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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIFE INSURANCE CORPORATION AND PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES
Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Post Graduate in Management
PROJECT GUIDE: Prof. Usha Kiran Rai FMS BHU
SUBMITTED BY: Shashank Tripathi MBA IV Sem (Finance) FMS BHU
Ø Acknowledgement Ø Introduction § Concept of Insurance § Global Insurance Industry § Performance of Indian Industry § Insurance sector reforms in India § New avenues for growth of the Insurance industry Ø Research Methodology § Research Objectives § Research Design § Research Process § Limitations of the Study § Significance of the study Ø Analysis and Interpretation Ø Findings & Conclusions Ø References
I must acknowledge my indebtedness to various personalities, but for whom, this project could not have seen the light of the day.
I am profoundly grateful to Prof. Usha Kiran Rai, Faculty of Management Studies, BHU who agreed to become my mentor and guide for the project and gave me the opportunity to work on this project. I am also grateful, for her support and guidance throughout this project with valuable information and giving me a better insight of the things, without which the successful culmination of this project would not have been possible. Not only did she inspired me throughout the progress of the project, but, also motivated me to get an insight into the field of my work.
I would also like to extent my immense gratitude to Prof. A. K. Agrawal, and respected Dean Prof. Deepak Barman, Faculty of Management Studies, BHU who allowed me to choose the topic for my Dissertation.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1. CONCEPT OF INSURANCE :
Life has always been an uncertain thing. To be secure against unpleasant possibilities, always requires the utmost resourcefulness and foresight on the part of man. To pray or to pay for protection is the spirit of the humanity. Man has been accustomed to pray God for protection and security from time immemorial. In modern days Insurance Companies want him to pay for protection and security. The insurance man says "God helps those who help themselves"; probably he is correct. Too many people in this country are not in employment; and work for too many no longer guarantees income security. Several millions are part-time, self employed and low-earning workers living under pitiable circumstances where there is no security cover against risk. Further the inherent changing employment risks, the prospect of continual change in the work place with its attendant threats of unemployment and low pay especially after the adoption of New Economic Policy and the imminent life cycle risks - a new source of insecurity which includes the changing demands of family life, separation, divorce and elderly dependents are tormenting the society. Risk has become central to one's life. It is within this background life insurance policy has been introduced by the insurance companies covering risks at various levels. Life insurance coverage is against disablement or in the event of death of the insured, economic support for the dependents. It is a measure of social security to livelihood for the insured or dependents. This is to make the right to life meaningful, worth living and right to livelihood a means for sustenance. Therefore, it goes without saying that an appropriate life insurance policy within the paying capacity and means of the insured to pay premium is one of the social security measures envisaged under the Indian Constitution. Hence, right to social security, protection of the family, economic empowerment to the poor and disadvantaged are integral part of the right to life and dignity of the person guaranteed in the constitution. Man finds his security in income (money) which enables him to buy food, clothing, shelter and other necessities of life. A person has to earn income not only for himself but also for his dependents, viz., wife and children. He has to provide legally for his family needs, and so he has to keep aside something regularly for a rainy day and for his old age. This fundamental need for security for self and dependents proved to be the mother of invention of the institution of life insurance.
What is Insurance :
The business of insurance is related to the protection of the economic values of assets. Every asset has a value. The asset would have been created through the efforts of the owner. The asset is valuable to the owner, because he expects to get some benefit from it. The benefit may be an income or some thing else. It is a benefit because it meets some of his needs. In the case of a factory or a cow, the product generated by is sold and income generated. In the case of a motor car, it provides comfort and convenience in transportation. There is no direct income. Every asset is expected to last for a certain period of time during which it will perform. After that, the benefit may not be available. There is a life-time for a machine in a factory or a cow or a motor car. None of them will last for ever. The owner is aware of this and he can so manage his affairs that by the end of that period or life-time, a substitute is made available. Thus, he makes sure that the value or income is not lost. However, the asset may get lost earlier. An accident or some other unfortunate event may destroy it or make it non-functional. In that case, the owner and those deriving benefits from there, would be deprived of the benefit and the planned substitute would not have been ready. There is an adverse or unpleasant situation. Insurance is a mechanism that helps to reduce the effect of such adverse situations. Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a potential loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for a premium. Insurer, in economics, is the company that sells the insurance. Insurance rate is a factor used to determine the amount, called the premium, to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.
Origin of Insurance
PRACTICE OF INSURANCE IN INDIA: 1818-1956 It is claimed that insurance was practiced in India even in Vedic times in one form or the other. The Sanskrit term "Yogakshema" in the Rigveda meant some kind of insurance, which was practiced by the Aryans in India nearly 3000 years ago. During the Mughal period insurance took firm roots. There are even references to the cover against war risks. Losses due to the passage of royal troops through farms were compensated by the State as a gesture of goodwill. The year 1818 is an epoch -making year in the history of our country. The first Life Insurance Company on India soil appears to have been started in this year. A group of Europeans pioneered the establishment of the Oriental Life Insurance Society to afford relief to the distressed relatives of European. The venture was not quite successful but the company was reformed in 1829.The renewed Company also got into trouble in 1833 when Agency House of Calcutta, partners of the same, fell.
