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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 About NTPC
NTPC Limited (also known as National Thermal Power Corporation
Limited) is an Indian Central Public Sector Undertaking (CPSU) under the
Ministry of Power, Government of India, engaged in the business of
generation of electricity and allied activities. It is a company incorporated
under the Companies Act 1956 and a "Government Company" within the
meaning of the act. The headquarters of the company is situated at New
Delhi. NTPC's core business is generation and sale of electricity to stateowned power distribution companies and State Electricity Boards in India.
The company also undertakes consultancy and turnkey project contracts
that involve engineering, project management, construction management
and operation and management of power plants. The company has also
ventured into oil and gas exploration and coal mining activities. It is the
largest power company in India with an electric power generating capacity
of 43,803 MW . Although the company has approx. 18% of the total national
capacity it contributes to over 27% of total power generation due to its
focus on operating its power plants at higher efficiency levels (approx. 83%
against the national PLF rate of 78%).
It was founded by Government of India in 1975, which now holds 70% of its
equity shares on 13 May 2015.
In May 2010, NTPC was conferred Maharatna status by the Union
Government of India. It is ranked 424th in in the Forbes Global 2000 for
2014
The company has set a target to have an installed power generating
capacity of 1,28,000 MW by the year 2032. The capacity will have a
diversified fuel mix comprising 56% coal, 16% Gas, 11% Nuclear and 17%
Renewable Energy Sources(RES) including hydro. By 2032, non-fossil fuel
based generation capacity shall make up nearly 28% of NTPCs portfolio.

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Fig 1.1 - PLF vs Year graph

1.2 Strategies of NTPC

Fig 1.2 Strategies of NTPC

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1.3 Vision
To be the worlds largest and best power producer, powering Indias
growth

1.4 Mission
Develop and provide reliable power, related products and services at
competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and
eco-friendly technologies and contribute to society

1.5 Core Values


B
E
C
O
M
M
I
T
T
E
D

Business Ethics
Environmentally & Economically Sustainable
Customer Focus
Organizational & Professional Pride
Mutual Respect & Trust
Motivating Self & others
Innovation & Speed
Total Quality for Excellence
Transparent & Respected Organization
Enterprising
Devoted

1.7 Installed Capacity


TABLE 1.1 Installed Capacity of NTPC
Projects
No.
of Commissione
Projects
d
Capacity
(MW)
NTPC OWNED
COAL
14
22,395
GAS/LIQ. FUEL
07
3,955
TOTAL
21
26,350
OWNED BY JVCs
Coal
3
314
Gas/LIQ. FUEL
1
740
GRAND TOTAL
25
27,404

TABLE 1.2 Coal Based Plants


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Coal based

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

State

Singrauli

Uttar
Pradesh
Korba
Chhattisgarh
Ramagundam Andhra
Pradesh
Farakka
West Bengal
Vindhyachal
Madhya
Pradesh
Rihand
Uttar
Pradesh
Kahalgaon
Bihar
NTCPP
Uttar
Pradesh
TalcherKanih Orissa
a
Unchahar
Uttar
Pradesh
Talcher
Orissa
Thermal
Simhadri
Andhra
Pradesh
Tanda
Uttar
Pradesh
Badarpur
Delhi

1
0.
1
1.
1
2.
1
3.
1
4.
Total (Coal)

Commissioned
Capacity
(MW)
2,000
2,100
2,600
1,600
3,260
2,000
1,340
840
3,000
1,050
460
1,000
440
705
22,395

TABLE 1.3 Gas Based Plants


State

Commission
ed Capacity
(MW)

1 Anta

Rajasthan

413

2 Auraiya

Uttar
Pradesh

652

3 Kawas

Gujarat

645

4 Dadri

Uttar
Pradesh

817

5 Jhanor-

Gujarat

648

Gas based

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Gandhar
Rajiv Gandhi
6 CCPP
Kayamkulam

Kerala

350

7 Faridabad

Haryana

430

Total (Gas)

3,955

TABLE 1.4 Projects Under Implementation

Coal / Hydro

State

Fuel

Additional Capacity
Under
Implementation
(MW)

1.

Kahalgaon Stage II
(Phase I) (Phase II)

Bihar

Coal

500
500

2.

Sipat (Stage I) (Stage


II)

Chhattisgar
Coal
h

1980
1000

Bihar

1980

3. Barh

Chhattisgar
Coal
h

500

5. Korba (Stage III)

Chhattisgar
Coal
h

500

6. Farakka (Stage III)

West Bengal Coal

500

7. NCTPP (Stage II)

Uttar
Pradesh

Coal

980

8. Simhadri (Stage II)

Andhra
Pradesh

Coal

1000

9. Koldam (HEPP)

Himachal
Pradesh

Hydro

800

10
Uttarakhan
Loharinag Pala (HEPP)
.
d

Hydro

600

11 TapovanVishnugad
.
(HEPP)

Hydro

520

4.

Bhilai (Exp. Power


Project-JV with SAIL)

Coal

Uttarakhan
d

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Total (Coal + Hydro)

11,360

TABLE 1.5 Power Plants with Joint Ventures


Coal
State
Based

Fuel

Commissione
d
Capacity
(MW)

Durga
West Bengal
pur

Coal

120

Rourk
ela

Orissa

Coal

120

Bhilai

Chhattisgarh Coal

RGPPL

Maharastra

74

Naptha/L
740
NG

Total(JV)

1054

Grand Total (Coal + Gas + JV)

27,404

1.7 Working Principle


A coal based powerplant basically works on Rankine Cycle. Steam is
produced in boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in
condenser to be fed into the boiler again. In practice of good number of
modifications are affected so as to have heat economy and to increase the
thermal efficiency of plant.
Many of the impracticalities associated with the Carnot cycle can be
eliminated by superheating the steam in the boiler and condensing it
completely in the condenser. The cycle that results is the Rankine cycle,
which is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants. The ideal Rankine cycle
does not involve any internal irreversibility's .
1
2
3
4

2
3
4
5

BFP work
Heating of water to convert it finally to superheated steam in boiler
Expansion in HP turbine
Reheating
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56
61

Expansion in IP and LP turbine


Cooling in Condenser

Fig 1.3 Rankine Cycle (with reheat)

