT(WV: PEATl6w (Ph. both also as fish names. [m. � ?� oETYM Fur.. etc. PEUOUVT)<.: 297 compares peO"KEpOl' apTol U1tO AaKwvwv (H. Kp�TEC.. 4 (1954): 166 connects <paAA6c.): "eine altes vorgriechisches Restwort. Seiler 1950: 91ff.) (H. Hipponax (fr. superlative peATaToc. see the discussion in Mayrhofer EWAia 2: 215.AAW. Cret.� oVAR PEAT(WV (post-Horn.g. � ?� oDER Diminutive PEAOV(C. Fick 1874-1876(1): 404 therefore connected the word with Lith. -OC. but cf. oETYM Fur. 'desired' > 'better' (it is hardly related to POUAoflat because of the p-. (Hermipp.AAW is not semantically evident.). Lat. geliu. .). 'skins of animals perished from disease (Lacon. which is to be confirmed by its occurrence in Phrygian inscriptions.. and Solmsen KZ 34 (1897): 70. . (Theoc.. 2. (A.).. 755. cf. PtAEKKO<. [m.for 0. before him. oETYM See � dATj 1. Is p. see s.)." ptAa · �ALOC. also in Ar. 1teAEKKOv. o ETYM Mostly connected with Skt.). PtKO<. . OepflaTCt 8pEflfl(l-rwv v60"tp 8av6vTwv. 'buzzard (Lacon. [adj. ptULOV [adj. de-bilis 'without power'. 'sun'.. 1tEp6vTj. most notably the -T-.'strong'. (AT > VT).] 'force'.] TPl6PXTjC. � EPlOUVTjC.KWVEC.] ClTUXeC. on which see Chantraine 1933: 207.] 'better.) pevTlO"ToC. � IE? *bel.).'bake'.).).). o DIAL Dor.

] KATjpwO"wflE8a. 3.] ? aKp(c. ptpKLO<.). 'nitre' of good quality (Gal. � ?� oVAR Cf.pa8pov. note Gr. <pEPV�). buta suffIX -n. Ant. PtVETO<. a(l)bercoc. 3. 'grain of fruit'. 2. � K6KKOC. venetus.(without a preceding vowel) is typical for Pre-Greek (see Pre-Greek).KWVEC. 'partisan of the Blues' (M. PEPpO<.). fl£lPOflat with dissimilation from flEp-V-. it is unclear how this could have yielded PEp(KOKKOV. .] 'apricot' (Gp.)' (H. PEp peat· KATjPWO"at H.. PEpVW�Eea [v. 'women's shoes' (H. � LW Lat. LSJ Supp. PEPEVlKl8£c.] 'kind of headdress' (Anacr. LSJ: Antiphanes) of Berga in Thrace was famous for his 'tall tales'. 5). argues for Illyrian origin (cf..v.] 'romantic.). Pt<JKEPOl -peKoc.] 'blue'. betonica.)' (H. See Bourguet 1927: 634• PEpKVl<. the word reached French as apricot.?� oVAR PEplK6KKlOV.� o ETYM From Lat.). invented' (Alex. and Andre 1949: 181f. Sideritis purpurea' (Paul. o ETYM Kretschmer KZ 35 (1899): 605 and Fraenkel Glotta 2 (1910): 37 connect the word with flepoC. Str.] 'Paul's betony.. in the circus (Lyd. oETYM The word derives from the name of queen Berenike. Aeg. PETTOVlK� [f. 1801.. [adj.� oDER pEVETtav6c.plOV vhpov (Orib. Oxy. albarquq and Catal. � LW? Lat.PETTOVlK� 211 Pt�Pl�. U1tO AaKWVWV 'deer (Lacon. see Andre 1956..).. PEplKOKKOV [n. which was transcribed in Greek as 1tpatK6KKlOV (not in LSJ).. � ?� oETYM The word has been compared with pEpp6v and p£lp6v· oaaU. . ptveO<. -p6flpoC. pEpyaio<. etc.: 12950 considers it a different word. However. � ?� oETYM Unknown. see E-M s. � PG?� oETYM Evidently cognate with � PPOUKOC. � LW Lat. Older suggestions which assumed the meaning 'shabby garment' must now be abandoned./f. -P(ppo�.). pE�ppa<. � GR� oDER PEpEVlKo. 'we shall appoint (Lacon. which may be corrupt. -0. Fur. uettonica. ' £Aa<poc. Through Arab. [adj. 21.).). [m. -pa8u<. . ptpE8pov -po. oETYM From Lat. oETYM DELG mentions that Latin has the word praecoquum 'precocious' (perhaps it was considered a precocious variant of the peach). -iKO<.).).60<. -paflppaowv. P. Ao.). von Blumenthal Glotta 18 (1930): 153f. PEpptplOV [n.5). 1. � GR� oETYM Alexander (DELG. 'locust' (H. PEpEVlKLOV a plant (H.

53 (1968): 63f. E�Tl�a. -<! LW Phryg� . this is possible.' (AB 404. 23). ETYM Unknown. = ayaAlla at Hermione (EM 195. TO Ilapaveov.iurya-). aTa<puAilc. -<! ?� .ETYM Fur.-Dsc.: 212.).: l28 notes ��KlOV and n�xLOv as variants and concludes that it is Pre-Greek. see � dAW and � &A�C. the name was Prakr.. ��pUAAOC.VAR Cf.. . glott. Ultimately.).· ��ATJf. see Leumann Glotta 32 (1953): 2156• • • • ��oaAOV 'brick' (Moses Alch. ETYM The stone came from India in Hellenistic times.). which itself derives from PIE *bheudh-os. �TlX6C. H.1a . glen' (ll. 'vine that grows up trees' (H.(Lubotsky JIES 36 (2008): 96-98).ETYM Cf. �EUOOC. See Hesselman 1932: 94· To be read as FTlPl. is a back-formation from �TlPUAAlOV. fence in a river (Lacon. by Fur. Astr. 393. a town in southern India. the statue of a goddess. The word is from *FEA-vTllla. see Master BSOAS 1l (1943): 304ff.· yEVOC. avaO£vopac.). �EU(iiO� [n. KWAulla. see Schulze 1933a: 703· DER Diminutive �TlX(ov. • • �TJPlxaAKOV [n. pace Pisani Arch. 2: 373)· ��pUAAO� [f.). f. (H.).). 94. ana avaoEvopaooc. like the Il. �TlPUAALTTlC.: 116 is improbable. 7. Cod. -<! PG?� . 'beryl' (LXX). the word might be of onomatopoeic origin (but certainly not lE.] 'coughing' (Th.' (LXX).(Bechtel I921. AaKwvEC.] .ETYM See Pfeiffer 1949-1953 on Call.. also �TlK6C. ��� [m.] a precious stone.)' (H. a plant (Ps. �i]Ka [f. The word is Dravidian. The word is no doubt non-lE.). Denominative ��aaw.) .). 11. ��Aa = OlVOC. <ppawa £v nOTalliP. Stromberg 1940: 85f. but doubtful (on p. Tussilago farfara'. • �i]ooa [f. ola Kat Ta Ilapavea 'wild herbs close to dill. The comparison with -yauoTlC.. • �TJA6� . 52). fr. as a medicine against coughing (Lehmann KZ 41. Cat. compares alla�(c.] 'rich woman's dress' (Sapph.). perhaps derived from Velur.. also a plant 'colt's-foot (Hustenkraut). =>nTlA6c. 'an obstacle. present-day BeiUr.] ? . TraIl. Fur. veruliya < veluriya (Sanskritized vait. -<! ?� . ETYM Related to Messen. AaKwvEC.VAR �illla.212 �EUOOC. aVepuaKa· aypla Aaxava napanA�ata av�eOlC. (A(eOC.. etc. => �a(vw. ���w.] 'wooded combe. DER �TlPUAAlOC. perhaps to be corrected in Ilapaepov 'fennel' (DELG). -<! LW India� VAR �TlPUAALOV 'id. ital. is borrowed from Phrygian beudos. �ATllla. �(aaAov (Alex..ETYM The root noun ��� denotes the illness as an agent. -<! PG?� VAR Gen. -<! PG?� . he even adduces a Georgian word).)..

) . certainly related to �aeUC. I would rather take �EVeOC.) . but Fur. (Eup. �E�PWllat (A.). ziia.).). �E�pWeOlC. so that �ilaaa cannot be connected.) and opts for Pre-Greek origin (Bpilaaa is a town and a promontory in Lesbos.DIAL Dor. see s.. �a(v£lV 'to walk fitly' (H. Any relation with � �ue6C.. 'dance' (A. j(i)ya. �L�a<w =>�a(vw . 122). this would imply. -<! IE *gWerh3.).instead (Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 574) . �laTac. Knecht 1946: 34.).VAR Perf. Skt. . The first member seems to be derived from �ilVat. E�pwaa.COMP imEp�loc.] 'strength.ETYM Usually connected with � apap(aKw.v. like OW-T.. Desiderative �pwaE(w 'desire to eat' (Call. 0Ir.). (ll. however. vl-ga8. aor. .).). .] 'to devour' (originally non-presentic. *�TlTTl or (with dissimilation) *�ilTpOV = Skt. �(Tl. R.: 330 refers to the gloss �pilaaat· �ilaaat (H.). baidim 'sink into the water' (LIV2 *gWeh2dh-).] 'ravine'.). . �TlTapf. 35 (see Chantraine 1942: 429). Other forms are late: �pw�w (Herod. gatram 'limb'. O<. also Bechtel 1914: 81f.'devour'� .DER �Tlao� £lC. Conversely.'conquer. etc. �pwaollat (Hell. . �E�pwa£Tat (Od. Pisani RILomb.(nom.DER �(atOC.] 'strong' (Alcm.). pass. �E�pwKa (ll. see Sommer 1948: 12\ 1l7).e. Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 198 assumes �Tl-T. a connection with Skt. fut. Brugmann Sikhs. Alternatively.[f. �L�PWOKW [v. (ll.OC.).] 'dancer' (e 250. �laaT�p (Gorg. 51 (1899): 199' starts from *�TlTOC.(nom. Denominative verb �laollat. �law (ll. (Hes. that �EVeOC. as reflecting old en � n ablaut. �ilaaa was thought to be cognate with Av.DIAL Ion. for the late present see below)..'robbery' (?) can be excluded. 'using violence' (Pl. Man.213 .). gahate 'plunge' (or gaha-). Schwyzer: 442. [m. aVT(�loC. a derivative of the verbal too *gWei-. force'� . On � �LVEW. �aaaa . i. Cf.DER Secondary �TlTaPIl6c. E�PWV (h. -�a (Hell. ..points to *ft. 1.ETYM Presumably. -<! GR?� . 1l35). -<! IE *gWei. ava�pwaKwv (H. �laaIl6c. �la�w (ll.). �i]T« =>aA<pa. force' (ll. Ber.). reflected in Skt. etc. reflects a zero grade (*h2) ' �ilaaa has been connected with it as an e-grade root variant.). which seems possible. Ap. 383. see Fick 1905: 63).).) .). �l�pwaKw (Babr. but there is no clear solution.1wv [m.).). �l�AO� =>�U�AOC. I::!. �la�Ollat. £�pweTlv (Hdt.ETYM On the assumption that � �aeUC. though there is no other compound in -apllwv governing the first member (as in nOAu-KT�IlWV. jayati 'conquer'.. is secondary. �la [f.). �laanK6c. can be excluded. 73:2 (1939-40): 35 assumes haplology from *�TlllaT-apllwv. since its direct cognate Av. and �aeuc. *��c. ana TOU �PlloaIlEvwc. *�iie-�a.) 'violent man'. 'violent' (Od.

�lKia [f. � LW Sem. see Bechtel 1921. • • �l6u(l)0l [m. • • �l�aKiwv [gen. considers �IOUV as the original form of the word. AKpLOl<.) � PG(v)� VAR Also �UOOI· ol flOU<JlKO(.).e-gWerhJ-et) from the pres.] . the details of which are unknown. as 'moth' also �PWaL�p (Aq.] . OIKUe. £�pwe. Also 'l'uAci �IOUV LSJ Supp . . Lat. eUflo­ �opoe. Cf. etc. i. cf. utem and in the Skt.ETYM From Latin vicia. which formed a root aorist (which fits the semantics. ollflo.). E<JeIW is to a certain extent used as the corresponding present). 'they who judge in cases of murder' (H. KPLVOV'rEe. Sanskrit has a perfect jagara for *gWe-gWorhJ-e and a present girfiti < *gWrh3-e/O-. aja-gara.that seems to be set forth by Lat.gara­ 'eating horses' . the zero grade of the perf. On �L-/ �EL. nouns: �pw'r�p (A. (ll.) and �pW<Jle. Messenia [IP]. 'eatable' (A.214 . �pw'rov (E. Striano Glotta 68 (1990): 40-48.ptc.VAR �LKIOV [n. gfrlJa. • �i6'1v . pouiu (see � olou).is not well explained. Greek generalized this zero grade �pw-. fr. Kpouflu. . 'witnesses' (Solon apud Ar. dooe. Lat.. garft. 222). Kpll<JIV ( -TOe. vicia sativa (Gal. �pwflu (lA). carni-vorus. designation of Spartan officials supervising male youths (Laconia. for which cf. girtas 'drunk' and Skt. bn'l'UAA£LV �lollV 'rE KUL �UVUUAlUV". Further comparanda are Att. � Kpouflu'rL. aAAOL �Ieuv (H. even the case form of the lemmas is unclear. �OcpOKA�e.v.. 'eating raw meat' (E. �pw'roe. Skt.). Kathakis-Karamanos Glotta 83 (1985): 165. as in e. flLKpWV AleWV 'small stones' (Suid.] 'vetch'. A parallel formation was considered for � �£�ULOe. �pW<JlflOe.?. is found in The aor. -UK.aor. further regular in the plural of the aorist and perfect. ETYM Probably from * pOU<J-10 L. [2sg. (11.e. the Mycenaean PN wi-do-wo-i-jo. eker [3sg. �opu 'food (of a predator) (possibly cognate to the *gWoreh2.� . the latter agrees with OCS zbrQ 'devour'. On � �01)�pw<Jne. but iliis is hardly correct. fem. � �upuepov is not related. Cf. bizqa. bfz:qa . �LOEOL as rendering *wid-wos-jos.. � oePIl. flUp'rUpEe. ol 'rue.g.ETYM Lewy KZ 59 (1932): 190 compares Aram. Fur..'devoured'. Av. Hom. (ll.). The zero grade is found in the verbal adj. garat. However.) � LW Lat. tries to explain the two notations �LOU(L)OL.).). ETYM A musical term. small stone'. DER Action nouns: �pwn)e. . <Jocpwe.] (*h. also �pwflll (Od. .).could also represent the Pre-Greek suffix. see s..'devouring his people'. vorare may be denominative. Bourguet 1927: 9i.] 'supervisor'. Paus.COMP wflo-�pwe. . Agent .: 194 correctly concludes that the word is Pre-Greek (variation L/ u).'see'� VAR Also �LOEOL. aspo..] .. and louioL· . l8U (i) OL· <JUVI<J'rOpEe.). 'broken piece. 2: 355ff.ETYM Derived from IE *gWerhJ-. The form with -E. � IE *ueid. £lowe.). vonire).). Pausanias's �LOULOL is wrong. PG?(s)� . which agrees morphologically with Lith.p "we.).'devouring goats'. aor.) 'food' (Chantraine BSL 59 (1964): 11-22).

� PG?� . I. Robert 1963: 16-22). ol o£ Op£1tUVOV 'pair of fire-tongs. futuere' (Ar.DER PN BlAAoe. used as a measure' (Hemmerdinger Glotta 46 (1968): 241).: 325 compares a�IAALOv· avopciov ( Fur. jinati 'overpower. Hebr. [m.ETYM Egyptian origin has been considered: c£ Eg.?� . Basque burdin (cf.).: 232. considers Semitic origin.215 �iKOC. Av.). yet note the slightly different root *gWhiH_ 'string.VAR Rare after Homer. zinaiti.). fut.). ETYM �Iv£w is a vulgar word that is often connected with �IU 'force'. jiia. �LKI8LOV (Suid. � IE *gWieh2. Schindler 1972: 20 assumes a root noun *gWieh2-. as if from *�Lvll'r�e.'bowstring'. gija 'thread'. Ugar. brsl..VAR Also �LAAo�e. see Solmsen 1909: 65. nor to � �UUKUALOV. in that case.). with I from Klv£w.] 'vase with handles'. 142 Masson). (ib. however. � ?� . cf. =>�U�AOe. the Pre-Greek words in -v (see Pre-Greek). . �iAAOC.?.'provided with a bowstring'. �LAAIV 'the lot of a man. . �LV�<JW . wVIl'rLUW : [wvll'r�e. etc.). Not related to Lat. �i!1�AU. South Arabic przn 'id. 1tUpuypu. and derives the Greek word from *gWih2-o.). .. t 'oil flask. furthermore. De Lamberterie (CEG 1) proposes a connection with *gWen. Sem. sinew. �ivtw [v. Schwyzer 1950: 324 starts from an original fem. replaced by 'ro�ov. but the association with 'force' may be secondary. also a measure (Hdt. o-stem. apud H. Basing himself on the variant �EV£W.'woman'. fiscus. which is rather doubtful. .] 'coire. OFris.). which is expected anyway. DER Desiderative �Lvllnuw (Ar. as the meaning is too far off (pace Palmer Minos 5 (1957): 62). also 'bowstring' (ll. impf. etc.. depends on wheilier the meaning 'bowstring' is found in Greek. �l6C.). It has also been compared with (UEL· �Lvci (H. barzel. as per Fur. Dussaud 1953: 162). :] wv£oflUL.ETYM Fur. �ipp'1 . see Triimpy 1950: 66£. we would expect *8Ev-. commonly �LAAIV' (Hdn. Is ilie word from Asia Minor? .'string'� .VAR �EV£W (Olympia Va). �LAAIV is Ephesian if the form is a nom. E. (L. =>�LW-.] 'bow'. parzillu. OE brces.). bras(penning). The prothetic vowel may point to Pre-Greek origin.' in Lat. however. [m.. � LW Eg. but it is unclear how these words should be related. � PG� . OCS zi-ca 'string'. �LVE<JKOflIlV. The word is probably further related to Lith. nor can we connect oIv£w.: 294.ETYM Related to Skt. filum 'thread'. suppress' cannot be related in view of Av.DER Diminutive �LKIOV (pap. Skt. also Hippon. .(instead of *gW-) . this. -upoe. b:�. pruning-knife� (H. also 'r0 �[<.'. 158). jiya-. See � flvuoflUL.t flIYVU<JeUL 'to have intercourse by force' (Sol. Masson 1967: 78ff. which proves *g. Akk. • • �ioC. 'r0 avopciov flOpLOV 'r0 KOLVWe. 251 compares Svan berez 'iron'. cf.

� LW Lat. MUKE80vE� 'dense (Maced.) Cret. perf. plwmf.). known from MP as bidaxs. and the zero grade *gWih3.(all 'live'). PEppOV. V1VUS. With 0 from *gW Heracl. The Persian word is discussed by Szemerenyi Acta lranica 5 (1975): 363ff. W byrr 'short'. plppWe�vm· Tun£lVWe�vm 'be reduced' (H.Lm.VAR P[ppo� · oUmJ. EP[wcrU (Hdt. ToA saw-.ETYM The root ended in a laryngeal. See Pok.LEeU? DELG). bfitam [acc. PlWTO� 'worth living' (Att.). the festival Blcrpmu. � EUR� . etc. Diocl. P[ETO� will have restored the suffix -ETO�.ETYM Cf. Marc.VAR Aor. The forms with short i (e. PlOT� [f. P[OTO� [m. Skt.> P[o�. Greek does not have forms with long i.'live' (or *gWhle)i-?)� .Lm). . OCS iivp.. P[EtO� (see below).' (Od. �l(jTU� 6 W < f.). • �i(jwv. . OHG wisunt. EVOEOtWKoTU. bison. vlta. 526).ETYM Cf.).v. 1134.).).L£l� KAUO£UT�PlU 'pruning-knife [Messap. a borrowing from a Persian word for 'viceroy'. cf.. means of) life'. old subjunctive. a festival at pruning­ time' (H. . with l .] 'kind of cloak' (Artem. seen in Av.L0� 'to be lived' (Hdt. i. �iTOI:. pres. was the word originally Celtic? Cf.] P[crpT]� (-v?). In PN BLO-.) (H. (thus DELG). See Friedmann 1937: 92.). MOf. OCS iiv7J. � IE *gWeih3.� ETYM Certainly a mistake for * PlTU�.LWeU (h.vlvo. and in the thematic presents derived from this adjective: Lat. 1tlnu�T]�. EP[WV. ToB say.). fut. s-aor. birrus 'id. Osc. KUL £OpT�V Blcrpmu. (For the formation.T 216 P[ppo� �lPpOI:.). [?] 'binding of a wheel' (Ed. Dybo's Law (Schrijver 1991: 355.DER P[o� '(way of. Mlr. see Vine 1998. jivati. *gWih3-eto. Is it a European substrate word? �l(j�TJ [f. PlOW (Arist. jl-ti-. Amm. Later Greek has PlOU�T]�. Lat. Go. 23. OCS ii-tb. B[TWV < BlO-. 528 for * pElOf.].). EPlWcrUO (e 468). with a suffix -uo-. also Cret.Lm.). -WVO� [m. 614 has it in the form vitaxa. Wisent). One noteworthy form is � Uyl��.[v. PElpOV· oUmJ (H.). PEP[WKU.).g. (all 'alive'). �v �f. PE[0f. berr.] 'to live' (ll.' (ll.ETYM From Lat.LETa> �umAEu nupa rrepcrm� 'the second after the king (Pers.). which is understandable since all forms attested have a vowel after the root: *gWih3-0. Messapian? . *bifiya. and the article does not bring us much further. �iTTaKo� =>\jI[TTUKO�. also plwcrof.). peof. for the most recent discussion on this. MW byw) may be due to pretonic shortening.Lm (ll.].ETYM Unknown. and this in turn from Gm.LPEPlWKOTU. The Greek form comes from Lat.� .] 'id. but our gloss is not mentioned there.� saw. � LW Pers. �lW. � EUR?� .> P[OTO�.] 'id. � ?� . uitus.e. Ap. it appears in Skt. of which the ultimate origin remains unknown (Kluge22 s. � eUVUTO�. Nyberg Eranos 44 (1946): 2372 analyzed the first part as Iran. qiwa-. .'second'. if = Ef.) (H.] 'European bison' (Paus. which must derive from *h2iu-gWih3-es.openuvov Aeyoum MWU1tlOl. PlOf. med. plwvm. as well as in Lat. fact. Lat. [m.'. jlwi-.

. one would have to assume laryngeal metathesis *gWh3i.ETYM On the basis of the Cretan forms. Klein 1988: 272) must be assumed for pe(l)of.'life' < *gwe!oih3-0. EPAUPT]V. which require a reconstruction *mr/lkw-. A full grade I *gWeih3. caress'.): 257ff.(e.. Av.ETYM In spite of the variation. Schwebeablaut cannot be avoided (pace Anttila 1969: 137).). Myc.v. PM\jIl� (Pl.ETYM Unknown.f.yielded PlW-.wem (inscr. • � �Aac5£i� [adj. cf. Gr. KUTupMnEem = . apAon[u = apMp£lu. �wFo� is probably from this root form (rather than from the zero grade of the root. vwepw� 'slothful'. accentual reflexes. Verb pAumw. sluggish' and PAUOUV [?] . pAu\jIm.L0�.VAR These words are sometimes identified with PAUOU� Hp. gullakuwan. 166 = v 34).PAT]T�.g.-Cypr.).(probably old. .g.) (H. originally 'to hinder. AUKWVE� 'stuck (Laconian) (H.).LUVT]V). the interchanges U 0 and p � n are typical for Pre­ Greek. aouvuTol E� aoUVUTwv 'powerless'.c. gaya-. [?] .] . . kea-m 'I live' (see LIV2) is difficult to judge.).Lu 'untimely.). Aer. mulceo 'stroke. � PAU(J(PT]f. it is connected with Skt. � IE? *mld-u-� . KT]A[�. porous' and PAUOUpU· awpu. the development to -AO. mrdu-. 144 compares apAup[u . although the appurtenance of that form is actually doubtful.'soft'.). too. for mostly considered to have resulted from pAun. 20. mJrJ1Jcaite 'destroys'. see WH s. DER PAUPEpO� 'damaging' (Hes. � ?� .Lm. von Blumenthal 1930: 23f. Fur. Kortlandt 1992: 2374). as per Klein (l.(which is Arc. The aorist EP[WV has been reconstructed by Francis 1970: 76ff. and further connected with . With pAun.VAR pMpo� [n.COMP aPAup�� . Av. gaiia.T l pAUOE1� 217 analogically restored vocalism of the ending.-.) � PG� . xuuvov 'flaccid.ill. Kortlandt reconstructs *gWhle)i.Lwpu. gOjb 'peace'.. 19. .. Cf.vv. s.(in pre­ consonantal position) . perhaps PAUOUpO� 'bottle' Gal. *jya-tu. wf. with the suffix -eh.] 'damage' (A. *gWih3-eh. disable' (ll. AUKWVE� 'stain (Lacon.apAon[u with apup�crm. .] . and pAu86v· aouvuTov 'powerless' (H. the original form. A full grade II *gWieh3. mostly only PAUOU� is cited. mollis < *moldyi. . suggests connecting the word with . jiia-tu. mulco is doubtful because of the velar and the meaning. pAuk�::. On the basis of BSI. Puhvel HED suggested a connection with Hitt. Ef. �AU�TJ [ jlvatu-. PAUP. Since this root form seems to be found in Gr. but this means 'scheusslich' (Tischler 1983ff. formed to aPAup�� like KpUTEpO� to aKpuT�� (Schwyzer 482). 88 is related. probably old (Chantraine 1942: 311). also without suffix pAupETm (T 82.DIAL Cretan aPAone�· aPAupe� H. f. On that basis. PAUOUpOV· EKAEAuf.). seen in the Greek "passive" aorist (e. The same full grade is seen in Skt.. �� -v as well (see � �ww). However. thus. A connection with Lat. Cret. which must have been reshaped after jivati). Arm.'life' (Skt.).is seen in Av.> *gWih3. On the other hand. � assimilation.and in ORu. mfc. 'damage'. apon�crul. �Aayll:.) is not found in Cretan (although one might consider an Achaean substrate on Crete). the word is often equated with Skt.).Levov. Lat.