Prince Dwarkanath Tagore was the only solvent partner & the sole responsibility for carrying on the institution developed on him. Meanwhile, early in Janury1834, the Government made up its mind to establish a Public Insurance Company & a Committee was set up for this purpose .A number of foreign Insurance Companies then operating in the country viewed this move with alarm. They set up Committees of their own enquire into their individual affairs. Dwarkanath Tagore, too, had a Committee appointed to look into the affairs of the Oriental. As a result, another company was born out of the previous one in the name of "New Oriental Company" In the reorganization of the "Oriental" in the year 1834, two other gentlemen were associated. One was Ramtanu Lahiri and the other Rustamjee Cowasjee. The latter was another prominent figure of the business world. Rustamjee entered insurance business in 1828, he was already known to the community and the Government as a wealthy Parsi merchant. Rustamjee's connection with insurance also started with "Laudable Societies", but he was later on associated with Companies like "Sun Life Office (1834) ", New Oriental (1835),Universal Life (1835) , New Laudable (1840) , and Indian Laudable (1841) . He was also on the Committee of the Union Insurance Company which was formed by a group of five persons. This Company was issuing policies covering river-risks only. He was intimately connected with the Committee of Insurance Offices in Calcutta. Rustamjee Cowasjee & Dwarkanath Tagore was probably the first Indians to join in partnership business with the Europeans & in the field of insurance they were pioneers on this side of the country. Apart from Calcutta, several enterprising people in Bombay started in 1823 the "Bombay Life" Assurance Company. The company went into liquidation soon and could not revive. In 1829, the "Madras Equitable "was formed. It finally ceased to function in 1921 due to financial difficulties after the First World War. The effort to set up a public insurance company at the government level also went in vain, mainly from objection of private operators. Majority of the early attempts to form insurance offices were in the province of Bengal. This was due to its political & economic importance at that time. The contribution of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, one of the greatest social reformers of India, to the development of life insurance is very great. He was deeply concerned about the sad plight of desperate widows and helpless orphans.
OVERSEAS INSURERS Initially, when Life Offices were established in large numbers in Britain, some of them ventured to issue sterling policies to the British residents in India. Premiums collected here were credited to England largely for British beneficiaries. Business seems to have been brisk and profitable and was usually under short term policies. Insurance mortality tables and insufficient mortality data of Englishmen in India made the premiums heavy-heavier than at home. Insurance was denied to the "natives" even if they wanted it- for their lives were always considered risky and sometimes valueless. When Indian lives were accepted as a very special case, the extras charged were still heavier. Prominent amongst the companies which came to India around this period was the "Medical Invalid and General" incorporated in London in 1841. As more areas were annexed and the
ruling power, with vested interests in developing trade, took charge , the "Medical" extended its area of operation, established large connections, absorbed the" Agra Life" and in 1835, took over the "New Oriental". P.M. Tate, the then manager of the "Medical", was a keen businessman, widely liked, influential and shrewd. With W.F. Ferguson, who was the manager of the "New Oriental" before amalgamation, he commenced very active operations which were temporarily affected by the 1857 "Mutiny". The Universal Life Insurance Company established in England in 1836 opened its Indian Branch in 1840 and enjoyed a long period of successful operations until it was taken over by the "North British" in May 1901. Insurance exceeding Rs. 10 crores were issued in India during this period. Another English Company operating in India at that time was the Colonial Life Assurance Company. It was established in 1846 under the auspices of the Standard Life Assurance Company. The original prospectus of this company declared its purpose as "extending to the Colonies of Great Britain and to Indian the full benefit of Life Assurance". It appointed agents with local boards which were first established on Calcutta, Bombay, Madras and Colombo. Later on this company was taken over by the "Standard Life" and made valuable contribution to investigations into the mortality experience of assured lives in India. Eventually it ceased its operations in India in 1938. It is difficult to say which was the oldest Life Policy in India, but the oldest known appears to be one sold by the Royal Insurance (which commenced business in India in 1845) on the life was to Cursetjee Furdonjee on 6th January 1848, no reference to any earlier policy being available. In the year 1853, the Liver pool and London and Globe Insurance Company established in England in 1836, commenced business in India. Sir Charles Forbes was its first agent, succeeded by M/s. Forbes, Forbes and Campbell. It accepted only European lives and commenced insuring Indian lives only after 1929.This too, was mainly to oblige good agents of the Company for classes other than life business. The North British and Mercantile was the next company to appear on the Indian scene. It started fire insurance business in the year 1861 and life business 1864. The London Assurance started life business in 1864, limited principally to European lives and closed down its life department when the Life Assurance Companies Act 1912 made submission of returns compulsory. On 3rd December, 1870, seven earnest men of Bombay with just seven rupees for initial expenses gave shape to a plan of offering insurance to the public without the risk of ruin and the "Bombay Mutual Life Assurance Society" came into existence. This was followed by the Oriental Life Assurance Company in1874, the Bharat in 1896 and the Empire of India in 1897. THE BIRTH OF INDIAN INSURERS With the advent of the 20th century, the glorious renaissance of swadeshi days dawned. At the same time, well- to do Indians realized the potentiality of Indian Insurance business. The Swadeshi movement of 1905-1907 gave rise to more insurance companies. The United India in Madras, National Indian and National Insurance in Calcutta and the Co-operative Assurance at Lahore were established in 1906. In 1907, Hindustan Co-operative Insurance Company took its birth in one of the rooms of the Jorasanko House of the great poet Rabindranath Tagore, in Calcutta. The Indian Mercantile (1907) was started in Bombay,
