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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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SCIENCE AND EDUCATION A NEW DIMENSION

Philology

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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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Editorial board
Editor-in-chief: Dr. Xnia Vmos
Honorary Senior Editor:
Jen Barkts, Dr. habil. Nina Tarasenkova, Dr. habil.
Andriy Myachykov, PhD in Psychology, Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Northumberland Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Edvard Ayvazyan, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, National Institute of Education, Yerevan, Armenia
Ferenc Ihsz, PhD in Sport Science, Apczai Csere Jnos Faculty of the Universityof West Hungary
Ireneusz Pyrzyk, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Dean of Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences, University of Humanities and
Economics in Wocawek, Poland
Irina Malova, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Head of Department of methodology of teaching mathematics andinformation
technology, Bryansk State University named after Academician IG Petrovskii, Russia
Irina S. Shevchenko, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of ESP and Translation, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National
University, Ukraine
Kosta Garow, PhD in Pedagogy, associated professor, Plovdiv University Paisii Hilendarski, Bulgaria
Lszl Ktis, PhD in Physics, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungary, Budapest
Marian Wloshinsk, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences, University of Humanities andEconomics in
Wocawek, Poland
Melinda Nagy, PhD in Biology, associated professor, Vice-Rector, J. Selye University in Komarno, Slovakia
Alexander Perekhrest, Doctor of Science in History, Prof. habil., Bohdan Khmelnitsky National University in Cherkasy, Ukraine
Nikolai N. Boldyrev, Doctor of Science in Philology, Professor and Vice-Rector in Science, G.R. Derzhavin State University in
Tambov, Russia
Olga Sannikova, Doctor of Science in Psychology, professor, Head of the department of general and differential psychology, South
Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K.D. Ushynsky, Odesa, Ukraine
Oleg Melnikov, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Belarusian State University, Belarus
Riskeldy Turgunbayev, CSc in Physics and Mathematics, associated professor, head of the Department of Mathematical Analysis,
Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Tashkent State edagogical University, Uzbekistan
Roza Uteeva, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Head of the Department of Algebra and Geometry, Togliatti StateUniversity, Russia
Seda K. Gasparyan, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of English Philology, Professor and Chair, Yerevan State
University, Armenia
Svitlana A. Zhabotynska, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of English Philolgy of Bohdan Khmelnitsky National
University in Cherkasy, Ukraine
Tatyana Prokhorova, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, Professor of Psychology, Department chair of pedagogics andsubject
technologies, Astrakhan state university, Russia
Valentina Orlova, CSc in Economics, Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ukraine
Vasil Milloushev, Doctor of Science in Pedagogy, professor of Departament of Mathematics and Informatics, Plovdiv University
Paisii Hilendarski, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Veselin Kostov Vasilev, Doctor of Psychology, Professor and Head of the department of Psychology Plovdiv University Paisii
Hilendarski, Bulgaria
Vladimir I. Karasik, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of English Philology, Professor and Chair, Volgograd State
Pedagogical University, Russia
Volodimir Lizogub, Doctor of Science in Biology, Head of the department of anatomy and physiology of humans andanimals,
Bohdan Khmelnitsky National University in Cherkasy, Ukraine
Zinaida A. Kharitonchik, Doctor of Science in Philology, Department of General Linguistics, Minsk State LinguisticUniversity,
Belarus
Zoltn Por, CSc in Language Pedagogy, Head of Institute of Pedagogy, Apczai Csere Jnos Faculty of the Universityof West
Hungary
Managing editor:
Barkts N.
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CONTENT
Central zone of the field of antonyms in the English language
O.L. Lytvyn .

Presenting conflict situations in the media discourse: verbal and non-verbal strategies
N.I. Lyutyanska ..

11

Concepts LIFE and DEATH in the modern novels about vampires


A.A. Prihodko .. 13
Heimweh
Heimweh
.. . 16
..
.. ..

20

:
.. .. 23
( )

.. .. 27
-
.. 31


.. , .. .

35



.. ... 39

(- )
.. 45


.. ..

49

-
.. .. 53
-
( )
.. . 57

.. 62
:

.. 66
- -
.
.. . 71
.
.. .. 74

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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.. . 78
-
.. . 81

.. .. 86

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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Central zone of the field of antonyms in the English language


O.L. Lytvyn*
Institute of Foreign Philology, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Lutsk, Ukraine
*Corresponding author. E-mail: oksanalytvyn8@gmail.com
Paper received 07.07.15; Revised 21.07.15; Accepted for publication 24.07.15.
Abstract. In this article an attempt is made to define the central zone of the field of antonyms in the English language by comparing
and contrasting the data obtained by the process of analyzing illustrative material used in linguistic works written in English, and
information about the frequency of these units in language obtained from a frequency dictionary A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English. The results of the semantic and functional analysis, as well as quantitative calculations enabled us to
arrive at the conclusion that the central zone of the field of antonyms in the English language is formed mainly by morphologically
unrelated (absolute) adjectives and verbs which illustrate gradable and complementary antonymy, namely about 60 pairs of
antonyms.
Keywords: linguistic category, structure of the field, central zone of the field, antonymy, frequency

The study of the structure, the content and the correlation between different fields in the lexical subsystem of language
occupies one of the central places in modern linguistics
(Karaulov, Abramov, Shchur, Denysenko etc.). However, it
could be argued that even now, insufficient attention is being
devoted to the structure and content of the fields consisting of abstract elements which are sings by nature language units that are connected by a systemic relationship.
These units form certain linguistic categories, particularly
synonymy, antonymy, converseness, and hyper-hyponymy. Analysis of these fields makes it possible to obtain a
clearer picture of the forms and the means for structuring
knowledge about language in the consciousness of linguists, and that helps to expand the knowledge regarding
the categorization and conceptualization of real-life phenomena. This is what forms the basis of the current relevance of our research.
In this article an attempt is made to define the central
zone of the field of antonyms in English by comparing
and contrasting the data obtained through the analysis of
the illustrative material used in linguistic works written in
English, cf [1], and the information about the frequency of
these units in language. We assume that lexical units used
by the scholars as representative examples of the category
under investigation have a relatively high frequency. The
purpose of the present research is to test our hypothesis.
Semantic and functional, as well as statistical analyses
constitute the main methods of our research.
Linguists regard antonymy as one of the main types
of systemic semantic relations among language units.
Researchers emphasize that the relationship of contrast
is fundamental for human thinking [4; 6], and antonymy occupies a central place among all types of lexical
semantic relations since it plays an important role in
organizing the lexicon [2]. British scholar M. Lynne
Murphy calls antonymy the archetypical lexical semantic relation [7, p. 169]. Notwithstanding the diversity in
their approaches to the understanding of antonymy
(both in its narrower and its wider senses) scholars
agree that antonymy expresses conceptual opposition
as realized in language.
A selection of examples provided by the authors of thirteen monographs, textbooks and linguistic encyclopedias
written in English serves as the material for our research.
In the linguistic works examined we found a total of 423
pairs of antonyms which were used as illustrative material, including 224 different pairs, not taking into account

cases of their recurrence. The analysis of the selected examples enabled us to draw certain conclusions. More than
a third of all the pairs (35.46%) turned out to have been
used only in one of the linguistic sources. On the basis of
our calculations, we can affirm that in the opinion of the
linguists, adjectives (59.1%) and verbs (26%) provide the
best representation of the category of antonymy. Formal
structural analysis demonstrated the numerical preponderance of morphologically unrelated (absolute) antonyms
(85.34%) over derived ones.
In order to evaluate the examples given in the linguistic
works, we assigned a rank in the form of a simple fraction
to each pair of antonyms where the number of occurrences
of a certain antonymous pair in the form of an illustrative
example is indicated in the numerator, and the total number
of linguistic sources in the denominator. Our calculations
show that one pair of complementary antonyms, dead
alive, occurred the most frequently among all the pairs,
being present in all thirteen sources. Thus this pair has a
ranking designation of 13/13. The gradable antonym pair
hot cold is in the second place: it was mentioned in
twelve linguistic works and therefore we assigned a rank of
12/13 to this pair. The third place is occupied by the gradable antonym pair good bad, which was used in nine of the
sources as an example and consequently received a rank of
9/13. A ranking of 8/13 was allotted to the pairs male
female and tall short, which were used in eight linguistic
works. Two pairs mentioned in seven sources have a ranking of 7/13 the antonymous pairs long short and true
false. In six of the sources, the three pairs big small, up
down, and old young reappear. Therefore they were given
a ranking of 6/13. The next group, comprising twelve pairs
with a ranking of 5/13, are the lexeme pairs clean dirty,
come go, high low, large small, love hate, married
single, north south, open shut, pass fail, thick thin,
warm cool, and wide narrow. Seven pairs were used in
four sources, beautiful ugly, big little, black white, deep
shallow, fast slow, honest dishonest, and rich poor, so
they received a ranking of 4/13. A ranking of 3/13 was given
to thirteen of the pairs: above below, asleep awake, clever stupid, east west, happy sad, happy unhappy, left
right, win lose, man woman, old new, on off, smooth
rough, and sweet sour. Thirty-two different pairs were
found to have occurred in two of the sources examined and
thus have a ranking of 2/13. They include advance retreat,
back front, easy difficult, fresh stale, here there, like
dislike, marry divorce, and wet dry. According to our

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

calculations the remainder of the illustrative examples


(150 different antonymous pairs) were mentioned only in
one linguistic source (complex simple, joy sadness,
lengthen shorten, pretty plain, useful useless, widen
narrow etc.).
Thus almost 65% of the total number of antonymous
pairs occurred in more than one source as illustrative examples, including 74 different pairs (not taking into account instances of their recurrence). This suggests that
two or more linguists consider these pairs to be sufficiently suitable representatives of the relation referred to as
lexical antonymy. This fact makes it possible for us to
conclude that, on the basis of the data obtained from the
linguistic sources, pairs with a ranking of 2/13 or higher
constitute the central zone of the field of antonyms. In
other words, the central zone is formed by 74 different
antonymous pairs with rankings between 2/13 and 13/13,
among which two semantic types are the most prevalent:
gradable (45.9%) and complementary (28.4%) antonyms.
For the most part, gradable antonyms are adjectives,
whereas complementary antonyms are mainly adjectives
and verbs. The percentage of reverse and antipodal antonyms is considerably lower (16.2% and 9.5%
respectively). It is to be noted that within the total selection of 74 pairs, adjectives (60.8%) and verbs (24.3%)
predominate. Nouns (6.8%), adverbs (5.4%) and prepositions (2.7%) occur much less frequently. Morphologically
unrelated antonymous pairs (86.5%) exceed the derived
ones, with the ranking of all derived antonym pairs ranging between 1/13 and 3/13; only one pair (honest dishonest) has a ranking of 4/13.
It was necessary to compare the results of the analyses
carried out on the illustrative material in the linguistic
works with existing data regarding the frequency of these
units in language. This information about the frequency of
the lexical units which make up the selected antonymous
pairs was obtained from A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English which provides a list of the
5,000 most frequently used words in the English language
[5]. This dictionary is based on the data from a 385million-word corpus (by 2008) The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). is the largest
balanced corpus of American English that is publicly
available [3].
The main index in this dictionary is a rank-ordered listing of the top 5,000 words (lemma) in English, starting
with the most frequent word (the definite article the) which
received rank frequency 1 in the dictionary. The following information is given in each entry: rank frequency
(from 1 to 5000); lemma; part of speech; collocates,
grouped by part of speech and ordered according to frequency. In addition, raw frequency (the total number of
tokens in the corpus for the lemma) and dispersion (the
index which shows the degree of word distribution in all of
the registers in the entire corpus, from 0.00 to 1.00) are
given. The final score in the dictionary, or the rank frequency, was calculated by multiplying raw frequency by
dispersion.
In order to identify the frequency of the lexical units
found in the linguistic sources examined, we assigned each
of them to a specific group based on its rank in the dictionary. For this we divided all the lemmas in the dictionary
into five groups A, B, C, D and E. If a word belongs to

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the first thousand units in the dictionary in terms of its ranking we have placed it in group ; for example, the adjective
good has a rank of 111 in the dictionary, therefore it belongs
in group ; the verb repair, with a rank of 3998, belongs in
group D. Words that are not included in the register (the
5,000 most frequently used words), and which thus have a
final score above 5,000, were placed in group F. By way of
example, the adjectives unmarried, rude and evergreen, the
noun clergy, and the verb embark are not presented in the
dictionary; consequently they are included in group F.
It is thus possible to designate each pair of antonyms
using the two capital letters that correspond to the classification the two elements which compose it; for example,
the antonymous pair wide narrow can be represented
using the combination , based on the rankings of its
components in the dictionary (wide 1181; narrow
2014). Among 224 different pairs of antonyms there are
pairs the components of which belong to the same group.
They constitute almost 40% (89 different pairs) of the
examples. Among them are the pairs old young (AA),
converge diverge (FF), light dark (BB), maximum
minimum (DD), and shout whisper (CC). It should be
noted that pairs of the type AA constitute a little over a
fifth of the examples (20.54% 46 pairs). This means that
the lexical units which form these pairs belong to the first
thousand most frequently used words in the English language (involving not only the raw frequency in the
corpus, but also the dispersion index, which shows the
equability of word distribution in all of the registers in the
entire corpus). The antonymous pairs of the type FF, the
components of which were not included in the dictionary,
constitute slightly less (13.39% 30 pairs). The percentage of other examples is considerably lower (BB 3.57%;
CC 1.34%; DD 0.89%;). No pairs of the type EE were
found at all.
Pairs within which the elements belong to different
groups constitute about 60% of the examples (135 pairs).
For example, the antonymous pair rich poor is assigned
to the category designated BA, since its elements, based
on their rankings in the dictionary, belong to different
groups (rich 1090; poor 718).
It is clearly evident that lexical units composing the selected pairs of antonyms have differing degrees of divergence in terms of their rankings in the dictionary. Sometimes there is a very significant divergence between the
rankings of the elements of the antonymous pairs, such as
deep shallow (BE; 1179 4178), arrive depart (AE;
813 4862), and towards away (CA; 2067 742). With
this fact in mind, in order to evaluate the significance of the
antonymous pairs and to rank the pairs, but not their individual components, in terms of frequency, we have introduced an index referred to as the index of divergence by
ranking. The index of divergence for a pair of antonyms is
calculated as the arithmetic mean of the rankings which the
elements of a given pair have in the dictionary, and is represented using the group designations A, B, C, D, and E; a
subscript letter p (for the English word 'pair') is added to it,
indicating that this designation using the subscript letter p,
as in Ap, Bp, Cp, Dp, or Ep, denotes a pair, but not a separate
lexical unit. Let us consider one example: we represent the
antonymic pair healthy ill using the designation BD,
based on the rankings which its elements have in the dictionary (healthy 1515; ill 3016). In order to compare

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

this antonymous pair with the other pairs we define the


index of divergence of its elements in terms of their ranking
by calculating the arithmetic mean between 1515 and 3016,
which gives us a value of 2265.5. Thus the index of divergence for the pair healthy ill is Cp 2265.5.
On the basis of the index of divergence the antonymous pairs were divided into five groups. The first and
most numerous group constitutes almost a quarter of all
the pairs (53 different pairs 23.66%). These are the pairs
with an index of divergence of Ap. Among these, two
subgroups can be distinguished. The first subgroup contains the pairs of the type (46 pairs), such as hot
cold, big small, up down, east west, remember
forget, and after before. The second subgroup includes
the pairs of the type (4 pairs) and (3 pairs), such
as love hate, rich poor, all none, slowly quickly.
Antonymous pairs with the index of divergence Bp constitute the second group, including 33 different pairs
(14.73%). These are pairs of the types AB and BA, BB, AC
and CA, BC and AD, such as dead alive, male female,
married single, happy sad, raise lower, include
exclude, and towards away.
The third group, which constitute 12.05% of all the examples, is formed of the 27 different pairs of antonyms
that have the index of divergence Cp. Pairs of the types
BC and CB, BD, BE and EB, AE and EA, CC, AD and
DC are in this group; among them are brilliant stupid,
defend submit, frequently rarely, arrive depart, fat
thin, increase decrease, marry divorce, near far,
happy unhappy, beautiful ugly, deep shallow, and
clean dirty.
Antonymous pairs in the fourth group are less numerous; it contains 13 different pairs (5.8%) with the index of
divergence Dp. Pairs of the type DE and ED, CD and DC,
DD, CE and BE are in this category, including pairs such
as asleep awake, criticize praise, damage repair,
formal informal, friendly hostile, full empty, interesting boring, and permit forbid.
According to our analysis, no pairs with an index of divergence Ep were found. The fifth group contains pairs to
which the index of divergence Fp can be conventionally assigned. These are antonymous pairs of which neither component was present in the frequency dictionary, and which
have a final score higher than 5,000. These pairs are represented using the designation FF. The percentage which they
represent within the total body of the examples is not high
13.4% (30 different pairs). Among them are inflate deflate,
polite rude, adore despise, darken lighten, deciduous
evergreen, ferocious meek, forwards backwards, knit
unravel.
One anomalous group takes in antonymic pairs whose
index of divergence is impossible to define even conventionally in terms of the fact that one of its elements was
not included in the register of the frequency dictionary.
This takes in the pairs of the type AF and FA, CF and FC,
BF and FB, FE and EF, FD and DF. Thus their index of
divergence might range somewhere within the groups Cp,
Dp, or Ep, or it might exceed 5000. This group constitutes
slightly less than a third of the antonymous pairs (30.36%
68 different pairs), including pairs such as accept turn
down, attractive unattractive, joy sadness, maximize
minimize, sleep insomnia, ascend descend, cruel
kind, clever stupid, left right, and honest dishonest.