both of which are outdated comparisons).).). <!( ?� oVAR Aor. See � flUAUK6C.).(which would explain the long a) next to *mlh2-ek-.'. Without the suffix -k-. �AuKlUC. . stupid' (Ar. fut.. molcat' 'be silent'. Lat. I would take the variation in the suffix and that in the initial (presence vs. On MoGr. (all Arist. oETYM Formation as in yuuu6C.) 'leaf is often proposed as a comparandum. Skt.).). �AUaT�UW (Thphr. melk 'weak. 'id. oETYM �AU(JCP'lflEW and �AU(JCPT]fllu seem to be older than �AaucpT]fl0C.] 'bent. soft' shows that this group had no initial laryngeal. �E�AaUTT]Ka (Hp. �ACtKEUflu. slander' (Arist. (Phot. one might posit *mlh2-k.). �AuaTciv. (Chantraine 1933: 434) .). the synonymous � KEpTOflEW. is also possibly related (but not � flUAT]. nor � UflUAOUVW. oDER �ACtUTT]flu 'offshoot' (A. Connection with � �Aw8p6C. see CEG 5. *mlodh.] 'to bud. 'a kind of fish' (H. �ACt(J(PT]fl0C. intr.] 'to be slack'.'soft' and 0Ir. (Thphr.). is related. soft' « *mlii-ti-) may be related.). Its analysis is uncertain.'weak'� o DER �AUKLK6C. distorted' (Hp. etc. the latter connection is impossible in IE terms because of the prothetic vowel. which is reminiscent of uvopuyu81u (from uv�p uyu86c. <!( PG (v) � oVAR TTAULU6C.). 'bleating (Lacon. �AUT-).] 'indolent. blaesus 'lisping. <!( ?� o DER �AU(Jq)Jlfllu (Democr.). YUfl\jl6C. . sprout. for �AT]T'l]. mlaith 'tender.. 'tall' is impossible if the words are IE (an ablaut *mJdh-. Rather.). perf. <!( ?� oETYM Unknown. -KOC. � AOLOOPEW.).. �Aa(Jnivw [v. £�ACtaT'lKU (E. �AUaT'lflw.). although this cannot be proven independently. flEAEOC._1 . �ACtUT'l 'origin' (S. TTOL6C. grow' (A. <!( IE? *mlh2(e)k.). From other languages.. from 'weak'? Also a fish (Erot. The second element seems to be CP�flT]. too.. the same holds true for � flOAEUW 'cut off (and transplant) the shoots of trees' (cf. [m. 'id. absence of a prothetic vowel) as indications of substrate origin. �Aa(Jq>TJfltw [v. �AU�.. �AUKWO'lC. f. �AUUTLK6C. aor. . oETYM The aorist �AuuTElv is the basis of all the forms. which have no etymology.). �Aai [?] �AT]X� [corr. see � �AuylC. mlii-ta. OHG blat (etc.).is impossible in an adjective). flaccus should be left out. £�AaaT'luu (Emp. �AUlU60flUl. stolid. oETYM The word cannot be of lA origin.. �Auluwmc.) (H. Cf.).' (Hdt.. perhaps *�Au8-Tciv (or �AUO-. further � �AWUKW). �AUlU6T'lC. whence �AUKdu.). which may go back to *mlh2k-.). Ao�6C. If it is related to flUAUK6C. deverbal �AUUT6c. � �AT]Xp6C..' iX8uc..). etc. Denominative �AUKEUW [v. �ACt1lTW =>�ACt�T]. recent formations �AU(JTEW.] 'to speak profanely.). 'evil-speaking' is rare and late (D. �AU(JTaw.. whence �AU(JTEW (Thphr.. Perhaps Ru. the first is uncertain (�Aa�oc. �Aal(JOC. but Lat. AaKwvEC. [adj. trans. o DER �AULUWOT]C.218 � UflUAOUVW. Arm. EVidently. stammering' may eventually be borrowed from Greek? Pre-Greek origin is probable in view of the variation � � TT. Stromberg 1943: 33f.

oilier forms (e. oCOMP Often with prepositions. TTlvwv 'immoderately' (?.). goes back to ":flAEO-U-VOC. "Pour le sens ces rapprochements ne s'imposent pas. �AE\jIUl.' UU8EV�C. (Hp.. perceive' (Solon). the variations TT �. CPUUAOV 'weak' and U�AEfl�C.). as an explanation of mUAlC. (cf.. �AaTToi [v. H.). Also TTOTL-YAETTOL [opt. Fur. 'without courage. 75) . -VEL El 337. No etymology. Kp'lTTI0EC. The word is an onomatopoeic formation.] 'to see. �AEVU' flu�u. Also TTUpU�AW\jI (n. <!( LW Lat.] (Alcm.).] 'purple' (Ed. UTEPTT�C. (H. Grilli Stud. � � �At1lW [v. vv V prove Pre-Greek origin.). UUVMALU 'slippers. 19. 23. mucous' (Hp. or: strike with a sandal.g.] 'slipper' (Com. boots. [n. <!( PG?� oVAR Aor.).' £fl�aoEC. UVTL-. *-�AEO�C. flEvwlvW to flEVOC.). blind 'slime from the mouth of a dead man' (Pok. [m.. � TTA�UUELV UUVOUAl<. chatter'. unclear -EWC.] TTUlOUPLEUETUL 'behaves childishly' (H. blatero 'babble. . "Der sehr beschrankte Wert dieser Kombinationen liegt indessen auf der Hand. and Mlr.] 'mucous discharge.). see Stromberg 1943: 29. 131) . TTAEvvEpul = flU�WOELC.. ur1:la-mradas.). (Lejeune 1972: l24) . whereas this ending is frequent in Pre-Greek.).' ciToAfloC. idiot' (Epich. the word is probably from *�AEflOC. U8EVE'( �AEflwlvwv. etc. class. ot O£ Olu TOU TT TTAEVU KUL TTAEVVU Ta UU8EV� KUL OUUKlVT]Ta H. in a­ �AEfl�C. fil.). TTAEVVUl' flU�Ul H. 718) . e. . 33 (1961) : 201f. Panyas.). 'slimy.. KUVO�AW\jI (H. Justified criticism can be found in DELG.. If the final -u is short.' UU8EVEC. <!( ONOM� oETYM Latte ad loco compares Lat. ot O£ imoo�fluTL 'to put on shoes. flu�U' (Hp. <!( ?� oVAR U�AEflEC.). Also �AEV(v)6C. oETYM Formation like flEvwlvw. look. oETYM Although it is often assumed reshaping that �AUUOEC.). cf. � �u�a�w.: 144 points out." As Fur. �Atvvii [f. <!( PG(v) � oVAR �AUUOEC.: 144. oDER Verb �AUUTOUV' imoOEELv. sandals' (H.). blatio. 'id. oDER �AEVVW0'lC. �AEflEaivw [v.'soft'. results from analogical reshaping of �AUUTUl after £fl�aOEC.] a fish (Sophr.) is perhaps to be read TTAEV(V)-. � �AEi =>�AETUEC. without joy.'soft as wool' (would be Gr.g. it was often connected with Skt. UTTO-. and (with regular retraction of the accent) �AEVVOC. Diocl. slack'. or with a shoe' (H.] (Arist. oETYM On ilie assumption that �AEVVOC._1- �AETTW 219 �ACtTTa [f. �E�AOcpU) are late.). apud Gal.] 'to boast' (n. blatta.p. TTUPELflEVOC. 'powerless' (Nic.� oETYM From Lat. oDER U�AEfl�C.. TTA'lVWOT]C.).) (from Men. avu-. . mrdu. �AEVU cannot be IE.... <!( PG (v) � oVAR Also �AEVVOC. Thus. it is preferable to explain the variation T 0 as Pre-Greek..." and Frisk. �Aa\lTTJ [f. which is itself of unclear origin. ital. �E�AECPU.

: 218 on fl�pu�. �Mflfla 'glance' (Att.). KecpaAivoe. OL o£ TWV oa11p(wv T�V KaACtflTjv. Arist.. applauding' (H. �AaTTol). �mTu�} �o£AAa H.. 'nonsense. • �A£TU£C. cf. beside -u�.] . 'id. perhaps one should assume a second gloss (1. rare �Abtoe. epAuap(m. �AEepap(T[(SEe. 1t is possible that the verb and the noun �A£epapov are unrelated. But it seems more probable that they were cognate. the latter word may originally have been *yMepapov and may have influenced the verb. in that case. . . 'of the eyelids' (Cael.: 355).v. '(. �Aiipat [f. DELG s. �Aiip =>O£AWp. �AlK-. [pl. �AEepap(�w [v.. the correction by Latte seems evident. foolery.VAR Cf. aAAOl XOpTOV. �A£epapov 'eyelid' (11.fl£AY£l.).lf. is improbable. Aeg.] 'to blink' (sch. also �. Note that �A[�W is further unknown. perhaps of onomatopoeic origin. � ONOM. we find quite a number of stem variants. perhaps for �A£11£T(�£l. 'sight' (X. � 8£AWp. Groselj Ziva Ant.: 389.· �A£110VT£e. Aur. �A[�El 'collect honey.v.. �ATJaTp(�w =>�UAAW.(ae..). the word must be Pre-Greek. [m. ETYM Analyzed as a derivation in -TU. milk' (H.). o.).] (rarely sg.).' (Ar.).). Pre-Greek had labiovelars which did not always develop in the same way as their inherited equivalents. von Blumenthal 1930: 21 points to Macedonian YA£110U �A£11W. X.).v. also 'eyelids' (Ar. �A£". • = �AtTuy£C. which is confirmed by �A[TU� (Fur. 1 .pl. mostly plur.(see Frisk s. the stalk of straw of pulse' (H. (Stromberg 1943: 42). For -ue. therefore. Cf. with �I y and 111 ep pointing to a Pre-Greek word (Fur. aL �8£AAm 'leeches' (H.]? .) 'eye-lashes'.DER �A£"'le. However. a fish. [f. otherwise possibly Pre-Greek (cf. although �I y is rare. fodder. also imEp�AaTTuouaav (DELG s. ETYM With �A£T-. thence �A£epap(Oee. pace Hamp Glotta 72 (1994): 15). Xp£fl£T(�El. the variation was taken to suggest a labiovelar *gW_ with irregular development (see Schwyzer: 298f. � PG (v) � . See � �A(Kavov. oL O£ �A£KuyEe.' (H. • �Atepapov =>�M11W.). Expressive deverbative: �A£1t(i�ovn:e. Note that the gloss is corrupt (the case forms do not agree). 7 (1957): 42).).ETYM The conjecture of Stromberg 1944: 54f. �AEepaplKOe.XOpTOV . but is not mentioned by DELG. seen in KaTa�M8£l and Ka�MEl' KaTa11(V£l (both) 'gulp down' and �AE1' �A(aa£l. � ?� .). 'nettles. but rather points to substrate origin. and �A£11£TU�£l' �M11£l H. . and that the semantics are incompatible if �A(aa£l stands for �A[TTW. cf.). PG?� .] aL Kv[om.VAR *�A(TU� (ms.). �AEK-.�A£Tuy£e. for �Aa<JTap[�ouaa] · ETClKpoTouaa 'rattling. since a root �AE. Tp(XEe.from a stem �AE.). thinks that the gloss may be corrupt. 220 . 'eye-lashes' (Paul. ETYM YA£11W exists beside �A£11W just as YA£epapov beside � impossible in lE (the basic shape is *CeC-). *�AaTay[�ouaa [conj.\ . -�AaTT-. Fur. t-'ATjP' .

Cer. . �Aiixvov [n. etc. (Schwyzer 479).). Dor. �A�xpa H. The variation �.'sting' (Pok. Blanc 1999: 317-38 suggests connection of the root *gWelh. �-I yM11W. .] 'weak' (Ale. .v.DIAL Myc.. �A(�W =>�MTU£e. we are rather dealing with a Pre-Greek word. only 0 678 �U<JTOV KOAATjTOV �A�TpOl<Jl 'a shaft �r la�ce s od . uflu�Tje. cf.. o. � ?� VAR o. .v. o. there �re Gm.. note �ATjxuoflm in Theoc. [adj. Aspidium Filix-mas'.DER �ATjxwv[ac.. or added later to o. A.. � �ATJXq [f. as per Bechtel 1914 S. The factitive ptc..] 'bleating' (fl 266. Stromberg 1940: 24.ETYM Connected with � �ACt� as Ionic. �ATjXWOTje. Not related to � flaAuXTj. Cz.. Latv. CS blejati.). �ATjXUe.). Rohlfs Sprache 5 (1959): 175\ and Rohlfs Glotta 38 (1959): 103.. wedges. -oue. �Aaxa< must be a hyperdorism. also �ATjXW.. blekati. (olvoe.).DIAL Dor. fluKuoflm. flUKTj8floe. Dsc.�ATjxpOe. Schwyzer: 508).). (Ael. But since the word has no etymology. Scholars in antiquity were uncertain: T�e.. and. ..�ATjxpOe.ETYM No etymology.). cf.�ovwv 'wheels of a wagon.' is explained by Hesychius as Efl�aAwv. The variation p/v does not derive from an rln-stem..e. MoHG bloken. plug' (like in MoGr. YATjXWV[TTje. -wvoc. . 'bleating' (Babr.. MLG bl�ken.] 'male fern.VAR Ion.was either lost in �ATjxpOe.' (Ar. W1:� a d:�tal. (Opp. without the velar.).] 'pennyroyal'.). Chantraine 1933: 94f.g. �AaXPOV (H. aepTjvEC. (see Schwyzer: 683).). �AUXCt. YACtXwv. Dsc. 470). cf. �ATjTpwaac. �ATJXp6C. cf.would be expressive (thus Chantraine 1933: 225f.. tp11£TU. OHG bliizen. insertions. not via *flAuK-a-pOe. and MHG blrejen. s. but the reading is doubtful. YA�XWV. .)..: 388. 'prepared with �.ETYM Unknown.could be due to dissimilation (Schwyzer: 299). �ATjXTjTU [pl. Efl�ATjflaTa. etc.�ATjxpOe. oL o£ YOflepoue. For a folk­ etymological connection with �ATjxuoflm..ith bands'. (which is an insufficient solution).). bolts and the joins of axles' (H. the 0. see Stromberg 1940: 155. = �A�XWV (Thphr.. 'providing with �. � PG� .). a plant. Hist).). �A�XTjfla H. See Rohlfs 1958: 124. � PG (v) � .DER �ATjXUOflm 'bleat' (Ar. �ATjXOe.. words like OE blcetan. Kat aUfl�OAo. Trag.) .ETYM The connection with �UAAW remains uncertain.] 'bleating animals' (Eup. perhaps not denominative.DER �A�xpOe. �ATjXU�W (Autocr. also �AUXVOV (Phan. but points to Pre-Greek origin. but an independent intensive like �puxuoflm. [f.).. (11. and since tlIe stem formation is strange. ka-ra-ko Iglakh6n/. blet.1 221 �AiiTPOV [n. flTjKUe.] 'bolt. .).). all of which point to ongmal e. TpOXOl. �ATjXTj8flOe. � GR?� . • �AqXWV. e. .y. � ONOM� . see Fur. 'Mentha pulegium' (h.ETYM An onomatopoeic formation with many parallels. the -X.VAR Also �A�XPOV (Dsc. etc.

ETYM Unknown.).] 'to cut out the comb of bees' (Arist.DER Cf. EM).) .). �Aoaup6flflaLO� (Cerc. �Auat� (AP).) <!I ONOM� . �AlxavwO'l� (Diph.] 'clammy'. . • �Al-ruPl 'the sound of the chord of a harp'. as if it were Aeolic from lE *gwJtur(os). voltur(us) 'id'.ETYM Unknown.). on the l see Schwyzer: 463. ..). 43).] 'to feel. �EOV 'humid. LSJ Supp. zero grade denominative of flEAl.ETYM Probably onomatopoeic.). derives it from �Aoaup(6�) 'of a vulture'. also bliteus 'tasteless. perhaps 'terrible' (ll.). • 1 . �Alfla�aL· �aO"TaaaL 'lift up' (Latte thinks that this gloss is corrupt).). adduces �E�AlxaaflEvov (ms. • �Ahov [n.g. f .).). from *�AlaT�p. LW Lat.VAR �AlXWO'l� (Hp.] 'to bubble.222 �AIKavov �A[Kavov =>�Alxa�. �ALlla�w [v. however. U�Pl� 'besmearing.] 'blite..ETYM From *flArr-lw. 7 (1957): 42.).DER Verbs �Auw (LXX). Also EM 201.). Chantraine 1942: 208).184. �AIKavo� (which must not be changed to *�Alxavov). Ox. �Ataal. � uflaAouvw. �Aoaup6<ppwv (A. • �Alx(av)wcSTJ� [adj. �E�AuX-).). Amaranthus Blitum' (Hp. eaTL <pUTOV � <papflaKov � xopo�� fllfl'lfla 'a plant or drug or an imitation of a gut-string' (EM 201. <!I PG?� .DER �AlO"T'lPI� [f.�aTpaxov 'frog' KaL �Alxav '?' (H. Corn.] 'old woman'.ETYM Minon RPh.. �AlKa� [m. hence 'sound without mg.).flEfloAuaflEvov 'stained' (H. foolish' (Plaut.).ETYM Uncertain.] . see � �AITupl. -WTt6� (AP. P. Hp. 9. .] uncertain.COMP Verbal noun �Alflaal�· � niiv 1UeWV eAl\i'l� 'squeezing tits' (H.). <!I ?� . gush forth' (ll. There is no evidence.). seething' (H. blitum 'blite'. uncertain (Ar. �Ao(Jup6� [adj.' (S. �AuO"Tavw (Procop. Choeroeb.]? . -lTO� 'honey'. E.]/[f.). aor. mJKOU <pUAAOV 'leave of a fig' (H. Leumann 1950: 141ff. �Auolov· uyp6v. . �AU�W [v. (lTlflaaaL 'dishonour' (H. <!I ?� . <!I ?� . 74 (2000): 263f. Also = �AIT1'W (EM). compares �Aaxav· �aTpaxov and Artemis's epithet �Aayavhl�. -tos 'honey'� VAR Analogical �Al�w (H. 41. Not related as *flA-lTOV to � fluA'l. An. �Ahupov .). 2. <!l IE *meli.COMP �AoaupwTtI� [f. -WTtEE [du. <!I ?� vAR Aor. • �A(LTW [v. �Alfl'l· TtpoTt'lAaKlafl6�. Groselj Ziva Ant. �AL-rwva�· TOU� EU�e£l� 'silly' (H. . �Arro­ laflfla� mg. cf. Nub. �AlaaL.). related to Lat. Also adj. woman's breasts.] (Opp. <!I ?� ETYM For the last part. PN BAlaTlx'l. 1001. offense' (H. squeeze' (e. that the word is lE. ETYM Unexplained. <!I ?� DER A few denigrating designations of persons: �Arra� [f. D.).] (A 36. Most probably a Pre-Greek word. or to flEAl?).

(after Ruiperez Emerita 10 (1942): 386-407). see LSJ have yielded -aAV-.COMP 6KTa-�Awflo� (Hes. [m. see � �AETuE�). . Adams s.ETYM Cf. uYXl�Aw�· upn Ttapwv 'just arrived' (H.: 389). however. etc. not related to Skt. = aaATt'l . grow'. flOAelV. (ap.). iz-mOlUi *'let appear'.] a improbable.V.). Connection with flEAAW is phonetically improbable (because of the laryngeal).ETYM The present �AwaKw < *flAw-aKw (cf.[m.0 under the accent. • �6a� [m. . Further. H.after the predominant o-vocalism. perf.VAR yAwep6� (H. stem floA-E/o. �AwIl6<. vestibule' (Ar. <pU£laL 'be at rest. [adj. 'Box boops' (Epich. and 224f. a form which is often overlooked. flEfl�AwKa (�E�AwKE· � PEflel.. 3 (1953): 198 (who compares �aAAw) . crown') as *flAwep6� is obsolete. also assumes *Jh3 > 01. Wackernagel Mus. hand over'. <!I ?� . while that with � flOAEUW 'cut off and transplant the shoots of trees' is semantically very difficult. two alternative proposals by Frisk. We may consider onomatopoeic origin.1 223 . Byz. � �AwaKw "est loin pour le sens" (DELG).). ll. . The metathesis is not an independent phonetic development. -�. i. The aorist stem �Aw.. -at) 'approach.].wfl6� s.) . Cf.e.v.. stood up' (H. OE molda [m.] 'piece of bread' (Call.] 'upper part of the head. <!I PG?� .�v. <!I ?� . the verb may be found in Slavic. Haroarson 1993a: 169f. The nominal forms with -floA. �Awep6<. flOAOUflaL (�AW�aL.) . apud Ath.).. Maurice BSL 82 (1987): 216f.VAR Aor. TtpO-. fut. <!l IE *melh3. see Hofinger Ant. �Aw�w Lyc.VAR Ion.). attempted to connect it with <pAuw (oiv6<pAU�). 36 (1967): 457ff..ETYM Not related to �AE£l in Ka�AE£l (H. �6a ' (Pancrat. the etymology is unknown. and Fur. preferred �6w".ETYM Unknown.'escape' (and ToB mlutka-? Cf. .).then has the same origin. moliti 'pass. Ath. DER TtPOflOA� (mostly plur.points to Pre-Greek origin (see Beekes 1969: 215f. went. I would expect * -/h3-V. which was replaced by -01. See Groselj Ziva Ant.). Op. old absolutive.) . SCr. £O"T'l 'appeared. ".). which is doubtful. �Auw is probably secondary. murdhtin. The connection with ToA mluskii. flOA-elV. In any case. with the zero grade from the clear.g. Helv. aTpa�ol 'squintings' (H.).). galati 'drip' or OHG quelian..] '(grown) high' (of explained from metathesis in *flEAo-fl. but part of this process of morphological reorganisation. Nor can it be connected to � flEAaepov or � �AaO"Tavw. �6'l� later �w�. �AW(JKW [v. <!I ?� . -T < *melh3. class. a twofold development flAw. flE-fl�Aw-Ka) from *mJh3-sk. the variant with y..'come'� . �Awat�· Ttapouala 'presence' (H. £�Aw· e<pav'l. KAu�w.v.(in £�Aw) beside floAo. In my view.) is uncertain.COMP Also with Ka-ra-. and SIn. come' (ll.). Ar. <pAu�w. aUT6floAo� 'deserter' (Hdt.] 'to go. 442).ETYM The connection with a word for 'head' (Skt. �Awllo( [?] . � ".have the o-grade *molhn while the aor. 1 (1944): 226ff. e. eK-. ll. uYX1floAOV (�AeE. WX£lO. 'show'. Outside Greek.).). Cf.

boo. �oT]eo<.). Since the IE connection is impossible. also as a sports term. �oae£w. [m. �oaeo£w (Lesb.g. �oafla. �oT]e£w 'come to help on a cry.v. [m. but these may just as well belong to � yoaw. �oT)6po. �o�eT] (jl<. Based on �oT]e£W. (or contracted from �oT]eoo<. see Jiithner Wiener Stud. �oaTL<. see Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 96ff. cf. bedit 'sting. (au06. and by hyphairesis Dor.).).. e. on the mg. the synonym �oT]Opofl£w (Eur. (but Alciphr. also �w(Jm). BOT]opoflLO<.] (Cratin. MoGr.) and further to �aeu<. gailsti 'to cry.). Thence the Latin loanword boca. � �ua<. aiOXpo<. [m. (Hp. trench. and �oeuvo<. From �oT]e£W as a back-formation �oT]eo<. �OT]eo(0 )<.. 53 (1935): 68ff. � ONOM� oVAR Aor. �o�am (Ion.. etc. Quint. oETYM �oT]eoo<. �OT]T�<. is from an expression like (tTIl) �o�v eElv (see Schulze 1933a: 188).] 'who brings help (in war) (ll. In order to explain the discrepancy between Greek �. �66po<. Att. �oT)66o<. �6A�l'TOV [n. yWTIa. and MW bedd 'canal'. 13 tfl�aeuva<. �E�wfl£vo<. Att. together with �OT]OpoflLa [pI. � PG?� oDER Diminutive �oep[ov (Alciphr. �oT]eo<. � PG� .).v. see Schwyzer: 469?). *bodh. and �OT]opofl0<. also 'small ulcer' (Hp. .). oETYM Probably a deverbative like TIoTaoflm. 'id. fossa 'ditch'. or influence of �aeu<. oETYM �oepo<.' (A. PGr.] 'to cry' (ll..] 'cow dung' (see Rohlfs ByzZ 37 (1937): 54f. Chantraine 1933: 208).] 'hole. who assumed a labiovelar and connected the word with yue[a(Jwv. �oaeoTa (< *�oaeoF[a). 3. �w�. t�waeT]v.' (a 369). 'id. � GR� oVAR Dor. : ai( =>�oT]eoo<.: Aetol. f-. dig'. (see � �ueo<. Att..). OLOpu(Jawv 'digging out' (H.). boare was borrowed from Greek.. month name BOT]OpoflLwv.. �oT]fla 'id.). see Hutchinson JHS 55 (1935): If£. From �oaeoo<. gaudiiit.and Lat.. �ouTIa. Kretschmer Glotta 18 (1930): 96f. and the formation (nominal -uv-. Equally unsatisfying is the solution of Petersson 1921: l28ff. �OT]TU<. o DER �o� 'cry' (ll. �OepLa may be a later association). A connection with Skt.224 �oaw oETYM The ancients believed that the fish was called this way because it cried. �oaeoo<. bil S. �oT] (jl<..).. with deverbal �o� (Schwyzer: 683). �oaw is denominative from �o�.' (Thd. see Pre-Greek) is also suspect. even the meaning suggests such origin.).was assumed. (E. resp. Lat.). help' (cf. �oaw [v. dissimilation of PIE *bhodh. � �waTp£w.). Lith. alternatively. youTIa. we should better derive the word from Pre-Greek. �aeOT]flL). Also �oeuvo<. �oaw is rather onomatopoeic.) 'loud' (A. (see below).. and Hdt. j6guve 'to speak loudly' (intensive) and BSI. 'help' (Hp. weep' and OCS govor'b 'noise' is conceivable.). have been connected with Lith..). Lat. fodio 'to dig'. The same root is found in � �oT]e£w. pit (dug in the ground)' (ll. on the connection. oDER Hence a denominative Aetol..) was created. see Stromberg 1943: 63-6 and Thompson 1947 S... and Hdt.] name of a festival (D.. fem. �O�eELa 'help' (rebuilt after the nouns in -wl [Schwyzer: 469]).).

).v. which is further confirmed by the suffIx -LTOV (Fur. � �WAO<. is Skt.�OALTOV 225 oVAR Also -0<. �6AlV6o<.. the European bison'. followed by �OA�UeOV' TO aUTO.). �oA�apLOv (Epict. �OA�[(JKO<.. *baIW-it. like Lat. of A[eOL 'stones' as boundary marks. Arist. oETYM As an alternative to the unsatsifactory assumption that �OALTOV arose from �oA�rrov through dissimilation.U are typical for Pre-Greek. �OA�[TLOV. �OA�L<. 267C). �OA£O<. �Ofl�UA[<. because this leaves the formation unexplained. �OA[�T) [El 'female slave in Crete' (Seleucus apud Ath. See Thompson 1947: 33. etc. Cf. (PMag.).e. cf.).).] kind of grass. globular objects. is also a mere guess. but this could be deceptive. Pok. � GR?� oDER �OAEO<. that the word derives from *�OVLVeO<. �OA�LeO<. in addition. Muscari comosum' (Att.. No etymology. �uAA6.). �6Artov =>�OA�LTOV. (Arist. Par.] (Thphr. . �OA�LT[VT] see � �OA�LTOV. lO3 and WH S.. cf. The variation between � and zero. � PG (s) � oETYM The conclusion. which smells badly (Arist..). LSJ Supp. oETYM Generally derived from �aAAw. 'heaped' (inscr.) and �OA�[<. �OALTOV cannot be derived from �aAAw. bdlba-ja. similar to Arm.v. It is reminiscent of words for round. after aTIupaeo<. oDER �OA[TLVO<. � ?� oETYM Unknown. further 180. burbulas 'water bubble'.: 163. �oA�6<. The influence of �ou<.] 'onion. (Ar. originally 'balba-born'). Krahe Die Antike 15 (1939): 180 and Krause 1958: 62f.. [m.). sound-symbolic. [m. = �ovaao<.[m. On the fishnames �OA�[OLOV. �oAtw =>�aAAw. (JTI£AEeO<. �OAO<. Lith..). i.). �OAEWV 'dunghill' (Din.) (i.cpooEUfla �oo<. 187).. also �oA�iTLOV (Gal. �OA�LTa' 6. cf. lP. influenced by �OA�O<. oETYM The form of the word is expressive. -0<. also �OA�LTL<. Probably Pre-Greek. bolk 'radish' (less adequate. 'Eleusine indica'.. bulbus.e and L . on the basis of �ovaao<.in this case (cf. Further. however. purse-tassels. bulla 'water bubble'. see Chantraine 1933: 164. the alter­ nations T .: devotes an entire chapter. � �ofl�o<. There are no direct relatives. [m. Lat. From �OA�O<.. to which Fur. Much better is it to explain the variation as Pre-Greek. see Stromberg 1937: 86). 'cow dung' (H. is perhaps best explained from a labialized lateral.. The discussions in Frisk and DELG are typical examples of the wrong method to explain away the characteristics of Pre-Greek. the plant �OA�[VT] (Thphr. (AP) 'small onion'. and �OA£WV 'Diingerhaufen' either. (Epich.).).? See Chantraine 1933: 367). bulbus is a loan. is most uncertain. (Cratin.· �E�u(Jfl£va 'stuffed objects' (H.). � ONOM� oDER �OA�[OV (Hp. The suffIx is obscure. �oA[Tmva cuttle fish. also �OALTOV. with a kind of reduplication. S.] 'aurochs.. �OA�LT[<.e. � a-6Aa� and Pre-Greek) . Frisk implausibly suggested that it is rather �OA�LTOV that is secondary. may or may not be cognate.

lA) 'humming insect'.la· KP�VTj ev BOlwTlq. as ironic imitation of a swollen style (Ar. which is quite uncertain.226 �oll�Ola [f. filth' (Asios). [m. acc.] � Koi\. Cf.· TIOfl<p6i\.DER �ofl�£w 'give a low tone.' (Arist.: 213 tries to connect it with Paeonian � fl6vaTIo<. Th. bimbalas.aflo<. to Hdn. Latv. generally considered to be a loanword from a European language. �6p�opo<. (Lib.). also Schrader-Nehring 1917(2): 381ff.l6<.o�ofl�u� (ibid.. �owv 'mumbling. �ofl�PUVU�ElV' �p£v9uw9m 'be haughty' (H.] 'aurochs' (Arist. shouting'. of which Osman. variants of �£fl�l�.uya<. � LW Eg.).). bubullin 'it thunders'. � ?� ETYM Unknown. 3sg. ei\.] 'drum'. • �61l�o<.beside -lK-). Fur. hum' (n. Thphr. 1. probably with long u. ETYM Although TI£fl<Pl� and TIOfl<p6i\. �6pacr(jo<. CS buben'b 'drum'. the lowest tone of a flute' (Ar.] 'noise with a low tone' (lA). with different mg.] 'mire.).] 'growing spadix of the date with immature fruit' (Dsc. (accent. � PG� VAR The quantity of the U is unknown.) and �ofl�ui\. Lith. (of Kui\. 45). bambals 'beetle'.). as is also suggested by its structure: it is now known that silk was also produced in Greece itself (Kos and Asia Minor) before it was introduced from the east (Hemmerdinger Glotta 48 (1970): 65). • �6 1l�u�. 1.ETYM Unexplained.).). PG� . � ONOM. �opa =>�l�PWO'KW.] name of a flute player (Theoc. �Ofl�u� interj. with intensive reduplication �ofl�ai\. also vase with a small neck (from the sound when emptied). 'source in Boeotia' (H.). Alb. also 'drone'.lveO<. .). [m.ala TIapa KUTIpIOl<. We may compare several words for 'cotton' (see � �afl�uKloV). Glosses �ofl�pu�wv' Tov90pu�wv.. � ?� L . -UKO<. 'reed-pipe'. ON bumla [f.u�. Related are: �ofl�ui\.ufl�a<. The word may derive from an original *plbamb-uk. -UK. 'olive pickled in brine (Cypr. 'waterbubbles' (H. • �6paTov => �pu9u. also �ofl�uKla<. insect' . �Ofl�UKlVO<.�Kueov 'a vase' (H. BOfl�uKa [f.IOa<. pambuk 'cotton' is the best match. [m. for which there is no basis.DER �Ofl�UKlOV 'cocoon of the �. with �Ofl�UKLOV kind of bee (Arist.).).�6<.� ETYM Egyptian word. �6fl�U�.). 116.).. show typical Pre-Greek charactertistics (e. DNP: 347ff.] 'low sounding flute. the ultimate origin of the word is probably onomatopoeic.)' (H. 48)..g.: �ofl�ui\. Lat. See � �0i\. � EUR� .] 'silk-worm' (Arist.(with suffIx -uk-.Tjv· i\. See Cuny REA 20 (1918): 223f. 5). cf. bombus is a Greek loan.). also �ofl�ui\. • • �6vao{o")o<. 109. . Related is �£fl�l� 'whipping-top. [m. ETYM �6fl�U� must be of Anatolian origin. [m. bosr 'unripe date'. cf. -UKO<.. There have been attempts to connect it with � �6i\. Arab. [m.