General Assurance (1908) at Ajmer and the Swadeshi Life (Later Bombay Life) in Bombay in 1908. The end of the First World War (1914-18) witnessed an influx of insurance companies in India. Famous Indian business houses started new insurance companies. Industrial and Prudential Bombay, Western India, Satara, were floated before the war, but by 1919, companies like Jupiter General, New India, Vulcan Insurance Company etc. came into being. Pandit K.Santhanam with blessing of Lala Lajpat Rai and Pandit Motilal Nehru started Laxmi Insurance Co. Similarly, Andhra Insurance was started in Masulipatnam, with the initiative of stalwarts like Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah. From political platforms also, national leaders supported this cause. It is duty to every Indian to support only Indian Insurance. The keynote of our Swaraj is in placing all our insurance with our Indian companies", said Mahatma Gandhi in his message. "I hope Indians will realize the importance of patriotism only through Indian insurance institution", stated Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Thus, the cause of Indian insurance became a national issue. The pursuit to boost Indian insurance represented a crusade to extricate the Indian economy from foreign domination.
PROGRESS IN INSURANCE BUSINESS The growth of Life Insurance in concrete terms could be said to being during the first two decades of twentieth century when most of the major companies were founded. They grew in terms of rise in the number of companies, in terms of number of policies and sum assured as well as total life fund. Indian Insurance Year Book, published for the first time in 1914, gives the figure of the total business-in -force as 22.44 crore which grew to Rs. 298 crore in 1938. In 1914, there were only 44companies transacting insurance business in India, and during the next 25 years their number rose to 176. The total progress on all the primary heads, viz. life fund (Rs. 50.50 crore), premium income (Rs. 10.50 crore) and new business (Rs. 43.30 crore) indicate that Indian Insurance Business had been making a definite headway during this years. The inter-war -years thus saw rapid growth life insurance in India. The promotion of new life insurance companies continued to be almost a craze and insurance companies mushroomed. In this period, 176 insurance companies were formed and many of them failed. Thus unhealthy growth was harmful to the interest of the policy holders and insurance business in India. Feeling concerned about it, the All India Life Assurance Offices' Association urged upon the Government in 1932 to undertake the insurance legislation to
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(a) Compulsorily register all Life Insurance companies. (b) Secure a deposit of Rs.2 lakh from all Life Insurance companies. (c) Compel foreign companies doing business in India to keep sufficient funds in India securities to meet their liabilities under all policies issued in India.
INSURANCE ACT, 1938 The Insurance Act, 1938, was the first comprehensive legislation governing not only life but also non- life branches of insurance to provide strict state control over insurance business. In sub- sections to dealt with provident companies, mutual offices and co-operative societies as well. The silent features of the Act were as follows:
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(A) Constitution of a Department of Insurance under a superintendent vested with wide powers of supervision and control over all kinds of insurance companies. (B) Regulation for the compulsory registration of insurance companies and for filing of returns of investment and financial conditions. (C) Provisions for deposit, to prevent insurers of inadequate financial resources of speculative concerns for commencing business. (D) Provisions that 55% of the net life fund of an Indian or non- Indian insurer should invested in Indian Government and approved securities with at least 25% in Indian Government Rupee securities.. All other companies, i.e., foreign companies must invest 100% of their Indian liabilities in Indian Government and approved securities, with at least 33.3% Indian Government securities. (E) Prohibition of rebating, restriction of commission, licensing of agents etc. Maximum rates of commission were fixed at 40% of the first premiums and 5% of the renewal premium in respect of life assurance business. The agent must be licensed, to improve the status of the profession. (F) Periodical valuation of Indian Insurance business of foreign companies and the business of Indian companies. (G) Provision for policyholders' directors, making it possible for the representatives of policyholders to be on the Board of directors. (H) Standardization of policy conditions required all companies to file standard forms and tables of premium approved by an Actuary. Under this requirement, the initial deposit for life insurance business was raised from Rs. 25000 in Government securities to Rs. 50000 in cash approved securities, which was subsequently to be raised by installments to Rs. 2 lakh within a specified time limit.
GROWTH OF LIFE BUSINESS IN INDIA: 1914-1948 Sr no 1 No of insurers 1914 44 44 22.44 22.44 6.36 1930 68 68 748997 513925 (68.61) 220703 14369 258.42 84.89 (32.85) 69.76 3.77 20.53 1940 195 179 (91.79) 16 1945 215 200 (93.02) 15 1948 209 189 (90.43) 20
(a) Indian (b) Non-Indian 2 Total No. of policies In force
1628381 2714000 3016000 1371963 2376000 2791000 (84.25) (87.55) (90.15) 181247 75171 304.03 225.51 (74.17) 60.12 18.4 62.41 261000 77000 573.07 459.43 (80.17) 91.85 21.79 107.4 234000 202000 712.76 566.38 (79.46) 101.08 45.3 150.39
(a) Indian (b) Non-Indian (c) 3 Indian outside India Total business in force
(a) Indian (Rs. Crore) (b) Non-Indian (c) 4 Indian outside India Total life funds (Rs. Crore)
Note: Figures in brackets show percentage of the total.