1.8 About NTPC Dadri


National Capital Power Station (NCPS) Or NTPC Dadri, is the power
project to meet the power demand of National Capital Region (India). It has
a huge coal-fired thermal power plant and a gas-fired plant and has a small
township located in Uttar Pradesh, India for its employees.
NTPC Dadri is a unique power plant of NTPC group which has both coal
based thermal plant and gas based thermal plant
of 1820 MW and 817 MW respectively and 5 MW solar plant
totaling 2642 MW

1.8.1 Installed Capacity


Coal based
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The coal-based station mainly meets power requirements of the National


Capital Region [NCR] , and the northern grid . With the World Bank funding
component , the capital cost of the units is Rs. 16.69 billion . There are four
210 MW coal based units and two 490MW coal based units. The units have
a coal-fired boiler and a steam turbine each . The boiler design is also
suitable for 100% operations with heavy furnace oil firing . For this , three
storage tanks , each of capacity 15,000 kL , enough for 10 days continuous
oil firing requirements have been provided for the boilers .

TABLE 1.6 NTPC Dadri Coal Based

Stage

1st

2nd
Total

Unit
Number

Installed Capacity
(MW)

Date of Commissioning

210

1991 October

210

1992 December

210

1993 March

210

1994 March

490

2010 January

490

2010 July

Six

1820

TABLE 1.7 NTPC Dadri Gas Based


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Sta
ge

Unit
Numbe
r

1st

Total

Installed
Capacity
(MW)

Date of
Commissioni
ng

GT /
ST

130.19

1992 March

GT

130.19

1992 May

GT

130.19

1992 June

GT

130.19

1992 November

GT

154.51

1993 February

ST

154.51

1993 March

ST

Six

829.78

Grand Total capacity is 2637 MW.

1.8.2 Location
It is located in Gautam Budh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh about 25 km
from Ghaziabad and about 9 km fromDadri. It is nearly 48 km from New
Delhi towards Hapur. The township has an area of about 500 acres over all.
NTPC Dadri is a branch of National Thermal Power Corporation, which is a
public sector now. It is about 20km from Ghaziabad via Badalpur, Mahawar,
Bamabawar, and Akilpur Jagir.

1.8.3 Coal Source


The coal is transported from the Piparwar block of mines of the North
Karanpura Coalfields of Jharkhand , over a distance of about 1,200 kms. ,
by the Indian Railways bottom discharge , and Box 'N' type of wagons . The
coal requirement for the six units is about 25000M.T. each day. The station
has its' own 14 kms. Long rail track from the Dadri Railway Statio , to the
site, and a 6 km in-plant track, on electric traction.

1.8.4 Water Source


Upper Ganga Canal Dehra Headworks, During closure of UGC through
network of tube wells. The consumption of cooling water is 50 cusecs
(1415.85 litres/sec).
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CHAPTER 2

COAL CYCLE

2.1 Coal Supplied at NTPC Dadri


Coal is supplied to NTPC, Dadri by Piparwar coal mines. The type of coal is
Bituminous and Semi Bituminous with following specifications: Moisture- less than 8%
Volatile matter-17% to 19%
Ash- 35% - 40%
Calorific Value- 4500 to 5300 Kcal/kg
Coal is received in railway box rakes containing 50-60 wagons in each
rake.
Capacity of each box wagon is about 55 ton.
The BOX-N type wagons are placed on 2 wagon tippler (one for Stage-I
and other for Stage-II)
The BOBR type wagons are emptied on track hoppers

2.2 Different Components of Coal Cycle

Wagon Tippler
Track Hopper
Paddle Feeder
Conveyer Belts
Crusher House
Stacker cum Reclaimer
Coal Yard
Coal Bunker
Coal Feeder
Coal Mills
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Furnace

Fig 2.1 Coal Cycle

2.2.1 Wagon Tippler


Wagon from coal yard come to the tippler and emptied here. There are 2
wagon tipplers. The tippler is tilted to about 135 so that coal from the
wagon is emptied into the hopper. Elliptics paddle feeders are used to move
the coal from hoppers to conveyer belts.
In this it takes 52 sec to raise a wagon, 10 sec to empty the wagon
completely & then again 52 sec to bring the tippler down. A semicircular
huge WT gear is used to run the tippler. Protocol cameras have been
installed for safety to ensure that no moving creature or object is near the
wagon which is on the tippler.

2.2.2 Track Hopper


Coal in BOBR (Box Open Bottom Release) was unloaded on the track
hoppers. The track hoppers are shown as follows.
The Coal is stored in the hoppers from where it is passed on to the
conveyer belts by paddle feeders, towards the crusher house.

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Fig 2.2 Wagon Tippler


Hoppers

Fig 2.3 Track

2.2.3 Paddle Feeder


These are movable elliptical feeders with paddle like structures so as to
move the coal from the bottom of the track hoppers to the conveyer belts.
There are 4 paddle feeders which can move along the bottom of the track
hopper at different positions.

2.2.4 Conveyer Belts


A belt conveyor consists of two pulleys, with a continuous loop of materialthe conveyor Belt that rotates about them. The pulleys are powered,
moving the belt and the material on the belt forward.
Conveyer belts are used in the CHP to transfer coal from one place to other
as required in a convenient & safe way. All the belts are numbered
accordingly so that their function can be easily demarcated. These belts are
made of rubber & move with a speed of 250-300 m/min.

2.2.5 Safety Switches in Conveyers


There are certain switches which are used for safe operation of th
conveyers used throughout the plant.
Belt Sway Switch
These are the switches which are operated when there is sway in the
conveyer belt, i.e. the belt move in a particular direction outside its
fixed path. These are located on both the sides of the belt. In case
there is a sway in the belt, the switch gets activated and stop the
conveyer so as to avoid accidents
Pull Cord Switch

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These are the switches which are installed at every 10m gap in a
conveyer belt to ensure the safety of motors running the conveyer
belts. If at any time some accident happens or the conveyer belt is
needed to be stopped immediately, then the cord is pulled which
activates the switch and stops the conveyer.
Zero Speed Switch
It is used as a safety device for the motor i.e. when the belt is not
moving but the pulley is rotating. This switch checks the speed of the
belt & switches off the motor when speed of the belt is zero.