(see Scheller 1951: 114). Names of pastries are frequently borrowed from Asia Minor. bora 'mountain' in names (Krahe IF 57 (1940): 125ff. (A. giri-. = flOi\. though partly different in meaning (developments like these are not infrequently found in onomatopoeic words).).). �oppo. Kn6del'. . Av.) �op�opuYfl6<. �Op�lO<.). see Nielsen Class. 'to feed oneself (ll.] 'to feed. as if from �op�op6w (see � �6p�opo<. (Cael. The formation. = �op�ui\..'. (Chantraine 1933: 52) 'of the north wind'. tend'.'feed. cf. See also � �o�opu�w . 1.DER �OOK� 'fodder..).VAR Fut. herd' (trag. �op�oPI�£l' yOyyu�£l. Taken as 'wind from the mountains'.] 'north wind.DIAL Att. DIAL Myc. however. the two meanings come together.u�6T£lpa. Illyr. apud Mt.ETYM Onomatopoeic reduplicated formation.). related to a word for 'mountain' seen in Skt.' (H. see Chantraine 1933: 95.). 'shepherd' (Aesop.. . No etymology. �op£Tj<. �op�opl�w (Dsc. 685. �op�opu�w [v.ETYM Expressive reduplicated formation. �oplm<.DER �6p£l0<. A connection with Arm. • .DER Bop�ophm name of an association in Thera (inscr.). med. In �op�oPI�£l.) and of a Manichaean­ gnostic sect (Epiph.). KUTIpLOl 'grumbles. kork 'dirt'. meadow' (A. probably onomatopoeic (cf. R. e�6oKTjoa are all Hell. � LW Anat.)' (H. and OCS gora. �6oKTjfla 'id.. as well as � O£lPU<. 'browsed by goats'. Lith. and late .a .ouOlv 'kind of sound. Kat oTjoUflTj<. Lesb. gin� 'wood'. On wind names in -la<. also �Op£(l)U<.. �op�opuYfl6<.. fem. � ?� . also called K. also �Op�6pWOl<.ETYM Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 661 compares Hitt.. TIOui\.uV£l.'mountain'� . . fem. Connected with � �6p�opo<.). the gloss �op�oPI�£l S. aiyl�OTo<.). So the 'ym:p­ �6p£Ol are properly 'those living beyond the mountains' (Pedersen KZ 36 (1900): 319). � �o p �opu�w).).. qo-u-qo-ta IgWou-gW6tai/. 'fodder' (T 268)..<. Denominatives: �op�op6w. �OpTjlU<. see Pedersen 1926: 66. stains (Cypr..). 'id. -£w. QV Kat KOpKOpuy�v Kai\.� .). �£�60KTjKa.. Ion.). see LSJ Supp. Is the word an IE formation at all? �6(jKW [v. et Med.). etc. Schwyzer: 461..ov OLa fl�KWVO<. su-qo-ta-o !su-gW6ta6n!.. 'feeding itself (Nic. (l < £.). TI£flfla OTpOyyui\. flOi\. north'. Ion. �OOKU<. is unclear. 7 (1945): Iff. Local adverbs: �op£Tj9£v. also 'cattle fended.V.e£v.).DER �op�opuy�' TI0l6<.] 'to rumble' (Hippon. As a first member in �WTl-UV£lpa 'feeding men' (ll. (Archig. hapax �wowe£ (A. �60l<. see Schwyzer 541). �opta<..ETYM Uncertain.' (Hp. see Risch 1937: 174.). fl£y£90u<. NINDApu rpura_ 'Klotz' or 'Kugel. . -ou [m. especially 'sheep' (ll.). m for a. Tl<. �ooK6<. e�oOK�eTjV.UV£l H.. �xo<. � IE *gWeh3. (o"u-�W-TTj<. Denominative: �op£uw 'come from the north' (Thphr. -a.L 227 . apTou 'round pastry made from poppy and sesame. gairi-. but see Chantraine 1942: 446). �oT6v 'cattle'. remains very doubtful. (contracted) �oppo. see below). tend'� ..). . contracted �op�<. �oP�oPlOfl6<. a back-formation. [TITIO-�6-TTj<. ·COMP In compounds -�WTTj<. �OOK�OW (Od.). �opp6e£v. also PN (ll. which would require a reconstruction *gWorgW(or) o-. and -�6TTj<. Aur. � IE? *gW(o) rH. of the size of a loaf of bread' (H.

� ?� .).ETYM Old lE verb.] ? · uyEA'l nuI8wv. M. �oua [f. AUKWV£<.· �oAnov H. LSJ Supp . � ?� . also 'vine-tendril' (Arist. Fur.] 'bunch of grapes' (ll. also �ouuyo<. �OTpUX0<.). After �oaTpux0<. (interchange aTI T).). Further aUfl�ouUl· L . AUKWV£<. DER �oaTpuxLOv. • �6TpUI:. [m. �OT�p 'shepherd' (0 215. Or. considered corrupt by Latte. cf. Wahrmann Glotta 17 (1929): 242 supposes an hyperarchaism). � �OTPU<. �OTpUU (Euph.). and such origin is probable for the whole word. Benveniste 1948: 29 on the difference between -TWP and -T�p. s. �oayo<. Eleusine coracana' (Str.. ETYM Like afln£Ao<.. olv'lpo<. �OUYUl£.: 302 considers it originally to have been identical with �OaTPUX0<. guotas 'herd' (*gWehJ-to-).). 'lock of hair' (Pherecr..t grounds? .VAR Plur.. DELG and further Richardson BICS 8 (1961): 15-22 and Richardson Hermathena 96 (1962): 92.). � PG?� VAR Also ace. -UOI:. over the herd (Lacon. a fish (Sophr.) kind of pearl.. 'Calamine' (Dse. the word is probably Pre-Greek. �6aflapol:. as if from * �OTpUW. On the suffix -X. �oaTpuxooflUl.] 'curl. ETYM Unknown. �OaTPUX1(w..ETYM This meaning seems to have developed from the bahuvrihi compounds of the type 'having X like a �. (inscr. H. see Schwyzer: 492. fern. 'a herd' (EM. apxwv nul<. ' Isolated �oTpufl0<.VAR �oaflopov (Peripl.VAR Wrong accent acc..). D ER �OTpU'lP0<.).). � �ou<. to DELG. �OTEW 'tend' (Nic. �WTWP (ll.). �6TlI:.).)' (H. 'slave who watches .). cf. �OTOV (*gWhJ-to-). The suffix -uX. � ?� VAR �on<. �ouou· uyEA'l n<. . 'a group of children (Lacon... �oaTpuXlu· aTEfl<puAu 'mass of pressed graped or olives' (H. arose �OTpUX0<. [m. • �oTtivTJ =>�oaKw.). this is very doubtful. perhaps from �ouaou. Chantraine 1933: 233).see Chantraine 1933: 402. AP) . �OT£lpU (Eust. 'vintage' (H...augmentative prefix. Adverb �oTpu86v (ll. �oaTpuX'l86v 'in locks' (Luc. Ragi.. bO$er 'uvae immaturae acerbae'). also �oaTpuxu (AP).).).. It is hardly Semitic (Hebr. 1267) and �oaTpuXloV 'vine-tendril' and �oaTplxh'l<. • �6aTpUX01:. frequent).. see � �OaTPUX0<. to a£u£lv? But original aa would not have disappeared. Cf.] 'Indian millet.DER �ouuyop· uY£AupX'l<. Its nearest relation is Lith. �oTpuh'l<. uYEA'l<.).180<.could well be Pre-Greek (-uC. is probably derived from this root. � GR� . �OTUV'l 'fodder' (Chantraine 1933: 199). � PG?� . ete. on sufficien..) (H. Rubr. cf.ETYM Perhaps identical with � �uT1<. ..228 �oaflup0<. On the confusion with � �OTPU<.' See �ou�pwan<.).ETYM Unknown.v. as per Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 661. • • ' • �ou.· TPUY'lTO<. lock of hair' (Archil. 'of the genus grapes' (Thphr. 6 T�<. . -In<. (1. see there. probably E. [m.

the structure of the word is strange. OFr. av8pwno<..]/ [n.ETYM Related to � �ou�wv. Cf. -lOl:.ETYM The word is simply from �ou<. �OU�UAlOV 1 [n.VAR Cod. For the suffix -lV-. Cf. Robert 1963: 24-30). �O\)�aaTlI:. See Bechtel 1921. inscr..). � ?� . aLKUO<. aufl�ouu8<8>£l· lJ1t£PfluX£1. the word is rather Pre-Greek. 2.] 'wild cucumber.n points to Pre-Greek origin (so not from nUAAw!). �ounuAlvu (Delos) and �ounuA18£<. � PG(V)� . The word is hardly connected with �ou�uAl<. � ?� . It was borrowed as Lat.). Diose. ?� .). 24 (1956): 40-2. KuuX'lT1wv ex EM Alb.. but this looks like a folk-etymological explanation. bufle.).. apud H. �ouuKPat [f.). ETYM According to von Blumenthal 1930: 9. 'great and unnoticed man' (H. the word is Illyrian for <pu�. Hp.) .L 229 aUVWflOTUl 'confederate'.ETYM In (3) the ms. nupa T�V �aplV 'great sailor [?J. 'fight in defense of (H. after the �. as the formation is unclear. uno AUKWVWV (H.' (Ps. Heracl. � PG?� . 373 refers to yoaaU1tlvov.: 145. The other definitions are clear. Schrader-Nehring 1917(2): 263. class.] 'groin' (Mt. 2: 368f. �OU�UAlOV 2 [n. further unknown. � ?� . �o�-. see Schrader-Nehring 1917(1): 52. .ETYM The word seems to contain � �ou<.] . [f. E buffalo . bubalus. LSJ translates 'palms'. Fur. has KUl uUX'lfluT1u<.] (Arist.VAR Mostly plur. �ou�TJTlI:.] '(African) antilope' (Hdt.. but it is impossible to know if this was really the intended sense . -lU. . 'leg­ bands' (H. 'boaster' � (4) 6 flEYU<. � GR� . . � PG?� ..).] ? . [f.] 'bracelet' (Corn. but this is rather a secondary association. ovoflu 'name of a ship' (H.). [f. �OU�Upl<. AUKWV£<. • �ouay£T6v [m. see Pre-Greek.· vc(/)<. (a flat­ bottomed boat)' KUt (2) flEya �upo<. and Kretschmer Glotta 17 (1929): 242. £Xwv 'having heavy weight' KUt (3) uUX'lfluT1u<. -l(lS)ol:.). [m. �ou�upal:. � GR.and � �UAAW. �O\)�UAll:.VAR Also �ou�uAo<. . Note that Pre-Greek has a suffix -(u)aT-. Kat uvu1a8'lTo<. whence later bufalus. uno �OWV £LAKuaflEVOV �uAov 'piece of wood drawn by oxen' (H.] 'stream for watering cattle'(?) (Tab. As a plant name. ayplo<. 14).ETYM The variation � . and ayw .. OL <po1vlK£<.). this is semantically improbable. unoAlvov. 'antelope' (as per 1. (1) fleyuAoVUUT'l<. 13. DELG improbably considers it to have been coined after the Egyptian goddess Bou�uan<.ETYM Explained from the prefix � �ou.).· n£plaK£A18£<. see Andre Et..ETYM Unknown.

'swollen gland' (Hp. 1tpUTaVElov).).suggests a Greek word. Formation like fluwv. ETYM The analysis as 'killing of cows' (from KaLvw) is factually correct. also [adj. �ouKoAla (-LOV) 'id. and POU1tElVa (which are possibly synonymous). It can hardly be related to Skt. 1) is always possible. The form *-pa-nle.. 'bandage for the groin' (Heliod. � yaLw (cf. and that the *d also leaves a trace in the decades in *-dkomth2 > -�KOVTa. it is modelled after v�o"ne..). � ?� VAR Late also pOfl�wV (Moeris. � IE *kwel(H). MW bugail 'shepherd'.ETYM Since the word is buaehail/. H. Connection with pouvoe. -la�w 'sing shepherd songs' (Theoc. . Puhvel KZ 79 (1964-5): 7ff.. POuKopu�a. From �OUKOAOe.. gav'in t [f.' (Arist. �OUKOAElOV 'office of the uPXwv pamAEUe. cognate with 0Ir. Foreign origin (Kretschmer KZ 30 (1890): 579. POU1tUle. � IE? *tken. but pou. Chantraine 1942: 22).' (Hdt. cf. Cf. and 1tEAOflUl..] 'groin' (ll.v.). • �ouKana [n. adj.ETYM The meaning is not quite certain: 'hunger' does not fit well in Homer. Mere. • • • �ouyaYE [m.ETYM Contains the prefix � �ou. The a is problematic (Zenodotus wrote pOUy�"(E.). go-satam.). cf.).] a festival in Delphi (inscr. 'hill' is morphologically impossible..] 'ravenous appetite' (D 532). POUKOALe. getis 'Viehtrift' seems impossible. POUKOAlKOe.] 'braggart'? (N 824. and in antiquity it was interpreted as olaTpoe. kind of bandage (Gal. • �ouK6AOC. Note that � EKaTOV derives from *dkYfl-tom > *ekaton. ETYM Unknown. cf. �ou�wv. The old connection with Lith. The word seems to have an augmentative � pou. • . TO 0PVEOV 'the bird K. Kuod yaLwv). Denominative poupwVHlw 'to suffer from swollen glands' ( in � �ou�pwone. as a labiovelar would yield 0-. Denominative POUKOAEW (ll.).'turn around'� . etc. and � aflq:>L1tOAOe.] 'cowherd' (ll. 'ptng.. (Schwyzer: 270) has no basis.'slay'� . [m. � ?� VAR Schol. BOVKOe.. -WVOC. PouKoAla�oflUl. DER POUKOALUl 'herds of cattle' (h. Fraenkel 191O: 116 A.' (H.v. as a short name.du. after pOfl�oe. apud Orib. (Risch 1937: 39). If the (late) variant �oflPwv is reliable.] 'part of the lower body'. �01)�pw<Jnc. � GR?� .DIAL Myc. 5. name of a month..).DER BouKanOe. but as an agent noun (like � ufl1twne. This shows that the * + did not cause lengthening. Chantraine 1933: 408). � ai1tOAOe.). Stromberg 1940: 87).. maywv.ETYM Old compound of pove. it is not related to epT]v (epav). the second member could be related to the pres. see Thompson 1895 s. POUPWVLOKOe. etc.230 . Ath. also as a goddess.). (after Wackernagel-Debrunner 1930: 372) reads '(festival) of 100 cows' as in Skt. [f.).). s.).] 'pasture' (D. (Theoc. the word is then be Pre-Greek. 0 79). POUKOALOKOe. �OUPWVLOV the plant 'Aster amellus' (Dsc. "bucolic" (Theoc.). [m. and a second element as in PlPPWO"KW. DER POUPWVLOKOe. like POUAlfloe. ypaq:>LoKo<. �OUKOALVT]· KLyKAoe.. .?) . 'gadfly'. pouKaLE.]. qo-u-ko-ro /gWou-kolos/. � �oupwv).(Schwyzer: 434). [f. 3. See Latacz 1966: 129f. to the shepherd'..

Eretr. � pouya"(E.VAR pouvoe. �OUAEUT�e. it must be equated with pUKavloT�pLOV. Boeot. � GR� . [m.)' (H. The length in AV. (Cret.. but also = PouAlflLa (PIu.· onpae. Delph.] 'hunger like a bull' (Timocl. � IE *gwel_ (*gWelh3-?) 'want.). (We cannot exclude influence from �OUA�. and � AUW with a suffix -TO. Arc..).). However.DER POUA� 'will.] 'want.'cut off. Pergamon). � GR� . Lesb. Lesb.-Cypr.ETYM For KOVlOT�pLOV (Vitr.. but this is probably itself to be derived from the present.). . Thess..) by association with Alfloe..'to send'.) However. "unyoking of the oxen".. although Ruijgh Lingua 25 (1970): 315f.) pWAoflUl.ETYM From � �ove. �OUAO!lUl [v.ETYM From POUAlfloe..(Chantraine 1933: 303). �EAAOflUl. . a trace of which could be found in 1tpO-�E�ouAa (A 113). etc. �ouv6c. Oenoanda lIP).. matress (Cypr.). and in ToAB liiw". PE�OUAT]flUl.] lit. see Chantraine 1942: 311) pOAoflUl.may have spread from there.has been assumed.) = PouAlfllaw.pOUVoe. In contains augmentative � pou-. lu-na. 28 (1975): 1-16). Dor. cf.VAR The other tenses are based on the present: pOUA�ooflUl. � PG?� . maintains that only -Av. POUAEUT�PlOV 'council chamber'. . � GR� . Skt.. however. pouAELa. yet there is no agreement on its prehistory (the root must have been *gWel-/gWol-). 231 POUKOVl<JL'TUHOV [n. DIAL Arc.] 'hill' (Hdt. The o-vocalism and the p. Peters 1986: 311 suggested a root in *-h3 ' which may help to explain the o-vocalism: a nasal present *gWl-n-h3. [m. see Risch IF 59 (1949): 59.). and Pamphylian POAEflEVOe. which was replaced by *POAv-.). for which a suffix -n. KU1tplOl 'bed ofleaves. 70). it seems doubtful that the perfect alone is the source of the pervasive o-vocalism. On pEpouAa (A 113) see below.or -s. Locr. 484. wish' (ll. in �OUAUTOV OE).< *PEAO.). �OuAl!lla [f. wish'� . as in � �ou�pwone. decision. Dor. also seen in Lat.] 'arena for bulls' (IGRom .] 'to have hunger like a bull' (Ar. KOVLaTpa 'arena' (Heberdey and Kalinka 1897: 2.[or pAavo-?] . would have �OAE. Acc. • �oUAiiT6c. 3. (also Horn. PElAoflT]. 'evening' (IT 779 = l 58. POUAlflwHW (Suid.ETYM The verb has been much caused by a laryngeal.can explain the compensatory lengthening (see also Slings Mnem. council' (ll. We can assume that there was a perfect *�E�oAa with present meaning. OElAoflal. pOAAoflUl. with ou from �ouAoflal. Dor.would have yielded *paAvo. (Heracl. nor is there a clear basis for the introduction of the 0vocalism. E�OUA�8T]v. with many derivatives: �ouAEUfla.) O�AoflUl. pOAAa. . Denominative POUAEUW (�WA-. The central problem is the origin of the present. �wAa. properly an adjective (Alex.< *gwelh3-. -OflUl 'deliberate' (ll.DER PouAlfllaw [v. POAA-EUW). Peters' solution remains problematic because we have no evidence of �AW-. to Robert Hellenika 3 (1946): 149f. so-lU-tus.

Adjectives: �O£lO<.· 0Tl�Ct<..g.). With a suffIx -K-: �O£l-KO<. Stromberg 1940: 117. 213 cites flOUVlCt<. �OU�OTO<. (H. <!l PG� . � �ouAlflla.COMP As a first member. and additionally refers to 1tpouvou<.-Umbr.� . (Elis. �oo<. and explains the plant name as secondary to that of the animal. (ll. kogi 'butter'. also a plant. 4. �o£u<. Eust.. ace.) and �OUVlOV 'Bunium ferulaceum' (Dsc. It is a dialectal word that spread in Hellenistic times (DELG). [adj. and � �OU�PW0Tl<..)..DER �OUVl<.pl.DER Diminutives �ot8Lov (Ar.). A£yofl£vT] TplqlUAAov 'a plant called clover' (H.). �ouvITT]<.VAR �OU1tCtAlva. Latv. . => �OU�CtAlOV. . also adj.). ox' (ll.: 208.. gavya-. ETYM Acc. gWhJ-eu-s (proterodynamic). et al. which may point to Pre-Greek origin. -wvo<..).). Lex. (Th. who interprets it as 'who inflames cattle'. e. [f..). As a second member also -�0l0<. gen. See also � £KaTofl�T]. Plant names �OUVl(l<. gam (= �wv). ToA ko. 'rich in cows'. .s.).ETYM See Amigues RPh. �owoT]<.). �OTCtVT]. see � �OUKOAO<. 'Brassica napus' (Agatharch.). boum �owv = Skt. �o£O<. 80Upl<. epithet of Pan.VAR Gen. Dioclet... but it is actually Doric (Solmsen BPh W 1906: 756f.TT]<. On augmentative � �ou. �OT]A6.�OU1taAIOc<.(see below).]/[n. gavya. �OUKaiO<. ace. nom. bas (from Osc.). Dor... bum = �wv.) < * -�oFLo.). .· �ouvou<.(before vowel): �OUKOAO<. �OUV after �OU<. �o(F). gau/:t. Fur. Bunias erucago? (Thphr. burda. �OUOLOV (Hermipp.] 'mule' (Edict.ETYM Fur. �odT]. <!l IE *gWeh3-u. <!l GR� . See also � �oua and � �OU00<. On BOUKO<. 'of a cow' (A. OHG chuo. U acc. bull.. gitovs all 'cow'. The root was probably *gWehJ-. Att. Priene). Fur. acc.] ' -�O(F)lO<. which is quite possible. Adjective *gWou-io. evV£Ct-�OLO<. as seen in � �00KW 'to tend'. He further adduces Basque mu no 'hill'.). the circumflex accent in the nom. .). [m. Dor. gaviim. �wvITT]<.. Skt. cf. cf. Arm. 'bed of straw' derives from �UVW. (Adam. Denominative verb �oow 'to transform into an ox' (Eust. Apollon. 'strap of cow-leather' (� 426). Arm. qo-o /gWons/? (Ruijgh 1967a: 131). to Hdt. also �6"Lvo<. �ou-.] 'hilly' (A.. (gloss. flouvla8LKov as variants of �OUVlCt<.Skt. substantivized fem. �OWV. • �OU1taAl6£c. kov (u-stem). � �ouyCtl£. Lat.v.. but reinterpreted as containing �ou<. Further �OUTT]<. �oiic.: 318 thinks that the word is Pre-Greek because of the group TIT. �oup6wv [m. �0£T] 'cow-hide' (ll. gaos = = = . with 1tOAU-�OUTT]<. �ou1tp'1aTlC. 64 (1990): 89-97. 232 . gen. pap. the word is eyrenaean. m. �W<. bo. 199.) and �O-'LKO<.] ? . OIr. oes gov-�do 'cattle'.DIAL �ou<.ETYM A loanword from Lat. � �owm<.. ToB keu.). <!l LW Lat. (see below).. � �OUTUpOV. and H 238).. �OU1tTlVOV [m. points to a lost laryngeal.'cow'� . is cognate of Skt.).] 'cow-sty' (Heraklea).. �wv (Dor. 'bovine' (ll. 'cowherd'.] 'poisonous beetle' (Nie.: 21353 thinks that �ouvo<... the latter form explains Av.). The original inflection is still unclear: we expect *gWehJ-u-s. [f.

(6) CtT]Oluv 'nausea'. <!l GR� VAR Also �OUTUpO<. which look like old forms.] A: .] 'path for cows'. cf.. Latte even reads'IAAuplwv for the IA£lWV of the manuscript. �OUTCtV'1 [f.. � TWV �owv mCt0l<. Gloss A2 is identical to B2: they show ilie typical Pre-Greek variation T � 0T (Fur.). (1) fl£po<.).233 and Gr. cf. which was added later. gam. �OU0TU8floV (: 0TU8flo<.). (H. �pa�£uc. the ace. See Schrader-Nehring 1917(1): 177f. �oua6c. 15. (a person. T�<.ETYM From *�ou-00F0<. flUKpCi<. Alb.ETYM Lat. 'with the eyes of a cow' (ll.] 'butter' (Hp. B3. B: �OU0TCtVT]' �000Taalu. buttis may be borrowed from Greek. only dat. IA£lwv) (H. (2) � flCt0Tl� 'a whip'. also Szemerenyi BSOAS 19 (1957): 627f. swelling' (H. A3 and B1 are probably folk etymologies from antiquity. Lat. v£w<.ETYM If the word is related to <ppCtTT]P. could be *gWehJ-us > �ou<. Fur. �ou001 (Orchomenos. as well as � �ouu. (\ TO 1tT]OCtALOV OWfl£UeTaL 'part of the ship to which the rudder is tied'. See � �uTlvT]. 'force of an ox'. �OiiT(T)U. (5) 0T]A01 O£ KUL flCtXT]v 'a battle'. � �w010v (cf.). . are unexplained. vella 'brother'. gau/:t. (4) fl£p0<. and � *w\jl. 'P08LOl 'road on which cattle is driven (Rhod. the Greek word itself is evidently Pre-Greek because of the alternation T � TT.. (Gal. �o£lu<. .. (3) KUL 1tAT]y� 'blow'. related to � 0£UW. [adj.).] 'vase in the form of a frustum of a cone' (Hero). <!l GR� . leader' (S. O£ T�<. Not related to Ion. but not Skt. (Aisop. he suggests that a gloss �OUTaAl<. Pisani Sprache 7 (1961): 100). boter.VAR ef. 'depth. flT]A000T]' 606<.ETYM From �oii<. 1tpO�UTU eAUUVeTaL. etc.). which is unexplained otherwise (Demiraj 1997. [f. ' The Greek nom. <!l GR?� . <!l PG?� . cf. and TUpO<. • �OW1tlC. For A5. [f. and A4. �U000<.DIAL Here perhaps Mye. (Schwyzer: 450).). �pa [?] .. but form and mg. . • �OlJTUpOV [n. . 'part of a long ship'. and from the Latin in turn OHG butera. [m.). CtOcA<pOl. Schwyzer: 664. also Kretschmer Glotta 3 (1910-1912): 33. and for A6. butjirum is borrowed from the Greek.: 304f). �wTlov. lmo 'HA£lwv 'brothers [Elean] (cod.ETYM From � �ou<. Tl T�<. bottom' (as per Fraenkel Glotta 32 (1953): 22). <!l ?� . arbitrator.). umpire.] epithet of Hera: 'with the head of a cow'(?).] 'judge at the games. ef. mocro-qa. 8L' �<. 1tpo<. �wv. 85) CtT]owv was lost (Fur. Arcadia.ETYM Glosses AI. � (3) TCtVU0l<. 305f. after TUpO<. �oF0<. nor the acc. (2) � flCt0Tl� 'whip'. v£w<. <!l PG (v) � VAR Also �OUTT]. MoDu. it could perhaps be an Illyrian element in the Elean dialect. compares �UTavu· KOVOUAOl 'knuckle. offIcial?) are unknown. 18). 'cowshed'.).). <!l PG (V) � . . may have been *gWam < older *gWoum .