THE LIFE INSURANCE CORPORATION OF INDIA: 1956 This was the first step taken towards the nationalization of life insurance business in India. On 20th January, 1956 all life insurance companies were taken over by 43 nominated custodians. The custodians were experienced senior executives of private insurance companies, reporting directly to the Finance Ministry. From the word go, the complex task of running the industry on a permanent basis and continuing the services to policy holders without interruption were their major concerns. The actual work of integration had to await legislation. The custodians managed the insurance companies till 1-09-1956, when Life Insurance Corporation was established under the general direction and control of the Ministry of Finance. The Ordinance provided for the transfer of the control of 154 Indian insurers, 16 non Indian insurers and 75 provident societies. These arrangements were designed to ensure that no inconvenience whatsoever was caused to the policy holders. With the Government take over the management aimed towards the evolution of a common uniform premium rate, policy conditions and service and working procedures and above all to help promote team spirit. The corporation, a body corporate shall consist of not more than 15 members appointed by the Central Government, one of them being appointed by the government as chairman. The capital of the corporation was at Rs 5 crore provided by the central government. INSURANCE SECTOR REFORMS In 1993, Malhotra Committee, headed by former Finance Secretary and RBI Governor R.N. Malhotra was formed to evaluate the Indian Insurance industry and recommended its future direction. The Malhotra committee was set up with the objective of complementing the reforms initiated in the financial sector. The reforms were aimed at "creating a more efficient and competitive financial system suitable for the requirements of the economy keeping in mind the structural changes currently underway and recognizing that insurance is an important part of the over all financial system where it was necessary to address the need for similar reforms...". In 1994, the committee submitted the report and some of the key recommendations included: (1) STRUCTURE
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Government stake in the Insurance Companies to be brought down to 50%. Government should take over the holdings of GIC and its subsidiaries so that these subsidiaries can act as independent corporations. All the insurance companies should be given greater freedom to operate
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Private Companies with minimum paid up capital of Rs.1 bn should be allowed to enter the industry. No Company should deal in both Life and General Insurance through a single entry. Foreign Companies may be allowed to enter the industry in collaboration with the domestic companies. Postal Life Insurance should be allowed to operate in the rural market. Only one State Level Life Insurance Company should be allowed to operate in each state.
(3) REGULATORY BODY
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The Insurance Act should be changed An Insurance Regulatory Body should be set up. Controller of Insurance (Currently a part from the Finance Ministry)should be made independent
Mandatory Investments of LIC Life Fund in government securities to be reduced from 75% to 50%. GIC and its subsidiaries are not to hold more than 5% in any company (There current holdings to be brought down to this level over a period of time).
(5) CUSTOMER SERVICE
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LIC should pay interest on delays on payments beyond 30 days. Insurance Companies must be encouraged to set up unit linked pension plans Computerization of operations and updating of technology to be carried out in the insurance industry.
The committee emphasized that in order to improve the customer service and increase the coverage of insurance industry should opened up to competition. But at the same time, the committee felt the need to exercise caution as any failure on the part of new players could ruin the public confidence in the industry. Hence, it was decided to allow competition in a limited way by stipulating the minimum capital requirement of Rs. 100 crores. The committee felt the need to provide greater autonomy to insurance companies in order to improve their performance and enable them to act as independent companies with economic motives. For this purpose, it had proposed setting up an independent regulatory body.
OPENING UP OF INSURANCE SECTOR – 1999 THE INSURANCE REGULATORY AND DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY Reforms in the Insurance sector were initiated with the passage of the IRDA Bill in Parliament in December 1999. The IRDA since its incorporation as a statutory body in April 2000 has fastidiously stuck to its schedule of framing regulations and registering the private sector insurance companies. The other decision taken simultaneously to provide the supporting systems to the insurance sector and in particular the life insurance companies was the launch of the IRDA's online service for issue and renewal of licenses to agents. The approval of institutions for imparting training to agents has also ensured that the insurance companies would have a trained workforce of insurance agents in place to sell their products, which are expected to be introduced by early next year. Since being set up as an independent statutory body the IRDA has put in a framework of globally compatible regulations. In the private sector 14 life insurance companies have been registered. ENTRY OF PRIVATE COMPANIES Under the IRDA Act, private companies can now operate in India's insurance industry. However, they must obtain a license from the IRDA before being permitted to write business. To have its license application considered, a domestic private company must be registered in accordance with the Companies Act of 1956 and have approximately US$ 20 million of investment capital. The specific licensing requirements that Private Indian Companies must fulfill are set forth in the Registration on Indian Insurance Companies Regulations, published by the IRDA 2000. LIFTING OF BARRIERS TO FOREIGN INVESTMENT The IRDA Act also lifts certain barriers to foreign direct investment in Indian insurance industry. Global insurers are now permitted to set up and register a domestic company in order to write business in India. However, regulations stipulate that they have a capital base of at least US $ 20 million, and their investment in such company is capped at 26 percent. Thus, to participate in the market, they must form a joint venture with an Indian partner that is able to invest the remaining funds. The equity investments limit is the same for global reinsures seeking to write business in India, but they are required to put up a capital of approximately US$ 45 million in order to establish a domestic company.