2.2.6 Crusher House


After the coal is unloaded in the wagon tipplers and track hopper (size of
coal=-250mm), it is conveyed to the crusher house for reducing the size of
the coal upto -20mm which is the optimum size for transfer via conveyers.
Table 2.1 Crusher House
No. and Make of
Crusher
Type and Size
Main Crusher Capacity
Motor Rating
Power Supply
RPM

8, Pennsylvenia, USA
Ring Granulators,
TKKGN-48093
875 tonnes/hr
800hp (597KW)
6.6kv, 3, 50Hz
743

Fig 2.4 Coal Sizes

2.2.7 Stacker cum Reclaimer

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It is used for stacking (storage) of the excess coal in the coal yards. When
there is a requirement of the stored coal, reclaiming process starts and the
coal is sent to the coal bunkers through conveyer belts.
There are 3 Stacker Reclaimers at NTPC Dadri with stacking capacity of
1400tph and reclaiming capacity of 1400tph with boom conveyer speed of
3m/s

Fig 2.5 Stacker cum Reclaimer

2.2.8 Coal Yard


Whenever the coal bunkers are filled and there is excess crushed coal in
the plant, it is stored in the coal yard.
Capacity - 45 days coal of stagel requirement, 500000m 3 of coal
approx.
No. of coal piles in stockyard 6
Length/Height of each pile - 470/10m
Water is continuously sprayed on the coal piles so as to settle the coal dust.
The water also cools the coal so as to prevent the escape of the volatile
material from the coal
The coal yards of both the stages are interconnected by conveyers so as to
supply coal to the one who is in deficiency of coal at a particular time

2.2.9 Coal Bunker


After the coal is crushed in the crusher house, it is either sent to the coal
yards or directly to the coal bunkers. These are very large coal storage
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containers which are placed above the coal mills (where the coal is ground
finely).
These are cylindrical in shape with conical cum hyperbolic hopper at
bottom and made up of 8mm M.S. plate
Stage I 6 Coal Bunkers per unit
Stage II 9 Coal Bunkers per Unit

Fig 2.6 Coal Bunkers (in Yellow)

2.2.10 Coal Feeder


It is situated just below the coal bunkers. It is used to send calculated
amount of coal from the coal bunkers to the coal mills as per the
requirement of the furnace. The quantity of coal fed is controlled by
controlling the speed of the conveyer inside it. Maximum and minimum
capacity of the feeder is 60MT/hr and 6MT/hr respectively

2.2.11 Coal Mill


The coal mills are situated just below the raw coal feeders. Its
main function is to pulverize the coal from -25mm size to
200mesh size. In NTPC Dadri there is a bowl type coal mill in
which there is a bowl and three rollers at 120 to each other. The
bowl rotates at 50rpm and the rollers rotate about their own axis.
The rollers are pressed against the bowl using springs so as to
facilitate the grinding of coal.
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The coal comes in the coal mill from the top from the coal feeder
through a single pipe. After the coal is pulverized it is carried by
the primary air (which enters the mill from bottom towards the
top) to the furnace through 4 pipes. These four pipes carry the
coal to the 4 corners of the furnace.

Table 2.2 Coal Mill


Make
No. per boiler
Type
Capacity
Coal size-inlet
- outlet
Grinding roll material

BHEL
6
XRP 883
49 T/hr
25 mm
70% through 200 mesh
Ni -Hard Gr II

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Fig 2.7 Coal Mills (Pulveriser)


Coal Mill

Fig 2.8 Rollers of

2.2.12 FURNACE
Furnace is primary part of the boiler where the chemical energy available in
the fuel is converted into thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is
designed for efficient and complete combustion. Major factors that assist
for efficient combustion are the temperature inside the furnace and
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turbulence, which causes rapid mixing of fuel and air. In modern boilers,
water-cooled furnaces are used. The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially
firing system in which the fuel is introduced from wind nozzle located in the
four corners inside the boiler. The crushed coal from the coal crusher is
transferred into the unit coalbunkers where the coal is stored for feeding
into pulverizing mill through rotary feeder. The rotary feeders feed the coal
to pulverize mill at a definite rate. Then coal burners are employed to fire
the pulverized coal along with primary air into furnace. These burners are
placed in the corners of the furnace and they send horizontal streams of air
and fuel tangent to an imaginary circle in the centre of the furnace .
Table 2.3 Furnace specifications
Type
Bottom
Furnace projected area
Fuel heat input
Residence time for fuel particles in
furnace
Effective volume used to calculate the
residence time
Draft
Furnace width
Furnace depth
Furnace height (Ring header to furnace
roof)
(viii) Furnace volume

Fusion welded walls


Dry
3275 m2
519.3 MK Cal/hr
3.14 sec
4200 m3
Balanced
13.868 m
10.592 m
43.136 m
5570 m3

CHAPTER 3

WATER CYCLE

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Fig 3.1 Water Cycle

3.1 De-Mineralized Water/Steam Cycle


Condensate Cycle
Feed Water Cycle
Steam Cycle

3.2 Condensate Cycle


Different Components of Condensate Cycle
Hot Well
Condensate Extraction Pump
Low Pressure Heater
Deaerater
Feed Storage Tank

3.2.1 Hot Well

After the steam is condensed in the condenser, it gets collected in the


hotwell so that the water can be recirculated in the system.

3.2.2 Condensate Extraction Pump


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This pump is used to extract the condensed water from the hotwell to the
deaerater through the low pressure heaters
Table 3.1 Condensate Extraction Pump specifications
Manufactuer
BHEL
No. of pumps & capacity 2x100%
Type
NESJ14OD (2shaft),
vertical centrifugal
connister type
No. of stages
5
Discharge capacity
655 m3/hr
Diff. head
190 mlc
Input power to pump
422 kw
Temperature of medium 46.30c
RPM
1485
Efficiency of pump
79.5%

3.2.3 Feed Water Heater


A Feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre-heat water
delivered to a steam generating boiler. Preheating the feed water reduces
the irreversibility involved in steam generation and therefore improves the
thermodynamic efficiency of the system. This reduces plant operating costs
and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed
water is introduced back into the steam cycle. In a steam power plant, feed
water heaters allow the feed water to be brought up to the saturation
temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable irreversibility
associated with heat transfer to the working fluid.
The water here is heated by the steam which is extracted from the different
stages of the turbine
These are of two types
Low Pressure Heater
These are called as low pressure heaters as they extract steam from
the stages of low pressure turbine
LPH1-Stage 7 of LPT
LPH2-Stage 5 of LPT
LPH3-Stage 3 of LPT
High Pressure Heater
These are called as low pressure heaters as they extract steam from
the exit of the High Pressure Turbine