*mragW-. also �apuYXla.).).. [adj. • �payo<. CtAYIl8wv 'pain around the neck' (H.). also �up�lAo<. The aorist �paxeiv 'rattle.. the word means 'embanknIent. �payxo<. �apuxvla (Hdn. heavy' can be connected as well (De Vaan 2008 s. �pa�vAov [n. gurdus 'dolt.VAR Compar.0 <.] 'slow' (ll. which are typical of Pre-Greek. (Ael.: 378-385). Thus. �pa�Il-.) 'id: and �paYxLa· � IteprrpuXIlAo<. but this type of variation. this could imply that the athletic contests.' Tpaxu<. �paYXluw [v. �pa�uAIl = CtvquDvll � <pOlVlK� (Ps.] (D. The additional a in the first syllable of �upayxo<.'slow'� .) may also be connected as 'produce a raw sound'. (as in the ms. Latv. a loanword.234 .DER �pu�EUfla 'decision of a judge' (S. palisade' (H.).). ETYM �paM<. in �puYXla [pl.] 'hoarseness. berrake 'sumpfiges Land'. (JKoAo'lfl 'thorns.).] 'to have a sore throat' (Arist. bronchial tubes'. gurds 'tired'. 'id: (AP) .] 'sloe. Different mg. (Hippon. -T�TO<. and �pa8LmaTo<.). 'marsh-meadow' (H. harsh' (H.. brabilla.). £1. S. stifle' (H.v. also 'Juniperus foetidissima' (Dsc. . reflecting *gWrdu.). If this word is of Pre-Greek origin indeed.VAR �pu�uAo<.). �pu80<. proposed that they are of Macedonian origin. �puYXIl [f. �pa�eLa 'decision' (E.abej 1969: 176 compared Alb.).). �pa8uTepo<.. <!! IE? *gWrd-u. � PG?� . clash' (Johansson KZ 36 (1900): 345f.). 'slowness' (ll. �payxuw. �paYXlU(Ol(Jee· ItVLYOl(Jee 'choke. too.] (Xenocr.). �puxea 'shallows' (Hdt.) . Fraenkel KZ 69 (1951): 76ff. .). too. Prunus spinosa' (Theoc.v.) ' Denominative �paMvw 'retard' (A. (Schwyzer: 278. For these words. are part of the Pre-Greek heritage. 97 (1948): 172.VAR Also �upayxo<. garden-plot' (however. 'rough places' (H. � ?� ETYM �puyo<.. also �pa8Lwv. Juniperus sabina'. Pick BB 29 (1905): 199f. [f. See Andre 1956 s. 831) may be due to purely phonetic epenthesis. • • �paeu 1 [n.). after TUX0<. form (where lal may phonetically be [0]).-Dsc. Probably Pre-Greek (see Chantraine 1933: 125). (Gp). and �apaKlvti(JLv· CtKUVeaL<.(Fraenkel Phil. According to Moutsos KZ 88 (1974): 74-76. or *mrgW-. �opaTLvll (Aq.). 'windpipe' may have caused the semantic shift of �puYXla. who reads �payo<. 'rough.) .).] (Aret. whereas C. we arrive at a set of variants �paK-I �pax-I �payx-.). ETYM The resemblance with �poYX0<.· Tpaxei<. 'id: (X.. �pa�eiov 'prize' (Men.). gurdus 'slow'. might somehow be related to �puxo<.). • ..] 'savin. TOItOU<. � PG(v)� . Mss.). is frequent in Pre-Greek words as well (Fur. DER �pa8uT�<. and superl. Lat. Fur. his lE etymology remains quite uncertain). <!! PG?(v)� vAR Also �opaTOv [n.). angina' (Hp. 'hoarse' (Hp. we may reconstruct *mrogW-. In order to account for the Myc. -TaTO<. may morphologically be identical with Lith. • �payxo<. �paKLa<. 128. 276 connects the word with �paxw81l<.ETYM Etymology unknown. ETYM Unknown.] 'gills of fishes. �up8L(JTO<.). [m. Cf.). [?] .DER �payxaA£o<. • �pa6u<.). also �pa�l-.

Further comparisons have been with �pu'\faL' auAAa�eiv. <!! ?� .) . gofer (this might be supported by the suffix -lV-). �paKaAov =>poItaAov. Lat. fut.). the first gloss is unclear. �£� PQ(JflaL. • .). Hebr.). <!! ?� . as well as MKpU 'resin'. .). Schwyzer: 302). flLau. also Pherecr. 'ragged cloth'.ETYM Perhaps also to be considered here is 8u(J�puKavov· 8u(JXep£<. etc. �pU(JL<. further �pUK£TOV' . gulp down' (H. �pU�aL' auAAa�elv.: 187 thinks it is rather a loan word from the Near East. See Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 200. bite. Also �pu(w 'be boiling' .ETYM flwAu. but the meaning does not fit. �paKava [n. perf. giving It. hard to understand' (H. seize' (*mrk-) .ETYM �pueu has been compared with a Semitic word. 'upheaval' (Posidon. just like Lat. Assyr. For the u-stem. Lflunov ItoAuTeA£<. Ct<paVL(£lV. Chantraine 1933: 94f. �pUHW. Aram.). ellpeu(JaL 'comprehend. ewI<. . KpU'\faL. mrsati 'touch. (J£l(Jflo<. the word has been connected with Skt. for such an alternation there are indeed parallels in the Pre-Greek lexicon.VAR Att. <!! PG?� . sigh'. <!! ?� . 'reed.] 'earthquake? (Arist.. (J£l(JflaTLa<. render invisible. �pam�p 'winnowing-fan' (gloss. Cf. must go back to the same source (Lewy 1895: 34. TO �auxti 6MpweaL 'wailing in silence'.] . auVl£VaL 'to comprehend'. KaTameiv 'to put together. bracae.. 8u(JKaTavollToV 'hard to manage.). �pu(JT Il<. .]? . boil (up). � mevu(elV 'eat.. which requires the assumption of an alternation � . Since Roth KZ 19 (1870): 223. [m.). an expensive cloak' (H. Tt!> (JToflan £AKelV.. take. 28. 'boiling'.235 .. cf. �paKeiv [v. spend. OE moru 'carrot'. �paKo<. DER �PQ(Jfl0<. [m.. .). ItA�eo<. <!! LW Celt. �pat1t1w [v. as either influenced by fluP'\faL or related to it (with assimilation of K to initial fl-. parallel to yUpKav· pu�80v 'rod' (H. 'boiling' (Orib. .: 330 . also Sappho 57. 8aKeiv. .. winnow' (Ar. comparing KUItUPl(J(JO<. Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 199f. Fur.] . �pu(Jfla 'id:. Ta aypla Auxava 'wild vegetables' (H.�p). .). aor.) . �pQ(JflaTLa<. hide. �paeu 2 .). See � �pO�aL. �pa1tT£lV =>�paKeiv.�8 . rather compared �uKavov 'cabbage(-seed) (Aet.. agitate. hunt' and �pumelv' £(Je Lelv. Fur. fluKIlTLa<. hide.ETYM Borrowed from Celtic. suck up with the mouth.). comprehend.] 'to shake violently. worn by Gauls.11). Theoc. and Hebr.] 'breeches' (pap. �paKat [f. Schrader-Nehring 1917(1): 671).). inscr.. Also. beros. All of these comparisons are uncertain (see � flupmw).). 'crowd' and �pUH£lV' ItAlleUV£lv. Itoa Tl<. . oppress' (H..�p (or even � . cf. �apuvelv 'multiply. S. also £K-�p�(J(Jw (Gal. KUAaflo<. �pu(Jw. Perhaps the word goes back to *yrko-. burasu 'cypress'. £�pu(Jellv. an Anatolian cypress.ETYM The word has been identified with � PUKO<. berat. Kpum£lv. euofl£VIl 'some herb offered to the gods' (H. D... bratus (Plin. .� . In H. CtvaAw(JaL. and (Jwpu (Chantraine 1933: 119). Luc. �p&(JaL. � ?� .ETYM �puKava has been compared with OHG moraha.

Av.ETYM �paxu<. and OE myrge 'entertaining' ("kurzweilig"). « *mrtu-) finds a morphological match in Skt.DER �paXLovLOv 'armlet' (Delos Ira). moment' (Prakritisms for *mrhU-). �poxu<. ppacrcrwv =>�paxu<.] 'short time. �paxu<. 138 originally the comparative of � �paxu<.). <!!! ?� .). �x�am. [adj. muhuh. <!!! LW India� .. fllfl'lfla cpwv�<. marazu. 'because it is shorter than the forearm'. as opposed to � 1t�Xu<. . connected the word with Latv. ga-maurgjan 'to shorten'. Sogd. (only probably seen in �paaawv (K 226): �paXlwv would have to be a later formation. which in turn was the source of MW braich.ETYM Bezzenberger BB 27 (1902): 152f.'short'� VAR Grades of compar. this is uncertain.[n..]). to Pliny NH XII..). ete. 209).). (see also Ruijgh 1991b: 585) assumes that it has the same suffIx as KUAA01tOOlWV. Denominative �paxuvw 'shorten' (Hp.. murdau. Ran. => �peXfl0<.).'. . (K 226). �paXLOVLaT�p 'id.�paaawv . see Hemmerdinger Glotta 48 (1970): 64· Pp£K£K£KE� [interj.] a substance found in peppercorns (DSe.DIAL Aeol.: on eaTL TOU 1t�xew<. PL). elsewhere 'upper arm'. [Hp.] 'shallows' see � �payo<. However. On �paxea [n. onomatopoeic' (H. murdet 'boil up'. ace. bracchiale.ETYM Word of Indian origin.). ppauKavacr8at [v. �paxuTepo<. muhurta.' (PIu.? .2. -TaTO<. TO �paxo<. <!!! GR?� . Trall.4hU-l-) . �paXLaALOv. 'to rattle. 'is said when children weep. brevis « * mre{f. Alternatively. 159).] imitation of the sound of frogs (Ar.. see Chantraine 1933: 327f. marazu-juua. . bracchium. ".pl. s. 'short-lived' (cf.] 'upper arm'.. <!!! IE *mrtu. ppaxEiv [v.).] 'suddenly'. • ppaxuc. and Lat..ocp�am 'to sound' (H.] 'short' (Hdt. �paxuTepo<. the phonetically regular reflex of *mrt-ios. Lith. �paXLOALoV (Alex. �paXlwv (in this sense only Choerob. Further related are Go.. murdyti "etwas im Wasser riittelnd behandeln". <!!! ONOM� . [m. hapax legomenon �paaawv Te voo<. • ppEY!1a 2 => �pexw. Ruijgh Minos 9 (1968): 147f. ppEY!1a 3 [n. £�paxe.. • .. • PpaXLwv.'short life' resp...] e1tL TWV KAmovTwv 1tmOlWV AtYeTm w<.ETYM Related to �pOUKO<.ETYM Possibly related to � �payxo<. �paXLaTo<.'short' in marazu-jlti-. (Pl.) from Lat. 6 �lO<. -apLOV (Srn.). ETYM According to Pollux 2.27. bracchiolum.v.). <!!! PG?� VAR Aor. �paxe.. Perhaps here �paxaAov· xpefl£TLaflov 'neighing' (H.). after 8aaawv? .. clash' (ll.' -T'lTO<. murzak 'id.). (ll.. ppEY!1a VAR �peYfl0<. 14.] . The word was borrowed as Lat. OHG murg(i) 'short'. -ovoc.DER �paxuT'l<.. muhu [adv.

However. Cf. £Aacpov 'deer' (H.DER �pev8£Lov (flupov. as a name of Bacchos (A. 142). 1tu8fl�V.COMP �apu-�pofl0<. .. 'boisterous' (PL).).). briedis.] ? . only) 'to behave haughtily. See Krahe 1955: 39.) 6.orchil'?) 1tapeflcpepe<.) in Arist. e. the bird name may be Pre-G�eek because of the variation L/ e. (. . � pev8 L<. these cannot be connected. � �pofl0<. OUK di . the head of a deer' (Str. 1tap£La<. Denominative �poVTaw 'to thunder' (ll. -uo<. ppEv8oC.). On the other hand.).g.l. name of a Cyclops (Hes.�oPfl0<.). and MW brefu 'roar' (Pok.v.).). grumble' (ll.' may constitute yet another group. see Thompson 1895 s.l.. without a dental (Demiraj 1997 s. (an unguent).)' (H. Namenforsch. a bird (a waterbird in Arist. 6. 3 .. � xpefleT(�w . Note that the -vT-forms refer to thunder. (H. �pevnov· � KecpaA� TOU eACtcpou 'a stag's head. ot Oe CPUKO<. . Sapph. <!!! ONOM� VAR Only pres. BpOVT'l<. injll. the bird name (and 'arrogance') on the one hand.).v.) brund (Latv.�pev80<. KtJ1t PLOL 'lettuce (Cypr. 'pride' (Ath.). MoSw. -�pev-Ta<. etc. Deverbative �p0!1ew (iterative­ intensive) (ll. �p(v80<. TCt<.). <!!! ?� . 5.). Rix Beitr.) whence �pOflLO<.). More usual is �peveuoflm (pres. 'loud noise' (ll. �plv80<.3. . e.). bri 'horn. whereas the forms with fl and without T indicate droning sounds in general.). w<. �pev8Lvcp· av8Lvcp (H.).g. z. fremo 'to rumble. brind(e) 'male elk' and MoNw.) is not related.). -�pefl-eT'l<. dial. �aKKapL<. -�pOVT� 'thunder' (ll. whereas Greek has �-.] 'to roar. (dial.). [m. a perfume �pev80v· flupoV n 'a perfume' <TWV 1taxewv>. apyL-�pev-Ta<. 2.�pefl-eT'l<. EM). KuoeL ACPPOOlT'l<.). 120). and the plants and perfume on the other. is reliable. It suggests that there were two groups. HA 15a16 = Koaau cpov 'blackbird' (H. in epL. possibly also found in place names. swagger' (Ar. • . �pev8Lva· {)l�apLa nva. . Alb. HA 609a23. see � �Aeflea(vw. base. BpoflLO<. 237 PpE!1W [v.� .ETYM Although �pe!1w resembles Lat. = 8p(oa� (Nic.). antlers'. OHG breman 'buzz'. (Zeu<. The word for 'Tufl�o<.] is attested in wide variety of (only partly polysemic) meanings: 1. BpOVT�aLO<. (ll. ot Oe liv8LVOV flupoV 'perfume of flowers' (H. �PLVOe1V· 8uflou a8m.] 'perfume of �pev8£Lov flupov' (Phld. Therefore... in ava�L­ ' �pev-Ta<. If the v. but probably Pre-Greek. ok epu8palVOVTaL at YUValKe<. from �povTaw. �pevTa(· �pOVTa( (H. these categories remain uncertain. �pev8L�· 8pLOaK(V'l.6. Further �peflea(vwv· �xwv H. cf. fr. <!!! LW Messap. roar'. 4.). ot Oe liyxouaav.). • • PPEVl)OV [m. cf. which is quite doubtful.. it is rather an onomatopoeic word. tomb' (H.. Also aioAo-�pOVTa<. BpeVTeaLOV = Brundisium. �pev8u<. also �pev8uvoflm (AP) . in the sense 'oats' (Hp. epe8(�£Lv 'be agitated. TUfl�o<.ETYM A Messapian word (EM). �pwflaoflm 'cry' (Ar. 'roots with which women redden their cheeks' .. . since they derive from *bhrem-. probably from Gm. DER �pofl0<. ETYM DELG is of the opinion that the name of the bird is the same word as that for 'arrogance'.). �poVTea name of a precious stone (Plin.). 'bottom.). [f.]/[n. Further possible cognates are found in NGm. 5 (1970): 115ff. but a singing bird (v.

� ONOM� . -£0<. (PGm. �pE<p68EV 'from childhood' (Eust.).'womb'.. [n./ gWrebh.. also OW br(e)ithel. �peXfla (v. words for 'neck' from *mrz. moisten'� VAR Aor.). 'child-killing' (Lyc.provoke' (H. napa 'InnoKpuTEl 'what is spit out from the chest' (H. EVlOl TaUTa XWpt<.) Ace. . Alciphr. 'ink-horn' (AP). �p�(J(J£L' ��(J(JEl 'to bleat. the discussion s. � IE? *mert. *bragna-). garbha..] (Stratt.(and perhaps of 0 in the cluster �o-?. 5).DER �poX� 'rain.(in South Slavic.(Trautmann 1923: 182. is related to OCS zreb�. Krahe DLZ 51 (1930): 1654.). cf.).is a variant of -A. the regular metathesis of PSl. but the Slavic must go back to *gWerbh.).) is not related (pace von Blumenthal 1930: 6. � PG?� . �pEYfl6<. see � OEA<pU<.with schwebeablaut (cf.). a variant of ��(J(JElV.).v. <pWVEl Ta np6�aTa 'calls the cattle' (H. zrebbcb 'foal'. �pe�aL. Hipp. which can be traced back to *mert.l. � IE? *gWerbh. �pEX8�VUl. mergu6t 'rain slowly'.v.COMP �PE<pO-KT6vo<.] . 3. uva�e�poXEv (P 54). �ptTa<. 330). (AP). �PEXW would require *mret.).DER �p�Yfla· un6TCTu(Jfla uno 8wpaKo<. Fur. however. .ETYM Not related to �pexw. �p6XLOV 'id. and the difference in meaning.). morosit' 'rain slowly' cannot be connected because of its -s-). likewise an image of a god. �peYfla (Erot. �poX[<.). sometimes written without the p' (Gal. The connection of Benveniste BSL 31 (1930): 80 with Av. (EM). No etymology (see Benveniste RPh. �pax�vUl. uvaTCTU£LV.) suggests that ilie -p. Schwyzer: 206).'brain(-pan)'� VAR Also �peYfla [n. 58 (1929)128f. The appurtenance of Mlr.or *bhret-. Ru.'child. • �ptxw [V. the Greek reflects *gWrebh-. � IE? *mret-n. young'� . words for 'brain': OE brregen. [m.DER PN BpeTwv (Attica). OFr. �poXfl6<. • �p£X!l6<. Bechtel 1917a: 13f.). �pt<po<. = • . . on Skt. 'childish' (Ph. DER �PE<PWOTJ<. ETYM An expressive (onomatopoeic) word.).). . to Bechtel l917a: 12f.' (pap. perhaps under the influence of � �paxiiv.] 'front part of the head' (Il. cough' (H... The gloss �p�(J(Joucnv· �ATJXWVTaI. merga 'soft rain'. young of an animal' (Il.remains uncertain.] 'to wet. The word is rather related to WGm.] 'wooden image of a god' (A. MLG bragen. ( BpTJK-) (?). perhaps it is a secondary full grade on the basis of a zero grade *�pax-). brommach 'foal' « *gWrombhiiko-) is uncertain.ETYM �pe<po<. moistening. • • �pqOOElV [v.). TOU p ypu<poucn 'to spit up by coughing. � �pe<po<. *er yields re). inundation' (Democr. [n.ETYM DELG suggests that the word is the Doric equivalent of � �6avov. ETYM In spite of the doubts expressed in DELG s. see also Alessio Studi etruschi 15 (1941): 190ff.'wet. See � �pUXLO<. also the Boeot. drench' (Hp. from *mret. TO fl£la �TJX0<.] 'newborn child. brein..'cervical vertebra' and Molran. ete. marazu. cf. �poX£l6<... Lex. �pexw is possibly related to Latv.. PN BpElK[oa<.

For BplUpEW<.'summer' is difficult as the latter derive from *smH-. the word group. difficult' (see � �P[flTJ). . a giant with hundred arms (Il. 6. much more probably it is a Pre-Greek name.. (UKpOl<. � �PlfluoflUl.· �p[YKO<. with �nuw (Bechtel 1914 s.DER �plap6<.] 'to be or make strong. cf.).would have given *�apL-. [adj.) (Stromberg 1943: 58).). �e�pL8a.[m.: index). further uvw86pKa<. The suffix can hardly be anything else.v.. (see Adams s. BplUpEW<. ToB riye 'town' (which may continue < *urih. KExapl(Jflevov 'very happy' (H.COMP In e.).ETYM The word has been connected with ToA ri. . Tiix0<.. 246f. this whole etymon must be of Pre­ Greek origin in view of the variants (Fur. ham. Kunplol 'small (Cypr. would be possible. "laKX0<.)' (H.'. 'cetaceous fish' (H. Bechtel l. a derivative *gWrh2-iH.) (Thompson 1947 s. �p[YKO<. as this word continues *gWrh2-u-.ETYM Unknown. but the only evidence for such a root is Skt.) Further � �P[flTJ. see � �p[�w.] 'strong' (Il. �p18u<. 1). name of a sea-fish (ap . Bp[aKX0<. See � <PPlfluo(JoflUl.v. LTJAU(fl)fl�p[a and 355 to Bpea. KTJTWOTJ<. �pl-�nuo<. Here also �plv8£lv· 8uflou(J8Ul.. mighty' (Hes. see below. xaA£1t6<. 'Bacchante' (S. could in principle continue *gWrih2-eros. �p[KX0<..). in Hes. �plfluoflal. As DELG remarks. (cod.). Ent TOU flEYMOU Kat [(JXUPOU Kat xaA£1tOU T[8£lUl 'an epithet of the [words] great. �pL8o<. the word can hardly be regarded as genuinely Greek. (cf..ETYM Since the idea of an old 'ablaut' *i / ia must be given up and such cases must be reconstructed as * -ih2.) 6 [X8u<. �pl80(JuvTJ 'id. Av. 'heavy' (?) (Il.] 'midsummer' (Wackernagel KZ 61 (1934): 197f. • �p(a n6Al<. EpE8[�£LV 'to be agitated.. TO fllKp6v. 'great.?� . �PlUW [v. gri-?ma.: 168104. cf. Since �Plfl. [n. However. strong and fierce' (H.).g.). 322e). (i. . � PG� . 7.).. meaning 'big. uno eTJ�a[wv 'sea-fish (Theb. �p[av· T�V En' uypol<. 'heavy' is very doubtful. strong. irritate' (H. = �plap6<. �plap6<.] .?) KWflTJv 'an unfortified village in ilie country (in the periphery?)' (H. in Thracian (Str.) with [uXw. � L W Thrac.. also PN (Eretria). Fur. Fur. also �PlEp6<. pi-ri-ta-wo is uncertain. 'O�PlUpEW<. As Fur.)' (H.e. headland' has also been compared. 174122. the semantics are very weak. derived from a root without laryngeal. See also � �p[�w and �U�Pl<. *gWr-iH-.] 'weight' (Hp.).).).? See Schwyzer: 682f. � ?� ./ -ro. . 'crying loudly' of Ares (N 521).here.239 �p( (�pl) [?] . remarks. that the word is Ligurian) is improbable. can be alternatively connected with �Plfl6<.) back-formation from �plap6<. 6�PlUPEW<. The theory of Pisani KZ 75 (1957): 78f.v. perf. = [X8u<.' (Il. a town in Thrace. For the stem formation. be full of (Il.-en-) since Liden 1916: 143f.DIAL The interpretation of Mye. � pLOY 'peak.) with prenasalization of �pl8-? (For the very probably related to o�Plfl0<. �plTJP6v' flEYUAW<.. from samii ' [half-]year'. nor has a root *�plap any plausibility (pace Benveniste 1935: 15)./ -ih2-e.: 168103 With -8-: �pl8w 'to be laden with.e. the interpretation 'who causes much damage (up�)' (Bechtel 1914) is most uncertain..). Aili.). because we cannot assume a derivational system * -i. and for the explanation of the second part -?ma. �Pl(JUl.. =>�pL �p(YKa [m.: 27013 refers to rrohufl�p[a. The connection with � �apu<.).).

somno gravatus) is improbable.l.). cf. and -eA. Kat YUVaLKela appTjTonoLLa 'threat. more usual Efl-PplflUOflaL (A. pappaplKov 'the word is barbarian. ol o£ aOAOlKla-ral 'barbarian. and KeA. PplKOV' puppapov. Pp[8w. p. ete.laVn<. 'awake' (H. 'pointed stick. 6py[�e-raL 'is angry. Horn. acc. 79 = 'roaring'. difficult' (H.240 �Pl�W [V. appl�' EYPTjYOpw<. 855.. Lat. foreigner': the variation l . E.(= �UAOV). � unplyoa and Schwyzer: 620) .] . flEya<. also 'OPPlflw. The gloss as la-ronooe<.ETYM Probably based on PPl. -ou<.).in pplapo<. XaA£1to<.is a Pre-Greek suffIx (see Pre­ Greek: suffixes). [?l). or those who speek incorrectly' (H. perhaps it is inspired by a folk-etymological interpretation of pp[KeAOl from pupo<.). PPlKEAOU<. h. 826 [lyr. supposed to refer to A. R 4. (Ar. A. Eq. Kat TOU �UAOU' ol o£ pappupou<. 169 Erbse). [f. PPlflo<. auvoua(av. napu KpaTIV<p. pplflu�el' 6py« ei<. The assumption that the original meaning was 'heaviness.). PPlflOOflaL 'id. � PG?� . 223. � BPl�tV [e]'(KeAo<. . For the Bplye<.) with pp[flTjfla (H.' xupaKe<. � PG� VAR Cf.' puppapo<. e�pl�a (Od. <pwvfi 'using the voice of the lion'. yap ESvo<..)' (H.. KunpLOl 'is longing for company (Cypr.). olov PpOl<J) e'lKeAOl. characters in tragedy (apud Cratinus. pplye<. Solmsen KZ 42 (1909): 2072). 28. energy'. it is a Pre-Greek word related to <pp[Ke<.). T18e-raL o£ [Kat] Ent npoawnwv TpaylKwv Kat e'lpTjTaL oloVe! PpOl<J) [e]'(KeAo<. vehemence. (Herm. nod' (Cl 4. anpl� s. laTonooa<. cf. ETYM Unexplained. like a mortal (in Cratinus's . • �ptew -ppL �PlK£AOl [m. ppl8w (Curtius 1858: 475. v. o£ Ta TpaylKu npoawneia. 4 (1954): 166f.. �PI�aL' unVWaaL. �p[fln nOAu<papfluKou). Pre-Greek • • . Fr. made of a weight and wood. ETYM Perhaps we are dealing with a Pre-Greek word PplK-/ PPUK. doubtful conj. The idea that the word has anything to do with Bp[ye<. EV Lepl<pIOl<. palisade (?)' (H. Rh. �pUKO<.v. [?l). Seriphians) (H. PPl�W. H.... also probably Orph. is clearly folk-etymological. . PPlflu�wV' Tn -rou AEOVTO<.. The connection with �Pl-.· Cllouflo<. . UPplKTOV' .· Kpanvo<. • �p(f.U is well known.). According to Groselj Ziva Ant. Bplye<.). ano TOU pupOU<.> alpe oeupo TOU<.· puppapOl.] . is a learned etymology.VAR Also: �pIKeAo<. rages'.] = EVUnvl0f.'barbarian. Lepl<plol<. an£lA�.] ol fl£v TOU<. is partly based on the wrong etymological connection with papu<. is unclear. Xpwflevo<. Verbs: pplflUOflaL 'snort with anger' vel sim.. uypunvov 'sleepless'. are a barbaric race. it is used for tragic characters [too] and it is used like "like a man" or "like a barbarian". to Didymus). their meanings are not quite clear (cf. Phld. (Semus 5). whereas an interpretation as �pOT<J) elKeAo<. API.' unvwaa<.1lJ [f. barbarians.) "<alp' .) DER Bplflw epithet of Hecate and Persephone (A.] 'to be sleepy. (see the discussion on � �pl-). R. e�plaa). apud Stob..' (Paus. (204K. vuanl�aL 'sleep..' (X.. 'beams' in H. As these words are rare. PPlflwoTj<. Cf. � ?� . Pplfla[ve-raL' 8ufla[ve-raL. Gr. take a nap'. also womanly vice' (H. 1677 MTjoelTj<.VAR Aor." ("raise high the beams"} ean o£ pappaplKOV TO ovofla. 10 (of Athena). 'great. �pla8el<. 'long beams of the loom.