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In our opinion, the antonymous pairs in which the components have a low degree of divergence in terms of their
rankings in the dictionary should be considered individually. It is also necessary to calculate the difference between the rankings of the elements in the antonymous pair
that we can define in the frequency dictionary. This provides the relative frequency of the antonyms within the
antonymous pair. Among the examples, 22 such pairs
were identified (almost 10% of the examples), in which
the difference between the rankings of the components
does not exceed 100.
The pair girl boy has the smallest difference between
the rankings of its components. The difference between
the rankings of these lexical units in the dictionary is 1
(girl 381; boy 382). The three next highest positions
are occupied by the pairs large small (large 225;
small 207), man woman (man 95; woman 114),
and here there (here 96; there 117). The degree of
divergence between the rankings of their elements is 18,
19, and 21 respectively. There is a much greater disparity
between the rankings of the components of the remainder
of the antonymous pairs.
All 22 of the antonymous pairs identified, in which the
elements have a low degree of divergence between their
rankings, belong to the type . Among them gradual
antonyms (11 pairs) predominate, and there are significantly fewer complementary (5 pairs), antipodal (4 pairs),
and reverse (2 pairs) antonyms.
Our analysis of the data relating to the frequency of the
language units under study enabled us to draw certain
conclusions. About 13% of the antonymous pairs were
not included in the frequency dictionary, half of them
being derived. The pairs in which one of the components
was not included in the register of the dictionary (more
than a third of them being derived antonyms) constitute
about 30% of the examples.
It is necessary to note that almost 40% of the antonymous pairs (86 different pairs) have an index of divergence
Ap or Bp. In our opinion, these pairs, based on the data from
the dictionary, form the central zone of the field of antonyms. Gradable (41.9%) and complementary (27.9%) antonyms predominate among them. The majority of the
gradable antonyms are adjectives; complementary antonyms are mainly composed of adjectives and verbs, and
less frequently by nouns. The percentage of reverse and
antipodal antonyms is 17.4% and 8.1% respectively. It is
also necessary to point out that adjectives constitute almost
half (47.7%) and verbs about a third (30.2%) of the total
group of 86 pairs. Nouns (9.3%), adverbs (5.7%), prepositions (4.7%), pronouns, and numerals (1.2% each) occur
much less frequently. Morphologically unrelated antonyms
(96.5%) exceed derived ones, the former generally having a
higher rank in the frequency dictionary than the latter. Almost a third of the derived antonymous pairs (30.6% 15
different pairs) were not included in the frequency dictionary. In addition, the analysis of the frequency of the components in the derived antonymous pairs made it possible
for us to identify one notable feature: an element with a
negative prefix or suffix has a much lower ranking in the
dictionary or is not included in its register at all.
Conclusions. On the basis of the study and comparison
of the data obtained in the course of analyzing the illustrative material in the linguistics sources as well as the in-

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with the lowest rankings in the linguistic works two pairs


with a ranking of 2/13, and the other 28 pairs with a ranking
of 1/13 belong to the group of antonyms with the index of
divergence Fp (where neither component of the pair was included in the dictionary).
The pairs with a ranking of 1/13 in linguistic works constitute almost 78% of the examples (53 different pairs) in
the group where one of the elements of the pair is not included in the dictionary. There are significantly fewer pairs
with a ranking of 2/13 (10 different pairs 14.7%). Thus,
almost the entire group (93%) consists of pairs which received rankings of 1/13 and 2/13 in linguistic works. Three
pairs with a ranking of 3/13 (clever stupid, left right,
and sweet sour), one pair with a ranking of 4/13 (honest
dishonest) and one pair with a ranking of 5/13 (open shut)
also are included here.
The facts which have been presented demonstrate
clearly that there are certain correlations between the
rankings in linguistic works and the frequency of the pairs
under study, since the pairs with rankings between 2/13
and 13/13, based on the index of divergence, mainly belong to the groups Ap (40.5%), Bp (18.9%) and p
(16.2%). The pairs in which one of the components was
not included in the dictionary (the other component mainly belonging to the first three thousands of words in the
dictionary) constitute 20.3% of them.
The analysis of the semantic types of antonyms showed
the numerical dominance of gradable and complementary
antonyms both among the pairs in the linguistic works, and
in the frequency dictionary. Reverses and antipodals were
much fewer in number in both sources. Lexical semantic
analysis demonstrated the dominance of the same lexicalgrammatical classes both in the linguistic sources (adjectives 60.8%; verbs 24.3%), and in the frequency dictionary (adjectives 47.7%; verbs 30.2%). In terms of the
formal structural approach, morphologically unrelated antonyms exceed derived ones, the former having higher
rankings in linguistic works and higher indices of divergence in the dictionary.
On the basis of our assessments, the central zone of the
category of antonymy in English is formed by approximately 55-60 pairs of antonyms which, on the one hand,
have a high frequency, and on the other, are actively used
as representative examples by the authors of linguistic
works. The research which has been conducted enables us
to affirm that the central zone of the field of antonymy is
formed primarily by morphologically unrelated adjectives
and verbs which illustrate gradable and complementary
antonymy.

formation regarding the frequency of the same language


units in the frequency dictionary (a total of 224 different
pairs), certain conclusions can be drawn.
Having compared the indices of divergence of the pairs
in the dictionary and their ranks in linguistic works, we
identified certain correlations. Practically all antonymous
pairs with the highest levels in the rankings, from 13/13 to
5/13, have an index of divergence Ap and/or Bp (with the
exception of one pair, clean dirty, with a ranking of 5/13,
which was designated using the index of divergence Cp).
The pair of complementary antonyms dead alive (AB)
that was found to have occurred the most frequently and
received the highest ranking, 13/13, has an index of divergence Bp (1136). The pair of gradable antonyms in the second highest position, hot cold (AA), with a ranking of
12/13, is designated with the index of divergence Ap
(813.5). The pair good bad (AA), in the third-highest
position with a ranking of 9/13, has an index of divergence
Ap (200.5). The next two pairs male female (BB) and tall
short (BA) with rank 8/13 received the index of divergence Bp (1504.5 and 1097 respectively). The two pairs of
lexemes which occur next in the listings, long short (AA)
and true false (AC), with a ranking of 7/13, have an index
of divergence Ap (445) and Bp (1517) respectively. All
three pairs with the ranking of 6/13 (big small, old
young, and up down), based on their index of divergence, are in the group Ap. These pairs fall into the type
and occupy rather high positions in terms of the index
of divergence (186; 198 and 85.5 respectively). Among
the twelve antonymous pairs with a ranking of 5/13, six
pairs belong to the group Ap, and four pairs to the group
Bp; one pair has an index of divergence p; and one pair
of the type AF also belongs here. In addition, the index of
divergence Ap and Bp was also used in designating several
pairs with rankings between 4/13 and 1/13.
Pairs with a ranking of 1/13 constitute more than a half
of the pairs with the index of divergence Cp (15 pairs).
There are significantly fewer pairs with a ranking of 2/13 in
this group (only six of them). The index of divergence Cp
was also assigned to two pairs with a ranking of 3/13 (happy unhappy and smooth rough), three pairs with a ranking of 4/13 (beautiful ugly, deep shallow, and fast
slow) and one pair with a ranking of 5/13 (clean dirty).
The complete group of pairs having an index of divergence Dp, with the exception of the pair asleep awake
with a ranking of 3/13, is made up of pairs that received a
ranking of 1/13, such as criticize praise, damage repair, formal informal, friendly hostile.
It is necessary to note the fact that the antonymous pairs

REFERENCES
1. Lytvyn, O.L. Lexical content of the category of antonymy 5. Davies, M., Gardner D. A frequency dictionary of contemporary
(based on a selection of English-language linguistic works) /
American English : word sketches, collocates, and thematic
O.L. Lytvyn // New Philology. Collection of scientific papers.
lists / M. Davies., D. Gardner London, New York :
Zaporizhzhya : ZNU, 2014. - 64. P. 49-54.
Routledge, 2010. 357 p.
2. Chaffin, R., Herrmann D.J. The similarity and diversity of se- 6. Lyons, J. Semantics / J. Lyons. Vol. 1. Cambridge : Cammantic relations / R. Chaffin, D.J. Herrmann // Memory and
bridge University Press, 1977. 375 p.
Cognition 12 (2), 1984. P. 134-141.
7. Murphy, M.L. Semantic relations and the lexicon : antonymy,
3. Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) / URL:
synonymy, and other paradigms / M.L. Murphy. New York :
http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/.
Cambridge University Press, 2003. 296 p.
4. Cruse, D.A. Lexical semantics / D.A. Cruse. Cambridge :
Cambridge University Press, 1987. 311 p.

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Presenting conflict situations in the media discourse:


verbal and non-verbal strategies
N.I. Lyutyanska*
Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, Mykolayiv, Ukraine
*Corresponding author. E-mail: natalka.lyutyanska@gmail.com
Paper received 08.07.15; Revised 15.07.15; Accepted for publication 17.07.15.
Abstract: The present paper deals with the notion of conflict situation as well as its presentation in the media discourse. The study is
based mainly on the Internet media in multicultural countries, i.e. Great Britain and the United States of America. The present research is conducted in the framework of critical discourse analysis. The latter sees the text as a basic unit of communication. In our
case the communication takes place between representatives of different ethnic, racial or religious groups.
Keywords: conflict situation, interethnic interaction, media discourse, speech strategies, pragmatic effect

institutional factors that promote ethnic intolerance are


among them [1, p. 2-3]. Moreover, manipulation of historical memories in order to invoke emotions such as fear,
resentment and hate form the basis for conflict situations.
The goal of the current research was to investigate the
means used in the media to present interethnic conflicts.

Introduction
Communication is an essential part of human experience.
The process of communication in the modern globalized
world takes place between representatives of different
cultures. Consequently, different outcomes are possible.
They are reproduced via different means and media discourse is one of them.
Media discourse itself gains importance in the globalized world where information is rapidly spread through
different channels. It is a leading means of describing different events in the life of multicultural societies. Thus,
media discourse spreads information about conflict situations. The latter form the basis for the current research.
Many researches have investigated the nature of conflicts in different perspectives, i.e. sociological, psychological and political ones [see, for instance, 3; 4; 6]. Conflicts
are of great interest in communication studies as well [2;
7]. The above mentioned researches are devoted to main
reasons of conflicts and their effect on parties. However,
little is known about ways and means for presenting conflict situations in different kinds of discourse, media in particular. Actualized contradiction of values, expectations and
purposes of speech situation participants is defined as a
conflict [11, p. 114]. It should be mentioned that one of the
communication participants deliberately or unconsciously
makes damages to another one. And at the same time the
latter takes appropriate measures or steps to oppose [12].
Some certain problem, real or imaginary, could be the
point for interpersonal conflict. The problem of power or
the problem of superiority should be enumerated here. Specific element of material world or social reality could be the
object of the conflict. Moreover, the above mentioned element can be the cross point of personal or group interests of
different individuals going to control it [10, p. 13].
Situations of conflict can occur when participants of
the speech process belong to different ethnic groups.
Thus, we can distinguish interethnic conflicts. The causes
for interethnic conflicts depend on different factors. Presence of historical memories of interethnic grievances,
Type of speech strategy
Identification strategy
(nationality)
Identification strategy
(religion)
Identification strategy
(race)

Methods and corpus


A series of articles from British and American Internet media serve as a data for this study. It should be mentioned
that qualitative newspapers as well as tabloids were taken
into account. Information given in the articles represents
several sections, mainly politics, society, education.
The critical discourse analysis or CDA was used as a
main method while carrying out this research. The above
mentioned term is used to denote the critical linguistic
approach of scholars finding the larger discursive unit of
text to be the basic unit of communication [8, p. 6]
Results and discussion
The findings of this research show that each interethnic
conflict described in media discourse has its own characteristics. Authors of the articles use a variety of strategies
to report situations for the readers in order to have some
certain pragmatic effect. In this paper verbal and nonverbal strategies in presenting conflict situations are distinguished. Verbal strategies reflect language specifics of
the newspaper articles whereas non-verbal strategies perform auxiliary function in reporting news from life of
multicultural society.
Verbal means in presenting conflict situations are
mostly represented by speech strategies. The latter include
identification strategy since both participants of communication process are involved in conflict situation. This
type of speech strategies shows the affiliation of the participants with the certain ethnic group. This strategy is
realized due to identifying nationality of the participants.
In some cases it is realized by showing their race or religion, both with the help of ethnonyms [13, . 74].

Table 1. Verbal means in presenting conflict situations: speech strategies


Example
Two heavily armed, camouflaged Mexican soldiers crossed 50 yards inside Arizona in January and drew their
guns against U.S. Border Patrol agents who confronted them in a tense standoff [15].
A married couple claim they were victimised at work due to their religious beliefs after being refused holidays
during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan [16].
An African American San Diego police officer is suing the Police Department, alleging that he suffered harassment and job retaliation after complaining about the use of a racist cartoon during a training session.
Sgt. Arthur Scott, 43, a 10-year veteran of the department, complained about the cartoon, which depicted Frank McCarter, the departments first black officer, as apelike. [17].