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Fig 3.2 Low Pressure Heater


Pressure Heater

Fig 3.3 High

3.2.4 Deaerater

A Deaerator is a device for air removal and used to remove dissolved gases
(mainly O2 and CO2) from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. A
Steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam, condensate,
and feed water should be devoid of dissolved gases, particularly corrosive
ones and dissolved or suspended solids. The gases will give rise to
corrosion of the metal. The solids will deposit on the heating surfaces giving
rise to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating. Under some
conditions it may give rise to stress corrosion cracking
Deaerator is a type of open feed water heater in which feedwater comes in
direct contact with the steam extracted from CRH line and IPT exhaust.
These are of three types
Spray type Deaerator
Tray type Deaerator
Spray Cum Tray type Deaerator

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In NTPC Dadri, a spray cum tray type Deaerator is used. In this feedwater is
first sprayed and then made to cascade down a series of trays and bled
steam flows upwards. Due to this water gets heated and scrubbed to
release the dissolved gases.
. If operated properly, the deaerator will guarantee that oxygen in the
deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm 3/L)

3.2.5 Feed Storage Tank


After the water is deaerated it is stored in the feed storage tank just below
the deaerater. Feed Storage tank acts as the inlet for the Boiler Feed Pump.
So it is kept about 25m above the BFP so as to maintain a net positive
suction head for the BFP so as to avoid cavitation.

Fig 3.4 Deaerator (upper cylinder) and Feed Storage Tank (lower cylinder)

3.3 Feed Water Cycle

Different Components of Feed Water Cycle


Boiler Feed Pump
High Pressure Heater
Feed Regulating Station
Economiser
Boiler Drum
Boiler

3.3.1 Boiler Feed Pump

A Boiler feed water pump is a specific type of pump used to pump water
into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or returning
condensation of the steam produced by the boiler. These pumps are
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normally high pressure units that use suction from a condensate return
system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive displacement
type.
Construction and operation: Feed water pumps range in size up to many
horsepower and the electric motor is usually separated from the pump
body by some form of mechanical coupling. Large industrial condensate
pumps may also serve as the feed water pump. In either case, to force the
water into the boiler, the pump must generate sufficient pressure to
overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. This is usually
accomplished through the use of a centrifugal pump. Feed water pumps
usually run intermittently and are controlled by a float switch or other
similar level-sensing device energizing the pump when it detects a lowered
liquid level in the boiler. Some pumps contain a two-stage switch. As liquid
lowers to the trigger point of the first stage, the pump is activated. If the
liquid continues to drop, (perhaps because the pump has failed, its supply
has been cut off or exhausted, or its discharge is blocked) the second stage
will be triggered. This stage may switch off the boiler equipment
(preventing the boiler from running dry and overheating), trigger an alarm,
or both
Table 3.2 Boiler Feed Booster Pump specifications
BOILER FEED BOOSTER PUMP
Pump type
FA 1B 56
Liquid pumped
Suction temperature
Differential head
Flow rate
Efficiency
Speed
Power
NPSH, required

Boiler feed water


160.70c
100m
450 m3 / hr
79 %
1485 rpm
141 kw
4.03 m.

Table 3.3 Boiler Feed Pump specifications


BOILER FEED PUMP
No and Capaciy
3 x 50%
Make
Pump type
No. of stages
Liquid pumped
Differential head
Design flow rate

BHEL,
Hyderabad
FK 6 D 30
6
Boiler feed
water
2123m
450 m3 / hr
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Minimum recirculation
flow
Efficiency
Speed
Power
NPSH required

110 m3 / hr
81%
5150 rpm.
2911 kw
24.0 mlc

Fig 3.5 Boiler Feed Pump

3.3.2 Feed Regulating Station


It is the station which is used to regulate the amount of feed water into the
economiser. Here there are two lines
30% Line for the starting load
100% Line for the full load

3.3.3 Economiser

Economiser is a mechanical device intended to reduce energy


consumption, or to perform another useful function like preheating a fluid.
They are devices fitted to a boiler which save energy by using the exhaust
gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used to fill it (the feed
water). A common application of economizer in steam power plants is to
capture the waste heat from boiler stack gases (flue gas) and transfer thus
it to the boiler feed water thus lowering the needed energy input , in turn
reducing the firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output .
Table 3.4 Economiser Specifications
Type
Plain, drainable, nonsteaming
Tube Material
SA210 GrA1
OD of Tube, mm
44.5
Actual Thickness of Tubes, mm
4.5
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Length of Tubes, mm
Tube pitch, mm
a) Parallel to gas path
b) Across gas path
Water side effective heating
area, m2
Gas side effective heating area,
m2
Gas flow path area, m2
Design Pressure of tubes,
kg/cm2

32100
130
96
3580
5617
62.8
161.0

3.3.4 Boiler Drum


Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. It is reservoir of
water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in the water-tube boiler.
They store the steam generated in the water tubes and act as a phase
separator for the steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between
hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the hotter water and
saturated steam in drum. The separated steam is drawn out from the top
section of the drum. The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a super
heater, while the saturated water at the bottom of steam drum flows down
through downcomers to the ring header from where the water sent to the
boiler
Table 3.5 Boiler Drum specifications
Construction
Fusion welded
Material specification
Design pressure, kg/cm2
abs.
Max. operating pressure,
kg/cm2 abs.
Design temperature, 0C
Overall length of drum mm
O.D. of Drum, mm
Internal dia. of Drum, mm
No. of distribution headers
Normal water level in drum

SA-299
176.4
167.2
354.0
12200
2083
1778
6
250 mm below drum
centreline.