Since the IRDA first enacted these rules, 13 new life insurance companies have entered the market. On the other hand, no global reinsurer has established a domestic company. Instead, most of the top international reinsurance companies operate from their overseas offices by sharing the reinsurance risks picked up by the GIC. A recent proposal has been put forward to increase foreign direct investment to 49 percent. In addition, global companies are pushing for the right to establish branch offices in India. These changes are likely to substantially increase the presence of international insurers, reinsurers, and brokers in India. The IRDA Insurance Brokers Act in India 2002 permitted overseas insurance and reinsurance brokers to enter the market, but with the same equity cap as that governing the operations of foreign insurers and reinsurers. Thus, foreign brokers must also form a joint venture with an Indian partner in order to establish an Indian broking house. The 2002 IRDA legislation established four broker categories, one of which brokers must select when applying for a license: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Category 1A : Direct General Insurance Broker Category 1B : Direct Life Insurance Broker Category 2 : Reinsurance Broker Category 3: Composite Broker Category4: Others, for example Insurance Consultants and Risk Management Consultants.
Each category has different solvency margins and capital adequacy ratios, and all categories need to carry professional indemnity insurance at different minimum levels. In the years since market liberalization was initiated, the insurance sector has witnessed some impressive changes. The needs of insurance and reinsurance buyers have grown; the market is introducing new products to address these needs; and the services of brokers are now seen as critical to making informed insurance and reinsurance decisions. OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT INSURANCE MARKET In the years since the IRDA Act initiated market reforms, the insurance sector has experienced some remarkable changes. The entry of a large number of Indian and Foreign private companies in life insurance business has to lead greater choice in terms of products and services. Increased consumer awareness of the benefits and importance of insurance and reinsurance has generated many more buyers; and new distribution channels_ among them brokers, bank assurance, the Internet, and corporate agents_ have provided additional ways of getting products and services to customers.
Private insurance companies have to date written a small percentage of business in this sector during the last three years, but they have ushered in a competitive environment that has accelerated market growth. State owned insurers still write the bulk of insurance business, and they have the net worth required to underwrite large corporate risks without depending almost entirely on reinsurance support. However, their focus on restructuring is beginning to put them at a disadvantage against private competitors. Over the next few years, the share of the market held by the public insurers is expected to drop substantially, with private companies assuming a growing percentage of the business written. At present there are 15 private insurers with two standalone private players and remaining private-foreign joint venture.
Purpose and Need of Insurance :
Assets are insured, because they are likely to be destroyed through accidental occurrences. Such possible occurrences are called perils. Fire, floods, breakdowns, lightening, earthquakes, etc, are perils. If such perils can cause damage to the asset, we say that the asset is exposed to that risk. Perils are the events. Risks are the consequential losses or damages. The risk to a owner of a building, because of the peril of an earthquake, may be a few lakhs or a few crores of rupees, depending on the cost of the building and the contents in it. The risk only means that there is a possibility of loss or damage. The damage may or may not happen. Insurance is done against the contingency that it may happen. There has to be an uncertainty about the risk. Insurance is relevant only if there are uncertainties. If there is no uncertainty about the occurrence of an event, it cannot be insured against. In the case of human being, death is certain, but the time of death is uncertain. In the case of person who is terminally ill, the time of death is not uncertain, though not exactly known. He cannot be insured. Insured does not protect the asset. It does not prevent its loss due to peril. The peril cannot be avoided through insurance. The peril can sometimes be avoided through better safety and damage control management. Insurance only tries to reduce the impact of the risk on the owner of the asset and those who depend on that asset. It only compensates the losses and that too, not fully. Only economic consequences can be insured. If the loss is not financial, insurance may not be possible. Example of non-economic losses are love and affection of parents, leadership of managers, sentimental attachments to family heirlooms, innovative and creative abilities, etc.
How Insurance Works?
The mechanism of insurance is very simple. People who are exposed to the same risks come together and agree that, if any one of them suffers a loss, the others will share the loss and make good to the person who lost. All people who send goods by ship are exposed to the same risks, which are related to water damage, ship sinking, piracy, etc. Those owning factories are not exposed to these risks, but they are exposed to different kinds of risks like, fire, hailstorms, earthquake, lightning, burglary, etc. Like this, different kinds of risks can be identified and separate groups made, including those exposed to such risks. By this method, the heavy loss that any one of them may suffer (all of them may not suffer such losses at the same time) is divided into bearable small losses by all. In other words, the risk is spread among the community and the likely big impact on one is reduced to smaller manageable impacts on all.