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Table 2. Verbal means in presenting conflict situations: expressive means, stylistic devices and special vocabularies
Verbal means
Examples
Expressive means: alliteration U.S. officials said it was one of nearly two dozen border incursions by Mexican soldiers into southern
Arizona in the last four years [15].
Expressive means: words with A married couple claim they were victimised at work [16].
emotional meaning
Donna Tunkara, 32, and husband Yassin, 31, say they suffered discrimination, harassment, victimisation and constructive dismissal after bosses at the Portrack Lane warehouse in Stockton-on-Tees of
supermarket giant Morrisons turned down holiday requests in 2012 [16].
A tribunal held at Teesside Magistrates Court yesterday heard evidence from Mrs. Tunkara, who says
her holiday request for the last 10 days of fasting during Ramadan was turned down unfairly [16].
Stylistic devices: epithets
the 35-minute confrontation underscored the continuing friction between the U.S. and Mexico when
it comes to policing the often chaotic and violent Southwest border [15].
Stylistic devices: simile
He said: 'You have not got exactly what you wanted and acted like a spoiled brat [16].
Special vocabularies: terms
Border incursion, border patrol, military uniform, the Mexican Embassy, a spokesman for President,
International Boundary Fence Line, cartel;
Tribunal, solicitor, cross examination, accusations, fabricate, holiday request, case, staff, shifts, breaks;
Police department, sue, job retaliation, complain, officer, training session

The texts of media discourse are aimed at influencing the


reader and appealing his/her emotions. This is achieved
not only by using special technics, i.e. binding words, but
also by variety of expressive means and stylistic devices
[14, p. 66-67].
It should be mentioned that non-verbal strategies are
also important in presenting conflict situations in media
discourse. They embrace pictures or photos and graphs.
The latter are used to support speech structures reporting
conflict situations. The primary function of pictures or
photos is to depict main protagonists of the news stories.
Moreover, they represent them either in the moment of
the conflict itself or after it. Graphs are used to support
data given in the news stories.

Finally, structural parts of the article i.e. headline and


main text itself should be also considered while analyzing
conflict situations and their verbalization in media discourse. Information arrangement in the Internet media can
have some pragmatic effect. The font and its size, the
style of the text help convey the main content of the article. They enable readers to discern which topics or events
are the most important or relevant in the particular case.
Furthermore, each news item has links to social media
networks (Facebook, Twitter, etc.) for readers to response. Thus, the Internet media give the opportunity to
leave feedback for authors of the articles and their readers, developing the process of communication.
The present study is helpful for the further investigations
of conflict situations verbalization in the media discourse.

REFERENCES
[1] Blagojevic, B. Causes of ethnic conflict: a conceptual frameences: 10.02.04 Germanic Languages/ N.A. Balandina.
work// Journal of global change and governance. Volume 3,
Volgograd, 2004. 20 p.
No.1. Winter 2009. P. 1-25.
[12] Volkova, O.S. Speech situation conflict: strategies of de[2] Borisoff, D., Victor, D.A. Conflict management: A communivelopment and pragmatic and linguistic characteristics// Procation skills approach, 2 ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997.
ceedings of the Russian state pedagogical university named af 247 p.
ter A.I. Gertsen. 2008. - 73-1. P. 114-120.
[3] Coser, L.A. Continuities in the study of social conflict. New [13] Gulakova, I.I. Communicative strategies and tactics of speech
York: Free Press, 1967. 272 p.
behavior in conflict situation: dissertation in the fulfilment of
[4] Fry, D.P., Bjorkqvist, K. Cultural variation in conflict resolurequirements for the degree of candidate of philological scition. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
ences: 10.02.01 The Russian Language; 10.02.19 The The296 p.
ory of Language/ I.I. Gulakova. Orel, 2004. 152 p.
[5] Habke, A., Sept, R. Distinguishing group and cultural influ- [14] Levytskyi, A.E., Svyatyuk, Yu.V. Ethnonyms in the interculences in interethnic conflict: a diagnostic model // Canadian
tural communication: a monograph. K.: Logos, 2010.
Journal of communication. Vol. 18, No. 4. April 1993.
134 p.
P. 415-436.
[15] Maksimov, S.Ye. Practical course of translation (English and
[6] Heitler, S. From conflict to resolution: Skills and strategies for
Ukrainian): a textbook. K.: Lenvit, 2006. 157 p.
individual, couple, and family therapy. New York: [16] Mexico confirms confrontation with Border Patrol agents //
W.W. Norton, 1993. 368 p.
The Los Angeles Times. - 2 April 2014 / URL: http://www.
[7] Jandt, F.E. Conflict resolution through communication. New
latimes.com/nation/la-na-border-mexicoYork: Harper& Row, 1973. 473 p.
20140402,0,878301.story#ixzz2xkZ2pbwy
[8] Wodak, R., Meyer, M. Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis. [17] Muslim couple claim they were victimized by Morrisons after
- London: Sage, 2001. 200 p.
they were refused holiday during Ramadan // The Daily Mail.
[9] Wood, J.T. But I thought you meant: Misunderstandings in
2 April 2014 / URL: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/arti
human communication. Mountain View, Ca.: Mayfield Pubcle-2595159/Muslim-couple-claim-victimised-Morrisonslishing 10Company, 1998. 295 p.
refused-holiday-Ramadan.html#ixzz2xkVtToWQ
[11] Balandina, N.A. Negotiations discourse in the English busi- [18] Black sergeant sues San Diego Police Department over racist
ness communication: dissertation abstract in the fulfilment of
cartoon // The Los Angeles Times. 28 January 2015 / URL:
requirements for the degree of candidate of philological scihttp://touch.latimes.com/#section/600/article/p2p-82655323/

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Concepts LIFE and DEATH in the modern novels about vampires


A.A. Prihodko
Zaporozhye national university, Zaporozhye, Ukraine
*Corresponding author. E-mail: sasha1712@rambler.ru
Paper received 16.07.15; Revised 27.07.15; Accepted for publication 28.07.15.
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the peculiarities of the concepts LIFE and DEATH in the modern conceptual and language
picture of the world. According to the distinctive features of understanding of these concepts we study the place and peculiar properties in the modern novels about vampires.
Keywords: concept, conceptual picture of the world, language picture of the world, conceptual feature

Today the mental processes, which are connected with the


mechanism of thinking, evoke bigger and bigger interest
of all the sciences in general, and of the linguistics in
particular. The cognitive linguistics demonstrates us the
peculiarities of understanding the world by human and
that fact, how this world finds the reflection in the consciousness, perception of each person. At the same time,
concepts, which create our picture of the world, are specific, as each of them is characterized with particular
number of qualities and features, which are important
predominantly for this concept.
In the process of interrelation with the outer world the
human experienced it, created his own picture of the
world, which was structures as a bipolar multitude in
different spheres of understanding: from simple vision of
the world to its cosmogonical model [3, p. 5]. Because of
this the space was divided into binary opposition own
and alien (own / alien territory; this real / beyond the
grave non-real world). The time was also divided into the
opposition day / night, life / death.
The forming of the studying concept and its belonging
to the general conceptual picture of the world is not denoted by the fact of objective, real existence of the depicted phenomenon. The fact that the phenomenon is not real
is not the barrier to the existence of the concept of this
phenomenon.
The culture of the people is shown in the language, the
language, in particular, creates and accumulates the main
concepts of the culture, showing them in the light of the
signs words. The language is the fact of the culture, it is
the part of the culture which we usually inherit and at the
same time its weapon.
Today the language is perceived not only as a process,
which helps to understand the modern mentality, and as a
method to comprehend the thinking of the ancient people,
their opinion about the world, society and themselves [5,
p. 81].
The language picture of the world is very important
part of the general model of the world. It is connected into
general notion and helps into the following understanding
and perception of the world. The language picture of the
world includes some understanding of the world, which
depends on the national and cultural peculiarities of the
speaker. The picture of the world is the representation of
the world in the humans imagination, phenomenon,
which is more complex when the language picture of the
world, as it included into the picture of the world, is the
part of the conceptual world and has the strong connection with the language.
The conceptual picture of the world is more diverse
and more rich than the language one. The language pic-

ture of the world is organized due to the rules of the language, and conceptual, because of its logic structure is
build according to the rules of the real world [1,
p. 239].The peculiar element of the language picture of
the world is the semantic field, and the units of the conceptual picture of the world are the constants of the consciousness. The conceptual picture of the world has an
information, which is represented in the notions, and in
the basis of the language picture of the world is the
knowledge which is fixed in the semantical categories and
semantical fields.
The concepts LIFE and DEATH accompany the
world since its very beginning. During the whole history
of the world, new and new treatments and understanding
about life and death appeared, as they are one of the main
concepts in the picture of the humans world and humans
understanding of this world.
According to the different particular features (nature,
culture, the degree of knowledge, gender and the degree
of development) each person added his own understanding of the concepts to the existing one. So, today, we have
the modern understanding of the concepts LIFE and
DEATH.
Life is regarded as a period of activity of a person,
while death is the ending of this period. But, today, because of the other understanding of the main constants of
the existence, death is also considered as the special reality, which gives opportunities for development.
Due to this fact, modern gothic novels, which are very
popular today, became more and more interesting. These
novels are characterized with the distinct and exact pragmatic orientation. The novels about vampires is the genre
of mass literature. The distinctive features of these novels
are their direction to the wide, non-selective auditory and
direction to the entertainment of the reader.
Also these novels show the connection between life
and death in such a way, that death is the continuation of
life, the opportunity to make some new deeds, new acts
and create some new things. At the same time, the notion
of the gothic novel has also changed. It also led to the
different understanding of the antonymic concepts LIFE
and DEATH. Today the shift from one state to the other
is not seen as something horrible as earlier, today it is the
shift to the new, more active stage of existence.
The English gothic novels became the material of our
study, as they became very popular today, and they are
the best and the brightest representation of the change of
the attitude of people to the notions of LIFE and
DEATH.
In modern linguistic studies the notion concept is
widely investigated in different spheres of humanitarian

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sciences. It is the phenomenon with great number of levels, which, at the same time, is the part of logical and
intuitive, conscious and unconscious.
As the main unit of cognitive linguistics and linguoculturology, the concept is distinguished by its ambiguous
and contradictory meaning. Some scientists understand
concept as the multitude of the fixed features, which are
used to depict some part of the world or some particular
fragment of this part. The concept is some idea about the
fragment of the world or its part, which has complex
structure, which is shown with the help of different language means [4].
The concepts can be classified according different features, the number of which is endless, as the process of
cognition is also endless, both in scientific-theoretical and
scientific-practical aspects.
Concepts are distinguished according the: level of concretness abstractness of the content; expressiveness
non-expressiveness in the language; the level of stability;
the frequency and regularity of actualization; structure;
the way of the language expression; the nominative density; standardization and the level of abstraction [10,
p. 536].
From the point of view of discourse as the place of
language existence of concepts, there exist everyday,
scientific and artistic concepts [6, p. 7].
According to the belonging to some particular groups
of the language speaker. there exist universal, ethnical,
civilizational. group (micro- and macro-) and individual
concepts.
From linguocultural point of view V.A. Maslova [2,
p. 75] distinguishes all concepts into some groups: 1) the
world; 2) elements and nature; 3) ideas about humanity;
4) moral concepts; 5) social notions and attitude; 6) emotional concepts; 7) the world of artifacts; 8) sphere of
scientific concepts; 9) sphere of art concepts.
In the novels about vampires the concepts LIFE and
DEATH are treated both as separate and antonymous
concepts:
natural life (functioning or occurring in a normal
way) mysterious death (beyond ordinary understanding);
unpleasant death (offensive, causing discomfort or
unhappiness) luxurious life (rich, comfortable
and very pleasant);
imminent death (close in time, about to occur)
eternal life (continuing forever).
The most frequent representation, which are used with
the concept LIFE are those, which show the characteristics of duration of time. In their meaning there is the seme
every, each, all, lifetime, span every night of
your life, every minute of human life, every night of
our lives showing how often something happens;
all life the whole, entire; will always stay alive
at all times; day-to-day life occurring every
day.
So, those, which exist during each night, each minute,
during the whole period of existence and have no ending.
At the same time, for the concept DEATH characteristic is something short, limited last:
at last death itself as the result, so, those
things, which are the final result, the final fact.

www.seanewdim.com

So, life is depicted as a long process, which does not


have the end, and death is something short, one-time
action, which has the beginning and ending.
Also, these concepts are used not only separately, but
also together:
filling her with death even as he filled her with
life. [7, p. 98]
Here we see the usage of the antithesis for the bigger
pointing of the readers attention at that fact, that both
concepts / LIFE and /
DEATH are the antonyms, but at the same time, they
supplement with each other.
At the same time at the novels about vampires the usage of the adjectives, which show the duration of life and
death is very frequent:
eternal continuing forever, without end; continued without stop or interruption; long of great
duration, that makes them at some sense similar:
Every one of them owed his or her eternal life to
Raphael [7, p. 16];
to be worthy your continued existence. [7, p. 20];
called for a long dead . [7, p. 99].
These adjectives not only show the duration of the life
and death, but also show the fact, that they are the unit, as
life is impossible without death and vice versa.
Lets look at the example, which shows the transfer
from one concept to the other:
Even at the moment of destruction, I would be alive as
I have never been. [8, p. 12].
According to the dictionary of synonyms [2] one of the
synonym of the lexeme destruction is death an
event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys
something; and lexeme alive is characterized as 'full
of life and spirit. So, we can make a conclusion, that the
usage of antonymous concepts / LIFE and
/ DEATH shows the change of the attitude
to these concepts, as here they are used as the opposition
to each other.
Here is one more example:
What does it mean to die when you can live until the
end of the world? [9, p. 79]
Here we can also see the usage of the antonymous concepts / LIFE and / DEATH.
The word combination live until the end of the world
demonstrates the duration of the life to the end of the
world, which is not normal for the simple person, but is
quite average to the vampire. The amplification of the
duration of life shows the fact, that the life can be everlasting, if it includes the death.
At the next example we can see the usage of the noun
beauty the qualities that give pleasure to the sense,
which is characterized as something pleasant, beautiful,
together with the noun death the event of departure
from life or the state of being dead, which is not usually
associated with some beauty and good emotions.
At the same time for the characteristic of the lexeme
life the word combination point of death instant
time of death, is used, and describes it:
And with that same sensibility that you cherish you
will see death in its beauty, life as it is only known on the
very point of death. [9, p. 46].
At the next example the connection between the process of life and death is also seen very clearly, between

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Our bodies will stay as they are, fresh and alive; but
we must not hesitate to bring death, because it is how we
live [9, p. 54].
So, the concepts / LIFE and
/ DEATH, while using in the novels about vampires,
change their initial functions. Today the authors of these
novels show us the interrelation between these concepts,
showing the indissoluble chain of actions, which threatened people earlier. But today death does not mean the
end of existence, and means only the continuation,
new stage of life.

the fact, that one creature lives, exists and is not changing
during the long period of time:
bodies will stay always as they are, fresh and
alive always throughout the long period of the past
and present; fresh full of energy; alive living,
not dead.
And the other should die, as it is the way of life of the
vampire to bring death without any doubts:
never hesitate to bring deathhow we live 'hesitate' 'be reluctant to do something; bring death
cause the end of life.