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3.3.5 Boiler

Fig 3.6 Boiler Drum

Boiler is an enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circulated until


the water is turned in to steam at the required pressure. Coal is burned
inside the combustion chamber of boiler. The products of combustion are
nothing but gases. These gases which are at high temperature come in
contact with different heat exchangers and vaporize the water inside them
to steam. This steam is further heated in a super heater as higher the
steam pressure and temperature the greater efficiency the powerplant will
have in converting the heat in steam in to mechanical work. This steam at
high pressure and temperature is used directly as a heating medium, or as
the working fluid in a prime mover (turbine) to convert thermal energy to
mechanical work, which in turn is converted to electrical energy.
Boilers are classified mainly into two categories as following:
Fire Tube Boiler
In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which
are surrounded by water. These are economical for low pressure only.
Water Tube Boiler

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In this type of boiler water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow
outside the tubes. These tubes are interconnected to common water
channels and to steam outlet.
At NTPC Dadri there is a water tube boiler in both stage I and stage II
Table 3.6 Boiler Specifications
Manufacturer
BHEL (C.E. design)
Type
Natural circulation, balanced draft,
smooth tube double pass, single
drum, single reheat direct pulverised
coal/oil fired,dry bottom type.
Capacity
700t/hr.
Boiler Efficiency
87.28%
FW. inlet temp
246 C
Type of firing
Tilting tangential
Temp and Pressure at outlet
of154.0 kg/cm2; 5400c
38.8 kg/cm; 5400c
Superheater
Reheater
Water volume
Generating
surface 116 m3
47 m3
(Water walls)
77 m3
Economiser
Superheater (Drum to 34 m3
50 m3
SHO heater)
Drum (full)
324 m3
Reheater
Total water volume of
boiler

3.4 Steam Cycle


Different Components of Steam Cycle
Boiler Drum
Superheater
Low Temperature Superheater
Platen Superheater
Final Superheater
Reheater
Turbine
High Pressure Turbine
Intermediate Pressure Turbine
Page | 27

Low Pressure Turbine


Steam Lines
Condenser

3.4.1 Superheater

A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the steam


generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal energy. Super heaters
increase the efficiency of the power plant, and are widely adopted. Here the
temperature of the steam is raised above the saturated temperature of the
steam so that even after isentropic expansion in the turbine the wetness of
steam remains in the desired region
In NTPC Dadri, the boiler has in total 14 superheater headers located at
various positions in the boiler. Superheaters are of three types
Low Temperature Superheater
Platen Superheater
Final Superheater
Table 3.7 Superheater specifications
LTSH Pendant
Horizontal
Type
Convection
Direction of flow
Counter
Effective heating surface
3700
area, m2
Gas flow path area, m2
73
Total no. of tubes
480
O.D., mm
44.5
Effective length, mm
26466
Gross length, m
34700
No. of elev/section
4
Tube pitch
(a) Parallel of gas
96
flow,mm
114.3
(b) Across gas flow, mm

Platen
S.H.
Radiant
Parallel
1097

Final
S.H.
Convection
Parallel
1543

138.9
203
47.63
8900
10100
7

72
238
44.5
8360
9760
2

57
457.2

95/96
114.3

3.4.2 Reheater

Reheater is a heater which is used to raise the temperature of steam which


has fallen after the expansion in High Pressure Turbine. This is done so as to
increase the efficiency of the power plant and to maintain the dryness
fraction of the steam within the desired limit.
Table 3.8 Reheater Specifications
Type
Max. operating pressure,kg/cm2
Design pressure, kg/cm2
Total circumferential heating suface,

Spaced, single stage


42.08
50.00
2858
Page | 28

m2
Gas flow path area, m2
Space between two banks in direction
of gas flow, mm
Mean effective length per one tube,
mm
Gross length per tube, mm
Total no. of tubes
Acutal tube thickness O.D., mm
Tube material
Tube pitch
(a) Parallel to gas flow, mm
(b) Across gas flow, mm
Method of joining long tubes

118
900
20.000
22,000
354
47.63/54.00
SA 210 Gr A1, SA 213T11, T
22
101.6
228.6
Butt welded

3.4.3 Steam Lines


Main Steam Line
It is the pipeline which carries the superheated steam from the final
superheater to the HPT
Cold Reheat Line
It is the pipeline which carries the outlet steam of the HPT to the
reheaters in the boiler where the temp of the steam is again brought
back to 540C at the same pressure
Hot Reheat Line
It is the pipeline which carries the reheated steam from the reheaters
to the IPT

3.4.4 Condenser

These condensers are heat exchangers which convert exhaust steam from
its gaseous to its liquid state at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.
This is done because handling of the steam is more difficult and requires
more power as compared to that for condensed water.
The condenser used is a shell and tube type condenser in which steam is in
the shell while cooling water is in the tubes. After condensing the steam,
the cooling water gets heated up and is sent to the cooling towers to cool it
and use it again
Specifications of the condenser used in NTPC Dadri is as follows
Table 3.9 Condenser Specifications
Type
Surface type, double pass with
divided water box
construction.
Design c.w. flow
22,500 m3/hr
Page | 29

320c

Design cold wate


temp.
Design back
pressure
No. of tubes
Tube O.D. x
thickness,
Tube material

76 mm of Hg (abs)
15330 nos.
25.4 x 0.7 thick

Surface area
C.W. velocity
Pressure drop C.W.
side
C.W. temp rise

Stainless steel welded


ASTM A 249 TP 304
13727 M2
1.83 m/s
4.18 mwc
10.80c

Fig 3.7 - Condenser

3.5 Cooling Water Cycle


Page | 30

Different Components of Cooling Water Cycle


Raw Water Reservoir
Water Softening Plant
De-mineralized Water Plant
Forebay
Circulating Water Pump House
Condenser
Cooling Tower
Intake Channel

3.5.1 Raw Water Reservoir


Water is brought to the plant through small canal which is further
connected to the Upper Ganga Canal. This water is stored temporarily in a
water reservoir before sending it to the water treatment plant. This water is
called raw water and is sent to WTP through Raw Water pump house

3.5.2 De-Mineralizing Plant

The principle problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and


steam quality. Internal corrosion costs power station crores of rupees in
repair without strict control impurities in steam also form deposit over
turbine blades and nozzles.
The impurities present in water are as follows :

Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials.


Dissolved slats and minerals.
Dissolved gases
Other minerals ( oil, acid etc.)
Turbidity & Sediment.
Silica.
Micro Biological.
Sodium & Potassium Salt.
Dissolved Sales Minerals.
O2 gas.
CO2 gas.