If a Jumbo Jet with more than 350 passengers crashes, the loss would run into several crores of rupees. No airline would be able to bear such a loss. It is unlikely that many Jumbo Jets will crash at same time. If 100 airline companies flying Jumbo Jets, come together into an insurance pool, whenever one of the Jumbo Jets in the pool crashes, the loss to be borne by each airline would come down to a few lakhs of rupees. Thus, insurance is a business of sharing . There are certain principles, which make it possible for insurance to remain a fair arrangement. The first is that it is difficult for any one individual to bear the consequences of the risks that he is exposed to. It will become bearable when the community shares the burden. The second is that the perils should occur in an accidental manner. Nobody should be in a position to make the risk happen. In other words, none in the group should set fire to his assets and ask others to share the costs of damage. This would be taking unfair advantage of an arrangement put into place to protect people from risks they are exposed to. The occurrence has to be random, accidental, and not the deliberate creation of the insured person. The manner in which the loss is to be shared can be determined before-hand. It may be proportional to the risk that each person is exposed to. This would be indicative of the benefit he would receive if the peril befell him. The share could be collected from the members after the loss has occurred or the likely shares may be collected in advance, at the time of admission to the group. Insurance companies collect in advance and create a fund from which the losses are paid. The collection to be made from each person in advance is determined on assumptions. While it may not be possible to tell beforehand, which person will suffer, it may be possible to tell, on the basis of past experiences, how many persons, on an average, may suffer losses. The following two examples explain the above concept of insurance:
In a village, there are 400 houses, each valued at Rs. 20000. Each year, on the average, 4 houses get burnt, resulting into a total loss of Rs. 80000. If all the 400 owners come together and contribute Rs. 200 each, the common fund would be Rs. 80000. this is enough to pay Rs. 20000 to each of the 4 owners whose houses got burnt. Thus, the risk of 4 owners is spread over 400 house-owners of the village.
There are 1000 persons who are all aged 50 and are healthy. It is expected that of these, 10 persons may die during the year. If the economic value of the loss suffered by the family of each dying person is taken to be Rs. 20000, the total loss would work out to Rs. 200000. If each person in a group contributed Rs. 200 a year, the common fund would be Rs. 200000. This would be enough to par Rs. 20000 to the family of each of the ten persons who die. Thus, the risks in the case of 10 persons, are shared by 1000 persons.
Insurance of ‘Human Asset’
A human being is an income generating asset. One s manual labour, professional skills and business acumen are the assets. This asset also can be lost through unexpectedly early death or through sickness and disabilities caused by accidents. Accidents may or may not happen. Death will happen, but the timing is uncertain. If it happens around the time of one s retirement, when it could be expected that the income will normally cease, the person concerned could have made some other arrangements to meet the continuing needs. But if it happens much earlier when the alternate arrangements are not in place, there can be losses to the person and dependents. Insurance is necessary to help those dependent on the income. A person, who may have made arrangements for his needs after his retirement, also would need insurance. This is because the arrangements would have been made on the basis of some expectations like, likely to live for another 15 years, or that children will look after him. If any of these expectations do not become true, the original arrangement would become inadequate and there could be difficulties. Living too long can be as much a problem as dying too young. Both are risks, which need to be safeguarded against. Insurance takes care.
Insurance of Intangibles :
The concept of insurance has been extended beyond the coverage of tangible assets. Exporters run risk of losses if the importers in the other country default in payments or in collecting the goods. They will also suffer heavily due to sudden changes in currency exchange rates, economic policies or political disturbances in the other country. These risks are insured. Doctors run the risk of being charged with negligence and subsequent liability for damages. The amounts in question can be fairly large, beyond the capacity of individuals to bear. These are insured. Thus, insurance is extended to intangibles. In some countries, the voice of a singer or the legs of a dancer may be insured.
Types of Insurance :
Any risk that can be quantified can potentially be insured. Specific kinds of risk that may give rise to claims are known as "perils". An insurance policy will set out in detail which perils are covered by the policy and which are not.
Below is a (non-exhaustive) list of the many different types of insurance that exist. A single policy may cover risks in one or more of the categories set forth below. For example, auto insurance would typically cover both property risk (covering the risk of theft or damage to the car) and liability risk (covering legal claims from causing an accident). A homeowner's insurance policy in the U.S. typically includes property insurance covering damage to the home and the owner's belongings, liability insurance covering certain legal claims against the owner, and even a small amount of health insurance for medical expenses of guests who are injured on the owner's property. Automobile insurance known in the UK as motor insurance, is probably the most common form of insurance and may cover both legal liability claims against the driver and loss of or damage to the insured's vehicle itself. Throughout most of the United States an auto insurance policy is required to legally operate a motor vehicle on public roads. In some jurisdictions, bodily injury compensation for automobile accident victims has been changed to a no-fault system, which reduces or eliminates the ability to sue for compensation but provides automatic eligibility for benefits. Aviation insurance insures against hull, spares, deductible, hull war and liability risks. Boiler insurance (also known as boiler and machinery insurance or equipment breakdown insurance) insures against accidental physical damage to equipment or machinery. Builder's risk insurance insures against the risk of physical loss or damage to property during construction. Builder's risk insurance is typically written on an "all risk" basis covering damage due to any cause (including the negligence of the insured) not otherwise expressly excluded.