REFERENCES
[1] Mazaeva, A.U. The conceptual and language pictures of the [6] Ponomareva, E.U. Konceptual opposition Life Death in
world anf their interrelation / A.U. Mazaeva // New in the
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cognitive linguistics. Kemerovo: KemGU, 2006. P. 237V. Brusov) / E.U. Ponomareva. Tyumen, 2008. 22 p.
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576 p.
[3] Onishuk I.U. The emotion of the concept VAMPIRE in [9] Rice, A. The Interview with the Vampire. Turtleback, 1993.
English language (on the material of English dictionaries and
352 p.
novels-thrillers): I.U. Onishuk. Odessa, 2006. 20 p.
[10] Rosch, R. H. Cognitive reference points / R.H. Rosch // Cog[4] Pimenova, M.V. Types of concepts / M.V. Pimenova // Mentalnitive psychology. Berkeley : University of California, 1975.
ity and the language: collective work. Kemerovo: KemGU,
Vol. 7. P. 532 547.
2004. 265 p.
[11] The Webster's Dictionary / URL: http://www.webstersonline
[5] Pimenov, E.A. Concept and the picture of the world / E.A. Pidictionary.org
menov // New at the cognitive linguistics. Kemerovo: KemGU, 2006. P. 81-87.

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Heimweh
Heimweh
.. *
, ,

*Corresponding author. E-mail: luda_blysnjuk@ukr.net
Paper received 03.07.15; Revised 10.07.15; Accepted for publication 14.07.15.
. Heimweh ,
. , Heimweh. , , , ,
Heimweh.. , , .
: , , , ,

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,
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, ,
, .
, , [ 3, 187-188].
, ..

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,

(Sb) ( Qn), (Ql), (P),
(L), (T). [1,
. 25-32]. .
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Heimweh, , , , , .
: , , , , , .

Heimweh: der Arzt, der Knstler, der Modera-

16

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

tor, der Lehrer er, sie, es, wir.


: 1) Auch an den jdischen Arzt Dr. Walter
Heinemann musste ich denken. Er, den einst die Nazis aus
Braunschweig verjagten, arbeitete in den 1940er-Jahren
in einer Praxis an der Madison Avenue. Einer seiner
Briefe an den Historiker Richard Moderhack offenbarte
das Heimweh nach seiner Heimatstadt. Ich schaue auf
mein Bcherregal. Goethe, Goethe, Goethe. Eine Bste
von Einstein und der Lwe in Bronze. Und ich glaube den
Duft zu riechen, der mir einst aus Hfen, Tren und
Kellern der uralten Fachwerkstadt in die Nase wehte.
Manchmal steigen mir dann Trnen in die Augen [ 7 ].

Heimweh -,
, . , . ,
, .
Heimweh
, , ,
. ,
.
2) Moderator Alfred Biolek ist aus Heimweh von Berlin
zurck nach Kln gezogen allerdings hat er nicht den
Ort, sondern die Menschen vermisst: In Kln habe ich
etwas, was andere Menschen eine Familie nennen. Ich
habe weder Frau noch Kinder, war nie verheiratet. Es ist
vor allem die Nhe zu den vertrauten Menschen, die bei
mir Heimatgefhle erzeugen, sagte der 78-Jhrige dem
Magazin des Klner Stadt-Anzeiger (Samstag-Ausgabe).
Vor allem nach seinem schweren Treppensturz im Jahr
2010 sei diese Vertrautheit sehr wichtig fr ihn gewesen:
Um das zu verkraften, braucht man einen ber Jahre
gewachsenen Freundeskreis, der einen auffngt [8].
2). , ,

. , .
,
. .
, , Heimweh
, , .
, :
1) .. ,
( Goethe, Goethe, Goethe, ,
,
, . ( )
. , ,
(vertraute Menschen, die Vertrautheit),
. (Familienmensch)
. , Heimweh

,
.

www.seanewdim.com

Heimweh .
das Pferd, der Affe, der Gorilla,
die Katze, der Hund, die Schlange, . :
1) Erst hatte er Heimweh, dann fand der Affe die Balance:
Mit einem seiltanzenden Gorilla kann der Zoo in Krefeld
zum 75. Jubilum aufwarten. Gorilla Kidogo war im
vergangenen April aus Dnemark nach Krefeld gekommen.
Nachdem er anfangs extrem unter Heimweh gelitten hatte,
hat er einem Bericht der Rheinischen Post zufolge
inzwischen den Artisten in sich entdeckt. Mit Leichtigkeit
und Eleganz spaziere er auf dem Seil ins Jubilumsjahr,
berichtete eine Zoo-Sprecherin. Der zwlf Jahre alte
Silberrcken lebt mit den beiden Weibchen Muna und Oya
im neuen Gorilla-Garten des Tierparks.dpa. .
Heimweh ,
,
.

Heimweh .
2) Sie zngelte an den Holzwnden und bei dem Kinde
blieb sie lange. Die Schlange kroch der Sonne nach und
tastete sich auch an der Wiege hinauf Die grne
Schlange hatte Heimweh nach der ernhrenden Sonne.
Der Raum war ihr leer und tot. Sie bewegte sich im
Dunkel auf dem Boden zum Fenster hinauf und hinaus ins
Freie. 2)
, ,
, , .
Heimweh :
.
,
Heimweh
. Heimweh , . ,
,
, . ,
. , , , . Heimweh
. ,

.
,
,
.
. , . ,
. ,
, , [ 4, 23].
, Heimweh
.
, Heimweh. -

17

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

, : (zehnjhrige, 17-jhrige, der 75- Jhrige


) (klein, jung, alt, klug, ).
: 1) Die zehnjhrige Lara hat Heimweh. Sie
zieht sich in ihren Schlafsack zurck. Betreuerin Julia
Scharrer kmmert sich um das Mdchen. Viele der
Kinder bernachten das erste Mal allein in einer fremden
Umgebung. In den meisten Fllen legt sich das Heimweh
nach kurzer Zeit aber wieder, sagt Scharrer. So ist das
auch bei Lara. Eine halbe Stunde spter hat sie sich mit
zwei Mdchen angefreundet [ 9].
.
. , .
,
, .
2) Den Wiederaufbau der Stadt hat er hautnah miterlebt. Ich sehe Nrnberg noch als reine Ruinenstadt vor
mir. Vom Hauptmarkt bis zum Rathenauplatz konnte man
fast ungehindert durchschauen, erinnert sich der 75Jhrige. Heute ist Sengfelder stolz, dass Nrnberg wieder
mittelalterliches Flair ausstrahlt. Unsere Altstadt ist
einmalig. Als ich mit Zndapp fr fnf Jahre nach
Mnchen ging, hatte ich immer Heimweh [10]. Heimweh .
2) Heimweh 75- . . Heimweh
n .
,
, .
Heimweh , , der Bub, das Mdchen, der Junge, die Kinder, der
Sohn, die Tochter, er, sie, es, . :
1) Der Vater fuhr mit dem Sohn nach Stuttgart ins
Hotel Graf Zeppelin. Dort gingen sie geradewegs in die
Kche und fragten, ob man einenKochlehrling gebrauchen knne. Er soll am Montag anfangen, bekamen sie
zur Antwort. Es war hart. Der Chef war streng, der Bub
hatte Heimweh [ 11].
1) Heimweh
, der Sohn, der
Bub, , .
2) Ihre Jugendjahre sind ein einziges trauriges und
tragisches Schicksal. Als Kind einer jdischen Familie in
Nazi-Deutschland hatte sie immerhin soviel Glck, dass sie
noch in die Schweiz gelangte und im Kinderheim Wartheim wenigstens sicher war. Aber das kleine Mdchen litt
unter Heimweh, Einsamkeit und Schuldgefhlen und stand
am Ende des Krieges als Vollwaise da. ber ihren
Aufenthalt in Heiden sagt sie heute: Es war eine harte,
aber auch positive und glckliche Periode in meinem

www.seanewdim.com

Leben. In Heiden habe ich gelernt, immer das Gute zu


sehen, aber mit dem Schlimmsten zu rechnen [12].
2) Heimweh
( sie, das Mdchen), , . , ,
,
. , .
-,
,
Heimweh ,
.
Heimweh , die Frau, der Mann,
die Mutter, der Sohn, die Tochter, der Vater, der
Grovater, die Tante, Mama, Papa, jung, alt.
,
, ,
Heimweh. : Der Mnner-Projektchor unter
Leiterin Elisabeth Seidl trumte sich in ferne Lnder. Wie
mit dem Popsong California Dreamin, der durch die
US-amerikanische Musikgruppe The Mamas and the
Papas bekannt wurde. Doch schon bald packte die
Mnner das Heimweh, sie saen nun am Wannsee und
hrten den Wellen zu. Auch dieser Song Westerland
von den rzten war fr Chre umgeschrieben. Keine
Angst, niemand muss singen, wendete sich Holger
Schneibel an die vier Brgermeisterkandidaten Gottfried
Strmer, Frank Schall, Jens Klingler und Lothar Pfeiffer,
die jetzt die Bhne eroberten [13].

,
( : der Mnner- Projectchor, Gottfried, Frank, Jens,
Lothar). , . , : Der lteste Sohn (20) hat die Schule
beendet und bekam eine Teilzeitarbeit. Er mchte endlich
die Berufsausbildung beginnen, glaubt aber, da dies nur
in der Heimat Sinn macht. Die Mutter sprt starkes
Heimweh nach der Familie, und wie sie empfindet auch
der jngste Sohn (15), der in Nrnberg-Nord eine
Hauptschule besucht. [14].
. ,
Heimweh
Heimweh
Heimweh, Heimweh.

[1] .. Homo Nomine Recuniae Ludens / - [3] . /


, / .. //
. .: , 1979, 187-188.
, 1998. - [4] .. / .. . .
. 1. 1. . 25-32
2006. No3. . 23
[2] .. [5] .. / .. ,
/ .. . .:
.. . .: : , 2007 314, [6].
, 2006. 672 c.

18

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015
. ,
[6] .. / .. . : , 20010. 844 .
[7] BRZ13/MAI.08864 Braunschweiger Zeitung, 25.05.2013,
Ressort: 1BS-Bl; Ein Braunschweiger in New York / URL:
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2web/faces/home.xhtml
[8] NUZ13/APR.01643 Nrnberger Zeitung, 20.04.2013, S. 7,
Ressort: FEUI; Beim Namen genannt / URL: https://cosmas2.
ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
[9] NUN13/JAN.00747 Nrnberger Nachrichten, 08.01.2013,
S. 11, Ressort: LOKAL; Auch schlafende Delfine schwimmen
- Eine Nacht im Tiergarten: Kinder lernen die Gewohnheiten
von Meeressugern kennen / URL: https://cosmas2.idsmannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
[10] NUN13/JAN.01321 Nrnberger Nachrichten, 12.01.2013, S.
33; Erfolgreicher Motorsportler ist stolz auf die Altstadt -

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Mein Nrnberg [Kurzzitierung nicht verfgbar] / URL: https://


cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
[11] Die alten Freunde waren weg. A13/MAR.06323 St. Galler
Tagblatt, 14.03.2013, S. 46; Der Kuchler / URL: https:// cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
[12] A98/JUN.37503 St. Galler Tagblatt, 06.06.1998, Ressort:
AT-VOR (Abk.); Sex-Therapeutin lebte in Heiden / URL:
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.
xhtml
[13] 13/AUG.05487 Mannh. Morgen, 19.08.2013, S. 15 / URL:
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.
xhtml
[14] NUN96/MAI.02070 Nrnberger Nachrichten, 29.05.1996,
S. 13; Nrnberger Puppenmutter Rose Weihreter wurde
Zeugin, wie kroatische Grenzposten eine Moslemfamilie
zurckwiesen / URL: https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cos
mas2-web/faces/home.xhtml

REFERENCES
[1] Zhabotinskaya, S.A. Homo Nomine Recuniae Ludens / The
- Eine Nacht im Tiergarten: Kinder lernen die Gewohnheiten
man is played by money / S.A. Zhabotinskaya // Bulletin of
von Meeressugern kennen / URL: https://cosmas2.idsKiev Linguistic University, 1998. Series Philology, Vol. 1.
mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
1. P. 25-32
[10] NUN13/JAN.01321 Nrnberger Nachrichten, 12.01.2013, S.
[2] Zaliznyak, A.A. The ambiguity in the language and methods of
33; Erfolgreicher Motorsportler ist stolz auf die Altstadt its presentation / A.A. Zaliznyak. M.: Languages of Slavonic
Mein Nrnberg [Kurzzitierung nicht verfgbar] / URL:
Cultures, 2006. 672 p.
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.
[3] Minskiy, M. Frames for knowledge representation / M. Minxhtml
skiy M.: Energy, 1979, P. 187-188.
[11] Die alten Freunde waren weg. A13/MAR.06323 St. Galler
[4] Novikov, E.V. Faces of nostalgia / E.V. Novikov. Human.
Tagblatt, 14.03.2013, S. 46; Der Kuchler / URL: https:// cos2006. No3. P. 23
mas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
[5] Popova, Z.D. Cognitive Linguistics / Z.D. Popova, I.A. Ster- [12] A98/JUN.37503 St. Galler Tagblatt, 06.06.1998, Ressort:
nin. M.: AST: Vostok Zapad, 2007 314, [6]p. LinguisAT-VOR (Abk.); Sex-Therapeutin lebte in Heiden / URL:
tics and Intercultural Communication. Gold Series.
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.
[6] Selivanova, O.O. Linguistic encyclopedia / O.O. Selivanova.
xhtml
Poltava: Environment K, 2010. 844 p.
[13] 13/AUG.05487 Mannh. Morgen, 19.08.2013, S. 15 / URL:
[7] BRZ13/MAI.08864 Braunschweiger Zeitung, 25.05.2013,
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.
Ressort: 1BS-Bl; Ein Braunschweiger in New York / URL:
xhtml
https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.
[14] NUN96/MAI.02070 Nrnberger Nachrichten, 29.05.1996,
xhtml
S. 13; Nrnberger Puppenmutter Rose Weihreter wurde
[8] NUZ13/APR.01643 Nrnberger Zeitung, 20.04.2013, S. 7,
Zeugin, wie kroatische Grenzposten eine Moslemfamilie
Ressort: FEUI; Beim Namen genannt / URL: https:// coszurckwiesen / URL: https://cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cos
mas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
mas2-web/faces/home.xhtml
[9] NUN13/JAN.00747 Nrnberger Nachrichten, 08.01.2013,
S. 11, Ressort: LOKAL; Auch schlafende Delfine schwimmen
Heimweh emotional state experiencer as a constituent part of microproposition in Heimweh emotional state situation frame
modelling
L. Blyznyuk
Abstract. The article focuses on Heimweh emotional state situation frame modelling in German. The constituent part of the situation
is an experiencer of emotional state. The factors defining Heimweh emotional state experiencer are determined. Markers indicating
age, gender, profession and occupation of Heimweh emotional state experiencer are specified. The impact of emotional state ca uses
on an experiencer, his/her values and preferences are described.
Keywords: frame, modelling, propositional scheme, emotional state experiencer, emotional state situation

19

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

www.seanewdim.com

..
..
, ,
Paper received 08.07.15; Revised 24.07.15; Accepted for publication 28.07.15.
. , . .. .. , , , , ,
.
: , , , ,


,

. . , - V . ..
' , , ,
. -
[4,
. 79].
, .
. , , ,
,
, . 3 , 26 ,
.
, ,
.
(87-54 . ..).
( , , ), - , ,
, .
. , , , ,
.

, ,
[3, . 322].
,
,
.
:
, , , . -

, , . , , , ,
.
.
,
. , , ,
. . ,

, .
,
. , , ,

[5, . 339].
, , [
29, 54, 93], [29, 113], , , [43, 57, 114, 115]. ,
.