10<.. / <l>avOleu<. compare KOXAO<. 1 [m.] 'bronchial tubes' (Hp.] · flwpo<. Dreros (Call. cf.). to Solin. which seems confirmed by the gloss. 8. Dian. � ppuYX0<.] festival on Delos (inscr. can be easily understood as Pre­ Greek prenasalization.). "EAATjve<. ana[owTo<. Chantraine 1933: 327f. olov poaKTjfla 'who has not learnt. Ace. like a piece of cattle' (H. to Marinatos ApX' CleAT. � PG(v)� . To my mind. 'dull' (H. 'sweet (Cret. is due to dissimilation. Denominative PPOYXlU�£l' KaTan[vel 'gulps down' (H.) held that -flapm<. but Brown 1985: 41 rightly objects that the u-stem cannot be accounted for in this way.DER ppoYXla [n. .). also a goddess or nymph on Crete..ETYM Str. The nasal infix.. 9: 79ff. Kp�Te<.. with Lat. Fur. . TponwT�p . (index) credible connection with <pplfluaaoflaL.1UpTl<. • .VAR Also BplToflapm<.DER BplToflupna [n. It is conceivable that ppoX8. [ �pOKO<.: 389.] .Tpono<.. �poYX0<.. [m.). Latte thinks that the gloss may have been invented secondarily to explain the name. and with � oPPlfl0<. yAUKU.flOyEW.).).] epithet of Artemis on Crete (inscr.). PpoYXe1ov 'bronchial cartiledge' (S. �pl't1) [adj. see also ibid. .) (H. See � PplTU. .: 166 compares IIavoneu<. PpoYX[Tj [f.). � ?� . but it is improbable that BplToflapn<.. throat' (Hp. �p0f. 190) . apTTjp[a). much more doubtfully. it belongs to the Aetolian DN MupnTjaaa. Proposals for an lE etymology are useless. is the original form. .ETYM DELG refers to PPOKOl' aTCEAepOl 'locusts' and considers it to be "un emploi plaisant" of 'locust'. (Wahrmann Glotta 19 (1931): 170). but just another form of the root.).).. epithet of Artemis on Crete (inscr.COMP See also on � BplToflapn<.241 origin is proven by Fur. (Dieuch.] 'system of conducts connecting heart with liver' (Hp. There is also a form BpuToflapn<.PpoYX0<.). PPOKWV' afla8�<. � PG(V)� . and.. PpoyxwT�p 'neck in a garment' (T. � PG(v)� VAR Also pOPflo<. � PG� . it means 'dulcis virgo' = 'sweet maiden'. A variation l/ U is also known from Pre-Greek. it is rather an accidental homonym.] 'windpipe. . and � �paxe1v belong to this group. and floX80<. See � �pL �p(v�£iv -ppL BplTOf.c. [f. KOYXVTj. (cf. . Fur. which would be inexplicable if the word were lE. -flupnela (Crete). �A[8l0V 'numb' (H. Dreros (Call. For the formation of �poX80<. Further..).ETYM The word is evidently connected with � ppO�aL and ppoX80<. apud Orib.).] 'oats' (Thphr. Str. For the interchange n/ T. Wahrmann (l. uneducated. bargus 'sine ingenio'.. with the typical variation a/o . 11. The hypothesis of Magnien Glotta 21 (1933): 178 is improbable. also a goddess or nymph on Crete.: 145 suggests connection with npoKov. 190).is not a suffIxal derivation from this word. 'OPPlflw). the whole group of �Pl-. Dian. cf..ETYM Acc.

) = L . Another vocalism is found in � flOpTO<.] . etc.). From other languages. bragae 'neck'. On PNs with flOpTO<.'dead. Aeolic from *mrto-. OCS mr7>tV7> 'dead' (with suffIx after vivus. mortal'� • COMP <pawlfl�poTo<. Pr.. give to drink' (Arist. 8V'lTO<. gullet' (Hp. note a-�poT'l vu� (3 78).. 'id. aT�80<. 'id... and Celt. cf... �pOlOAOLyO<. Schmid 1950: 28f. probably an action noun. has been compared with yvu80<. PIE *gWroi'. Av. �poX81�w 'take a mouthful. etc.. ziv7» . ME crawe 'crop. further examples in Fur. cf. etc.). ava�€�pox£v (P 54. and OIr. is Pre-Greek). �po�m as a simplex = po<p� am. �pOVT� =>�p€flw. (Archil. •DER �pOT£O<. 0 222. as this would give �p'l/a/wx. <plAOT�(j[O<. Note a�pOlo<. Lat. (H. 'neck. 'shallow' (?. . or � �puyxo<. Skt. Unrelated is � flapalvw. afl<pl�poT'l aarrl<. marata. MW breuant 'windpipe' from PCl. f. agrees with Arm.) is reliable.242 . a-ma�a. Nic. for % u in Pre­ Greek. �poTal' yuva1K£<. a-fl�poTO<. •ETYM The surprising o-vocalism in the aorist can hardly be explained by Aeolic origin. � ?� .).in Greek). 'shield protecting in all directions' (B 389). cf. clear the throat.).).. as *gWrh3-C. perf. 'immortal. throat. also 'mortal' (ll. �poYX0<. Torro<. corrected by Latte to �pOlOl(?).. � PG� . The aberrant o-vocalism is confirmed by the a-vocalism of �puyxo<. to Zenodotus for ava�€�pux£v).'. Cf. a-mtta-.). 'shining on mortals'. � IE *mr-to. �pu�m' . human' (cf. . . acc.DER �poX80<.] '(mortal) man'. after'I8aK�(j[0<... d<. Not related to �l�pwaKw.). mard 'man' (*mrto-).).'dead'.. KOAoT€a/ KOAouT€a (see Pre-Greek). etc.] 'throat.] 'to gulp down. collar'.. KaLa-�po�m. Chantraine 1933: 367). ava�pox€v (A 586).). pass.) 'mortal. The privative Skt. swallow (again)' (fl 240.ETYM Probably Pre-Greek on account of the alternating vocalism.o� 2 [m. If �pou� · TPUX'lAO<. AP). Hardly related to �p€flw (as per LSJ). �pOT�<JLO<.. it would also remain unexplained by the IE etymology.). throat' (H.) may be due to influence of �l�pwaKw. this IE etymology can explain neither �poX80<. [m. �poT6� [m. �poX8wo'l<.). �pou�· TPUX'lAO<. �p6�aL [v. (T 545. see Chantraine 1933: 41f. mrta­ (verbal adj. but these are body parts (note that yvu80<. 'without men' (A.). afl�po(j[o<.ETYM Unknown.: 392. H.(not from *gWrHi'-. 'women' (H. words like MHG krage 'neck.. (Schwyzer: 51Of. in spite of the gloss �pu�m. see Masson RPh. 2). �poYX0<. *brag-. nor � �poYX0<.' av8pwrro<.'immortal' is comparable to a­ fl�pOTO<. Av. KaLamdv 'gulp down' (H.).would have given *�pw-C-. craw (of a bird)' (which may contain *gWroi'-). divine'. QV EAa<pOL OVpOU<JL Kat a<po8 euou<JL 'place into which deer urinate and defecate' (H.). which should be interpreted as reflecting Pre-Greek origin. The notation KaLa-�pW�m (Ar. �poX80<. �p6.. However. .. however. food of the gods (all ll. 89 (1963): 222f. 'man' (H.COMP Mostly ava-.ETYM �pOlO<. .. �pOT£lO<. Wackernagel l916: 69\ S.' (Hes. mortuus. 'ruining mortals' (ll. afl�poal'l 'Ambrosia'..VAR Aor. one adduces Gm.

and Latv.' (AP). aKplo£<.) and �pOTO£VT' avopuypla (E 509).. rroa EVUOpO<.). However. .) .). etc. noose'.'clotted' (pres. but it is uncertain whether the noose was made of bark (see Fur.ETYM �pUKO<. 1.. 'plant growing in water' (H. murchati) is only possible if loss of the laryngeal under unknown circumstances is accepted. but the latter contains a different root. L1'lfl'lTP1OL<. See also � �£pKvl<. nor to � fl€Pfll<.).).: that afl<pl�poT'l (aarrl<.: 341).· �poxo<. is from afl�pOlo<. then the prenasalization points to Pre-Greek origin. Not connected to � �p€xw. man'.VAR �poux0<. (The word has been compared with mpa-To<.).. 'plaiting of bark.VAR �puYXo<.) (H.DER �pOTO£l<.). or to dialectal differences (cf.).] mostly interpreted as 'clotted blood' (ll. 'locusts' (H.' � fllKpet aKpl<. Leumann 1950: 124ff. acc. with which the L1. 'id. probably representing a different ablaut grade *mor-. marga 'railing. . B 389. Serb. after this Stesich. etc.'the mortal one. If the gloss on �puyxo<. H.] 'noose. . Aeol..). Lith. gallery'.DER �poXl<. marska 'net' (Vasmer 1953(2): 119). but the agreement may be secondary. Av.). is reliable.L 243 Skt. � ?� .. .la-. � PG(v)� . (and �pouxo<. (Cret. Schulze KZ 29 (1888): 257f. (LXX. �poxo<.. bruchus is borrowed from the Greek. these words would need implausible reconstructions *morHi'-skeh2and *merHi'-ieh2-. marata. mreza 'net'. mefga. slip-knot' (Od. Schwyzer: 198).)..DIAL Ion. Lat. �p6'ro� [m..] . used to hit each other' (H. Differently.) was compared with �pUKW 'eat greedily. S. a hypothesis which is confirmed by the vocalic variation.ETYM The word has been connected with flOPOHOV' EK <pAOLOU rrA€Yfla ll. imo KP'lTWV 'small locust (Cret.). (H. � PG(v)� . to H. 717. iP ETumov aAA�Aou<. �p6Xeo� =>�po�m.). � ?� . (H. �pauK'l (AB. aTpo-To<.). which had not been noticed earlier. Improbably.. but the connection with Skt.: he maintains that �pOTO<. The names of small animals frequently show such variations. �pOUKO� [m. stlr-7. . but this is precisely due to foreign origin. . .).ETYM Perhaps Aeolic (with retracted accent) for *�paTo<. �pOKOL' aH€A£�ol. bruche in turn from Latin. �pauKo<. to Skt. MoFr.ETYM The text has rrov'lpo<. Ph. wrongly taken as avalflwv.] 'locust' (Thphr. H. see Rohlfs 1930: 388. further the hapax �£�PoTwfl€va T£uxea (A 41 = Q.) is from *�pOTOV 'body' . marta-. whereas they could be explained much more easily from *merg­ with Winter's law. see Beekes 1969: 243. No doubt a Pre-Greek word. �p£<U>KO<. �p6xo� [m. 'bloody' in Evapa �pOlO£VLa (Z 480.. has also been compared with Slavic words like OCS mreza 'net. �pUKO<. . this is hardly probable. �pOUAO� [m. T01<. �pouKa (Cypr. Except for fl€Aava �pOTOV 'dark blood' (w 189) only at verse end in tlIe formula �pOTOV aiflaTo£vTa 'red blood' (H 425). grind the teeth' (EM). 42 0PUKWV . . murta. Kupa �£�POlWfl€vo<.

� IE *gWruHf!'-� VAR Aor.) (H. �puaAi�wv [V. see �piK£AOI. Stes. . . DIAL �pUKW Att.).: 187 compares �puTlyyoi· XlTWV£<. leay£vwv 'silken tunics.VAR �pUKatvat· tEP£lat U110 i1WPlEWV 'priestesses (Dor. 'war dancers.). �Ofl�UKlVOI. . . �puXT]efl0<. KlV�U£W<. i1wPl£l<. ... � �uuuo<. ETYM On the explanation aTTEA£�o<. and � . KaL LTT]uixop0<. 'burst into Bacchic frenzy with a certain movement' (H. . if c for expected j can find an explanation. and possibly Arm. then �pu�w and �puxw may continue *gWruHf!'-.. � PG(v)� .). . to Moeris and Ammon.). �puyoT]v 'with clenched teeth' (?) (AP). �pUeaK£<.).] olapp�uuwv 'breaking' (H. (-T]. KaL �puKT]efl0<. Further unknown. • �pUKW [v. [m.. and further.DER �puaAlYflov· '\fo<pov. Further �puK£oavo<. cf.] 'to bite. and likewise for �.). Cf. .ETYM If the K in �pUKW is secondary for X in �pU�at.). ot O£ aTT£A£�o<. but the meaning does not match very well. bran 'sorrow'. it has been compared with �puauoflat· ava�aKx£uuoflat fleTa TlVO<. MOVT£<. � PG?� .). . see Liden 1906: 34f. AaKwvlKa 0pX�flaTa Ota MaAEa<. Further related are OIr.· TalJTOV L4> �puYfl4>. further corrupt). 'people who wear ugly masks of women and sing songs' (H. gen. but the distinction is not always clear .). .lO4).. �pUKO<. � �pUXLO<. �pu�w. KaL �puaAlxa . BpuxaA£i6. grysti 'gnaw'. Cf. DER �puYfl0<. �pUAAlXlUTat [read �puaA-]· ot aluxpa 11pouw11£la 11£pmeEfl£vOI yuvatK£la KaL uflvou<. (H. For �puxo<. �pu�at. . ot O£ �ap�apo<. � Xov 'sound' and �puaAiKTat· 110AEfllKOL 0PXT]UTai· 'fl£VEOOU1101' "I�uKo<. he reconstructs a word *�pue!T-o<. too' (Poll. steadfast in battle (Ibyc. For the semantics.. OaKeTOV. an ancient stock' (H. 11£uK£oavo<. fut. ms. -ov). locust' (H.). It is probably a Pre-Greek word: Fur... for �ap�apo<.). 'eating a lot' (H. see �pOUKO<. grauziu. 'herald. 'linen' (or 'silk'?).)' (H.) . . (Dor.). next to �puxw 'grind the teeth' (Hp. cf.�pU 244 �pU =>�pUV...). � yEVO<. acc. Also �puxo<. the epiclesis of Hermes at Pharsalos (Dettori Myrtia 15 (2000): 27-33).· 11oAu<payo<. 'tunics' (H. . • • • L . 0floiw<. �puTivT]v· �uuuivT]v (H. . and . 'the same as �.). gryzla shows that the root must have contained a laryngeal). �puoaAlxa (read �puaAlxa?. [?] ot XlTWV£<. . krcem 'gnaw' < *kurcem (perhaps metathesized like turc.).' (the initial accentuation of Ru. cf.). MW brwyn 'biting pain' (from *brugnos with pretonic shortening). �pUKeTO<.ETYM Fur. eat greedily' (Com. .: 174 also cites �puavlwv· fleT£WPl�ofl£VO<. . OCS gryz9. � PG?� . . -ixa)11POUW110V YUVatK£lov 'female mask' (H.ETYM Derived from *�puaAo<. Further.) (H.] K�PU�. cf. barbarian. which itself is connected with � �puw.· K�pU� . � �puxaoflat. 11POUWPXOUVTO O£ yuVatK£<. which the women danced for Apollo. trcoy 'jaw'.. . KaL A110AAWVl 'Laconian dances . KaL KOPWVlWV 'is raised and streches the neck [is ambitious]' (H. Lith. .. 4. grauzti 'id. (Eup. � �puv.

AplUTOTEAT]<.).). originally an adjective acc. � <popuvw. later adverbial (Arat.. �pfJXLO<.. thinks it represents �pUTOV.). AaXT]<. KaA£t 'kind of sea urchin. �pUTlVo<. Whether the long U of the Greek goes back to Thracian as well is unknown. �pUTO<.� . West Glotta 47 (1970): 184f.1l26). �pUTO<. OHG prod 'juice'.). others.DER �puXT]efl0<. bellow' (ll. Q1hou<. .] " �puxo<.· . 7. by Arist.). . [m. U110�pUXLO<. For the forms see Fraenkel 1912: 953 (p.DER �pUAAW 'id. Probably of onomatopoeic origin. �PULW.] 'must boiled down'. Ta UTEfl<puAa' (Ath. also called �. from Lat.L 245 �pUAlXlCJTai =>�puaAi�wv. [m.v. 2. �puTava =>�uTava.] a kind of sea urchin (Arist.. U110�pUXLO<.] 'refuse of olives or grapes. �pUAAWV· U11011ivwv 'drinking a little' (H. w<. It may be identical with OE broG.' (H.ETYM The intensive perfect �E�puxa (cf. ot o£ IXeuv. . mg. . • �puo"cjQ<.) was the basis of �pUxaOflal. � ?� . with three syllables. �aTpaxov o£ KU11plOl 'frog [Cypr. � PG(v)� ..). 1382). exivou see Bechtel 1914 s. afl�. Secondary �puxa 'depth of the sea' (Opp. �puxaoflat [v.. 588). .).' (A. � LW Thrac. -om).) (also a�puTTOI). afl�puTToV. �E�puxa (with pres.VAR afl�puTTol· cloo<.ETYM As is evident from the variant forms. retrograde �puX� (Opp. 'roar(ing)' (Arist. . �puv in �puv £111£lv 'call for drink'.). Nu. etc. it cannot be concluded that the reading a�puTTol is false). 'engulfing' (S. ' [?] ' (H. On the formation of U11o�puxa. �pUXT]T�p. also � �pUKO<. also �pOUTO<. bruth 'glow' (*bhrutos.] 'to roar. Lat. �puTLyyoi =>�pUeaK£<..VAR Perf. The closest comparandum is Lat.v. see Schrijver 1991: 254f. (Cratin.ETYM Probably based on an onomatopoeic form.. .] . Hom: 33. Equ. -la (Demiraj 1997 s.).· K�PU� 'herald' (H. <PT]0lV AplUTOTEAT]<.] 'beer' made of barley (Archil. � ONOM� .).). .· cloo<. berSl). 12).DER �PULW (-la) [n. Not connected to � <ppEap. depth (of the sea)'.). . is a loan word from Thracian. . . �pux�uaUeat. (A. defrutum [n. �puxo<. ferv(e)0. Perhaps here also �POUX£LO<. �v. [adj. 96).). see Schwyzer 1950: 532. Aor. (£ 319.VAR Also -ov [n. 130. �PlJTTlOV (H. �puxw). H.).. �puXT]fla 'id. �PUXT]L�<. � ONOM� VAR Also �pu or �pou. 11£pl�pUXLO<. OIr.. which would be surprising.] 'deep (under water) .ETYM One would have to start from a noun *�pU�. (h. Hdt. 1101£t 'some: a fish. 'water.DER U11o�puxa 'under water'.pl. �puXT]86v (A. flEfluKa. ot o£ Tpl(JUAAa�w<. R. exivou 11£Aayiou. brisa 'refuse of grapes' is probably also derived from Thrac. prove that this is a Pre-Greek word.. of small children (Ar. together with the prenasalization.).ETYM The variants. �pULlKO<. (Antiph. o£ �pUTTOU<.' (Ar. cf.). also �pUTTO<.

�PWflEW (-0-) 'id. The word has been supposed to be identical with �pofl0<.. (Arc. Chantraine 1933: 27f.). There seems to have been a connection with �pUXUOflUL by popular etymology. (Od. E. Procop..' (Al.ETYM Derived from the onomatopetic �u after the nouns in -0. bromus. �poflwOT]<. It is from Thrace. Lat.). but see Scheller 1951: 47).. (both) also a kind of wine. �U�AIU (on the accent see Wackernagel and Debrunner Phil. 19). Klv�aEw<.. Cf.)..] 'to swell. BpUUKTT]<. 'Cyperus Papyrus.).). bu 'owl' (= Georg.] 'stench' (LXX. uncertain aVE�puu�Uv Ar. Schrader-Nehring 1917(2): 216. (or -IVWV). olvo<. . Andre 1967: 45).. �PWflWOT]<. Bpuawv.). and H. B(fl�AIVO<. also PN as Bpuu<. exbromo is borrowed from the Greek..) . • • �pwl10<. Dsc.). e�u�E D.'. o'(vou KaL yEVO<. (LSJ Supp.). 'burst into Bacchic frenzy with a certain movement' (H. and the meaning is different as well. Ev.] 'new-born (lamb) (I 245). �puov [n. =>�pUKOC. Deverbal �u�a = �ua<.DER �puat<. �puwv(u 'black. brome.KT]<.] 'tree­ moss. [m. �U�A(OV. £yKE<pUAO<. 'E1t(xapfl0<. bubo.' (Hp.. bark.doo<. bromosus. � �UKTT]<. � ONOM� . �U�AO<. 'kind of wine and vine in Thrace.. �puxw =>�pUKW. (but �puau<. etc.. (Schwyzer: 461.. see above). afl1tEAOU £V 8pq..DER �U�AIVO<. Kalitsunakis GIotta 12 (1923): 198. Marc. �I�A(OV (see Kretschmer KZ 57 (1930): L . roll. �puafl0<. Kretschmer GIotta 11 (1921): 98. etc. also �(fl�AIVO<. �PlJX6<. �puwvT]. paper' (Hdt. COMP Old efl�puov [n. (pap. papyrus stalks.] The Egyptian papyrus.. see Schwyzer 716). • • �ua<. 95 (1942): 191f.VAR Sometimes �pofl0<. see Chantraine 1933: 207f.. also old wine. mountains.). ETYM No etymology.ETYM No etymology. Similar instances of onomatopoeia are e.).)..<.) with �puwoT]<.DER Verb �u�w (�ua<. apud Stob. 97f. Bulg.. . .' (H. white vine' (Nic. bu). buh (Pok. �(fl�AI<. 30).g. Differently. (Nic. see DELG. 7.VAR �(�AO<. MoP bum 'id. Hatzidakis GIotta 22 (1934): 130-3).). bromine. Denominative �pUOOflUL 'to be grown over with �puov' (Arist.Connection with �PEXW is phonetically impossible. [m.. Also �puu�w with �puuaoflUL· avu�uKXEuaoflUL flETU nvo<. DER �pwfla 'ordure' (?. epithet of Pan (Poet.Kn KaL 0 1taAULo<. Herael. � PG?� .). �pUOEl<... Arm. type efl1tEoo<.). Lat.).) 'made of papyrus'. �puw [v. O£ a1t' opwv BI�A(VWV. (Nic. 'noise' (Kretschmer GIotta 9 (1918): 222f. (Suid. 'foetus' (Hp. Strix bubo' (Arist. � ?� . . 602) together with �puuafl0<. teem with' (ll. See � �pUUA(�WV. � ?� VAR Only pres. [m. Eq.] 'eagle-owl. The word lives on in the chemical element (Fr.).). GaL).) 'plantation of papyrus' (Tab. c. 'voluptuousness' (PIu. ean O£ 8pq.. 'stinking' (Str. Epicharmus [uses it as] from the B. �(�AIVO<. .

Moreover.). E. A connection with yue(aawv· Otopuaawv 'digging out' (H. The earlier attempts to connect �aeu<. 1tUefl�V. In order to connect the word with �aeu<. but then the straightforward connection of �ueu<. book' (lA). �(fl�AI<. from � �UVEW. either with reduplication or with -�o<. Masson 1967: 101-7 concluded that the word is of unknown origin and that the town was named after it and Alessio Studi etruschi 18 (1941): 122f. 1tA�PT]<. Th. �ueITI<. Since the name of this town was Gbl in Phoenician.). Further �uaao<.' 'full. KOpUOO<.. not due to late assimilation.). I L . GubIu. . assumed that the word was Pre-Greek.: 248-263. 'sea monster' and a�u86v· �aeu. �uaaOeEV (S..COMP a�uaao<. ETYM Familiar word.g. cf.247 253) 'paper.was interpreted as gWu_ by the Greek.. so the word is old. �ueowaa (p(�a) 'going in the deep' (Nic.�uaao<.· Ta �I�A(U � axolv(a Ta £K �(�AOU 1tE1tAEY!lEva (EM 197. �uaaoooflEuW 'build in the deep > brood over (in the deep of one's soul). cf. � 1tU1tUpo<. Fur. � ONOM� . � PG� . -100<.· K�TO<. or *�ueao<. with �EVeO<. 505). aVT]eovl aVT]aov. G<biil. bottom'. underworld' (= Hebr. and Hebr. Also �uaaa (Opp. (Fur.] 'depth of the sea' (ll. and H.) like OiKoooflEW. Pre-Greek origin is also strongly suggested by the prenasalized forms (which are hardly expressive).. KaL �uefl�v 'cave. shows a typical variation in Pre­ Greek words.)./KopuouUo<.). must be abandoned. 115 apud Suid.: 364 offers evidence for ul I in Pre-Greek (ilie forms with -1. etc. �uaaaAEuovn· T<P �ue<p £<pIKvouflEVtp 'reaching the depth' (H.. see Fur. does not inspire confidence. � �uw. with a typical Pre-Greek suffIx. However.DER �uelo<. [m.] • �lJe6<. 30). .. a labiovelar has bee posited.. �lJ�6<. The conclusion is confirmed by �uaaaA-. Denominative �ue(�w 'sink' (S. as opposed to u) are most improbable. tahom.: 254). e.). (\I'uflfl0<. we would need to assume the the initial gu. [m. AP). cf. next to Akk. Cf. ptc. flEya<. the form is better left aside.. . �1�ALOtOV with strange long I. or that distant assimilation g-b > b-b took place. further �uaauAOl· �OepOl 'pits'. 'bottomless' (Hdt. One may also compare the glosses afluaao<. Suid. assuming a labiovelar would mean that the �­ is irregular (one would expect yu-): it would have to have been introduced from ��aaa. 'of the depth' (late). 'cords of �. [adj. and ��aaa (with a. great' (Sophr. LXX. Schwyzer RhM 81 (1932): 203).. see Chantraine 1942: 368. (and ��aaa). also �ueflo<. fem.] 'depth (of the sea)' (A. .· aVTpov. since this would presuppose that the word is epic (Aeolic): * _dhj_ and *-Ts. ponder deeply' (Od.appear to be old.ETYM A base form *�Uel0<. �ueo<.) would pose the same problem. substantivized fem. On words in -�o<. '.ETYM The papyrus rind was supposedly named after the Phoenician harbor Byblos. 'abyss. which remains a guess. pap. Kretschmer KZ 57 (1930): 253). from where it was shipped to Greece. after ��aaa? so probably secondary). NT. metri causa for �uaaoooflEw (Eust.).DER PN Bu�wv Masson Verbum 18 (1995-6): 319 (Euboea).). and should now be abandoned. �I�A(OE<.would give lA -a-.. etc.. cf. beside KopvouAo<. (Frisk). = 'flWTO<.. see Chantraine 1933: 26l. perhaps corrupt.. for �uaao<.

for the suffIx. (TCapa) �U(J1'Oe. also substantivized as 'stormwind' (Lye. �UVlJ 1 [f. � ?� . it could go back to *�u(J-v£w with secondary -£W. intelligent.] 'malt (for brewing) (pap.Van Windekens KZ 100 (1987): 307 connects Hitt.g.DER �uKavaw 'to blow the horn' (Plb.] / [m.).) (H. which is quite improbable ("� au lieu de -K.). is too heterogeneous). (Plb. . KOflfll. Also �una· �£�u(Jfl£va H. ( Pok. See tile discussion on k-enlargements of onomatopoeic bu.· (JK£ua(Jfla 1'l KPISlvov 'dish made of barley' (H. Alternatively.] (after KIKl. ? ETYM Unknown.). it may be compared with �£�uKw(JSm' TC£TCp�(JSm <TCapa> 8£1'1'aAOle.: 21354 suggests that �ouvoe. <pu(Jll1'WV (i.). cf. £TCl-.. as the ancients suggested. � ONOM� . Mlr. �u(Jw. e. �umpa 'id. 15).. �uv£we.] .ETYM The meaning 'sea' fIts well to the homophonous name of Leucothea (Ino) in Lye. �vv£w [v. (Plb.(e.). TCapa-.COMP Often with prefIxes Ola-. �uKavl(Jfloe. bucina.).] only �UK1'(lWV aV£flwV (K 20). 107. � �u-rava. OE posa. (JUV£1'OV.). However.) = bucinator and the hybrid form �ouKlvl<w (S.· (J1'l�ae. 98ff. �uv£w has been compared with Alb. and further with � �uv£w. .). See also � �OUKOVl(J1'�pLOV. � LW Lat. in the 3Pl. . I I I" . with �uv. etc. .sous l'influence de �u(moe.). �U<llV [adv.) is derived from �uv£w. constructed from a gen. �OUKlVa1'Wp (Lyd. � ?� . Mt.DER �u(Jfla 'plug' (Hp. �uKavll1'�e. �UK1'lJC. A more exact rendering is �ou-. m-bush 'fIll' and words for 'pouch'. with denominative �£�unw(JSm· �£�u(JSm (H. *piisan.] 'trumpet.(the material collected in Pok. 'blowing'). 97f.� .fr. kindle (Thess. .: from unweakened *bucana).g. but its etymology is unknown.). -EWe.). �£�u(Jflm (Od. �u(Jm.).. PGm. According to Fraenkel 1910: 19" the word is connected with �u<w. fut..] 'to stuff (Hdt. �vKavlJ [f.). 'mattress'. of foreign origin? • • • • �UVlJ 2 [f. SaAa(J(Ja 'sea' (Euphor.). TCpO-. see below) 'closely' (Hp.perhaps from a zero grade �uv-(J.).e. [n. �u�m 'to hoot (like an owl)' (see � �uae.).and bu. [adj. ON posi.. DER Doubtful �uv£ue. akkus(f) a . 127).).). �uKavl<w (Eust. TC£uKll 'pine' (H. ETYM Like KUV£W. Fur. yaupov O£ Kat fl£ya 'compact.) are directly borrowed from Latin..] « *�u(J-Ollv.ETYM If the word means TCW:OV1'WV. � �u�oe.) �uKavl(J1'�e. �u<w (Aret. together with �u<ov· TCUKVOV.ETYM A loan word from Lat.' (Antiph.. OHG pfoso. *�uv(Jovn. Lagercrantz 1913: ad PHolm. Cf. buas « *bousto-). � ?� VAR Also �uvw (Hdt. machina : flllxav� (Niedermann IF 37 (1916/1917): 147f. this connection fails on the necessity to assume a root with PIE *b.). �uw. KUTCPlOl (H.. horn' (Plb. aor. haughty.). see Schwyzer: 692). £�u(JSllv. E.« *biison-). �uv£w could represent a continuation of a nasal present *�u-v£-(J­ w. � �ou�wv.VAR �UVl. H. contra Cuny 1908: 108ff. big' (H.'Fangrube'. and 100f. 'blow.").