The water treatment plant is divided in to two parts:


Page | 31

Water Softening Plant


Water Softening Plant deals with removing larger solid impurities by
sedimentation and by coagulation and flocculation, and de-infection of
water through aeration. Here, Alum and Chlorine dosing is done so as
to remove the hardness present in the water. After this the water is
sent to de-mineralizing plant and also serves as the drinking water for
the NTPC township
The De-Mineralization plant. (DM plant)
In this plant all the dissolved minerals are removed from the water.
The water from water softening plant is passed through SAC (strong
acid cation) which contains acidic resins and remove dissolved cations
such as Mg, Ca, Na etc. It is then passed through degasser tower to
force out the dissolved carbon dioxide gas and carbonate ions. Then
the water is passed through the SBA chamber which contains strong
basic resins which remove chlorine and sulphate ions. From SBA the
water is passed through MB (mixed bed) chamber which removes both
cationic and anionic impurities , if any, and the water is then sent to
DM storage tank, from where it is transported for various uses.

3.5.3 Forebay

After the water is cooled in the cooling tower, it goes to the CW Pump
house through forebay. It connects water from all the four cooling towers in
a single channel which finally becomes the intake of CW Pump house.

3.5.4 Cooling Water Pump House


It circulates the cooling water coming out of the cooling tower to the
condenser.
It consists of 8 vertical francis, single stage pumps which take inlet from the
forebay

3.5.5 Cooling Tower


Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste
heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of
water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wetbulb air temperature or in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers rely
solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.
In thermal power plant, it is used to cool the circulation water which comes
out of the condenser. The towers vary in size from small roof-top units to
very large hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and 100
meters in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 meters
tall and 80 meters long.
Page | 32

There are two types of cooling towers


Natural Draught Cooling Tower
Forced Draught Cooling Tower
In NTPC Dadri, both natural and forced draught cooling towers are used
Natural Draft is used in Coal Based Unit while Forced Draft is used in Gas
based units
Table 3.10 Cooling Tower Specifications
Type
Natural draft type
No.
4, 1 for each unit
Construction type
Reinforce concrete, hyperbolic,
double curvature shell with a big
beam at the base supported on
rocker columns
Total height
117 m
Base diameter
78.9 m
Throat diameter
46.7 m
Top diameter
49.77 m
Flow
25,000 m3/hr
Range of cooling
110c
Recooled water temp.
320c
Ambient wet bulb temp.
270c
Design relative humidity
50%
Approach.
50c

Page | 33

Fig 3.8 Natural Draft Cooling Towers


Tower from inside

Fig 3.9 Cooling

CHAPTER 4

TURBINE AND GENERATOR


Page | 34

4.1 Turbine
A turbine, is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from
a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. A turbine is
a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly,
which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the
blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. The
turbine normally consists of several stages with each stages consisting of a
stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert
the potential energy of the steam into kinetic energy and direct the flow
onto the rotating blades. The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into
impulse and reaction forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the
rotation of the turbine shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator,
which produces the electrical energy.
Here in Thermal Power Plant Superheated Steam is used as the fluid to run
the turbine

4.1.1 High pressure Turbine

Steam coming from Boiler directly feeds into HPT at a temperature of


540C and at a pressure of 156 kg/cm2. This turbine is a single flow 25
stage reaction turbine. After expansion the temperature goes down to
352C and pressure as 40.4 kg/cm2. The outlet of the HPT is taken back to
the reheaters in the boiler through CRH lines where the steam is again
heated to 540C at same constant pressure.

Fig 4.1 High Pressure Turbine

4.1.2 Intermediate Pressure turbine

Page | 35

Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) is a 20 x 2 stages, double flow reaction


turbine. After coming out of the reheaters, the steam is brought to the IPT
through HRH lines at 540C temperature and 36 kg/cm2 pressure. The
steam is sent in the middle of the IPT from where it expands in both the
directions.

Fig 4.2 Intermediate Pressure Turbine

4.1.3 Low Pressure Turbine

Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) is a 8 x 2 stages, double flow reaction turbine.


After expansion in the IPT, steam is fed directly in the LPT. Here also the
steam is fed in the middle of the tubine and it expands in both the
directions.

Fig 4.3 Low Pressure Turbine


Page | 36

Table 4.1 Turbine Specifications


Make
BHEL, KRAFTWERK UNION DESIGN
Type
Tandem compound, regenerative, reheat,
condensing, three cylinder having single
flow HP turbine, double flow IP & LP turbine.
No of stages
HP 25 no.
IP 20 x 2 no.
LP 8 x 2 no.
Type of HP/IP/LP turbine
HPT-Reaction, barrel single flow type
LPT-Reaction, double flow axially split type
LPT-Reaction, double flow three shell design
Nominal rating
210 MW
Peak loading
229 MW
Max./Min. speed
3090/2850 rpm (47.5 to 51.5 HZ)
Permissible for a maximum of 2 hours
operation during the life of the LP blading
speed below 47.5 HZ & speed above 51.5HZ.
Weight of turbine
475 tonne (approx.)
Height of first stage moving
blade
Mean dia. of first stage
moving blade
Height of last stage moving
blade
Mean dia. of last stage
moving blade
Overall length
Overall width (with cross
around pipes)
Total exhaust area (LP
Turbine)

HPT
43

IPT
66

LPT
755

643

756

1473.5

95

100

668.8

695

1041

2144.8

16.975m
10.5
(approx.)
2 x 5 m2

4.2 Electricity Cycle


Different Components of Air Cycle
Generator
Exciter
Transformer
Unit Transformer
Unit Auxiliary Transformer
Switch Yard
Page | 37

Interconnecting Transformer
Outgoing Feeder

4.3 Generator
The generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. There
are two components stator and rotor. The rotor is the moving part and the
stator is the stationary part. The rotor, which has a field winding, is given a
excitation through a set of 3000rpm to give the required frequency of HZ.
The rotor is cooled by Hydrogen gas, which has high heat carrying capacity
of low density. If oxygen and hydrogen get mixed then they will form very
high explosive and to prevent their combining in any way there is seal oil
system. The stator cooling is done by de-mineralized (DM) water through
hollow conductors. Water is fed by one end by Teflon tube. A boiler and a
turbine are coupled to electric generators. Steam from the boiler is fed to
the turbine through the connecting pipe. Steam drives the turbine rotor.
The turbine rotor drives the generator rotor which turns the electromagnet
within the coil of wire conductors.
Hydrogen gas is used to cool down the rotor.
Lube oil is used to cool the bearings.
DM water is used to cool the stator.
Seal oil is used to prevent hydrogen leakage
Seal oil coolers are present to cool the seal oil
Hydrogen dryer are used which removes the moisture from hydrogen
gas and then is supplied to the generator.
Clarified water in cooling tower is used to cool down the hydrogen gas.