[93, 94, 105], ,

[29, 54, 57, 113, 114, 115].
,
, (, , ), (, , , ),
( ) ( , ). ,
.
, , , . , , ,
,
;
, ; ,

20

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

. ,
- .
, ,
, .
. .: (cinaede
Romule [ 29, 5, 9], opulentissime socer
generque [29.23-24], salvepuella [43.1], unice imperator [54.7], Caesar [93.1]).
: ablativus absolutus consule Pompeio [113.1],
; (),
, facto consule [113.2]; nominativus cum infinitivo mentula conatur
Pipleium scandere montem [105.1].
. 50 . . .. ,
.

, , .
: (impudicus), (vorax), (aleo) [29. 2, 10], (cinaedus), [29. 5, 9; 57. 1], (pathicus)
[57. 2], (adulter) [57.8],
perambulabit omnium cubila [29. 7].
improbi cinaedi [57. 1], morbosi pariter ,
gemelli utrique [57. 6].
, mentula. (mentul, ae f).
:
1) Ut ista vestra diffututa mentula / Ducenties omesset
aut trecenties?
- - ? [29. 13-14];
2) Aut quid hic potest / nisi uncta devorare patrimonia? ,
? [29. 22];
3) Mentula moechatur.
[94. 1];
4) Mentula conatur Pipleium scandere montem. [105. 1];
5) Firmano saltu non falso Mentula dives / fertur, qui
tot res in se habet egregias. ,
[114. 1-2];
6) Mentula habet instar triginta iugera prati / Quadraginta arui: cetera sunt maria. , , ,
[115. 1-2].
- : mentula magna minax [115. 8], diffututa mentula
[29.13], mentula dives [114.1].

: , 200-300
ducenties comesset aut trecenties [29.14].

www.seanewdim.com


sed creverunt milia in unum singula [113.3].
( ) ( )
, . .:
1) aucupium omne genus, piscis, prata, arva ferasque
, , ,
[114.3]; 2) prata arva ingentes silvas saltusque
paludesque/ usque ad hyperboreos et mare ad Oceanum
, , ,
- [115.5-6].
:
1) : ut albulus columbus aut Adoneus?
? [29. 8], nec nigris ocellis
[43. 2], caput oppido est pussillum
[54.1], uno in lectulo erudituli ambo ( ) [57. 7], rivales socii puellularum ( ) [57. 9], musae furcillis
praecipitem eiciunt () [105. 2]. 105 ,
, ;
2) : diffututa mentula
[29. 13], expatravit [29.16];
semilauta crura [54.2], erudituli [57. 7], subtile et leve peditum
Libonis [54. 3].
( peditum, i n ,
).
. , , , , ;
3) ,
eone nomine urbis opulentissime/ socer
generque, perdidistis omnia? ,
, ?
[29.23-24] .

. , , :
1) : Mentula moechatur. Moechatur mentula. . [94. 1], psa olera olla legit.
[94. 2];
2) ( ): quis hoc potest videre, quis potest pat
, [29. 1], parum expatravit an parum elluatus est
, [29. 16];
3) : nisi impudicus et vorax et aleo , , [29. 2 10 ], cinaede Romule, haec
videbis et feres , [29. 5 9 ], pulcre convenit improbis cinaedis
[57. 1 10 ];
4) : paterna prima
lancinata sunt bona,/ secunda praeda Pontica, inde tertia/ Hibera

21

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

, , - [29. 17-18].
. ,
: O saeclum insapiens et infacetum! ! [43. 8], Fecundam semen adulterio. [113. 4], psa olera
olla legit. [94.2], Fructus
sumptibus exsuperat.
[114. 4]. furcilla ejicere [105. 2], senex
recoctus [54. 5], pulcre convenit
, [57. 1].

. , 29 , ,
. .: Quid hunc malum fovetis? Aut
quid hic potest / nisi uncta devorare patrimonia?
? , / ? [29. 21-22] 43
: nec minimo naso , nec bello

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pede , nec nigris ocellis , nec longis digitis , nec ore sicco , nec sane
nimis elegante lingua .
93 ,
: nil
nimium studeo, Caesar, tibi, velle placere
, [93.1].
aurifer Tagus [29.
19] . , , .
, .. : 1)
, ; 2)
: , ,
; 3) ; 4) , , , , , .

[1] .. - . .: [4] .. :
, 2000. 846 .
[ . . . -]. .: , [2] .. : .
. -, 2005. 543 .
. .; .: . , 2004. 112 . [5] .. . .: [3] .. , 1988. 464 .
. : , 2007. 752 .
[6] C. Valerii Catulli Carmina/ Recognovit brevique adnotatione
critica instruxit R.A.B. Mynors. Oxonii e typographeo clarendoniano. N.Y.: Oxford University Press 1958. 113 p.
REFERENCES
[1] Dvoretskiy, I.H. Latin-Russian dictionary. M.: Russian lan- [4] Losev, A.F. Ancient literature: tutorial [ed. A.A. Taho-Godi].
guage, 2000. 846 p.
M.: CheRo with participation of Omega-L, 2005. 543 p.
[2] Durov, V.S. Bases of stylistics of Latin: tutorial. Spb.; M.: [5] Tronskiy, I.M. History of ancient literature. M.: High
Publish Centre Akademia, 2004. 112 p.
school, 1988. 464 p.
[3] Kurtsius, E.R. European literature and Latin middle ages. [6] C. Valerii Catulli Carmina/ Recognovit brevique adnotatione
Lviv: Litopis, 2007. 752 p.
critica instruxit R.A.B. Mynors. Oxonii e typographeo clarendoniano. N.Y.: Oxford University Press 1958. 113 p.
Linguistic characteristic of Katuls political epigrams
I.M. Borbenchuk
Abstract. The article is devoted to political epigrams of the Roman poet of the I century BC Katul. It shows linguistic means that
gave the epigrams poetry, satiric color, acuteness which made them up-to-date and interesting for the modern reader.
Keywords: epigram, satire, sarcasm, irony, tropes and figures

22

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

www.seanewdim.com

:
.. *
, ,

*Corresponding author. E-mail: hannawissko@yahoo.com
Paper received 25.06.15; Revised 10.07.15; Accepted for publication 14.07.15.
. . . , , , .
: , , ,


, . , , , ,
.
.
,
, ,
, , ,
, , .
Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft (" "),
50- . .
,
: "Ende der 50er Jahre in den USA entstandene interdisziplinre Forschungsrichtung, die sich mit der
Untersuchung mentaler Prozesse bei Erwerb und Verwendung von Wissen und Sprache beschftigt" [10, c. 342].
, ,
, : .
. .. Verbal Behavior
(1957): "Mit seiner harschen und wohl berzogenen Kritik an
Skinners Buch lutete Noam Chomsky (1959) die kognitive Wende in der Linguistik ein Chomsky kann somit
als Begrnder der Kognitiven Linguistik angesehen werden,
der die menschliche Fhigkeit zur Bildung unendlich vieler
grammatisch korrekter Stze, auf kognitive Prozesse zurckfhrte" [11, c. 10-11]. , . . 70- .
,
,
: "Sowohl bei der Sprachproduktion als
auch beim Sprachverstehen spielen das Weltwissen der Interaktionspartner und die Umweltfaktoren eine wichtige Rolle...

Aber all diese Faktoren wurden im Paradigma der Generativen Grammatik nicht beachtet, weil sie der Performanz zugeordnet wurden, die... bei der Entwicklung einer Universalgrammatik keine Rolle spielte, da man sich auf die Kompetenz eines idealen Sprecher-Hrers, also auf die Struktur
einer Universalgrammatik, konzentrierte" [11, c. 11-12].
.
: . "-";
, , ,

.
..
.. ,
70- . .,
1975 ., " .
. " "
,
" [7,
c. 29]. , "
, ." [7]. 1989 ., , " ",
.
.. .. : "
1989., ()

, , , " [8, c. 10].
.. [4, c. 89].

, , ,
. "
"-",
,

23

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015


.

,
, " [5,
c. 16].
, " ". , .. ( , . , .
.-. ), , .
, . , " [5;
c. 16], .
.. , .. ,
, , , , ,
- [6, c. 17-20].
, ..
( )
, "",
, " "
" "
, ,
, ,
, " [7, c. 9].
, -
-, -
: "Als Basis fr die moderne Kognitive Linguistik sehen wir vor allem psycho-, neuro- und computerlinguistische Forschungsperspektiven" [11, c. 5].
.. :
"", / "Philosophie der Kognition",
/ "Kognitive Informatik", / "Kognitive Neurowissenschaft", / "Kognitive Psychologie", / "Kognitive Anthropologie" [11, c. 9]
.. , "
" [3,
c. 22]. , , : " " ,
,
.
,
, ,
" [3, c. 24].
, , .. -

www.seanewdim.com

- "
-", -
, "
()
" [3, c. 23] : "
,
" [3, c. 23].

" " "
,
, :

,
, " [9, c. 340].
. , . .-. ,
- ,
:
( ) , ,
"Der Spracherwerb ist nicht nur ein Reifungsprozess,
sondern vor allem ein Lernprozess, der von vielen Faktoren
beeinflusst wird" [11, c. 14];
(Sprachgebrauch, language use)
"die neurophysiologischen und genetischen Grundlagen
bedingen den menschlichen Sprachgebrauch entscheidend"
[11, c. 14].
,
. "
, " [9, c. 341]. ,
.. . .. , : "

, ( ) 1970- " [9, c. 344]. ,
,
"
" [9, c. 344].

. "". .. , " ,
"" (. "")
, ,
" [2, c. 5]
.. .. ,

24

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

" " .. , " , " [8, c. 7].


.. , : " , , " [6, . 24].
: "
,
, , .. , " [6, c. 25]. ,
,
1) ;
2) , , ;
3) ( );
4) : , , , ;
5) ,
[6, c.26-27].
.. , .. .. :
1) : ,
, ,
;
2) ;
3) ;
4)
;
5)
;
6) ;
7) :

[6, c.27-29].

www.seanewdim.com

..
, , , . , . , . , " " [4, c. 95].
- . , . , . , . , . , . , . ,
. , . , . , . , . , . . " .. ,
" [8, c. 10].

. , . ,
. , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . . .. .. , "
, . .
, " [4, c. 95].
2012 . . . ,
, ..
[1, c. 2].
, -

. " ",
.
, ,
. , ,
.

[1] [7] .. // 2012. 1. 15 .


// . / . .. .
[2] ..
: . , 2010. . 37. 25 // , 1994.
34 c.
4. 17-33 c.
[8] .. / .. , ..
[3] .. //
. .:: , 2010 314 .
. .: ; - [9] . / / .
: . . .. , 2005.
// 3. 5-10 c.
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[4] .. //
.: - , 1997. 340-369 .
, 2010. 13 [200]. . . 88-96 .
[10] Bumann, Hadumod. Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft / H.
[5] .. Bumann, H. Lauffer. Stuttgart: Alfred Krner Verlag, 2008.
// .. S. 342-343.
. : / [11] Rickheit, Gert. Kognitive Linguistik: Theorien, Modelle,
- . .: , 2012. 13-36 .
Methoden / G. Rickheit, S. Weiss, H.-J. Eikmeyer. Tbingen u.
[6] .. : /
Basel: A. Francke Verlag, 2010 340 S.
.. . .: , 2004. 256 .

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[1] Bulletin of the Ukrainian Association of Cognitive Linguistics [7] Monakhova, T.V. Methods of cognitive linguistics in concept
and Poetics // February 2012. 1. 15 p.
studie // Modern philology / ed. A.M. Naumenko. Mykolajiv :
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Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University, 2010. Is. 37. 25-34
approach // Problems of Linguistics, 1994. 4. 17-33 p.
p.
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of cognitive linguistics. M .: Institute of Linguistics; Tambov:
M.:AST: East-West, 2010. 314 p.
Tambov State University n.a. G.R. Derzhavin, 2005. 3. 5- [9] Chenki, A. Semantics in cognitive linguistics / / A. Chenki //
10 p.
Fundamental trends in contemporary American Linguistics: Sb.
[4] Zelenko, A.S. Cognitive linguistics // Bulletin of Luhansk Taras
obzorov / ed. A.A. Kibrik et al. M.: Publishing house of the
Shevchenko National University, 2010. 13 [200]. Part II.
Moscow University, 1997. 340-369 p.
88-96 p.
[10] Bumann, Hadumod. Lexicon of Linguistics / H. Bumann,
[5] Kubryakova, E.S. On cognitive science and actual problems of
H. Lauffer. Stuttgart: Alfred Krner Verlag, 2008. P. 342cognitive linguistics // E.S. Kubrjakova. In search of the essence
343.
of language: Cognitive Studies / Institute of Linguistics, Russian [11] Rickheit, Gert. [Cognitive Linguistics: Theories, Models,
Academy of Sciences. M.: Sign, 2012. 13-36 p.
Methods / G. Rickheit, S. Weiss, H.-J. Eikmeyer. Tbingen u.
[6] Maslova, V.A. Cognitive Linguistics: Tutorial /V.A. Maslova.
Basel: A. Francke Verlag, 2010 340 P.
Mn.: TetraSistems, 2004. 256 p.
Cognitive Linguistics: a history of formation and development of the branch of linguistic study
G.G. Visko
Abstract. This article deals with the rise and development of the cognitive linguistics in the historical perspective. The opinions of the
researchers on the question of the "Cognitive Linguistics-Cognitive Science" relation as well as on the goal of the discipline, its subject,
sources, main tasks and postulates are presented.
Keywords: cognitive linguistics, cognitive science, cognition, language

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( )

.. *
, . ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: grelex1@ukr.net
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[1] ., (. . . ) [2] .. (// .: , 1994. 591 .