Lib. �UplOS£V' O'(KOS£V 'from home' (H. 'tanner' (Act.v.� . 15). . room' (PGm.ETYM The explanation of �u(J-ra� as adapted from fluma� after �uv£w is highly improbable.: 65. on the formation see TC£TCAwfla.) . �up()'a [f.] .DER Perhaps �uPfloe. �up(Jdov 'tan-pit' (sch. TCUppOe. = Lat. 'id. �u(). 44.OC. etc. Fur. 2).. �v()'()'6C. Mech.ETYM Messapian word. �up(JwOlle. 102.4 apud Ath.). borraccia (Alessio 1955: 736). 449). w:d 'linen' via Semitic (Hebr. �up(J£uw 'tan' (H. and �auploS£V = O'(KOS£V 'from home' (Cleon Sic. ) .' (Hdt. £U�UplOV' 1'0 £i50lKOV £'Lpll1'm. � PG?� . who also compares aflUP1'ov. Etr. (Jllfla1v£l oLKlav 'comfortable to inhabit. Fest. the word lives on in Otrant. the words being of Pre- . s. � ?� .. �up(J£ue. � LW Sem.DER �up(Jle. [m.' (Gal.) for older �up(Jo8£\jIlle. . KavSapOe.: 213 connects it with flup(Joe.). OHG. . murs.] �VPlOV' o'(Kllfla 'abode'...' (Gp. on Ka1'a 1'�V �auplav � Ka1'a MW(JaTCloue.. =>�uSOe.' maSfloe. Denominative �up(Jow 'to cover with skins' (Ath.VAR Cf. be'. 'stable' (H. *bura-).] 'moustache' (Antiph. from Gr. 'basket' (Call. burrus 'deep red' (Paul. anon.� .). �Up(JLVOe. TUPPllvol 'dung-beetle.. (Ar. also 'used by tanners' (Hippiatr. However. 'of leather' (D. See Fohalle 1925: 157£ and Kretschmer Glotta 16 (1928): 166.'Ta� [m. (H.' (AP. an Egyptian garment (Hdn.25). because �. See Krahe IF 57 (1940): 116.).I I I" ' 249 �UVlJ'TOC. 149.). �Up(JLKOe.).(). to �up(J£ue.] a bird (Ant.� . von Blumenthal 1930: 3. it is eVidently cognate with fluma�. �umaya· TCwywva 'beard' (H.ETYM Unknown.] 'skin.).) (H. 143a).). 4.). �u().DER �u(J(JLVOe. Ap.). Aram.� . vurro. With a different ablaut are � �aupla and � �iiple. Masson 1967: 20ff. Chantraine 1933: 187). 'made of �. The word may be of Pre-Greek. �u()'()'a [f.] . 59. fr.ETYM Etymology unknown.COMP �up(Jo8£\jIlle. � LW? Etr.).). also seen in Germanic: ON bur [n. Toscan. 'id. this is hardly appropriate in the case of a cup.ETYM The word is believed to derive from the color. � LW Messap. see � <puw. ifl(i-rLOv 'cloth' (H.) .). flax and the linen made of it (Emp..] 'cottage. .). later also referring to cotton and silk.ETYM A technical term without etymology (Forbes Glotta 36 (1958): 271. . see further Frisk). The words are supposed to be r-derivatives of the root for 'live.] "Byssos".ETYM The word is supposed to have been borrowed by Greek from Eg. etc. Cf. Rather. . �vpp6C..). [f. means "house" in Messapian' (EM 389. Eq. � LW? Eg. �u(J(Jwfla 'net from �. � PG� . c£ Pok. Old is only �uP(JIVll 'leather thong' (Ar. drinking cup (Etr. OE bur [m. as argued by Fur. bus. see E. Szemerenyi Gnomon 43 (1971): 661) .). �VPlOV [n. 31).). H. C. hide' (Hdt. (Ar.

219 compares IlWAa�.� . YUVULKOe. fr..ETYM Fur. • �u't'tOC. 'crowd' (H. lluH6e.. 880 K. 17. Aayuvoe. to H.). Ru. <!l PG(v)� VAR Cf. [m.).' (H. Fr. . especially mushroom' (Ath.] ? · TtA�eOe.] .] aIlTtEAo<. K/ y..· TO YUVULK£lOV 'id.250 �{. KOAO�6<. [m. Szemerenyi refers to Hubschmid 1955: 76... etc.: 218 connects the gloss with 11-.ETYM Fur. SuffIxes). The suffIx -IV. apTo<.) again (Redard 1949: 70) .ETYM The interchange Tt/ � proves Pre-Greek origin (the variation voiced/ voiceless being extremely frequent in such words. TtA�eOe. see Vasmer 1953 s. ot 8£ �pu'tava (H. TtlJTlVfj 'flask covered with plated osier' (Poll.ETYM The word has been connected �uTUva and �UHOe. �WA(Tfje. acc. �WAfjTivoe.] ? . inc. Although the word has been connected with � �uTe6v . 5. see also Guntert 1914: 128) . this is only a superficial resemblance in form. - �u'tava [n. �\)'te6v [n. butina is borrowed from the Greek.). title of a comedy of Cratinus (Ar. ETYM Borrowed from Lat.). Bou�ii<. at8oiov 'private parts of a woman' (H. after . = XWA6e.)..).) 'lame. OE byden.. (Ath. <!l PG(v)� VAR Cf.).ETYM A formation in -avov (Chantraine 1933: 197ff. �wAfjTapla TtlVaKla (pap. cf. MoHG Biitte (Fi. is remodelled after the derivatives in -(Tfj<. YUVULKOe. L. see � IlU(Ha�.... VLat. ETYM Cf. Schwyzer: 489f. .. Robert 1963: also frequent in Pre-Greek (see Pre-Greek. TapavTivOL 'flask or chamber-pot (Tarantian) (H. and borrowed into Latin (Plin. ete..) . the form. <!l ?� . 'grape-vine'.DER PN Bw�ii<. [adj.] name of a handicap. The variant with �p. in MoGr.).g.) .v. �\)'tlV'1 [f. growing in Bithynia (Gp. .). 218..VAR Also �WA('tfj<. 'large number. which was named after the Spanish town Boletum (Niedermann IF Anz. <!l PG?� .)� .).). b6dnja. <!l PG (or LW Anat.rava Greek origin because of the alternation � 11 (Fur. 5) . Att. • �w�6C. (Gp. • �WA'1Vtl [f. boletus (Sen. KOVOUAOL 'knuckle'. <!l ?� . a Lydian name for wine.) and � �UHOe.)..] 'fungus. . which shows that the word is Pre-Greek. by PIu.: u6. � ull(e. 29 (1912) : 31f. cod. 149 used together with Kw<p6e. are again borrowed from Germanic. Fur. and the Latin is in turn the source of e.). disabled'.] . it means 'dumb'. crowd' (H. further examples are adduced by <!l LW? Lat. DER �wAtlnov 'saucepan'. also 'root' of the lychnis. for which there seems to be no rationale. OHG butin. putina.points to a Pre-Greek word. For further variants.-A. (Chantraine 1933: 261) . at8oiov 'female genitals' (H. (mop6e. �WAtl't'1e. Gal.).: 101-200) .: 330. • • L . Ttfjp6e. KAall�6<. its meaning 'root' is due to influence of �WAOe.

• . on -(aTpla Chantraine 1933: 106) . . BWPlll0<. see Thompson 1947 s. => �6aKw. �wAwen<. clod of earth' (11. throne' (from gii.DER Adjectives �wAw8fj<. Trall. .DER �wll(<.). �wll(aTpla 'priestess' (Nic.'stand'� .). <!l IE *gWoh2-mo.ETYM The word is connected to � �oaw just as EAuaTpew (11.).). . . unclear the gloss on �WA6VUL (H... eua(ULe.). 'step' (Hdt. [m. �W'tlaVElpa VAR �WTWP..ETYM Verbal noun *gWoh2-mo.).).). bori.. y�) 'sacred land' (Pergamon). �fj-). Adjectives �wlllo<.). also �OUp(8l0V (Alex. Epl�wAa� (11. n EV Taie. 'one that waited about the altars to steal the £-�fj-v (£-�a-v). �WPEUC. see Olsson Symb. �wvh'1C.). (S. 'formation of lumps' (pap.).).).· Ila�fj<.ETYM Etymology unknown. �wa'tptw [v. �w!l6C. =>�ouv6<.v..).] = �WAOe. also month name (Lamia)..(Bwpo<. hardly connected with � �oA�6e. Also �wTaplov (Zos. <!l PG?� . (Pi.) to KUA£W. on -a� Chantraine 1933: 379. �wIl6<.. .DER On the PN with Bwp.] 'mullet' (Xenocr. 4 (1926) : 62f. adverb �wAfj86v (Dse.ETYM BoBhardt 1942: 61 derived the word from �WpOL· o<peuAllo( 'eyes' (H.. based on the nominal suffIxes TEP-. and OP giiBu. (S. [f. Alch. and Hemmerdinger Glotta 46 (1968) : 247· �walov [n. �WA(<.). burf.). The word may be related to � �OUT(T)le. For the meaning. . �w!line. (Thphr.. stand (for chariots). cf. �wll(aKo<.. .. ribald'. but �WpOL is probably from *FWpOl (see � 6paw). 'kind of ball in sacrifices' (H.COMP �wlloA6xoe.] 'step. lJ1toKoplaTlKw<.VAR Also [m. and (iJT£lAtl .). oUTaw. 'small altar (hypocor. TpO.] 'to call (to aid)' (Od. �wnaV£lpa 251 �WAOC. Connected with Copt. <!l ?� . � �aen<. H.. • �w'ta�Elv =>yuTaAUL. <!l LW Eg. but details remain unclear. . It is an expressive formation. technical term (Hero..) (H. <!l GR� VAR Only present. (H. [m. on -u� see Bjorck 1950: 263'. just as Stromberg 1943: 42f.]. cf. �wAaKlo<.].DER �wen8(u (pap. £l86e.� . ete.) from *�wllu(vW 'swear (with the hand on the altar)'. . Arab. �wen8lUL is probably bad orthography for -(8lU. (se.). �WAlVO<.) see BoBhardt (below) .] 'lump. . see Chantraine 1933: 381f.] a utensil (pap. �wllluio<.L. �wllii�· �wlloA6xo<. EAa-aUL and KUAlaTP£W (Call.(cf.COMP Ep(�WAO<.VAR �Wp(8l0V [n.'place. BWPUKO<. Note �wllfjvEv· tolloaE 'swore' (H.) with Tl > en. base (of a statue)" most frequently 'altar' (11. Risch 1937: 310) .). �wlla�· 6 IllKpO<.). on the word CEG 6) .= �a-.). (Pi. Oslo.ETYM From �WT(OV· aTUllv(ov 'wine jar' (H. Old is �wAa� [f..) to EAUUVW.

_ .

yEWpylKOV 'drag-net or fishing-net. yayyaAuv._ I . <!\ ?.pl. • yU�Eva [n. etc. gaiijana. with prenasalization.. Neither is the word related to Lat.VAR Also Ka�aEla (accent unknown. TIETpa (Nic.. compares the word with � ya�aElov. etc.. confirm its Anatolian (= Pre-Greek?) origin. . 141.). bowl' <!\ LW? Sem. And eyyayt<. which is certainly a possibility. � yoyyu�w. gagates. Cf.� .).. Plin. Tpu�:>dov 'cup. or fayyat.] .· TIIVa� iXEluTjp0<'. which has been taken to belong together with Skt. ete.).] .] 'small round net for catching oysters' (A.).. form appears only in MInd. � Ka�o<. lIP). AIElO<'. TO flETa yEAWTO<.). 'a trencher for fish (Paphian)' (H. Cf. AIElO<'. Alternatively.] (Str. which in turn was connected with OE cane 'insult'.· YEAacrlvOl 'front teeth. gannio. 'fickle in belief. forms. yayyaAI�EElat· �owElat 'to enjoy oneself.] ..) 'lignite' ( a town and river in Lycia. a derivative from Ka�o<. r ya =-yE. And �a�aTO<'. yu�aeov [n. Moutsos Orbis 18 (1969): 535-540 argues that ya�Evov < *ya�lvov < *Ka�lvov. • yayyaLVElV [v. gabata.� . with MoFr. Tft YVWflft Kat EUflETa�oAo<. The forms with yayy-..VAR Cf...· 6 EUflETaElETo<.: 116. ETYM Semitic origin has been assumed (E. MoHG Gagat. this form may have been influenced by the adjective 'of the Ganges'. was borrowed from the Greek. (Edict. jais. also fem.. TIpOaJtal�ElV 'playing with great laughter' (H. Fur.) ... (Str..). Dsc. changeable'.) = yayaTTj<.. [m.. Masson 1967: 75.ETYM On the basis of MoGr.VAR yayyaflTj [f.VAR Also yayyln<. dimples'. Lat. the connection remains very uncertain.). �TOl Tpu�Ala 'small vessel. also an agricultural tool' (S 0flOlOV KpEaYP<:l 'similar to a flesh-hook') (H. pap. yayyaflov : OIKTUOV. TIapa IIacplol<'.] (se.. bowl' (H. ETYM yayyalvElv is a reduplicated expressive form. which could also account for Lat. yayyaAloE<.: 187 assumes that it is a Mediterranean loan)... or yayy�n<. o�u�acpla. <!\ ONOM� . <!\ LW Anat. Kat TO TIEpt TOV 0flcpaAOV 'fishing- . Diod. yayuLTJ<. Kat aKEUo<..'despising'. � ya�Eva. ETYM According to Pliny 36. yayyaAo<. we may consider Pre-Greek origin (Fur. <!\ PG?� . • yuyyaflov [n. As the Skt. the word derives from faya<. yayyaflTj· aay�vTj � OIKTUOV CtAlEUTlKOV. PG?� . cup.

.� . etc. <! LW Pers. yayyaflouhol' aaY'lveuTa( 'dragging an oyster-net' (H. this is most uncertain. Very unclear. =>yayaT'lC. <! PG (V) � VAR ya8apoc.· iXeuC.: 3393. Etym. yayypatvu· <paye8atva 'cancerous sore. Lat. but this is certainly incorrect. also that which is around the navel' (H.Al£UC. also called OVOC.: 129). 'a fish' (H.' (conj. yayyafleuT�C. It is most probably non-IE. (Dorio apud Ath. ya�a [f. ' (H. yaAaatOV corr. and Saint-Denis 1947 s.. � KapKlvoc. It is most probably a Pre-Greek word (a-vocalism. The word is mostly connected with � ayAlC. but disassociates it from ya80c. � yaAlveOl. for a discussion of which see Chantraine 1933: 108f. etc.DER yayyafl£uc. (Diogenian) = YU'LMplOV (pap.' (Hp. KaAAapIC. ' yaYYAlov [n.). o.]? £V'lpoatOV 'rent for corn land'. 22 [lIP]). -atva. yaYYilTl<.. asellus.v. � yeAyl<. it is perhaps *yayypwv.] name of a fish. an African vehicle.. . yaAA£plac.. s..v.)..).] 'tumour on a tendon. see DELG. OGI 54.).] 'gangrene'. In antiquity. the word is Pre-Greek.. 'id. 7. Because of the prenasalized variant.). and possibly Pre-Greek (Fur. or the head' (Gal. Byz. Cf. yayypalvwatc. cf. fayypa gives this word as a name for 'goat'. Not related to � yevTo 'he took'.ETYM Technical term.. 6 Tfi yayyafln £pya(ofl£voC. 'box' (H. Line. Alexander Polyhistor in St. S.] Kl�WTOC.. *yayypoc.] '(royal) treasury' (Thphr. <! PG?� DER yaYYAlw8'l<. . 'like a y.).ETYM Cf. ETYM There is a variety of names for the ovoC. Neumann 1961: 100 connects it with Hitt. Because of the deviant semantics.-fish: yaAlac. 3110 (1942): 91'0 reads ya8aaflov for yaAUatOV in the manuscript on the basis of a comparison with 8aafloc. J10l0C. . • • yaSo<. <! GR?� VAR Ms.). 1 [m. ETYM For the suffIx. • yaSq [f. The basic form is uncertain. <! PG (v) � .v. • • • yaSaoflov [n. MoGr.). cancer'. . he who handles the y.).ETYM Latte Mnem. Lex. .. EM). X£AAap1'lC. gandeia. 'rent'. the nerve knots now called ganglia have been compared to such a tumour.254 net.).. kiinV 'to hang'. (H. an illness that eats away the flesh (Hp. Belardi Rend. 'fisherman. (Hp. or *yayypa. certainly of foreign origin and probably Pre-Greek. Kl�WTLOV (H.. Fur. 8: 9 (1954): 620). yav8LOv. VI -VIIP).v.. � <paye8atva. <! PG?� VAR Cf. ya'L8apo\jlapov (see Thompson 1947 s. prenasalization?). OL 8£ KapKlvoc.ETYM Unknown.). 2 =>yav80c. is not related. 254 adds ya(ac. (Stromberg 1943: 130f. Ace. � yeAlVeOl. OVOC. assuming Pre-Greek origin. • yayypaLva [f. 'lobster'... yMo<. DELG explains ya'L8aplov as a loan from Arabic (Andriotis.).).. DER yayypatvooflat. etc. 315f. it was compared with ypaw 'to devour' (thus also Frisk).

] .. Nilsson 1941: 419 understood 'faring below the earth' (with Poseidon as a river. The solution of Borgeaud KZ 68 (1944): 221f..] a Gaulish javelin (Ph.] 'earth' (11. that the word means 'bringing home (i. secondarily of Zeus. also aVoKatOv· lJJ1ep41ov.) . Cf.Tat/ -Ol 'mercenarii' (Plb.DER yataQ.. OE giir. perhaps the form with -0. further aiYloxoC. YaLqoxo<..ETYM yat�OXOC. yatWV 'heap of earth' (Tab... mostly taken as 'earth-shaker' (= � £vvoalyatOC.).).ETYM Unknown. ya(a is of Persian origin. ypa<peTat Kat avwy£wv H. yataFoxoc. . 'from the earth' (Od. However.. 322: 11 83. for which there are no indications in the case of � 0xew and � 0X£UWV. ling. . (s. basing himself on the myth that Poseidon IJ111l0C.] Epithet of Poseidon. yataoxoc.ya(w 255 . yaOla [f. [m. . gawigan 'to set in motion'.COMP ya(o-<puAa� 'guarding the treasury' (LXX).v. see � y�. Y'leew. yataFoxoc. 1. gew 'javelin'. • yalw => yavuflat..) is a loan from Lat. gazii. too.t 0xoufl£voC. epic � yat�OXOC. MP ganj (ultimately going back to Median.ETYM According to Pomp. =>yMoc. (11. the PN Gaesiito­ rlX. 0xoufl£voC. cf. Alternatively.. also � £vvoalyatOC.."). Gaise-rlcus.) .). .ETYM Unknown. ya�a<. [m. (index) connects the word with Y'leUAAIC. uncertain. but via Latin: original. Kretschmer Glotta 5 (1914): 303 interpreted yat�OXOC. <! LW Lat. but the interpretation of the second member is debated. the other variants being due to folk etymology. s.). Lacon. Co. 4 (1958): 196. See Belardi Ric. .. We can compare OIr. epithet of Poseidon. ON geirr [m. avwyatov 'upper floor of a house. and OHG and OS ger.). 136) beside yu£wv (lG 14.e. (11. <! ?� VAR Dor. Lat. mg. Lacon. with -�'LOC. • yaioo<. had intercourse with the earth goddess Demeter. yataoxoc. 1. ayaelC. yaia [f. the word is from Gaulish.v.v. see Mayrhofer KEWA 1: 315 with references). y�C. yatoW 'change into earth' (Tz. gaesiitus. . Chantraine 1933: 52).. ganj was likewise taken over from Iranian. yataFox0C. Arm. . etc. Herael. s. which is implausible. Fur. Vandal. Rada-gaisus.COMP Dor. gaesum.) . Gaeso-rlx.. shows that the second member started with F-. IIoa£l8wv) is impossible. is a compound with yala as the first member.. Mela 1.v. as falav 0X£uwv 'mounting Gaia' or fal<.. and probably Syr. Go. <! PG� . Most scholars follow Meillet 1924 and connect the second member with Go. after Hesychius.] 'spear'. � xaloc.� VAR Also yalaov [n. Lacon. the husband of) Gaia' (viz. "6 £J1t T�C.ETYM Like Lat. Be!. gaza. gae. 64 and others. See further s. granary'.] aAAavTla 'small sausage' (H..DER yat�'LOC. � aiylc. . Halaesa). were borrowed from Greek. .

-roD yaAu (Pl. lacht.COMP Old is YUAu-8Tj-v6e.. Ptol. The Armenian forms. Independent is YUAUTf16v· AaXUVOV aypLov 'wild herb' (H.ETYM From Arab. 389 compares aouh6f1ov.� . • yaAuyyu [?] 'galingal. Alpina officinarum' (Aet.. The derivation of Szemerenyi KZ 75 (1958): 170-184 from *mlglk.. see Kloekhorst 2008 s. also YUAuKTlue. we may consider tlIe possibility that YUAU goes back to *glakt (from *glkt) with loss of the final consonants and development of a secondary vowel in the nom. .). Corr. Also YUAUKTO-7t6TTje.). Rare forms: dat. see Chantraine 1933: 95.. *galakt > *galak > yaAu.).) and Armenian (see below). Since in the nominative the final consonants must have been lost in subsequent stages. yUAUC. YAUKU 'sweet' (H..v. (KUKAOe. etc. (cf. cf. YAUKTO. perhaps from *YUAUKT-f16v (Stromberg 1940: 58). the latter is seen in yAuK-ro-<payoe.DER YUAuKTle. kalank-i 'soothe'. • • YUAU [n. yuv�). Chantraine 1933:379). yaALov). itself of Chinese origin. yaAuK-roe.· �OU7t6TTje.v. � IE *glkt(-) 'milk'� .) . � ?� . In that case. after its juice. only found in Lat. khalandjan. 'sucking milk' (Od. 1. 'living on milk' (11. Thphr. gen. � yaALOv s. class.] (B 471).). *g1kt-s via an intermediate *kalt'. and YAUKTO­ <payoe. cf.(see above) would be the expected outcome for the oblique cases. would have analogical yaA.instead of yA-.). (7tETpU) name of a stone (Orph. . gen. (N 6). (Schwyzer: 452). yuAuKTLaw. see below. Also YAayoe. see Stromberg 1940: 58).e. galenga. yaAuKL (Call.v.· yaAu. (Arist. Denominative verbs: YUAuKT1(w. 'fond of drinking' (H. 7tupa EUKA1T4' (H. also 7tEpLyAuy�e. whereas yaAuKToe.). etc. On yaAu as a second member see Sommer 1948: 83. Adjective YUAUKTWOTje.). Hek.with al < *1 (Kortlandt REArm. Mlr. 19 (1985): 22).YUKOU YUKOU �8U. Not related is Hitt. kat'n and dial. See on � yaAuyyu. . ETYM Unknown. ETYM Outside Greek. with hypocoristic gemination yAUKK6v· yUAu8Tjv6v 'sucking (milk)' (H.] name of a festival for Cybele (inscr. EUKA4'? (PW 6. both also as plant names = TL8uf1UAAOe. etc.· f1WTOL yaAuKToe. YUAuKT60f1m.). uyuv6e. KAayoe. 4). on the suffix cf. (Dsc. yaAuToe. gloss. have been explained by Kortlandt (following Weitenberg) as from acc. [n. Stromberg 1943: 109.VAR Gen. · yf] 'earth'. derive the late forms YAUYEp6e.) = YUAuKT1TTje.: 374. the intermediate stage could have yielded the t-less forms like yAayoe. � LW Sem.. from which rUAU�LWV month name on Delos (inscr. (11 642) and YAuyaw (AP). 'drinking milk' (Hdt.). as this root was *h2melg-..(from the root of Uf1EAYW) is impossible. From YAayoe. 4.) from yaAu and 8f]a8m. kaxc'. 'full of milk' (H.).)./acc. lac.). (pap. galaktar 'soothing'. The basis of the Greek forms is *galakt. Other forms: yAUKWVTEe. See Andre 1956 s. were borrowed from Lat. these forms may be due to simple assimilations (or metathesis). lIP). Corn. � ?� DER YUKOU7tWVTje. yaAu� name of a white shellfish (Arist.. (Aet...] 'milk' (11. Kpf]TEe. (H. As an alternative to assuming a proto-stem with two variants. 1055). S. i.). yUAa�LU [n. *g1kt-m.).or *glakt-.).) 'Milky Way' (D.v. lac (De Vaan 2008 s.. With � (from T assibilated before L) yUAu�lue. yAuy6£Le. also TL8�vTj.