Page | 38

Fig 4.4 Generator (Red) and Turbine (Green)

Rating of Generators used


Stage I 210MW
Satge II 490MW
Table 4.2 Stage I (210MW) Generator specifications
Make
BHEL
Type
THW - 201-2 Two pole, cylindrical,
steam turbine driven
Cooling Stator winding
Directly water cooled
Stator core and Rotor
Directly hydrogen cooled
MW rating
210
Rated terminal voltage
16.5 kv
Rated terminal current
8,645 A
Rated power factor
0.85 lag
Rated speed/frequency
3000 rpm/50 HZ
Efficiency at MC Condition
98.55%
Phase connection
Double star

The 210 MW generates 16.5 KV three phase electricity. The voltage is


stepped up to 220 KV with the help of station transformer and is connected
to the switch yard. This electricity is further stepped up to 400KV and then
supplied to the grid
Some of the electricity is stepped down to 6.6KV with the help of Unit
Auxiliary Transformer to drive the different auxiliaries in the plant.

4.4 Transformer

It is a static machine which increases or decreases the AC voltage without


changing the frequency of the supply. It is a device that:
Page | 39

Transfer electric power from one circuit to another.


It accomplishes this by electromagnetic induction.
In this the two electric circuits are in mutual inductive influence of
each other.
It works on Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction (self or mutual
induction depending on the type of transformer).
There are two types of transformers
Station Transformer
It is the transformer which steps up the 16.5KV electricity generated
by the generator to 220KV
Unit Auxiliary Transformer
It is the transformer which steps down some of the electricity to 6.6KV
so as to run the auxiliaries in the plant

Fig 4.5 Station Transformer

4.5 Switch Yard

As we know that electrical energy cant be stored like cells, so what we


generate should be consumed instantaneously. But as the load is not
constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.e. the
generation depends upon load. The switchyard is the place from where the
electricity is send outside to the grid. Its main function is to convert the
electricity in the required form and connect to the grid to supply this
electricity.

Page | 40

Fig 4.6 Switch Yard

4.5.1 Circuit Breaker


Circuit breaker is an arrangement by which we can break the circuit or flow
of current. A circuit breaker in station serves the same purpose as switch
but it has many added and complex features. The basic construction of any
circuit breaker requires the separation of contact in an insulating fluid that
servers two functions:
extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when circuit breaker
opens.
It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each
contact to earth.

Page | 41

CHAPTER 5

AIR AND FLUE GAS CYCLE


5.1 Air Cycle
Different Components of Air Cycle
Fans
Primary Air Fan
Forced Draft Fan
Induced Draft Fan
Seal Air Fan
Scanner Air Fan
Air Preheter
Cold Air Duct
Hot Air Duct
Wind Box

Page | 42

Fig 5.1 Flue Gas Cycle

5.2 Fans
5.2.1 Primary Air Fan (PA Fan)
It is the fan which is used to carry pulverized coal from the coal mills to the
furnace. The PA Fan takes suction from the FD fan outlet from where the air
is sent to the air preheaters. From APH, the heated air is sent to the coal
mills. Heating of primary air is done so as to remove the moisture content
from the coal so as to facilitate the combustion process.
Table 5.1 PA Fan specifications
Manufacturer
BHEL
No. per boiler
Type

Medium handled
Location

Two
NDZV 19 HERKALES Axial
double suction radial
discharge simply supported
Clean air from FD fan
discharge
Ground mounted on concrete
floor
Page | 43

Orientation
Capacity
Total head
developed
Temp. of
medium
Speed

Top delivery with 450 inclined


suction chamber.
77.4 cu.m/sec.
931 mmwc
530c
1480 rpm

5.2.2 Forced Draft Fan (FD Fan)


It is the external fan provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The
forced draught fan takes air from the atmosphere and, warms it in the air
preheater for better combustion and injects it via the air nozzles on the
furnace wall. This air is called secondary air.
Table 5.2 FD Fan specifications
Manufacturer
BHEL
No. per boiler
Type
Medium handled
Location
Orientation
Capacity
Total head developed
Temp. of medium
Speed

Two
AP1-19/11
Clean air
Ground mounted on
concrete floor
Horizontal axis
144.7 cu.m/sec
334 mmwc.
500c
1480 rpm

Page | 44

Fig 5.2 Forced Draft Fan (bottom left) and Primary Air Fan (bottom right)

5.2.3 Induced Draft Fan (ID Fan)


The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases
from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to
avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet and before the
furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine ash particles carried by the
outlet gases are removed by ESP to avoid atmospheric pollution.
Table 5.3 ID Fan specifications
Manufacturer
BHEL
No. per boiler
Two
Type
NDZV 31 SIDOR Axial
double suction radial
discharge
Medium handled Flue gas
Location
Ground mounted
Orientation
Bottom delivery with
450 inclined suction
Capcity
222 cu.m/sec
Total head
418 mmwc
developed
Temp. of medium 1450c
Speed
740 rpm

Fig 5.3 Induced Draft Fan

5.3 Flue Gas Cycle


Page | 45

Different Components of Flue Gas Cycle


Furnace
Superheater
Reheater
Economiser
Air Preheater
Electrostatic Precipitator
Induced Draft Fan
Chimney

5.3.1 Air Preheater


Air preheater is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air
before another process (for example, combustion in a boiler). The purpose
of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which
increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat
lost in the flue gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the
flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature allowing simplified
design of the ducting and the flue gas stack.
There are two types of Air Preheaters
1. Recuperative Air Preheater
2. Regenerative Air Preheater
In NTPC Dadri, a regenerative air preheater is used. Every unit consists of
two air preheaters. It is of two types
Bisector Air Preheater
Trisector Preheater
Here, a trisector type preheater is used. In this the whole circular area is
divided into three sectors of 180 (for flue gas), 120 (for secondary air)
and 60 (for primary air)