- ): . - . //
., 1991. 44 c.
REFERENCES
[1] Kant, I. Critique of pure reason ( Tr. of Losskiy N.) // .:
[2] Kayda, L. The position of the author in non-fiction.
Mysl. 1994. p. 591
(Functional and stylistic analysis of
the modern genres in newspaper): Synopsis. // ., 1991.
44 p.
The role of the authors system of tropes (in this case, simile) in forming a linguistic picture of the world, in the s ociopolitical
tracts of Mykola Khvylovyj
O.M. Grygoriev
Abstract. This article examines the characteristics of the authors use of tropes (in this case, simile) in the sociopolitical tracts of
Mykola Khvylovyj. Simile, together with other tropes and stylistic features is an important element in his personal linguistic picture
of the world. The writers pamphlets are characterized by the bold nature of their polemics and propaganda. Therefore the fore mentioned stylistic forms are important in posing the problem, imbuing the authors language with particular dynamism and expression.
Keywords: tropes, simile, communicability, linguistic picture of the world

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-
.. *
.. " ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: anoli@odessa.tv
Paper received 09.07.15; Revised 14.07.15; Accepted for publication 17.07.15.
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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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[1] .. : [3] .. , ,
/ .. .
/ .. //
.: "", 2009. 288 .
20 . .: , 1996. .37-73.
[2] .. : , , [4] Dijk, van T.A. Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis / T.A.
/ .. . : . 2002. 477 .
van Dijk // The sociolinguistic Reader. 1998. Vol. 2:
Gender and Discourse. P. 367393.
REFERENCES
[1] Borbot'ko, V.G. Principles of Discourse Formation: From [3] Stepanov, Ju.S. Alternative World, Discourse, Fact and Causal
Psycholinguistics to Linguosynergetics / V.G. Borbot'ko.
Principle/ Ju.S. Stepanov // Jazyk i nauka konca 20 veka. M.:
M.: Knizhnyj dom "LIBROKOM", 2009. 288 p.
RAN, 1996. P. 37-73.
[2] Karasik, V.I. Language Circle: Personality, Concepts, Dis- [4] Dijk, van T.A. Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis /
course / V.I. Karasik. Volgograd: Peremena. 2002. 477 p.
T.A. van Dijk // The sociolinguistic Reader. 1998. Vol. 2:
Gender and Discourse. P. 367393.
The Typological Peculiarities of the Internet Business Messages Discourse
I.M. Derik
Abstract. The purpose of the article is to tackle the problem of outlining typological linguistic peculiarities of the Internet business messages discourse as well as to find out the specific linguistic features of the discourse under analysis in the typologically distant English
and Ukrainian languages. The subjects of this study are the Internet business messages discourse and the linguistic peculiarities of this
type of discourse in the typologically distant languages, Ukrainian and English. Methods of linguistic, comparative and instrumental
analysis, as well as descriptive method are used in this given research. Identifying the typological common linguistic peculiarities in the
distant English and Ukrainian languages on the lexical, grammatical and phonetical levels is the finding of research. The comparison of
the lexical, grammatical and prosodic features on the segmental and suprasegmental levels of the English and Ukrainian Internet business
messages under analysis revealed some common features which have been experimentally and statistically verified as typological: 1) on
the lexical level the extensive use of general and specific terms, intensifiers and means of personal contact; 2) on the grammatical levels
the employment of passive constructions, non-personal verbal forms, dynamic verbs, numerals, structures of secondary predication,
complex and compound sentences; 3) on the prosodic level the correlation of pitch, intensity and tempo parameters with the presence of
the emotional and attitudinal connotations. The practical value of the research is to use the results of it to optimize the processes of mastering business English discourse and to improve the skills of translating Internet business messages from English into Ukrainian and
vice versa, as well as for fundamental studies of general and comparative linguistics.
Keywords: typological linguistic peculiarities, Internet business messages discourse, the distant English and Ukrainian languages, the emotional and attitudinal connotations

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.. , .. *
, . ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: oleg_andropov@mail.ru
Paper received 16.07.15; Revised 02.07.15; Accepted for publication 03.07.15.
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patriotizmu.html
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/ URL: http://tsn.ua/analitika/kovzanka-slizka-vid-krovi / . 2- . .
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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015
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REFERENCES
[1] Andrukhovych, Y. The devil hidings in cheese / Yuri An- [10] Zabuzhko, O. Let my people go: 15 texts about the Ukrainian
drukhovych. K. : Krytyka, 2007. 318 p.
revolution / O. Zabuzhko. K.:Fakt, 2006. 232 p.
[2] Andrukhovych, Y. Disorientation on the ground / Yuri An- [11] Ivanychuk, R. Not daily dairy / R. Ivanychuk L. : Litopys,
drukhovych. Ivano-Frankivsk, 2006. 128 p.
2005. 216 p.
[3] Andrukhovych, Y. Skating rink which is slippery from the [12] Kots, T. Literary norm in the functional and stylistic and
blood / Yuri Andrukhovych/ URL: http://tsn.ua/analitika/kov
structural paradigms / T.Kots K.: Logos, 2010 303 p.
zanka-slizka-vid-krovi-323495.html
[13] Kravets, L. The dynamics of metaphor in the Ukrainian poet[4] Vynnychuk, Y. The smell of ass / Yuri Vynnychuk/ URL:
ry during the XX c. / L. Kravets. K. : VC Akademiya,
http://tsn.ua/analitika/zapah-vislyuka-372799.html
2012. 416 p.
[5] Vynnychuk, Y. Patriotism is the last refuge of scoundrels / [14] Prokhasko, T. And one of the same / T. Prokhasko. CherYuri Vynnychuk/ URL: http://tsn.ua/analitika/patriotizmnivtsi, Meridian Czernowitz, 2013. 240 p.
ostanniy-pritulok-negidnikiv.html
[15] Ryabchuk, M. From the chaos to the stability: Chronicle
[6] Hak, V. The metaphor : universal and specific / V. Hak. M. :
of authoritarian consolidations / M. Ryabchuk. K., 2012.
Nauka, 1988. 1126 p.
288 p.
[7] Dnistrovyy, A. The letter from neighborhood / A. Dnistrovyy. [16] Ryabchuk, M. Exclusion Zone: Ukrainian oligarchs between
K. : Hrani-T, 2010. 240 p.
the East and the West / M. Ryabchuk. K., 2004. 224 p.
[8] Euromaidan: chronicle of feelings. Brusturiv : Dyskursus, [17] Chyzhevskyy, D. History of Ukrainian literature (from the
2014. 156 p.
beginning to the era of realism) / D. Chyzhevskyy. T., 1994.
[9] Zhadan, S. Shame is as a form of patriotism / Serhiy Zhadan/
480 p.
URL: http://tsn.ua/analitika/sorom-yak-riznovid-patriotizmu.
html
Lexemes patriot and anti-patriot in the metaphoric contexts in modern art publicistic
T.I. Dolzhykova, O.S. Antipov
Abstract. In the article according to the metaphor theory, as an imagine tool, which is based on the figurative using of the words and
made to decorate the art text, expressed the main types of metaphorization, the peculiarities of function of metaphor figurat ions. As
the subject for the detail research was chosen the nature-morphed metaphor as the way of expression of semantic lexemes patriotism
and anti-patriotism in modern art publicistic, paid the attention to the individual-author metaphors with the recipient zones nature,
water, animals, birds etc.
Keywords: metaphor, nature-morphed metaphor, zoo-morphed code, ornithological metaphor, recipient zone

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.. *
, ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: olga-nika02@znu.edu.ua
Paper received 12.07.15; Revised 17.07.15; Accepted for publication 21.07.15.
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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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40

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

, 1530-1531 .
, 80-
XVI
,
XVII , 1620 . May flower
[22, . 296].
1524 . 1541 .
.


.
,
, , , , ,
,
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.
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-
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lumber camps [< Ojibwa wanikkan pit to dig a hole in the
ground < Proto-Algonquian waehke, 1840]),
(9,16%), (2,3%), (1,52%), (Modern Latin) (0,38%)
(1,9%) (, togue n. lake trout [< Canadian French
< Eastern Algonquian, perhaps shortening of Micmac
atowasu trout, 1830]; warsaw n. a large grouper, Epinephelus nigritus, found in the warmer waters of the Atlantic Ocean [< Spanish guasa < native Indian word, 1880];
arapaima n. a very long, edible, large-scaled bony fish
(Arapaima gigas) of the rivers of the Amazon region
[< ModLatin < Portuguese < Tup, 1830]; iguanodon n.
any of a genus (Iguanodon) of very large, vegetarian,
two-footed ornithopod dinosaurs [< ModLatin < Spanish
iguan (a) < Arawak iwana, 1825]; cheechako n. a tenderfoot; greenhorn; newcomer [<Chinook Jargon; chee just
now, new < Lower Chinook xis traight way+chako come
< Nootka okwa come!, 1895]). ,
, 15,26%.
48,78% (. 1).

(, margay n. a feline mammal, Felis
wiedi, of Central and South America, having a dark-striped
coat [ < French , alteration of margaia < Portuguese maracaj < Tupi marakaya, 1775).
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.


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(4,66%) .
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hill of soil-covered ice pushed up by hydrostatic pressure in
an area of permafrost [ < Inuit pinguq, 1925]; lempira n.
the standard monetary unit, divided into 100 centavos [<
American Spanish, after Lempira, Indian chief who oPosed the Spanish, 1930]) (. 1).
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.
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1942 . (, Quonset hut a
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serving as barracks, storage shed, or the like [<Algonquian
language "small, long place", 1942]) (, , -, ) ,
,
. ,
.
.
,
, , .
, , -

41

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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1. ,

1-
Spanish
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(1500-1564 .)
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-
33,52%
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.

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: 100%

, (, , , ()
,
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()

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ILLUSTRATED MATERIAL
[40] American English Dictionary / URL:
[44] The New Oxford American Dictionary / Ed. by E. Jewel.
http://www.answers.com/topic/american-english
NY, Oxford: OUP, 2001. 2023 p.
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Current English / Ed. by C.L. Cutler. Norman: University of
2112 p.
Oklahoma Press, 2000. 304 p.
[42] Borrowings into Native Varieties of English: A Dictionary & [46] The Oxford American College Dictionary / Ed. by C. LindThesaurus / V.I. Skybina, O.V. Domnich. - Zaporizhzhya: Zaberg, A.Grace. New-York: G.P.Putnams sons, 2001.
porizhzhya National University, 2009. 190 p.
1682 p.
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/ Ed. by W. Craigie, J. Hulbert. Chicago-Illinois: The Uni[project manager: M. Waite; senior editor: C. Lindberg; lexiversity of Chicago, 1960. 2680 p.
cographers: C. Braham, E. Jewell]. Oxford; NY: OUP, 2010.
xii, 893 p.
Loan process from indigenous languages into American English and typological peculiarities of loan situations
O.V. Domnich
Abstract. Process and results of the indigenous borrowings into American English are compared with the typological features of
borrowing situations. Loanwords assimilation has been observed during the whole period of language contacts.
Keywords: autochthonous loans, American English, vocabulary, etymological characteristics, language contacts

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(- )
.. *
, , ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: helenadoobenko@ukr.net
Paper received 19.06.15; Revised 25.06.15; Accepted for publication 03.07.15.
. - , . - .
: , -, , ,



, , , , ,
[5, . 87,
89; 6].
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.
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.
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, , [1, . 194-196].
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) , , ,
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; 2)
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Is Nature felt, or can be; nor do words, // Which practised
talent readily affords, //Prove that her hand has touched
responsive chords; // Nor has her gentle beauty power to
move // With genuine rapture and with fervent love // The
soul of Genius (W. Wordsworth) [18: 192]; Earth fills her
lap with pleasures of her own; // Yearnings she has in her
own natural kind, // And even with something of Mothers
mind, // And no unworthy aim, // The homely Nurse doth
all she can // To make her Foster-child, her Inmate Man, //
Forget the glories he hath known, // And that imperial pal-

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2) , ,
, , ,

. , ,
, ,
. : ,
. -
FORTUNE: ,
,
, : FORTUNE =
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Thou and I were both beguild (W. Shakespeare) [15:
1313]; He deeply felt what mortal hearts must feel, //
When thus reversed on faithless Fortunes wheel, // For
crimes committed (G. Byron) [19: 320]; FORTUNE =
,
: And fortune labours with
the vast event; // She now has in her hand the greatest
stake, // Which for contending monarchs she can make. //
What eer can urge ambitious youth to fight, // She pompously displays before their sight (J. Dryden) [16: 257];
When you bid fortune carry back her bribe (J. Dryden)
[16: 333];The watchful mothers and the careful sisters, //
Buzz round the Fortune with their busy battery, // To
turn her head with waltzing and with flattery! (G. Byron)
[7: 404]; FORTUNE = :Tis paltry to be Caesar; // Not being Fortune,
hes but Fortunes knave, // A minister of her will; and it is
great (W. Shakespeare) [15: 1167]. , ,
FORTUNE,
, .
,
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, FORTUNE.
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Who marchd to Moscow, led by Fame, the siren!
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// Tell of fought fields, and every pompous show. // These
tales are fit to fill the peoples ears (J. Dryden) [16: 320];
Renown and fame in vain I courted long, // And still pursued em, though directed wrong (J. Dryden) [16: 333];
FORTUNE = : Farewell to the Land, where the gloom of my Glory // Arose and
oershadowed the earth with her name // She abandons
me now but the page of her story, // The brightest or
blackest, is filled with my fame (G. Byron) [19: 193].
, , ,
- ,
. , ,
, FATE / DESTINY
FORTUNE:

ace whence he came (W. Wordsworth) [18: 248]; Let Nature be your teacher. // She has a world of ready wealth, //
Our minds and hearts to bless // Spontaneous wisdom
breathed by health, // Truth breathed by cheerfulness
(W. Wordsworth) [18: 202].
: Loud is the Vale!
the Voice is up // With which she speaks when storms are
gone, // A mighty Unison of streams! // of all her Voices
One! (W. Wordsworth) [18: 288].
- :
( COUNTRY, BRITAIN). Magna Mater,
, , ,
, . -

: Alas, the Country!
how shall tongue or pen // Bewail her now, uncountry
gentlemen? (G. Byron) [19: 282]; If Britain mourn her
bleakness, we can tell her, // The very best of vineyards is
the cellar (G. Byron) [7: 438].

( VANITY, DISSIMULATION, VENGEANCE, SLOTH, RUMOUR,
CRIME, CORRUPTION, MONEY).
, - : , , , ,
.
, V-XVI
,
: Yet Vanity herself had better taught // A surer
path even to the fame he sought (G. Byron) [19: 272]; Dissimulation always sets apart // A corner for herself
(G. Byron) [19: 475]; While Vengeance pondered oer new
plans of pain, // And stanched the blood she saved to shed
again (G. Byron) [19: 319]; No more as then should Sloth
around me throw // Her soul-enslaving, leaden chain
(S. Coleridge) [14: 27]; Some parts of Juans history,
which Rumour, // That live gazette had scatterd to disfigure, // She had heard (G. Byron) [7: 477].
, , ,
, ,
: Crime could not near him she is not the child // Of
solitude (G. Byron) [7: 306]; Corruption could not make
their hearts her soil (G. Byron) [7: 307]; Money the shedevil comes to us under many veils // Tactful at first, calling
herself beauty (C.H. Sisson) [17: 374].
, ,
( FORTUNE, FAME, RENOWN, FATE, DESTINY, FASHION, WEATHER).

, ,
-
, , , , , . Fortune
: 1) ,

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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

Oh, Fate! accuse thy fully, not thy fate; // She may redeem thee still nor yet too late (G. Byron) [19: 302]; Of
spirit capacious to require // That Destiny her should
change (W. Wordsworth) [18: 144].
,
( , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , ).
,
(
Mother Earth, Mother Church),
(: 4,5% 19%).

,
. , . Magna Mater , , , , .
,
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,
,
, ,
[2, . 262]. ,
,
[3, . 201-257]. -,
,
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200]; // -
(. ) [12: 413];
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, , . //
. , // , , // . (. ) [7: 252].

,
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. // //

47

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

, . //
, // . //
, ! (. ) [8: 147].
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- vs 27,3% . ,
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[1] , . / [4] .. . / .. . .:
. .: REFL-book, 1994. 608c.
. , 1996. 384 .
[2] .. [5] Glicksohn, J. Metaphor and Gestalt: Interaction Theory Revis / .. //
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Jeroen Vandaele. Berlin New York: Mouton de Gruyter,
.: , 1994. 384 .
2009. P. 237-278.