] "weasel stench". The original meaning 'weasel-skin' is found in Lat. after uaKuAu�WTTje.). After the numerous adjectives in -po. cf. etc.ETYM Stromberg l.(not an old rln-stem): YUATjp6e.v.). yUAtTj has been connected with Lat.). word is only attested in lexicons and probably did not really exist (Mayrhofer EWAia 1: 488). yUA�VTJ [f. the Skt. remarkable compound YUAEWVUf10e. (Chantraine 1933: 91) and Lat. apud Gal. shark' (Pl.: YUAEp6e. For YUAEWVUf10e. also KUAALWVUf10e. YUA£OC. "weasel eye" (Dsc. 'like a shark' (Arist. � ?� . KUOL-. see Chantraine RPh. gtis possibly going back to *gIHi.ETYM The formation of YUAETj shows that the word originally indicated the skin. connection with yUAu�lue. cf. also 'lead sulphite' (Plin. (only Arist. see below). feles).v. is unclear (a back-formation from YUAEWTTje. = yUA�o"'Le. YUAETJ.[f. cf.] 'dogfish. see there. also = yUAtTj (Aret. cf. .VAR Dor.). marten' (Batr. Ar. Phgn. Corn.. Solmsen 1909: 225f.COMP yUAe-aYKWv (Arist. name of a fish. De Vaan 2008 s. after au<p�v£Lu?. "ce qui serait semantiquement satisfaisant"(?) DELG. � ?� . � YUAE6e.).. substantivized bahuvrlhi. see below). YUATjvuioe.v.] 'weasel. Denominative YUALaw = uKoAuaTulvw 'be licentious'.)..ETYM Etymology unknown. = YUAE6e. cf. galea 'leather helmet'.). yuACtVa. 'still' (E.DER YUALOEUe. (H.).).).DER YUAEWOTje. on the formation see Schwyzer: 500. R. YUATjv6e. gtis 'dormouse' and Skt. also a fish name (Ael. 'young weasel' (Crat. : uaKaAu�Oe. etc.). uvuYKulTj beside uvaYKTj). 'milky way' unclear. see Thompson 1947 s.). YUATjvulTj (A. (AP). The word is Mediterranean. Lat. . = YUAE6e. [m. YUAUcnOV -yaouaf1ov.). UAW7tEK-ETj. yuAtTj is not related to MW bele 'weasel' (pace Schwyzer: 299. 'gecko lizard' (Ar. on the names see Stromberg 1940: 138f.] 'mouse'. 'dead nettle'. 'swordfish' (Plb.. see below).e. also YUAL-aYKwv (Hp.).DER yUA�VELU (yUAaV£LU) = yUA�VTj (Eur. Frisk and DELG (s. On YUAE6e. i. Lehmann IF 21 (1907): 193'. yUAe6-�ooAOV [n. � IE *glh2-es. s.257 . 8llb 38). (Phylotim. . maintained that the dogfish was named after the weasel. properly "with arms like a weasel". 'with short upper arm'. YUAEWTTje. the Latin could perhaps be related if YUA. see Stromberg 1943: 108.?). not from yUATjV�e. However. see Stromberg 1943: 108f. galea below. (H. (Chantraine 1933: 364. after tlIe adjectives in -EpOe. also 'swordfish' (Plb. after AUK-LOeue.v.reflects *gIH-V-.. 'husband's sister'. 'weasel' (Luc. after the frequent first members in -L: UpYL-. KUVETj properly 'dog-skin'. giri-. YUAEWTTje. girikii..c. .'laughter'� .(Schrijver 1991: 242). but the formation of YUAE6e. .). etc.. (Gal.).). For a possible connection of 'weasel' with � yuA6we.. . In spite of its deviant meaning. cf.). cf.. according to Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 200 .] 'stillness of the sea' (Od.). 91 (1965): 203-5. which remains gratuitous.. etc. YUAETj) suggested contamination and tabu-formation. YUAf] [f. also yUAu�lue.

[m.. Galium verum' (Dsc. -w (ace. is related.· yaAaoe. Because of its e­ grade. yUAWe. Epict.] . in turn from an s-stem that is also seen in yEAwe. 'of a y..' (Liden KZ 61 (1934): 22f. with a variant without prenasalization. � IE *gIH-ou-s 'husband's sister'� . ON vii [n. For the ablaut grade *glh2-es-.ETYM Similarly to aeA�vTJ.� ETYM See Dunst KZ 78 (1963): 147ff. to 1) is perhaps to be ranged with the latter words.. the word was believed to be Phrygian. 95) and 2. from *aTuAVCt. yunapoc. cf. yaAAlafl� lKov metrical term (not in LSJ). yaAAa(w (Schwyzer: 633. Stromberg 1940: 108). 81). viijum [dat. the variants yaA�vTJ and yaAUVCt derive from *yaAaa-VCt. • . yaAtac. yeAelv· AUflTI£ l. calr 'laughter'. Arm. 'dead nettle' ( =>KaAAapiae. yaAluYKwV =>yaAeTJ. yaA�vTJ must originally have meant 'cheerfulness'. Cf.). Lesb. 12). Not related to � yEAyle.VAR yaAAepiae. . etc. � yA�VOe. � LW Phr.). yeA�vTJ (termed Aeol. � ?� . (H. lIP). yunoC. flourish' (H..� .ETYM As *FuAAla. yeAaa-TOe. => Gr. 27. Gramm.). Also yUAle.DER yaAAaToe. £vTepa 'intestines' (H.] ..] 'viscera'. 'bedstraw. aAaTlOV 'salt') and yaAaiplov (unclear).] (with metrical diectasis). turn. lE *uel-ia-. YUAlV80l [m.) yaAaTlOV (cf. yaA6wv [gen. Qv8dv 'to shine. cf. � GR� VAR The first also (ibid.ETYM In the sense 'bedstraw' ete. • yunla [n. elsewhere YUAl80l' (H.YUAl . � LW Phr. we should railier compare � yaAETJ in view of other words for 'dead nettle': yaAeo�ooAoV and yaA�O\jlle. as well as the interchange ale). � PG� VAR Also yEAlV80l· epE�lv80l (H. Probably.. yaAocp [dat. • yaAOwc. eunuch' (] and [nom.' (Rhian.] !. ot oe YUAl80l 'chick-peas.). � yuAAOe. YUAlOV is related to YUAa because it was used as rennet (Dse. the word is perhaps from *FuAvla.VAR yaA6w [gen. � yA�VTJ. ..· <DpuYlaKov ovofla TIapa AUKwm 'a Phrygian name.] 'member of a Dionysiac cultic society' (inscr. see below. by To. YUAl =>a. ETYM Pre-Greek (note the suffIx -lv8oe. related to eLAUW 'wind.] 'husband's sister' (ll. [m. to the Laconians' (H.). In the sense 'dead nettle'. ace.).pl. cf.).] .. Camp.). yUAAapOe. • yanaptac. Thess. epE�lV8ol.. cf.... DIAL Also Att. � yuAAapoe.Ale. 4. Philippopel.]. aTuAAa. • • YUAlOV [n. ETYM In antiquity. Cf. 3. On the development.] . .COMP yaAAoflav�e. See � yeAaw. etc.). [f.] 'a priest of Cybele.).sg.

tal 'id. words. as well as Lat. . glmel and the word for 'camel': Hebr. Viredaz IF 107 (2002): 152-180) .ETYM The Greek forms derive from *yaA-aF-o.: yaflETTJe. late yafl�aw. Beekes MSS 34 (1976):13ff). zentas.). yUAle. because of the behaviour of the aunt.VAR YEflfla (Democr. yaflEw (yaflw).] 'to marry' (ll.« *-mavya-) 'brother of the son-in-law' and Skt..� . a thematicization of *glh2-eu-. yafl�peuw 'form connections by marriage' (LXX) . ete. and Slavic words like OCS z'bibva. Desiderative yaflTJaeiw (Alciphr. -TJflat (Att. and Alb. . [m. yaflEaa£lat I 394 'give in marriage' (Aristarchus reads ye fluaa£lat). Alb.YUflfla 259 . one compares Skt. which has initial t. z6lva.(not *yaA-wF-o-. terms is isolated: Lith.). yaflpp6c. . the lE terms may have been identical. perf. months name (Dodona). dhander(r).) . eyuflTJaa. Probably connected with � yafl�poe. cf. YUflfla [n. The PIE term denoted the unmarried sister of the husband. 'son of a yafl�poe.after taygr 'husband's brother' (see � oa�p).ETYM Outside Greek. � IE *g(e)mH­ 'marry'� .(yiyvOflat).instead of *-u-. <Dpuyla-ri (H. = auAAa��. Av.). jama tar.) is unclear (for *YEAaFoe. Lat.] 'wedding offerings' (Delphi va) and [aflEAtoe. From yaflEw: yafl£l� 'wife' (Hes. as it seems to go back to *gneh3ta-.DER Back-formation YUfloe. the loss of the laryngeal in Latin is diffIcult to account for. gener.). glos 'husband's sister' (secondarily 'brother's wife'. The connection with yEvTo. y�flat.also in YUfleAa [n. jami­ 'related'.= Av. uyyefloe. gamla (Schwyzer: 140). . � IE *g(e)m.). which must reflect *-uy. yeflw is uncertain.ETYM From Semitic. for the same reason. .after other feminines. aor. also 'daughter-in-law'. Lat. gener. Oettinger 1998: 649-654 points out that in Romance languages and dialects.). znuOts remains diffIcult. The BSl.(with secondary -tar-). 'weasel' and 'aunt' are often homonyms.DER Rare and late: yafl�poTloeUe. after A£OVTlOeue. yeYUflTJKa. yaflEw [v. gamal. eyafl�8TJv. dhenderr. see Schrijver 1991: 131).. could represent *gIH-i-.). � fl�TpWe. cf. [m. isolated fut. yafl�Aloe. The formation of the BSl.] 'wedding' (ll... The nature of the laryngeal is difficult to determine. must have been influenced by *genh. The Greek and Indo-Iranian forms must belong together. zal6vka. from YUfloe. yEAapOe.] 'son-in-law. or else the resemblance may be due to later influence yaflEw (cf.ETYM There are no cognate verbs outside Greek. Hebr. brother-in-law (sister's husband) (ll.). . fern. probably through adaptation to -uha.? Hermann Gatt. cf.for c. � yaflEw might have been formed secondarily.). the Indo-Iranian forms *gama-. (1918): 222f. 'husband' (A. Aram. Further cognates are Arm. which is probably an oblique stem of *g(e)lh2-ou-s (formation as in � TIUTpWe. unless the Hesychius gloss has *yaAaF-oe. 'nuptial' (A.VAR Fut.' (Iamb. Ru. the Greek requiring *g1'[l-ro-.). < *glha-eu-as.).· uoeA<pou yuv�.'marry'� . zamatar. A suffix -1.' (i-stem).] name of the letter (X. � LW Sem. OCS z�t'b. although even then Latv.).) with the month name [aflTJAlwv (Arist. Nachr..

so the word may be Pre-Greek. <! PG?� . yal1'l'0<. joy' (Sapph..DER Backformation yafl<pa[ (Lyc. <! LW Sem. etc. . [m. late perf. [Aapov 'white. �8UaflaTa TtOldv 'bring joy' (H. O£ yuoo<. Sil.VAR yvafl<pa[· yvU90l 'jaws' (H. If so. T[VE<. Generally connected with � yofl<p0<. and YOfl<P[o<.ETYM The prenasalization proves Pre-Greek origin. which implies some relationship with � yuvo<.). 2 [m. nor influence from yafl'l'0<.· 6 UTtaTewv.] 'curved. yavupov· A£uKov. guM 'lip'. sweet. 'neck. 'a villain who knows much. yavuafla-ra (Paul. This conclusion is confirmed by the variant with a.ETYM DELG heSitantly and unconvincingly suggests a connection with Lat. crooked' (Ar. • • .). with yavwfla = yavo<. • yaviTat [?] .. be glad. and possibly � YVUflTITW is related as well.). yafl'l'wA� (H.. OUTtaVOl. spendthrifts' (H. acc. = a'(vw.) . • yuvo<.] 'jaws of animals' (11. 'brightness.) with yuvwm<.). ·COMP favu-fl�0'1<.with restored nasal.] . further only fut.DER yafl'l'ooflat (Arist. see E.). merciful' (H.). yavuTEAdv· yavuTtEAEIV.). yavo<. Equally unattractive is it to assume a contamination of YVUflTITW and KUflTITW (Giintert 1914: 115f.). 'gardens' (H. the absence of the -v.).� ETYM From Semitic (Hebr. all of these words may well be Pre-Greek. gan 'garden').). yavEpov EM). a zero grade *ya<p.ETYM Cf. <! ?� .was implausibly explained as the result of dissimilation (Leumann 1950: 156) . Kat Ttavoupyo<. liawTOl 'extravagant men. or yvaflTIT�p (CEG 1) seems to be a sufficient explanation. (Ph.COMP yafl'l'wvu� (11. (Epich. 6 TtOnU £iow<..260 yal1<PTJAa[ [f. YUVat VAR Cod. Masson 1967: 74.'be bright. We rather have to connect yafl'l'0<. etc. On the assumption that yafl'l'0<.' (H.] . with (a variant of) � KUflTITW. from which (with rhotacism) yavupflaTa H.' etc. some authors have yuoo<.). <! IE *geh2u.). rejoice' (11. yuvo<. (Thphr. . but the a-vocalism is problematic.).: 254. yuao<. Neither a popular word. see Fur. yuvw· K�TtOU<. 2. . <! PG� VAR Cf.) 'with curved claws'. throat'. YUVUl1at [v.). . 'garden' (Cyprian. yafl'l'wvux0<. .). �8U. 1 =yuvuflaL. yuvo<.· AaflTtpov 'bright' (H. • YUV()o<. TtapUOElao<. yavw0'1<. a villain who knows much'.. is a back-formation from yafl'l'wvux(o)-. be glad'� VAR Present.] 'to brighten up. YEyuVUflat. yavuaaoflat (8 504) . yUVat.) and yavooflat (Anacr. ganea 'underground house'. TpUX'1Ao<. <! PG?� . 6 TtOnU £iow<.). Kat Ttavoupyo<.. 'a deceiver. to EM).ETYM It seems evident to connect the word with � yvUflTITw. Pedersen (see WP 1: 534) pointed to Ru. ol'1yave<. DER yavufla-ra· CtpTufla-ra 'seasonings' (AB). The suffix -'11. [adj.occurs in Pre-Greek (see Pre-Greek).. 3 =yAavo<.

'windpipe' (H.).). <! ?� . even if they are from . yapyapa [n. yavowvTE<. Schwyzer: 259 and 647· . Fur. yapyuA'1 (Corn. i. on � yapyapa. dimples' (H. It has also been proposed to correct this entry. Kretschmer Glotta 5 (1914) : 307) . for instance.ETYM Reminiscent of � yappa · pa�Oo<. innovations after the verbs in -avuw (see Risch 274. fa'l'wv (cf. 'glitter. many' (H. Kp�TE<. yam:AEiv [v.ETYM From � yE � lip.· YEAaalvOl 'front teeth.).).] 'uvula'.). with yayyaA[oE<. yap [pcl.] 'to gargle' (Orib.DER Deverbal yapyapEwv [m.ETYM Fick 1905: 82 compares the Attic Deme called fapY'1Ho<.. yapya[pw 'swarm' (Corn. swarm (ofbirds)" gurguole 'mass (people.. cognate with ya[wv. . late present yavowmv (Arat. to *vaTtEAdv for v'1TtEAdv (Whatmough Class. Chantraine 1942: 360) .· �poYX0<.ETYM Reduplicated onomatopoeic formation.yapKav (PIu. the words can hardly be cognate.). 'natural stone' (H.] . from *yCtF-1W < *gh2u-jo. <! PG?� . . gleam' (11.ETYM Without any additional support. . 'rod. and fapyapa (Troas) . also 'trachea' (Hp. 190) and yavuaaat· afl��at.. bees)'.).).) . • yapyap[�w [v.): because of the variation in the initial.) and � yeppov. Alternatively.).) (H..). ..] 'heaps..)' (H. pa�oov. gurgulys 'tangle of threads. .ETYM Onomatopoeic formation with intensive reduplication. since' (11. yapyupTat· M90l aUTocpud<.).pl. rejoice' (H. .VAR yayyaA[�w (Phryn.). ya[wv in KUO£l ya[wv (11. Populus nigra' (H.). <! ONOM� . ETYM Onomatopoeic formations with reduplication (for *yaA-yaA-). yapKav [?] .DER Backformation yapyaAo<.. Delph. ya[wKov· EXatpOV 'rejoiced' (H. 'tumult' (H.) . Homeric ptc.). yapyaA[�w [v. <! ONOM� . � CtyoaTo<.e. Bechtel KZ 44 (1911) : 354 connected the word with the PNs Arg.).] 'to tickle' (Pl. a very promising indication of Pre-Greek origin. Ph il.). Pres. lots (of people) (Corn. CtflEAElv 'to have no care for' (H. in Lith.). yapya [f. sch. cf. . �OUVat 'wash clean. yavuaKoflat (Them. <! ONOM� .)? With another vowel yepyEpa· TtOna (H.DER yapyap[<. Sophr. (Ar. wand (Maced. (*geh2u-ro-) and � Y'1gew. Denominative yavdv· A£uKa[v£lv 'to become bright' (H. MaKE86vE<. .).VAR Dissimilated yapyaAa· TtA�90<. EM). � yapaava . TtOAAa 'a multitude.) and yayyaAlaw (H. yavowaat.ETYM YUVUflat is an old nasal present *gh2-n-u-.] 'for. cf. Comparable independent formations are seen. a'(Y£lp0<. With different vocalism yepyEpo<. However.). etc. 'stick (Cret.). CtV9EpEWV.) 'rejoicing in splendour' vel sim. cppuyava. <! PG?� .· 90pu�0<. 53 (1958) : 203f.: 391 convincingly adduces cmaAdv· CtflEAdv (H. Possibly further related to �yaupo<. Not related to � Cty£lpw. 'black poplar. cf. See Schwyzer 1950: 560.). see Schwyzer: 423 . fa'l'[a<..] .

yaplvo<. Sid. connected with � dJT£lA�. 156).).'eclipser'.. • YUTaAaL [f.).). TO eaw T�<. yauA6c.] 'belly.). see Chantraine 1928: 7) . yuaTpwv 'pot-belly' (Ale. is doubtful.). but this remains quite uncertain.] AOl80pouflfea 'we are reproached' ( -Tepoc. . (pap. yupov (Str. . [m. ETYM A connection with � ywAf6<. gullii 'vase for oil'. . see also Forbes Glotta 36 (1958): 253f. <!I ?� . could be borrowed from Semitic.). • • yappa =>yeppov.vv. 0 TOV a�ova Tp[�£l 'iron implement in the nave of a wheel. cf. Stromberg 1943: 41 and 88. . with different accent (see Hdn. .VAR Pollux 1. yapvov [?] . grastar. yapauvu =>yeppov.] 'milk-pail.. COMP As a first member yaCJTp(l/o)-.VAR Gen.yupvov Pre-Greek. Kalleris 1954: 136f. 'to chatter'. the semantics are far­ fetched since the belly is not an "eater". nor is DELG's comment convincing: "le ventre de femme en tant qu'elle conyoit et porte un enfant". Belardi Doxa 3 (1950): 200f. . inscr. Specifically Phoenician origin cannot be proven with the gloss yauAo[. yaO'T�P [f. the word would be matched by Skt. which would be a derivative of � ypuw. <!I ?� .ETYM An expressive form which recalls Lat.). (for the inflection see Schwyzer: 568.DER yapupLOv.. an astronomical term (allegedly from "devourer"). garriO. The connection with � y�pu<.). a (round) freighter (Epich. ' (H. ON kj6ll 'ship' has been considered.ETYM yaaT�p is often derived from *ypaa-T�p as "glutton". and yap[aKo<.).. <!I ?� .DER yuaTpa.). -Tp6c. YUUAO<.' KUAafl0<. womb' (ll. Alternatively.. fl�Tpa).).. see E. Old 6yuaTwp (H. Lat. . If � yevTa should be related. beehive' (Od. yaplTlK6c. fish names (Marcell.). <!I ?� VAR Also ntr. which pounds the axle' (H. Gr. as *FaTflAa[. Kat Ta cDOlVlKlKa 1tAOla yauAOl KaAOUVTal 'also Phoenician ships are called y.). Chantraine 1942: 96 and 215). 1tA�flv'1<. paunch. (pap.).ETYM Etymology unknown. yapo<. yupplw!leOu [v. yaO'o<. Bechtel l921. water-bucket. Masson 1967: 39ff. CJl8�PlOV. we might think of a *gnt-ter with tt > st. cf. garum is borrowed from the Greek (see DELG). Hebr. Lat. 145 writes yUpKOV.] oUAa[ 'barley-corns' (H.). 2: 369 opts for Laconian origin.VAR yauAo<. ETYM Etymology unknown. OHG kiol.] 'sauce or paste made of brine and small fish' (A. gaulus is borrowed from the Greek. [m..) and. 1. =>yuv80<. Denominative YaCJTp[(W (Ar. (pace Pisani Acme 1 (1948): 312. <!I ?� .. However. Not related to �pUKO<.). • . outside Greek.ETYM Mostly corrected to YaT£lAa[ and. -'1 'belly of a vase' (ll. yap'1p6v 'bowl for y. and � yuaAov (q. ' (pap.

. has been compared with yauA6<.· "'fu8�c. [adj. which he often cites.ETYM Borrowed from a Persian word that reflects older *gauna-ka.).). Assyr. ETYM For a suggestion.] 'at least. gaona. see DELG). ha (from *te) and gha (from *to). e..� . • • yUUO'O<. [adj.] 'to shout so as to make oneself heard' (ll.] 'shaggy woollen cloth.).' (E.. <!I ?� . Al.. � Y'1eew. hi (from *ti). (Ar. cf.). guaire 'noble' « *gaurjos?) has also been cited as a comparandum. yuvpo<.VAR Dor. Stromberg 1946: 127.) is borrowed from the Greek. gunakku. (Chantraine 1933: 434). Boeot. gausape(s).] a thick cloak. which is semantically improbable.. Av. 'false' (H.). gaunaca (since Varro) was taken over from the Greek (see Schwyzer ZII 6 (1926): 234ff. whereas Lat.. so that connection with y� is improbable. �AaLa6<. see Fur. kuzippu 'cloth' (Lewy KZ 58 (1931): 26ff. yty£lO<. cf. Ao�6<.). ne-gi 'not'.).] 'crooked. [m. yuaAov (from a PIE root *geu. OCS ni-ze 'neque'. 'exultation' (PIu. � ayaup6<. [m. denominative yaua6w (Sor. <!I PG?� VAR Or yauao<. .').). frieze' (Str. ToA -(ii)k. <!l IE *ge emphatic pcl. <!I LW Pers. pu-k.'curve. [adj. which is formally impossible. Rubr.) . DER Thence yauaa8a<. the accent varies) . yaup6T'1<. exulting in' (Archil.). <!I ?� . and with yup6c.) and KauvuK'1 [f. ToB -k. .g.] 'antique' (Hecat. ammuk 'me'. Lat.. Alternatively.. Cf.). Hitt.: 119 assumes a 'vorderasiatisches Wanderwort' (see R.DER yaup'1� 'braggart' (Ale. oETYM For the suffix.). Also eyyauaov· evaKafl�ov 'crooked' (H. etc.] (pap. etc. aeyf invite a comparison with Go. etc. who compares Kaua[a 'Macedonian felt hat' (NB: forms like *yau8a1to<. The particle � -Xl has a comparable function. Denominative yaupluw 'bear oneself proudly' (Cratin. although mik could be influenced by ik '1' .ETYM Combinations like £fleYf. ytywvu [v. yaup60flaL 'id.'hair').'hairy' (cf. -um (Lucil. (Varro) . Clem. and further Lith. the meaning could actually derive from 'earth­ born' (LSJ). mi-k.? (DELG. <!I LW Balkans?� VAR yauaU1t'1<. Fur. on the meaning Wackernagel 1916: 156f. The origin of the word is rather to be sought in Pre-Greek. at any rate' (ll. M. Mlr.] 'haughty.). ya.ETYM DELG remarks that the word never means 'of the earth'.. However.). <!I ?� . is not borrowed from from Assyrian guzippu. yauaa1to<.� . Peripl. -a. 229. Skt.. Schmitt Glotta 49 (1971): 102-105) . .ETYM Mostly connected with � yuVUflaL. • • ye [pcl. yaua6<. is borrowed from the same source. are ghost forms).VAR Also KauvuK'1C. Persian or Babylonian? (pap. ne-gu.). and also Skt. bent outwards' (Hp. a garment.yeywva yuuVaK'1<. yuuO'U1to<. cf.).: 119.