Business insurance can be any kind of insurance that protects businesses against risks. Some principal subtypes of business insurance are (a) the various kinds of professional liability insurance, also called professional indemnity insurance, which are discussed below under that name; and (b) the business owners policy (BOP), which bundles into one policy many of the kinds of coverage that a business owner needs, in a way analogous to how homeowners insurance bundles the coverage that a homeowner needs. Casualty insurance insures against accidents, not necessarily tied to any specific property. Credit insurance repays some or all of a loan back when certain things happen to the borrower such as unemployment, disability, or death. Mortgage insurance (which see below) is a form of credit insurance, although the name credit insurance more often is used to refer to policies that cover other kinds of debt. Crime insurance insures the policyholder against losses arising from the criminal acts of third parties. For example, a company can obtain crime insurance to cover losses arising from theft or embezzlement. Crop insurance "Farmers use crop insurance to reduce or manage various risks associated with growing crops. Such risks include crop loss or damage caused by weather, hail, drought, frost damage, insects, or disease, for instance." Defense Base Act Workers' compensation or DBA Insurance provides coverage for civilian workers hired by the government to perform contracts outside the US and Canada. DBA is required for all US citizens, US residents, US Green Card holders, and all employees or subcontractors hired on overseas government contracts. Depending on the country, Foreign Nationals must also be covered under DBA. This coverage typically includes expenses related to medical treatment and loss of wages, as well as disability and death benefits. Directors and officers liability insurance protects an organization (usually a corporation) from costs associated with litigation resulting from mistakes incurred by directors and officers for which they are liable. In the industry, it is usually called "D&O" for short. Disability insurance policies provide financial support in the event the policyholder is unable to work because of disabling illness or injury. It provides monthly support to help pay such obligations as mortgages and credit cards. o Total permanent disability insurance provides benefits when a person is permanently disabled and can no longer work in their profession, often taken as an adjunct to life insurance. Errors and omissions insurance: See "Professional liability insurance" under "Liability insurance". Expatriate insurance provides individuals and organizations operating outside of their home country with protection for automobiles, property, health, liability and business pursuits. Financial loss insurance protects individuals and companies against various financial risks. For example, a business might purchase cover to protect it from loss of sales if a fire in a factory prevented it from carrying out its business for a time. Insurance might also cover the failure of a creditor to pay money it owes to the insured. This type of insurance is frequently
referred to as "business interruption insurance." Fidelity bonds and surety bonds are included in this category, although these products provide a benefit to a third party (the "obligee") in the event the insured party (usually referred to as the "obligor") fails to perform its obligations under a contract with the oblige. Health insurance policies will often cover the cost of private medical treatments if the National Health Service in the UK (NHS) or other publicly-funded health programs do not pay for them. It will often result in quicker health care where better facilities are available. Home insurance or homeowners insurance: See "Property insurance". Liability insurance is a very broad superset that covers legal claims against the insured. Many types of insurance include an aspect of liability coverage. For example, a homeowner's insurance policy will normally include liability coverage which protects the insured in the event of a claim brought by someone who slips and falls on the property; automobile insurance also includes an aspect of liability insurance that indemnifies against the harm that a crashing car can cause to others' lives, health, or property. The protection offered by a liability insurance policy is twofold: a legal defense in the event of a lawsuit commenced against the policyholder and indemnification (payment on behalf of the insured) with respect to a settlement or court verdict. Liability policies typically cover only the negligence of the insured, and will not apply to results of willful or intentional acts by the insured. o Environmental liability insurance protects the insured from bodily injury, property damage and cleanup costs as a result of the dispersal, release or escape of pollutants. o Professional liability insurance also called professional indemnity insurance, protects professional practitioners such as architects, lawyers, doctors, and accountants against potential negligence claims made by their patients/clients. Professional liability insurance may take on different names depending on the profession. For example, professional liability insurance in reference to the medical profession may be called malpractice insurance. Notaries public may take out errors and omissions insurance (E&O). Other potential E&O policyholders include, for example, real estate brokers, home inspectors, appraisers, and website developers. Life insurance provides a monetary benefit to a decedent's family or other designated beneficiary, and may specifically provide for burial, funeral and other final expenses. Life insurance policies often allow the option of having the proceeds paid to the beneficiary either in a lump sum cash payment or an annuity. o Annuities provide a stream of payments and are generally classified as insurance because they are issued by insurance companies and regulated as insurance and require the same kinds of actuarial and investment management expertise that life insurance requires. Annuities and pensions that pay a benefit for life are sometimes regarded as insurance against the possibility that a retiree will outlive his or her financial resources. In that sense, they are the complement of life insurance and, from an underwriting perspective, are the mirror image of life insurance. Locked funds insurance is a little-known hybrid insurance policy jointly issued by governments and banks. It is used to protect public funds from tamper by unauthorized parties. In special cases, a government may authorize its use in protecting semi-private funds