[7] , . . .: - - [14] Coleridge, S.T. Poems and Prose. Selected by Kathleen
. , 1948. 534 .
Raine. London: Penguin Books, 1957. 309 p.
[8] . . : - . [15] The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. N.Y.: Ox, 1989. 559 .
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[9] .. . . .. . .: [16] Dryden, John. Poems and Prose. Selected by Douglas Grant..
, 1988. 736 .:
Penguin Books Ltd, 1985. 357 p.
[10] , . . .: . - [17] The Penguin Book of English Poetry 1918-60. Introduction
, 1958. 317 .
and notes by K. Allott. L., 1982. 412 p.
[11] .. / .. . .: [18] Selected Poems. William Wordsworth. London: Penguin
- , 2005. -- 240 .
Books, 1996. 252 p.
[12] .. . 1. - [19] Selections from Byron. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1979.
. .: , 2000. 646 .
520 p.
[13] , . /Dichtenzeit / .. .: , 2005. 704 .
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Realization of the archetype Woman in the gestalts of the female personified image (English-Ukrainian parallels)
E.Yu. Doubenko
Abstract. The article focuses on those specific features of Anglo-American and Ukrainian poetic mappings of the world that find their
manifestation in image-building differences on the level of personification. Gestalt clusters of the notions that acquire feminine gender
personification are analyzed from the standpoint of their correlation with three basic symbolic aspects of the archetype Woman.
Keywords: gestalt, gestalt-cluster, personification, figure, femininity

48

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.. *
, . ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: elenadiachuk@ukr.net
Paper received 07.07.15; Revised 21.07.15; Accepted for publication 24.07.15.
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49

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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50

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

. :
(9) Snorted, Smoked or Injected: Extreme Agitation,
Hallucinations & Delusions, Chest Pain, Suicidal
Thoughts, High Blood Pressure, Acute Toxity, Hyperthemia, Delirium, Violent Behavour,Foaming at the Mouth,
Extreme Paranoia, Delusional Paracitosis, Parkinson-Type
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teens today. Alcohol use is associated with teens homicides, suicides, and drownings [7, p. 157].

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igarettes cause cancer, SMOKING CAUSES


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Child Protective Services took this picture while DEA
agents arrested the mother for drug possession and distribution. The two kids were taken, put into protective
custody and then separated when given over to foster
parents. For Questions and Help Call 1-800-603-5616,
visit www.drugamerica.org.

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The two kids were taken, put into protective
custody and then separated when given over to foster
parents. ,

51

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

,
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call, visit, - , (For Questions and Help Call
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[1] .. / [4] .. / .. .. . . : , 2000. 288 .


. : , 2005. 584 .
[2] .. : [5] Lannon, J. How Public Advertising Works / J. Lannon. Wa // .
shington : World Advertising Research Center, 2008. 526 p.
. 1. 1999. 2. . 75-93.
[6] Rokeach, . The nature of human values / M. Rokeach
[3] .. N.Y.: Free Press, 1973. 302 p.
: . . . : [7] Schuman, D. Social Advertising and the World Wide Web /
22.00.06. / . ., 2012.
D. Schuman. N.Y. : Psychology Press, 2013. 328 p.
198 .

[8] Drive Safe / URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQR4G [10] Public Service Announcement. / URL: http://www.elcerrito
8TnXn0drivesafe
gauchos.net/shah/digital_photography/psa/lesson/index.html
[9] Protect our Children / URL:protect-our-communities!http:// [11] Real men dont buy girls / URL: http://www.bbc.com/ blogsdfaf.org/media-center/videos/2014/10/07/protect-ourtrending-27328414
children!-protect-our-communities!-psa
REFERENCES
[1] Andreeva, H.M. Psychology of social cognition / H.M. An- [4] Zuliar, Y.A. Mass communication in the advertising / Y.A. Zudreeva. . : Aspect Press, 2000. 288 p.
liar. Irkutsk: Ottisk, 2005. 584 p.
[2] Glaholev, V.S. Psychology of American: basic facts and dy- [5] Lannon, J. How Public Advertising Works / J. Lannon. Wanamic of tendencies /V.S. Glaholev // Bulletine of VSU.
shington : World Advertising Research Center, 2008. 526 p.
Humanities sciences. Series 1. 1999. 2. P. 75-93.
[6] Rokeach, . The nature of human values / M. Rokeach
[3] Doronina, M.A. Social advertising as phenomenon of cultural
N.Y.: Free Press, 1973. 302 p.
communication : dis. Cand. Social Sciences: 22.00.06. / [7] Schuman, D. Social Advertising and the World Wide Web /
Mariya Aleksandrovna Doronina. ., 2012. 198 p.
D. Schuman. N.Y. : Psychology Press, 2013. 328 p.
SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS
[8] Drive Safe / URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQR4G [10] Public Service Announcement. / URL: http://www.elcerrito
8TnXn0drivesafe
gauchos.net/shah/digital_photography/psa/lesson/index.html
[9] Protect our Children / URL:protect-our-communities!http:// [11] Real men dont buy girls / URL: http://www.bbc.com/ blogsdfaf.org/media-center/videos/2014/10/07/protect-ourtrending-27328414
children!-protect-our-communities!-psa
Display of social evils exposure strategy by language means in English advertising discourse
O.V. Diachuk
Abstract. The article is devoted to exposing social evils strategy using linguistic means in English advertising discourse. This strategy is implemented with the help of the following discourse tactics as identifying social problem, indirect indications of deviant behavior; warning of negative consequences; prompting quantitative data; direct appeal to the recipient.
Keywords: strategy, tactics, social evils, lexical item and deviant behaviors

52

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-
.. *
, . -,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: ivannazalevka@gmail.com
Paper received 10.07.15; Revised 24.07.15; Accepted for publication 28.07.15.
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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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55

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

, [9,
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[1] . ( [5] . : , ,
): / .. // .:
(- ) [] / .. , 1989. 356 .
. .: , 1998. 250 .
[2] . [6] . . / [] / .. . : , 1992.
. . : , 2006. 312 .
156 .
[7] . // .
[3] .
, , 1958. 187 .
/ . .: Aca- [8] . // . demia, 1999. 31 .
, , 1951. 127.
[4] . - [9] . // . / . //
, , 1951. 126 .
: [] : 1999. 1. 230 .
REFERENCES
[1] Ilnytskyi, M. Human in history (modern Ukrainian historical [5] Stepyko, M. Entity of ethnicity: origins, present and perspecnovel): Monograph / M.P. Ilnytskyi // K.: Dnipro, 1989.
tives (philosophical and methodological analysis) [Text] /
356 p.
M.T. Stepyko. K: Krytyka, 1998. 250 p.
[2] Zabuzhko, A. Philosophy of the Ukrainian idea and the Euro- [6] Stefanovska, L. Antonych. Antinomy / Lydia Stefanovska.
pean Context [Text] / O. Zabuzhko. K., Naukova dumka,
K: Krytyka, 2006. 312 p.
1992. 156 p.
[7] Tys, Y. Life of another person // Yurij Tys. Ukrainian Pub[3] Kostenko, L. Humanitarian aura of nation or Defect of main
lishing House, Munich, 1958. 187 p.
mirror / Lina Kostenko. K.: Publishing House "KM Acade- [8] Tys, Y. Symphony of earth // Yurij Tys. Publishing House of
mia, 1999. 31 p.
Mykola Denysyuk, Buenos Aires, 1951. 127 p.
[4] Marynyuk, V. The national idea as ontological and epistemolo- [9] Tys, Y. Through the centuries // Yurij Tys. Ukrainian
gical phenomenon / V. Marynyuk // Ukrainian national idea:
Publishing House, Winnipeg, 1951. 126 p.
realities and prospects of development [Text] Lviv: Institute of
Ethnology of NAS of Ukraine 1999. Issue 1 230 p.
Artistic interpretation of the national idea in the works by Yurij Tys-Krokhmaliuk
.. Zalevska
Abstract. The article deals with the specific features of artistic thinking of Yurij Tys-Krokhmaliuk based on his works "Symphony
earth", "Through the centuries", "Life of another person". In the article are analyzed national and ideological issues of creativity, is
focused attention on the problems of reconstruction of the Ukrainian statehood, is examined the specificity of artistic modeling of
historical reality prose by Yurij Tys-Krokhmaliuk.
Keywords: national idea, spirituality, people, land, freedom, culture, independence

56

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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-

( )
.. *
, ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: svjatik_zu@meta.ua
Paper received 26.06.15; Revised 06.07.15; Accepted for publication 07.07.15.
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57

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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59

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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/ .. , . . . :
[2] .. : , ,
, 1994. 238.
/ .. . . : -, 2006. [7] .
328 .
: -[3] ..
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interpreting a theoretical text / L.H. Valysyev // The Herald of
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1 / URL: http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/e-journals/dutp/2006F.Kh.Yeemeren, R. Hrotendorst. SPb : Vasylyevskyi Ostrov
1/txts/zm. Title from the screen
Publishing House, 1994. 238 p.

60

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

www.seanewdim.com

Ukrainka Eastern European National University in Volyn.


2010. . 8. P. 272-276.
[9] Tretyakova, T.P. Experiment of the linguistic analysis of
argumentation in the political dialogue / T.P. Tretyakova //
Communication and Education: collection of articles. 2004.
P. 299-320.
[10] Toulmin S. The Uses of Argument / S. Toulmin. Cambridge
: Cambridge University Press, 1958. 262 p.

[7] Zarytska, I. Structural types of argumentative speech acts of


the modern Ukrainian language: communicative and
pragmatic aspect / I. Zarytska // Linguistic Studies. 2009.
18. P. 161-164.
[8] Krasnenko, O.M. Compositional and rhetoric-argumentative
structure types of the French scientific texts in international
relations / O.M. Krasnenko // Scientific Herald of Lesya

Syntactic and stylistic means for achieving effectiveness of dialogical argumentation in the book The History by Herodotus
(as based on the dialogue between king Croesus and his son)
S.V. Zubchenko
Abstract. The article examines the dialogue between Croesus and his son in which the last one persuades his unwilling father to allow
him to go hunting. Key elements of argumentation and corresponding schemes have been elaborated on the basis of analysis of the
argumentation structure of the speeches of each dialogue participant. The article reveals the whole range of syntactic and stylistic
structures applied by both participants and outlines the complex of means which contributed to achieving effectiveness of argumentation.
Keywords: antithesis, argumentation, argument, thesis, reference, guarantee, dialogue, syntactic and stylistic structure

61

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.. *
.. , ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: marina_zuenko@mail.ru
Paper received 11.07.15; Revised 20.07.15; Accepted for publication 24.07.15.
. C ,
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62

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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now but that whereby he might please that passion;
thinking all the time misspent which was not spent in its
service, frequenting more Woods than Men, deeming them
the only fit grove to sacrifice in, the choicest of his
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fruitfull of nothing but Trees, and Trees fruitfull of nothing
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alongst according to their several colours, and thereafter to
an Aviary, wherein grew many fragrant odoriferous Trees,
wherein Birds of All Nations, and of all colours, nested,
and withal shadowed a Walk, wherein one would hear their
dissonant voices conspiring to make one melodious
harmony, which seemed to be Natural Lute <>; her
Monanthropus used very morning and evening to recreate
both his ears and eyes, with variety both of notes and
colours [10, . 3].
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[3,
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63

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he wanteth the perfections of his fellows, and so something
may be added to his perfection. And the diversity of your
gods, shewes not the plurality of the gods, but denoteth
only the diversity of the true God his Attributs: for, he is

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wife, and his wisdom is represented by your Apollo; He is


most irresistible, which is figured to you by your god
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Architacture, yet so handsomely arched and pended, that it
might have passed for one of Art Master-pieces; whithin
there stood a Table, whereon were some old Volumns, and
some of his own Manuscripts; over it hung some Walnut
and Fig-trees, which were his only granaries, and which
reached him his food in at his window: two steps below the
entry without, was a spring of crystal water [10, c. 43].
,
(yet shall never climb to Heaven
. : ).
,
, : Every Age seems a season wherein grows a distinct
crop of Vices: in infancy, ignorance; in youth, love and
vanity; in middle-age, ambition, revenge, and prodigality;
in old age, jealousie, dotage, and avarice: yea, the vertues
themselves which are to be founded there, can not stand
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/ /
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,
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[1] .. -- [6] . / : . . .
. ., 2007.
: 10.01.03 - [7] . ( ) /
: 1641 1660 / .
. ., 2012. 27 .
., 1989.
[2] .. XVII . [8] Coupe, L. Myth / Laurence Coupe. Abingdon: Routledge,
- / 2009. 230 p.
// - - [9] Lang, A. Sir George Macckenzie, Kings Advocate, of Rose . 3. . 2012. 27.
haugh. His Life and Times 1636(?) 1691 / Andrew Lang.
. 32-49.
Clark, New Jersey: The Lawbook, Exchange, Ltd., 2005.
[3] .. / . . :
347 p.
-., 1999. 848 .
[10] Mackenzie, G. Aretina; or the Serious Romance / Written ori[4] / . . . , . ginally in English / George Mackenzie. Edinburgh, 1660.
, . . , 2005. 1019 .
456 . / URL: http://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A50450.0001.
[5] .. . . . :
001/1:8?rgn=div1;view=fulltext
: / . . [11] Parry, G. The Seventeenth Century. The intellectual and
.: K, 1995.
Cultural Context of English Literature, 1603-1700 / G.Parry.
624 c.
London; New York, 1989. P. 166-168.
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vel : Abstract of PhD Thesis. M., 20012. 27 p.
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[2] Kuznyetsova, A.A. The Salon Culture of the XVIIth century [8] Coupe, L. Myth / Laurence Coupe. Abingdon: Routledge,
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[6] Tsurkher, A. The English Novel of the 17-th century / [11] Parry, G. The Seventeenth Century. The intellectual and
Tsurher A. Moscow, 2007.
Cultural Context of English Literature, 1603-1700 / G. Parry.
London; New York, 1989. P. 166-168.
Mythopoeia of English High Baroque Novel
M. Zuyenko
Abstract. The article deals with the analysis of mythopoeia of the novel by G. Mackenzie Aretina, or Serious Novel (1660). The
implementation of mythical material is studied at all levels of literary work such as theme, motif, image, genre, composition, style,
etc. The mythical motives such as victim and sacrifice are revealed as well as the mythical image of garden, desert, pilgrima ge. The
mans life as a calendar myth is represented in the novel. The mythical motif of divine narcissism is discussed. The attitude towards
ancient mythology of baroque writer is revealed.
Keywords: baroque, novel, mythopoeia, mythical motive, allegory

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:

.. *

, . ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: krjukowajuli@gmail.com
Paper received 16.07.15; Revised 24.07.15; Accepted for publication 28.07.15.
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/ [. . . ]. . : , 1993.
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[6] Lynch, K. The Image of the City // Moscow, Stroj Publishing
397 p.
Towns Text through the lenses of modern Literary Criticism. Pragues motives and Pragues Text History
Investigation
Yu.D. Krjukowa
Abstract. The purpose of the research is to examine the literary criticism articles devoted to towns text investigations in the world
science. The main emphasis is laid upon the works of Ukrainian and foreign scholars, among them V. Abashev, M. Anciferov,
D. Hodrova, Y. Lotman, N. Mednis, V. Toporov etc. The peculiarities of Prague text within the article is compared with other towns
texts. In addition, our task is to make an attempt to view the genesis, evolution and the main peculiarities of Pragues moti ves and
Pragues text. Consistent to earlier research the study supported the hypothesis that Prague possesses sufficient semiotic potential to
generate its own texts that are projected into single Pragues Text. Further study is required to investigate more thoroughly the cultural interaction, when one culture with its history, mythology, literature penetrates into another by means of internal and external
contacts and is reflected on the towns texts level.
Keywords: towns text, Pragues Text, motive, semiology

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- -
.
.. *
.., ,

*Corresponding author. E-mail: mikryukova1986@mail.ua
Paper received 01.07.15; Revised 08.07.15; Accepted for publication 10.07.15.
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Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