Chakedon).VAR Often ydooov. t�EXOV 'projecting part of the roof (H.).. cf. pte. Cos. gelidus..'call'.EV. DER YElowiJ.). yCYWV�OUl (A.pres.).). new aor. Koukoules ApX. like many other terms for building. imp.). but the lengthened vowel was usually left unexplained (see Schwyzer 770).. ETYM A Carian word. MOVOYlOOU.from an lE root *gh3en-. YElOW<JlC.).'laugh'� VAR Aor. -OVOC.with prenasalization. who compares Car.. .] 'VuXpov 'cold' (H.. . [n. <:! IE?� . tyEyWVEL.VAR Old perfect. ymovEuw (Hp. with YEAUOOiJ. inscr. Contrary to what Frisk argued. -ov 'loud-sounding' (A.) . (pap. etc. With ymv-: ymvluw (S. also as an adj.] 'neighbour'. the adj. its correctness is corroborated by the French dialect word jalandro from the region of Grenoble (Hubschmid Vox Romanica 3 (1938): 130).Ul (Att. YElTUlvu (AB.). However.] 'projecting part of the roof. ete.). 27. 61ff. yElTwv cannot be a recent creation. DER ycywvTj<JlC.). (Chios Va).. (Pontos.· TO T�C. assumes a desiderative PGr.. (PIu. 3sg. ymvEw (pap.). yEyWVEOVW. <:! IE *gelh2.DER Late fem. yEAaO(O)Ul. In any case. inf. tYEAao9Tjv.yEloov . s.). further KloTjPlC. all three words could be related (perhaps the ultimate source is Galatian). cf.ETYM If the ablaut in the suffix is old. also seen in ToA ken. • .). Fut. . -Elv. but see Chantraine 1933: 288 . Unclear ycywvul· ut 0iJ.ind.) (t)yEyWVE.Ul. y£Auw [v. With yElTOV-: YELTOVlU 'neighbourhood' (PI.). with preterite (plpf. 'pumice-stone' (Arist. the unusual formation of the Greek word does not prove that the entry is corrupt. yEyWVE (A. in wrong position).ETYM YEAuv8pov is reminiscent of Lat.lA1Ul 'intercourse' (H. from YELOOW (EM). with the month name MnuYELTVlWV (lA).). rather. If we assume substrate origin and a pre-form *YEAU8-po. not related to YEloov).) . on which see Schwyzer: 62. f. Hackstein 2002: 187ff. <JTEYTjC. 117 compares Georg.). Y£AUVSpOV [adj. kvisa 'gravel'. etc. ycywvEl (Arist. [m.). yEyWVOC. Yloou 'stone' (which does not fit very well semantically). it lacks a good etymology (in any case. Byz.. ace. (Od. yEywvElTw (X. yEyWVWC.).).) with ymovEw (A.). Chantraine 1933: 18M. ymvlu. yEi-rvLOC. • • yEioov [n. Fur. *ge-gon-s. also in MoGr. Also y<E>ITOVUC. to Steph. ete. Recent YEywvloKw (A. • • y£hwv. ETYM Often connected with � ylyVWOKW. ycyEAUOiJ.] (LXX. (Rhodos.u 'penthouse' (Poll. On this proposal. YEYWVEiJ. the word is a loan.· TU ouo ui801u 'the two genitals' (H.COMP As a second member in TU MnuyEi-rvlU a festival in Miletus (Va). etc.). tyEyWVEUV (-cov). beside IIE8uYEl-rvloC. From the pte.). -�ow (E. cf.v. Hell. see now Vine 2007: 343-357. <:! ?� . cornice' (E. TEKTUlVU.] 'to laugh' (11.). the term could be an Anatolian LW or (= ?) Pre-Greek. <:! PG?� . EM). ydooC.

cannot be of lE origin.) and yEAoloC.] 'laugh').. Hardly connected to � yEAylC. Ace. : tpU<JTOC. cf.iJ. sneerer' (S.) < *yEAuo-p�C.K. calu 'laughter' (with ci-calim [v. (Pi. � yUA�VTj. yEAYlC. yEAW for yEAWV. av9dv 'glow. with yEAWW (Od. metri causa.l(w 'to fill. yEAUifLvoC.VAR Gen. . Connection with Lat.. to H. . yEAUO. [n.. e.UTU.W .DER yOiJ.OC.. Kul) �UiJ. (9 307).U 'laughing' (A. Szemerenyi ZDMG 101 (1951): 219. Cf. calr..). In addition.DER yEAyEL· �uml(El.. coral' (H. Schwyzer: 467 and Chantraine 1942: 168) with denominative yEAOlUW. Any connection with � yuyyAiov is a mere guess. YEAaO-OUl <*yEAM-jW. Deverbative with causative value (Schwyzer: 717): YEiJ.: 123.) with the same meaning.'take. Alex.). tinge' and yEAylU· 1t�vTj.ETYM No etymology. and spindles and combs'. yEAYTj [n.OC. .. Cf.YE. gen. YEAYl9EUELV· a1tUTTjAoydv 'to speak deceivingly (vel sim. is to be analysed as a reduplicated *YE-yAlC. Kul lhpUKTOl. flower' (H.DER YEAYl86oiJ. o1tu9Tj. cargo' (lA) with factitive yoiJ. plur. 'wild cypress' (H. load' (A.. also oKEAlC. gen. 'calm of the wind (Lacon. ETYM Probably related to U kumiaf [acc.] 'garlic'.1tElV. which is semantically not evident.). [f. � yA�VOC.).. 'asphodelus.ETYM Fur. tyyEAMT�C. -WTOC. also YEiJ. (*gelh2-os) stands Arm. 'laugher. this form cannot be separated from yEAylC.f.] 'gravidas' whence. plur. ' [petty wares and] dyes.).< *glh2. Aeolic a-stem yEAOC.' (Call. The 'physical' meaning is preserved in yEAElv· AUiJ. epwc. 127 (ete.. also in yEAav�C. where YEAO("(OC. (B 215.yEiJ. Clackson 126-132.).. Att.. yEAMTuC.] (cf. Lue.).. AUKWVEC. . or [ yUA�VTj. (epic ace. cf. KOUPUAlU 'woof. yEAyELC.g. Also YEAUOKW (AP) and yEAUOEiW (Pl.). Evidently.). VUpKlOOOC. (PIu..)' (H.).).) < *Y£AM-V�C. -190c.) . XPWiJ.). For the ablaut.ETYM Beside yEAWC. (EM). gumia [m.DER yEAMiJ. YEflW [v. The suffix.).Ul 'change into y. • • .ETYM The obviously related synonym � aYAlC. YEAU<JlC..] 'frippery' (Eup. with a long vowel 1.? Also in yEAUp�C. The word has further been connected with � yEvTo 'took'. Kul KTEVEC. <:! PG� .] 'glutton'. yEAU<JT�C. (0 pW1tOC. seize'� VAR Only present.). gemo is difficult (see E-M: 'be full' < sigh'?). � yA� a-yEAM-ToC. (E.] 'to be full (of)' (lA). <:! ?� . 'laugher' (Ael.) adduces oKEAAlC. Trall. <:! PG� . suggests that yEAylC.).). 'id. : epoc. is typically Pre-Greek. f. also in YEAaW. see below). see Chantraine 1942: 365f. the interchange y .. 'the front teeth' (Poll.' (Thphr. yEAW) [m. Lat.· ayplu KU1tUPlOOOC. see his comments. <:! IE? *gem.. -180c. the variation a. Beside YEAaW stands yEAWC. or its cloves (Thphr. too.] 'laughter' (Il. . and so further confirms Pre-Greek origin because it adds. [?] a01t08EAOC.). YEAOlU(W (LXX). Fur.· yUA�VTj.). poet. cf.. YEA£VOC.UT1(El 'dip. . as a loan..: 138 compares 0XEAlVOC.). narcissus' (H.ow 'load' (Babr.)' (H. YEAOV. -180c. yEiJ. blade.] 'load' (A.OW 'id..' (pap. 'freight. YUA.

xe.aor. 8aflvuw). If they are root aorists. it is a Thracian word.DER yevTla� pl�a (Androm.] 'noble (of birth)' (Ar. on the fl.] a plant.. Old is yevvalo� 'of good origin' (11. take. 3. Kpea.). However.'. • ytvva [f. Beside yevva and yevvaTo�. etc.). and uy-yeflo�· auAAa��. *yefl-a-To. innards' (H. connects it with � yaaT�p. which in turn suggests that its basis yevva is old as well (as argued by Wackernagel KZ 30 (1890): 300 and 314. On the form of the name of the Illyrian king. cf. as well as OCS zbm/(.] . after all. Szemerenyi WuS NF 1 (1938): 156£..) and yevv�el� (Emp. hold (Salam. for instance analogical development of *nja. yevv�Twp (A. Att. we could perhaps explain the vv as the result of a restoration of the root yev. both verbs have analogical full grade. see below).] 'descent. anAayxva 'meat. Chantraine 1933: 46). ytvo<. =-ylyvoflUl.). Kunplol 'draw away (Cypr. apud Gal. yevv�El� 'begetting' to yevvuw. see Krahe 1929: 53f.) with yevv'lfla (S..) 'id. yevvaTo� seems to be an old formation. yevTo is either a med. ytvTa [n. yevvlK6� 'noble' (Corn.). we can probably further add the ipv. Stromberg 1940: 135. Dsc. Hp.'seize.). yevv'lO"l�. which is certainly not expressive (pace Meillet BSL 26 (1925): 15f.) with yevvUl6T'l� (E. problematic is the origin of the geminate vv. From other languages. the plant is named after the Illyrian king Gentis.'beget'� .). we should rather consider some kind of irregular. L:aAafllvlOl 'grip. � ?� .ETYM yevva and cognate forms are obviously related to root represented by yevo� and ylyvoflUl. Compare also Venet.n8e. yevv'lT�� 'begetter' (S. etc. comprimere'. According to Eust. cm6-yefle· acpeAKe. gemel 'fetter'. comparisons have been made with Mlr.266 yeveu YEVEa .ETYM According to Dsc.) (H. which has been associated with the fact that the plant was prominent in the Alps. root aorist.). yevv�T'l� 'member of the yevo�' (Is.(for instance after yevo�) in a vu-verb (like 8uflV'lfll. gumt 'seize. see below. Pl. yevElOv VAR yevelU�. � ?� .ETYM No etymology. has suggested that it actually stands for *yev�aTo�).. =-ylyvoflUl. birth' (Pi.. 2.] 'he took' (8 43).). gumstu. z�ti '<J<plyyelv. =-yevu�. for *yevnavu�.).. 'gentian' (Dsc. . If the verb yevvuw is primary (as argued by DELG). � IE ? *gem. . � IE *genh.DER yevvuoa� [m. yevva ends in short -a. which seems to presuppose -ja < *-ih2• See � ylyvoflUl.) and yevv'lT�p (App. Gent(h)ius. Schwyzer: 751 Zus. we find the verb yevvuw 'to beget. The word has furthermore been • . or an s-aorist that lost its -a. As none of the above solutions is really convincing.i [dat. etc. yev'lfla after yevo�). yevv�Tpla (Phryn.] 'intestines' (CalL). yEvnavq [f.).VAR yeve�. On the other hand. which is theoretically possible if the latter reflects *gnt-ter.).). generate' (Pi.(*AeK-a-To. Schwyzer Glotta 5 (1914): 195f.)' . Chantraine 1933: 353. for yevvaTo�. yevv�mpa (Pl.). From yevvuw also yevv'lTlK6� (Arist. cf. 3. To yevTo < *yeflTo.'� ETYM Like AeKTo 'he laid down'. ytVTO [v..'..

cf. and yepalpw 'honour. nor to �yuyyaflov 'net'. e.DER yepUl6� 'old' (11.] 'cheeks'. and a fish name (see Stromberg 1943: l20). also called yepavoyepwv (Stromberg 1940: 54 and 159). Cf. Compare also Av.. yepavla<. aged' (h. hardly an old r-stem as per Benveniste 1935: 16.'chin'� vAR Sometimes u metri causa. see Stromberg 1937: 99. we have an n-stem in yep'lv or yep�v (H. garnys 'heron.. -(iTl�. � IE *gerh2-en-I-eu.] 'gift of honour' (11. -ao<. see . .).).). gena 'cheek' is reshaped after mala (but the u is preserved in dentes genulnl 'molars'). See also Thompson 1895 s. also 'edge of an axe' (11. whereas Lat. Go. Lith. modelled after fleAav-8puov 'heartwood' (Thphr. yepuvLov 'geranium'. (*gerh2-n-). 'honouring. cf. 'with a crane (neck) (Phryn. and further Arm. with a sufflx -n. OCS zeravb (*gerh2-ou-) with BSI. � GR� . which could be the thematic present beside the athematic (sigmatic) aorist yevTo. Lith. TO fleAav 8pu6� � 14)..] 'crane' (11. stands yepap6<. 'without gift of honour' (11.).). seen in Arm.g..). MoP zanax. etc. � yeflw 'be full'.DER yevElov « *yeveF-lov) 'chin.DIAL Myc. different Schwyzer: 516).' ' ' (Hdn. denominative yepu�w 'honour' (EM).or -U-. plur. cf. also metaphorically of various kinds of apparatuses. . . *g..] 'jaw'. *zanauua (written zanuua). Mere. ysanuva 'jaw'.'old'� vAR Gen.] . krun-k. originally 'old age'. The u-stem appears in Lat.).v. OHG kran-uh. geneu. yepuafllo<. [v. . Khot. Celtic. Not connected to � yvu80<. • yEpav�puov [n.[f. Ant.). [f.). Also yev'lT� 'edge of an axe' (S. Not connected to � yaflew. Schwyzer: 493). (Thphr.ETYM Beside the o-stem yepavo<. gerve (*gerh2-u-). name of a stone (Plin. see � y�pa�. • • .'crane'� . e. yepavTn<. accent like in naAUl6�). �paXLOvlaT�p).yepa� compared with Gr. -�n� 'bearded' (Theoc. cnawt and Skt. with yevElu� 'beard. 'honourable' (11.). also yepuv8pue� (H. cheek' (Od. hanu.). tri-garanos 'with three cranes'.l. grits. see Bechtel I914). MW garan. giun.). yeveLa<JT�p 'chin-strap' (Poll. . stork'. distinguish' ( depalatalization from the zero grade *grh2-. gin 'mouth'. Gaul. yeVElUT'l� -�T'l� fern. from 8pu�.g. ke-re-na-i [dat.COMP Compound a-yepaa-To<. 73 (1999) 84 (doubtful). fern. � IE *gerh2. ytpavo� [f. � IE *genu. 249 gen. Beside yepa<.] 'old tree-trunk' (Thphr.). ytpa<. un'lv�T'l�)' yeVEl6A'l� 'id. ToA sanw-e-1J1 [du..for j-.) .ETYM The u-stem has parallels in Olr. ke-ra /geras/. Mayrhofer EWAia 2: 801). honoured. yepUlpa (11.ETYM A Hellenistic innovation: a substantivized adjective yepuv8puo<. beard' (11. . MW gen 'cheek. Germanic.) < *gerh2-en. OE cran. cf. See � yepwv and � 8pu�. ytvu<. Denominative verb yevEluw 'to get or have a beard' (Od. etc.. chin'. -uo<.DER yepavl� kind of bandage (medic. [n. Old name of the bird 'crane'.] 'jaw-bone' (with an unexplained h. yevn80<. or -w<.. DIAL Myc.. m.). kinnus 'cheek'..). .] /kerenahi/.

Beside yepwv. ripen'» YAR As an administrative term ot yepovTe<.. see below. � yapcro...). plur.). . (pap.).' (Plb. ripe on the tree. [m.lOC. to Bauer in WH S. � y�po. cf.). yep8lo. variants yevO"lf!ov (H. 'shieldbearer' (Pl.Ko<.). girda'a 'weaver' is also from Greek. yepovTlaw 'get older' (D. yepoucr(o. and yepUTo.KO<. 'the elders'. and yapcro. . See Frisk Supp.· <JTPWTllP(8lo.. yepovTelo<. contra Latte). Probably. yep80nOlov (gloss.e. 'id. not to 6.» .. .).ETYM Identical with Lat. = TO o. ete.).: 117. � LW?» YAR Accentuation unknown. jartis. are cognate.D 'weaver' (pap. Therefore.268 yepyeplf!o<. 'shrubs' is also to be compared. aKpov CtAlWTlKOU Ko. S.] 'old age'. 'crossbeams' (H. [epu<. KI y. 'stake. hypocoristic? (BechteI 1917a: 15).).u<.ETYM yepauf!ov (not to be corrected to yepO"lf!ov.[f. see Hemmerdinger Glotta 48 (1970): 41. ytppov [n.' yepytpl!. *kersa-). 'concerning the elders' (11.. and yep8Lwv 'weaving-shed' (pap..crT�<.tlIere are a few formations with yepu-: yepu<. body of a cart' (D.) and yep8(Ctlvo. ' (Sparta). a loan is probable. Was it borrowed into Latin from Greek? Hebr. [£pUAAO<. • yepoioc. car 'tree'.] 'old man'.vo. as well as perhaps ON kjarr [n. and ON kass 'basket' (PGm. Chantraine 1933: 72. the word is rather not related to yepwv. Also PNs [epuAo<.] 'shrubs' (PGm. 56 d. -OVTOC. 'council of the elders' (in Sparta. *karsa-). yepOUO"lo. II u). Arm.· yepwv (H.). Diod.. IP).DER yepouO"lo<.<.<. Denominative yepovTeuw 'be a senator' (Sparta).v.)? (cf. yep6loc. and yap po. yepu<. . yepovT. (pap. gerdius (since Lucil. and npW�UTo..). -u80<. � LW Sem. [m. with yepovT£lo. Suid. 'member of the y.). � yepwv.y£lpw as per Latte. . (Edict. Here also yepauf!ov.. See H.. npecr�u<.DIAL Myc.. Of the forms with • .COMP yep8LOpo. Ath.i80iov 'genitals' (Epich.] 'wicker-work' is borrowed from the plural yeppo.vo. ace. Also yep8L<. (Ar.).DER yeppa8lo. yepoucr(o. .). 'wattles. . booths.<. .). on these forms see Collinge Glotta 49 (1971): 218-229). Skt. • ytpwv. Within Greek. (Ephesus).ETYM Semitic origin seems possible: for a connection with Hebr..).v. may be related.] different objects of wickerwork: 'shield' (Hdt. Perhaps also connected with � yepyeplf!0<. � IE *gerh2..). [?] a kind of olives (CalL).<.). D. Carthage. points to a substrate word (interchange £/ 0. see Fur. => yepwv. On yappo..] ([f..).YAR yepo(TCtv.). further unknown.DER Feminines yep8(0.ETYM Cf. yeppov = 'stake'). which is found next to yevO"lf!ov and KepO"lf!ov. arrow' (Eup. ete.vo. L. � EUR» COMP yeppo<popo<. Chantraine 1933: 316ff. The whole group of words probably derives from a European substrate. gerra [f.Aaf!0u 'point of a fishing rod' (H.'be (come) old.) and KepO"lf!ov (sch. yepOUO"lo.. Schwyzer: 487. cf. yapcro... Diminutive yepovTlov (Ar. ete..�8LOT�<. i. and � YPo. also as an adjective 'old' (11.. ke-ro Iger6n/? ke-ro-si-ja Igeronsia/? . Lat. garg"rlm 'ripe olives'. They are 8pU1T£T(�<. As the word is very late.

) . notably. (Str. 'old'. 'id. where it has the same meaning as phalanx (. yeu<JTll<.. yepwv is identical with Skt. Cret.DER ye<pup(<.ETYM The compound a-ywcr-TO<. 980) is perhaps graphic for Lacon. oETYM In its formation.-). • . ON kj6sa 'taste. in Homer see below (11. of a horse (POxy. gustare = OHG OS koston 'taste'. 8(<poupo. 253). 11. yeucrof!Ctl. yepw'(o.. �e<pupo.' (Nie. interpreted as IMa Gat 'Mother Earth' (e. cer." 'because the people sitting at the bridge in Eleusis during the mysteries used to mock at the passers-by'. ye-o.crSCtl. (PIu. yeucrCtl 'give a taste' (Hdt. also Schwyzer: 218). see below') together with ye<pupwO"l<. • yt<piJpa [f. no.'. yepoIo. The evidently cognate Arm. ace.tree.plOVTCt<. 6. etc.). caus.' (Democr..). -ti 'id. 922. form yeuf!eSo..-Ol-.T(o. Kp�Te<. 97. . Cf.<. who sees it as a loanword from Anatolian. yepaTll<. further. secondary atlIem. zcerond 'old (man)'.'taste'» YAR Aor. ywcrT�PlOV (Corn. 'Hpo. YWcrTlKO<. yew-Ao<po<. the expression nOA£f!Olo ye<pupo. yepo(To. 8£<pupo. Cypr.] 'old stories' (Corinn. ye<pup(�w 'abuse' (PIu. which agrees with Go. 1: 304). see Lejeune BSL 50 (1954).DIAL In the Thebes tablets we find maka.Se�0f!evol £crKW1TTov TOU<. although the reflex y. 'dam up'. � PG» . (Chios). 'id. see Latte.DER yeuf!o.<. perf. 'bridge' (J. (H. on other mgs.. � YPo.). w<. (see Bechtel 1921. 2001): .] 'earth' (11. .(yo. An original meaning 'beam' fits all passages in Homer and. -oy 'old man' (o-stem) and MoP zar 'id. yeucro. Meister 1921: 172. plur. yeuw. ywSf!o<. Ko.).YAR Boeot. kamurj 'bridge' would also pose unsurmountable problems if the word were lE.): Yll-yev�<. 51). f!ucrTllP(ol<. ye<pupo. also with another mg. -(11 'surveyeing of lands' (lA).). .<.).] 'bridge'. The Lacon. inexperienced' (Att.). ye<puplcrT�<. ya..). One may further compare Arm. .u<.). < -Yll-lo<. Beekes Glotta 78 (2004): 12-21 follows Fur. yewf!£Tp(o. � y�po. .from Yll-o. (Ar. as well as Go.(late also ye-ll­ from Yll-ll-.). (Pl. not in LSJ). � yepo.v· nannov.).. "Enet Ev'EAwcrivl Ent T�<. is perhaps after the adjectives in -010<.after -yeLO<. connecting Hattic hammuruwa 'beam'.. is uncertain.).).' and Lat. Lys.). . (H. to H. (Theoc. but see Wackernagel l916: 2082. ye<pupwf!o..) points to a basis *yeucr-of!Ctl. Ion. with Skt. jU$ fut. 'tasting' (lA). Thebes (. � IE *geus. yeCtl is an innovation (Schwyzer: 473. if correct.).and -ou­ points to non-Greek origin as well. Lacon. Avrantinos-Godart-Sacconi.and yeLO. yeywf!Ctl.-.<.. � PG» YAR Dor. (Str. yl) [f.] 'to taste' (11.g. (X. 'earthborn' (lA).ETYM The variation of the first consonant between y-.) is inverted writing for tlIen difficult to explain.). kiusan. yeuO"l<. denominative ye<pupow 'make a bridge' (lA. (von Fritz AmJPh. Toi<.) 'earthen hill'. 14. �o..and 8. (Arist. [n. despite Scheller 1951: 332• yepwx(o. mostly yew.suggests a labiovelar *g.<. �. kausjan from *gous-eie/o-. 'grandfather' (H. 'not tasting. thence ye<puplcrf!O<. ) Les tablettes. choose'. . form with -[.). jarant-. y�­ AO<pO<. Schwyzer 1950: 51. 66 (1945): 196f. yeuo!1Ctl [v. beam'). OHG OS kiosan. DELG refers to yepo.COMP Often as a first member Yll.. Ent ye<pupo. 'bridge­ builder' (PIu. Unclear is yepwv(o. ye<pupwT�<.· nopvll Tl<.KA£WV 'whore on the bridge' (H.). Oss.

y�T£lOV [n.). Dor. 'peasant' (lA) < Yll(-O)-FOPYo<. y�9w (Dor. and yuyyaflo<. Recently. adj. ToB katk. is well-known from Pre-Greek. yl K. (ll. Also yaaaav· �oov�v 'joy' (H. Tr. y£ooflUl 'beCome earth' (D. 'earthen' (lA). gaudeo. 'wild mouse' (H.would be an isolated formation within PIE. Redard 1949: 36. . [f... y&9w). aor. which has yielded the reconstruction *geh2dh. See Pre-Greek under the suffix -Ul-. 'sesame' (H. [n. DIAL Dor. Stromberg 1937: 84· <!l PG(V)� .] name of an onion (Epich. • Y'l(y)yqAl� [?] o ayplo<. denomin. � ala and � yey£lo<. • Y'l8tw [v. is obviously of Pre-Greek origin.). Moreover.. cf.)' (H. (60<.). allaafll<. Without doubt.shows typically Pre-Greek reduplication and prenasalization. 388f.) ETYM No IE etymology.] 'to rejoice' (ll. Fur. 'tax farmer (Lacon.VAR Also y�9uov [n. ETYM There is no reason to correct Yll(Y)Y�Al� into ylyylA-.). TI 91 a.Yll(Y)Y�Al� y£WPYO<. yaiTUl· y£wPyol (H. if with Baunack phil.).. gav'isus sum.for Greek (LIV\ Adams 1999: 150). The word is likely to go back to *gaya.'be glad' « *geh2dh-sk-). A suffIx -pe0) . but the contraction then needed would have to have been very early and have spread even to the perfect (Chantraine 1942: 429).).] (Ar. Y1l90auvo<. Y£llp0<. a pre-form *yaF -£9-ew was reconstructed for Y1lgew (see Schwyzer: 703). the word has been compared with ToA katk-.ETYM Because of Lat. which is a Pre­ Greek word as well..: 187. KllTloV (Cratin. may be compared.'be glad' (?)� . for which Y1YYAuflo<.). yCt"Lvo<.). S.. YllYY. The same root is found in � yalw < *yaF-lw and � yuvuflal. cf.DER Diminutive YTIOLOV (Ar. AUKWV£<. 3. yeya9a. as seen in the variant y�AlYPO<. flu<. 84).g. or -F£PYo<. cf. - = • .lla9wT�<. Cf. 70 (1911): 376 from *ya9-1av. y�·LVO<. (Hp. The folk-etymological suggestion of Kalen 1918: 103ff. late y�90<.. however.). ayaauAA1<. the word is of Pre-Greek origin. the hypothesis of Meier-Brugger MSS 53 (1992): 113-6 (connecting *genh.VAR Also y�AlypO<. likewise. as 'Erdsackel'. . see � oa and � i111fl�TllP as well as ' � noa£lo&wv.). aya91<.).] (Ar. ya9uAA1<. cf..ETYM Because of the many alternations. Y1l9uAA1<. On possible � i1a 'Earth'.). ya�£pyo<. YUl9uAAUOUl (H. which was contracted to *ga at a very early date. Y1l9�aUl (Dor.) and Y1l9aAeo<. 253 further adds yu9la· aAAuvTla 'sausage' (H.. with *9uov 'sacculus' (as found in y�9uov) is of course to be abandoned.'to beget') is incorrect. to analyse Yll -9uAA1<.).). <!l IE *geh2dh. s. <!l PG� .] (Epicur..DER Y1l9oaUvll (ll. (Pl.). al Ul. ye<pupal M<pupa and Fur..v. this is rather doubtful. 32) 'peasant'.). yeY1l9a.· <0> aypou l. (Androm. (S. Y'l8vU(<. e. For the interchange 0-1 y-. The suggestion of DELG that y�T£LOv was remodelled after Y1lgew (which would explain the variation TI 9) is implausible in itself and does not account for the other variants.. Probably related to � yaTa. yagew.). . y£woll<. late presents y�90flUl. . cf. the present *geh2u-edh-eie. 'Ferula marmarica' (Dsc. ap ud GaL). ya9�aUl)..VAR Perf. eyyapouvT£<. . rare YTITll<.

Yllpu£l<.'be old. � yepa<. (Xenoph. � ypau<. <!l PG?� .) after uYlavaL<. YllpaMo<. -uo<. zcel. speak' (h. The word is rather non-IE. see Chantraine 1933: 272f.. fut.DIAL Dor. kara [f.DER YllpUlo<. e. 'id.DER Yllpuw. <!l IE? *geh2r.ETYM Solmsen 1909: 213f. TraIL). . MoHG Korn. . -(60<. The zero grade *gh2r.).ETYM Reduplicated formation. which.). y(yapTov [n. like Lat. Further YllpuaKw 'to get old' (ll. ablauting with *a for forms like y�pu<.). On ey�pa as the reflex of an old s-aorist. and y�pavaL<.ETYM The word stands beside yepa<.] 'cry'. ey�pa. Daucus Gingidium (Dsc. Nic. later y£y�paKa. OHG chara [f. YlYYlKloLOv (schol. From YllpuaKw: YllPUaLfl0<. [f.. New present YllpuW (X. yapu<. 'id. -w<.] 'care. 432). rufen' with *a. granum. Al.ETYM Unknown. cf.] KUAuflfla K£<paA�<.). solicitude' and OE cearu [f. Schwyzer 682).). with a remarkable long vowel which has been explained as deriving from the s-aorist.)..ylYYAlav 271 yfjpa<. -aw (lA).. Yllp£l<.'.explains the Celtic forms with -a-. W gawr 'crying. which is formally improbable (Greek would have a different suffIx and reduplication).DER ylyapTl<. although the latter are perhaps better kept apart because of their deviant meaning. also as a causative like E<puaa: E<pUV. (ll.).).. � yepa<. and theoretically also the Germanic ones.).). However. Ylyy. .). Kern. <!l ?� . 'getting older' (Tlos).) and YllPuVLOv· y£pav<oyepwv> H..) after oafl£l<. that is to say a Pre-Greek loan. YllpuaoflUl. LIV connects the Celtic verb with ass. [n... sound'� .] 'grape-stone' (Simon.] 'lament(ation)" and aIr. battle'...'resound' and reconstructs an IE root *gar. � yapplwfl£9a are rather not related (LIV suggests onomatopoeic origin). [f. Stromberg 1940: 159'. YllPu<..DER YlYYloLOv a plant.' (Anacr..). cf. . y�pufla (A. <!l PG?� . French carrot (Alex... speech' (ll.] 'old age' (ll. .ETYM Comparable forms are found in Celtic and Germanic.. . It is often connected with Lat. garrio. (Chantraine 1933: 281). however. . • yfjpv<.g. 'stone-like' (Thphr. Go. but this cannot be proven. a-vocalism.\'(av [f. YllpuflwV H. ad·gair < *gar-et. eYllpu911v. ripen'� VAR Gen. 3sg.' (Ale. connecting the word with � YOyyUAO<. y£pUlO<. yapuw 'sing. often have a short vowel.).). 0Ir. However.) . glossed as (*)ypu�a.'tonen. assumed *y£YY1<. after the adjectives in -aAeo<..· aTa<pl<. Further y�p£lOV 'thistledown' (Arat. YlyapTwoll<. Schwyzer: 755Y).'voice.] kind of turnip. it is rather a Pre-Greek word. ep£Ouv 'woollen hood for the head' (H. aor. gair [f. -ao<. ey�paaa (Hdt. cf. cf.. s. see Barton Glotta 60 (1982): 32-49 and Haroarson 1993a. Stromberg 1937: 140 for the names of kernels. ylyapTwvLOv 'unripe grape' (Dsc.. Merc.. inf. *geh2r-. <!l IE *gerh2.] 'id. and Gr. (Arist. Cf. YllpuVUl or Yll pavUl (A.] 'voice. with assimilation. YlYY(<. 'grape' (H. 'old' (Hes. aor. aor. and certainly a :: a ablaut. ptc. is of course impossible in PIE: the evident reconstruction is *gh2r-.v. � yepwv. Forms with -rr-.). 7276.

<!IPG� VAR Also YlYYAulloe. on the difference see Benveniste 1948: 46. y(yv0!-laL [v. aUAou 'an interjection in case of mockery.. Dor.). from *YEV-O-. 5. name of Aphrodite as a protectress of birth (Ar.] name of a Phoenician flute (Men. fut.. YEve-eAT] (11. analogical innovation. yEvEeAlU�W. Probably Pre-Greek (note the prenasalization and interchange l/ u).DER Thence ylyypciLvoe. (Arist.).DER Action nouns: 1. yov� (YOVEUe. yeyevT]llaL (recent). Fest. 'parent'). (either for YL(y)vOllaL..' (Ath. Schwyzer: 756.). Horn.] . Frisk).] . Frisk).VAR Also -ov H.. etc. yEyawe. yapyaAlcrlloe. · ylyyp