Page | 46

Fig 5.4 Air Preheater

5.3.2 Electrostatic Precipitator


An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate
device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the
force of an induced electrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are
highly efficient filtration devices, and can easily remove fine particulate
matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. Here ESP is used to
separate ash particles from the flue gases. A DC current of 75 KV is passed
through the electrodes which ionizes the ash particles. These particles then
get deposited on the collecting electrodes. Automatic rapping systems and
hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate matter while
on line allowing ESPs to stay in operation for years at a time
Table 5.4 Electrostatic Precipitator
Manufacturer
Type
Gas flow rate
Temperature
No. ofgas paths per boiler
No. of fields in series in each gas
pass
Treatment time
Veloctiy of gas at electrode zone on
total area
Guarantee of collection efficiency
for design conditions
Power consumption
No. of rows of collecting electrodes
per field

specifications
BHEL
FAA-6x45-69135-2
312.7 cu.m / sec
1360c
Four
Six
32.18 seconds
0.839 m/sec
99.9%
505 kw
24

Page | 47

No. of collecting electrode plates


per field
total no, of collecting plates per
boiler
Nominal height of collecting plate
Nominal length of collecting plate
Specific collecting area (with one
field out of service)
Type of emmiting electrodes
Size of emmiting electrodes
No. of emmiting electrodes in the
frame forming one row
No. of emitting electrodes in each
field
Total no. of emitting electrodes per
boiler
Total length of emitting electrode
per field

144
3456
13.5 m
750 mm
214.48
sq.m/cu.m/sec
Spiral with hooks
Dia 2.7 mm
54 fields
1242
29808
6967.62 m.

Fig 5.5 Electrostatic Precipitator

5.3.3 Chimney
A Flue gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar
structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are
exhausted to the outside air. Flue gases are produced when coal or oil is
burnt in the furnace. Flue gas is usually composed of carbon dioxide (CO2)
and water vapour as well as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from
Page | 48

the intake combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of pollutants


such as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide, nitrogen oxides and
sulphur oxides. The flue gas stacks are often quite tall so as to disperse the
exhaust pollutants over a greater area and thereby reduce the
concentration of the pollutants to the levels required by government's
environmental policies and regulations.
Table 5.5 Chimney Specifications
No. of fuel
4 NO.
Wind shield material
Reinforced
concerete
flue material
Steel
Chimney height
220 m
Chimney base diameter
32.975
Chimney raft diameter
43.120 m
Flue diameter
4.5 m

Fig 5.6 Chimney

Page | 49

5.4 Ash Handling Plant


Ash handling refers to the method of collection, conveying, interim storage
and load out of various types of ash residue left over from solid fuel
combustion processes. The most common types of ash include bottom ash,
fly ash and ash clinkers resulting from the combustion of coal. Ash handling
systems may employ pneumatic ash conveying or mechanical ash
conveyors. A typical pneumatic ash handling system will employ vacuum
pneumatic ash collection and ash conveying from several ash pick up
stations with delivery to an ash storage silo for interim holding prior to load
out and transport. Pressurized pneumatic ash conveying may also be
employed. Coarse ash material such as bottom ash is most often crushed in
clinker grinders (crushers) prior to being transported in the ash conveyor
system. Very finely sized fly ash often accounts for the major portion of the
material conveyed in an ash handling system. It is collected from baghouse
type dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators and other apparatus in the
flue gas processing stream.
There are two types of ash in a Power Plant:
Bottom Ash.
It refers to part of the non-combustible residues of combustion. In an
industrial context, it usually refers to coal combustion and comprises
traces of combustibles embedded in forming clinkers and sticking to
hot side walls of a coal-burning furnace during its operation. The
portion of the ash that escapes up the chimney or stack is, however,
referred to as fly ash. The clinkers fall by themselves into the water or
sometimes by poking manually, and get cooled.
Fly Ash
It is one of the residues generated in combustion, and comprises the
fine particles that rise with the flue gases. In an industrial context, fly
ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal. Fly ash
is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle
filtration equipments before the flue gases reach the chimneys of coalfired power plants.
There are basically 2 types of ash handling processes undertaken by AHP:
Dry ash system
Ash slurry system
Dry Ash System
Dry ash is required in cement factories as it can be directly added to
cement. Hence the dry ash collected in the ESP hopper is directly disposed
Page | 50

to silos using pressure pumps. The dry ash from these silos is transported
to the required destination.
Ash Slurry System
Ash from boiler is transported to ash dump areas by means of sluicing type
hydraulic system which consists of two types of systems:
Bottom ash system
In this system, the ash slag discharged from the furnace is collected in
water impounded scraper installed below bottom ash hopper. The ash
collected is transported to clinkers by chain conveyors. The clinker
grinders churn ash which is then mixed with water to form slurry.
Ash water system
In this system, the ash collected in ESP hopper is passed to flushing
system. Here low pressure water is applied through nozzle directing
tangentially to the section of pipe to create turbulence and proper
mixing of ash with water to form slurry. Slurry formed in above
processes is transported to ash slurry sump. Here extra water is added
to slurry if required and then is pumped to the dump area

Fig 5.7 Hydrobins

Page | 51

Fig 5.8 Dry Ash Silos

CONCLUSION
The industrial training has proved to be quiet fruitful. It provided an
opportunity for encounter with such huge machines. The architecture of the
power plant the way various units are link and the way working of whole
plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering is not just
learning the structure description and working of various machines, but the
greater part is of planning proper management.
The practical experience that I have gathered during the overview training
of thermal power plant having a large capacity of 2637 MW in 45 days will
be very useful and a stepping stone in building bright professional career in
future life. It gave me large spectrum to utilize the theoretical knowledge
and to put it into practice. The trouble shooting activities in operation and
decision making in case of crisis made me more confident to work in the
industrial atmosphere. Moreover, this overview training has also given a
self-realization & hands-on experience in developing the personality,
interpersonal relationship with the professional executives, staffs and to
develop the leadership ability in industry dealing with workers of all
categories. I would like to thank everybody who has been a part of this
project, without whom this project would never be completed with such
ease.

Page | 52

REFERENCES
Thermal Power Plant (Wikipedia)
NTPC Dadri Technical Diary
Power Plant Engineering by P.K. Nag
TMH Publications
Thermodynamics by P.K. Nag
TMH Publications
www.ntpc.co.in

Page | 53