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) : . . : 10.02.01 /
; 2004. 105 .
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[2] . . / - [6] .. -
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.: ... . . :
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10.02.01 / . - . .. : -, 2002. 289 .
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(, ,
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guage / Lidiya Andriyivna Lysychenko. Kharkiv: Kharkiv
Ukrainian language / Drahomanov National Pedagogical UniState [Pedagogical University named after G.S.Scovoroda,
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dia / Selivanova Olena Olexandrivna Poltava: Dovkillya-K,
degree dissertation in phylology 10.02.01 Ukrainian lan2006. 716 p.
The functional-grammatical aspects of verbalization of the lexico-semantic field city in artistic works of Y.Andrukhovych
K.O. Mikryukova
Abstract. The article focuses on the study of functional-grammatical aspects of verbalization of the lexico-semantic field city in
artistic works of Y. Andrukhovych. Linguistic researches on the theory of lexical-semantic field were detached. Basic lexicosemantic groups of lexico-semantic field of city were allocated in artistic works of Y.Andrukhovych: substantive, verbal, attribute,
pronominal, adverbial.
Keywords: lexico-semantic field, lexico-semantic group, substantive group, verbal group, attribute group, pronominal group, adverbial group

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.
.. *
.. , ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: vitalypereyaslov@ukr.net
Paper received 19.06.15; Revised 25.06.15; Accepted for publication 07.07.15.
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// . 1990. 4. . 50-57
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Vitchizna. 1984. 3. P. 190-194
Prapor. 1990. 4. P. 50-57
[3] Ilin, I.A. The path to the evidence: Oeuvre / I.A. Ilin. M. : [7] Mysyk, V. The planet. Favorites / Vasyl Mysyk; foreword
EKSMO-Press, 1998. 912 p.
I. Drach. K. : Dnipro, 1977. 423 p.
[4] Lupiy, O. Wing vote / O. Lupiy // Literaturna Ukraina. 1972. [8] Mysyk, V. Works : in two volumes / Vasyl Mysyk; foreword
October. P. 3-12
M. Ilnitsky. Vol. I. Kiev : Dnipro, 1983. 339 p.
A war problem is in creation of V. Mysyk
V.O. Pereyaslov
Abstract. The article is devoted to exploring antiwar poetry as one of the main lines in the famous writer V. Mysyks works. On the
material of lyrical works by the writer the features of his aesthetic and philosophical attitude to the war were investigated. A special
and dominant role is given to the determination of the authors attitude of this negative phenomenon and ways to avoid it in the future. The study showed that the problems of antiwar V. Mysyks poetry is relevant today, and the original images and ideas which are
used by the author induce to move beyond ones ego, to the universal space. Further studying of the writers heritage should be performed in the light of his aesthetic and philosophical ideas.
Keywords: philosophical poetry, aesthetic symbiosis poet and a sense of moral principles, antiwar lyrics, appealing to universal
values and orientations, etnomental model

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.. *
, . ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: anna.prikhodko.55@mail.ru
Paper received 16.07.15; Revised 27.07.15; Accepted for publication 28.07.15.
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. 37-48.
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// : - [8] ..
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/ .. // . . 1994. 3.
, 1975. 560 .
. 105-114.
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.: - ; . . . -, 1992.
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330 .
. 1, 1. . 58-65.
[5] .. / .. . - [11] Lakoff, R. The Pragmatics of Modality / R. Lakoff // Papers
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from the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago. 1972.
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.. // . . 1977. 4.
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Linguistics. 1977. 4. P. 37-48.
Evaluative Modality in Language
A.I. Prihodko
Abstract. This article is devoted to the investigation of correlation between the categories of evaluation and modality. Special attention is paid to the connection of subjective modality and evaluation. It is stressed that these categories must be studied as the phenomena of different levels.
Keywords: evaluation, modality, subjective, objective

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www.seanewdim.com

-

.. *
, ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: zvolinska82@i.ua
Paper received 05.07.15; Revised 10.07.15; Accepted for publication 14.07.15.
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/ .. //
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/ .] // Docudays UA : (01
[2] ..
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(14 2014 ., 14:57) / URL:
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. .. , 1998. . 178183.
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iPress.ua : (19 2013 ., 14:50) / URL:
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http://www.iPress.ua
10.02.01 / .. ; [14] [. .] // ,
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: (24 2014, 09:39) / URL:
2006. 21 .
http://pro sport.tsn.ua
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organization with roots in marking metals: Author. Thesis.
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[6] Karpilovska, Ye.A. Construction of the complex structural
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[7] Klymenko, N.F. Word building nest / N.F. Klymenko //
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[8] Neliuba, A. Lexical-word creative innovation. 2012-2013 :
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2014. 172 p.
[9] "I do not want to have my film music sounded depressed" /
[interview with Latvian filmmaker Viyestrusom Kayrish /
recorded O.Birzul] // Docudays UA : (01 September 2011 y.)
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[12] Political News [ed. V. Borysov] // Information-analytical


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language / L.V. Shchyhlo // Bulletin of Sumy State University. Series "Philology". 2008. 1. P. 146152.

The structure of word-formation nests with the tops of proper names in modern Ukrainian language
L. Rybachkivska
Abstract. The structure of word-formation nests with the tops of proper names in modern Ukrainian language was detailly discussed in this article; the consecutive analysis of word-formation pair, word-formation chain and word-formation paradigm was
realized; and also it has been denoted that word-formation nests with the tops of antroponims are the most numeral group in
Ukrainian language.
Keywords: word-formation nest (family), word-formation pair, word-formation chain, word-formation paradigm, structure,
proper name

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.. *
, . ,
*Corresponding author. E-mail: oleksandr-stasiuk@ukr.net
Paper received 03.07.15; Revised 10.07.15; Accepted for publication 14.07.15.
:
. ,
.
.
: , , , ,

.
,
.
, , [., 3; 4; 6; 11],
.
.

, : , , , , . . . , . ,

( Das Parlament Blickpunkt
Bundestag ). -, ,
. ,
, ,
. , .
.
, [11, . 96].

, [6, . 53-54].

, , [2; 5; 8; 9; 10].
, ,

[1, . 39].

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, ,
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2430 2013-2014 .
, . ,
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,
, ,
.
Matthias W. Birkwald (Die Linke): Ich mchte Sie einmal daran erinnern, wie einige Mitglieder Ihrer Koalition
dieses Thema sehen. Vizekanzler Sigmar Gabriel sagte
dazu am 7. Dezember der Braunschweiger Zeitung ich
zitiere : Die Finanzierung der Mtterrente erfolgt frher
oder spter aus Steuern, zumindest teilweise. Auf Dauer
kann man das so nicht durchhalten, sonst steigen die
Beitrge der Rentenversicherung. So der Vizekanzler [7,
. 292].
-

86

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

,
. ,
, , , .

, .
Elisabeth Scharfenberg (Bndnis 90/Die Grnen): Wie
werden Sie das alles machen? Wie werden Sie denn die
Brokratie eindmmen? Wie werden Sie mehr Geld fr die
Pflegekrfte bereitstellen? Wie werden Sie mehr Auszubildende gewinnen, und wie werden Sie das ist ganz besonders wichtig die Minutenpflege abschaffen? Dazu,
Herr Grhe, sagen Sie nichts. Stattdessen liest man gleichzeitig in der Presse, dass Sie die Reform des Pflegebegriffs
doch eher fr eine akademische Diskussion halten. An
dieser uerung erkennt man bei allem Respekt, Herr
Minister: Sie haben einfach keine Ahnung [7, 753].

, , , .
, .

, ,
, .
Gesine Ltzsch (Die Linke): In der Sddeutschen
Zeitung stand Anfang der Woche ein Artikel mit der berschrift Der Geruch absterbender Demokratie. Ich zitiere
daraus: Diese Gegenwart bringe eine Art berbrger hervor, der den Restbrgern keine Rechenschaft mehr
schuldig sei. Verfassungen und soziale bereinknfte
haben Grenzen, die Finanzwelt nicht [7, . 2341-2342].

(absterbende Demokratie ).

, .
.
Matthias W. Birkwald (Die Linke): Selbst in der Bild
heit es unter der berschrift Feuer unterm Dach: Die
Warnungen werden lauter, und sie kommen nicht mehr nur
aus Deutschland: Hunderttausenden Geringverdienern
droht im Alter der Absturz in die Armut. ... Deutschland,
eine Wirtschafts-Weltmacht, aber bei der Altersversorgung
fast Entwicklungsland das passt nicht zusammen. So die
Bild-Zeitung [7, . 106].

selbst (. ), ,
Das Bild , .
Entwicklungsland, , , ,
, .
, , Der
Spiegel, Die Zeit, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung,
Sddeutsche Zeitung, Das Handelsblatt, Die Welt .
, , ,

www.seanewdim.com

,
.
Dieter Janecek (Bndnis 90/Die Grnen): Bayern
knnte zum Modell fr eine gescheiterte Energiewende
werden. Das schreibt nicht die taz, sondern die FAZ, die
linker Umtriebe unverdchtig ist. Sie sind auf dem besten
Weg dazu leider [7, . 1037-1038].
, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
.
, . . , ,
.
Hermann Frber (CDU/CSU): Der damalige Umweltminister und jetzige Wirtschaftsminister Gabriel hat das
richtig gesehen. Ich zitiere aus einer Pressemeldung vom
17. Februar 2006, in der stand: Ich wei, dass in einigen
Regionen, in denen jetzt weitere Gebiete gemeldet wurden,
eine Verunsicherung bei Betrieben und Brgern entstanden
ist, welche Auswirkungen die Naturschutzmeldung nun fr
sie hat. Gemeinsam mit den Lndern will ich dazu beitragen, dass die Sorgen und Skepsis abgebaut werden ...
Genau dazu bietet sich jetzt die Gelegenheit [7, . 2036].
, . , ,
.
Michael Grosse-Brmer (CDU/CSU): Ich habe in der
Sddeutschen Zeitung gelesen ich zitiere : Die Opposition ... setzt auf das Mitleid der ffentlichkeit. ... Larmoyanz aber ist keine parlamentarische Tugend. ... In den
Zeiten der Groen Koalition von 1966 bis 1969 war die
Opposition noch viel kleiner, sie war nur halb so gro, sie
bestand nur aus der FDP. (...) Die zeigte aber damals, dass
klein nicht mickrig bedeuten muss ... sie schaffte es
deswegen, weil sie die Zeit nutzte, sich zu erneuern ... [7,
. 1020].
60- .

.
Matthias W. Birkwald (Die Linke): Kurz zu den Grnen
(...): Frau Andreae, Sie haben krzlich im Handelsblatt
gesagt Zitat : Wir Grnen sind die einzigen, die sowohl
die Rente mit 63 klar ablehnen und eine gerechte Finanzierung der Mtterrente aus Steuern fordern. Grnes
Alleinstellungsmerkmal sei die Generationengerechtigkeit,
im Unterschied zur Koalition, aber auch zur Linken.
Frau Kollegin, ich glaube, da haben Sie irgendetwas
grndlich missverstanden [7, . 473].

missverstehen.
, ,

, .
Andreas G. Lmmel (CDU/CSU): Wenn Sie heute in die
Tagespresse schauen, knnen Sie einen groen Artikel
Ihres Fraktionsvorsitzenden lesen, in dem er schreibt:
Njet zu Gazprom und davon spricht, dass die starke und

87

Science and Education a New Dimension. Philology, III(12), Issue: 60, 2015

einseitige Abhngigkeit von Energieimporten gefhrlich ist.


(...) Vielleicht sollten Sie sich in Ihrer Fraktion einmal
darber klar werden, was Sie wollen. (...) Wollen Sie von
Importen unabhngiger werden? Das knnen wir nur,
indem wir einheimische Energierohstoffe besser nutzen.
Klren Sie erst einmal in Ihrer Fraktion, was Sie berhaupt
wollen [7, . 1870].

,
.
Hans-Peter Uhl (CDU/CSU): Man kann nicht zulassen,
dass die Medien den Beamten unwidersprochen millionenfachen Rechtsbruch unterstellen und dann sagen: Aha, so
sind die anscheinend; sie leisten einen Eid auf die Einhaltung der Gesetze, und dann begehen sie monatlich
millionenfach Rechtsbruch. Das kann so nicht stehen
bleiben [7, . 61].
,
, , , .
,
- ,
, . ,
, , , ,
.
Norbert Lammert (Prsident des Bundestages): Zur

www.seanewdim.com

Verantwortungsbernahme durch das Parlament gibt es


keine berzeugende Alternative. So hat es der Prsident
des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, den Heinz Riesenhuber
schon auf der Tribne begrt hat, nicht nur in Interviews
immer wieder festgehalten, sondern auch in einschlgigen
Urteilen des Bundesverfassungsgerichts ist das so oder
hnlich nachzulesen [7, . 7].
,
, ,
.
. , ,

,
, , . , , .
, , , , , .

. .

[1] ..
. : - . -, 2008. . 44. .
( 80- XX
1. C. 134-140.
XXI ) / .. // . - [6] I.. Ii i
: - . . -, 2011. 2. . 36-48.
/ I.. // i . ., 2009. 848. .
[2] ..
53-57.
, / .. - [7] Deutscher Bundestag. Stenografischer Bericht 18. Legislatur // . . 20. periode. Sitzung 129. Berlin, 2013-2014. 2430 S. /
: - . . . -, 2006. . 161-169.
URL: http://dip21.bundestag.de
[3] .. - [8] Herrmann, K. Intertextualitt : Perspektiven auf ein
/ .. // .
interdisziplinres Arbeitsfeld / Karin Herrmann, Sandra
: - , 2003. C. 23-42.
Hbenthal (Hg.). Aachen : Shaker Verlag. 2007. 228 S.
[4] .. : [9] Holthius, S. Intertextualitt. Aspekte einer rezeptionsorientier ten Konzeption / Susanne Holthius. Tbingen : Stauffen / .. // burg, 1993. 268 S.
: : . . - [10] Klein, J. Linguistische und literaturwissenschaftliche Beitrge
/ . . .. . . : - zur Intertextualitt / Josef Klein, Ulla Fix (Hg.). Tbingen :
, 2007. . 7-26.
Stauffenburg-Verl., 1997. 402 S.
[5] . : [11] Wu, J. Understanding Interdiscoursivity : A Pragmatic Model
/ / Jianguo Wu // Journal of Cambridge Studies. Cambridge,
// . 2011. Vol. 6. No. 2-3. P. 95-115.
REFERENCES
[1] Gavenko, A.S. Metaintertextuality in Literary Text (based on [4] Cherniavskaya, V.E. Open Text and Open Discourse:
Russian stories of 1980s 21st century) / A.S. Gavenko //
Intertextuality Discoursivity Interdiscoursivity /
Philology and Person. Barnaul: Altai University, 2011.
V.E. Cherniavskaya // Text Linguistics and Discourse
Issue 2. P. 36-48.
Analysis: Traditions and Perspectives / Ed. by
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Pagmatic Characteristics of Media Interdiscourse in the Parliamentary Texts of Germany


O.S. Stasiuk
Abstract: The article deals with characteristics of media interdiscourse in the parliamentary texts of Germany that depend on
pragmatic intentions of communicants. It is shown that media interdiscourse is used in the parliamentary texts to verify the utterances
of politicians. The specifics of using media interdiscourse by representatives of the majority and opposition is revealed.
Keywords: interdiscoursivity, intertextuality, media discourse, parliamentary text, pragmatics

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Editor-in-chief: Dr. Xnia Vmos

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