which are liable to tamper. The terms of this type of insurance are usually very strict. Therefore it is used only in extreme cases where maximum security of funds is required. Marine insurance and marine cargo insurance cover the loss or damage of ships at sea or on inland waterways, and of the cargo that may be on them. When the owner of the cargo and the carrier are separate corporations, marine cargo insurance typically compensates the owner of cargo for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be recovered from the carrier or the carrier's insurance. Many marine insurance underwriters will include "time element" coverage in such policies, which extends the indemnity to cover loss of profit and other business expenses attributable to the delay caused by a covered loss. Mortgage insurance insures the lender against default by the borrower. National Insurance is the UK's version of social insurance (which see below). No-fault insurance is a type of insurance policy (typically automobile insurance) where insurers are indemnified by their own insurer regardless of fault in the incident. Nuclear incident insurance covers damages resulting from an incident involving radio active materials and is generally arranged at the national level. (For the United States, see the PriceAnderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act.) Pet insurance insures pets against accidents and illnesses - some companies cover routine/wellness care and burial, as well. Political risk insurance can be taken out by businesses with operations in countries in which there is a risk that revolution or other political conditions will result in a loss. Pollution Insurance A first-party coverage for contamination of insured property either by external or on-site sources. Coverage for liability to third parties arising from contamination of air, water or land due to the sudden and accidental release of hazardous materials from the insured site. The policy usually covers the costs of cleanup and may include coverage for releases from underground storage tanks. Intentional acts are specifically excluded Property insurance provides protection against risks to property, such as fire, theft or weather damage. This includes specialized forms of insurance such as fire insurance, flood insurance, earthquake insurance, home insurance, inland marine insurance or boiler insurance. Purchase insurance is aimed at providing protection on the products people purchase. Purchase insurance can cover individual purchase protection, warranties, guarantees, care plans and even mobile phone insurance. Such insurance is normally very limited in the scope of problems that are covered by the policy. Retrospectively Rated Insurance is a method of establishing a premium on large commercial accounts. The final premium is based on the insured's actual loss experience during the policy term, sometimes subject to a minimum and maximum premium, with the final premium determined by a formula. Under this plan, the current year's premium is based partially (or wholly) on the current year's losses, although the premium adjustments may take months or years beyond the current year's expiration date. The rating formula is guaranteed in the insurance contract. Formula: retrospective premium = converted loss + basic premium × tax multiplier. Numerous variations of this formula have been developed and are in use. Social insurance can be many things to many people in many countries. But a summary of
its essence is that it is a collection of insurance coverage (including components of life insurance, disability income insurance, unemployment insurance, health insurance, and others), plus retirement savings, that mandates participation by all citizens. By forcing everyone in society to be a policyholder and pay premiums, it ensures that everyone can become a claimant when or if he/she needs to. Along the way this inevitably becomes related to other concepts such as the justice system and the welfare state. This is a large, complicated topic that engenders tremendous debate, which can be further studied in the following articles (and others): o Social welfare provision o Social security o Social safety net o National Insurance o Social Security (United States) o Social Security debate (United States)
Terrorism insurance provides protection against any loss or damage caused by terrorist activities. Title insurance provides a guarantee that title to real property is vested in the purchaser and/or mortgagee, free and clear of liens or encumbrances. It is usually issued in conjunction with a search of the public records performed at the time of a real estate transaction. Travel insurance is an insurance cover taken by those who travel abroad, which covers certain losses such as medical expenses, lost of personal belongings, travel delay, personal liabilities, etc. Workers' compensation insurance replaces all or part of a worker's wages lost and accompanying medical expense incurred because of a job-related injury.
Advantages of Life Insurance :
Life insurance has no competition from any other business. Many people think that life insurance is an investment or a means of saving. This is not a correct view. When a person saves, the amount of funds available at any time is equal to the amount of money set aside in the past, plus interest. This is so in a fixed deposit in the bank, in national savings certificates, in mutual funds and all other savings instruments. If the money is invested in buying shares and stocks, there is the risk of the money being lost in the fluctuations of the stock market. Even if there is no loss, the available money at any time is the amount invested plus appreciation. In life insurance, however, the fund available is not the total of the savings already made (premiums paid), but the amount one wished to have at the end of the savings period (which is the next 20 or 30 years). The final fund is secured from the very beginning.
One is paying for it later, out of the savings. One has to pay for it only as long as one lives or for a lesser period if so chosen. There is no other scheme which provides this kind of benefit. Therefore life insurance has no substitute. Even so, a comparison with other forms of savings will show that life insurance has the following advantages.
In the event of death, the settlement is easy. The heirs can collect the moneys quicker, because of the facility of nomination and assignment. The facility of nomination is now available for some bank accounts. There is a certain amount of compulsion to go though the plan of savings. In other forms, if one changes the original plan of savings, there is no loss. In insurance, there is a loss. Certain cannot claim the life insurance moneys. They can be protected against attachments by courts. There are tax benefits, both in income tax and in capital gains.
Marketability and liquidity are better. A life insurance policy is property and can be transferred or mortgaged. Loans can be raised against the policy. The following tenets help agents to believe in the benefits of life insurance. Such faith will enhance their determination to sell and their perseverance. Life insurance is not only the best possible way for family protection. There is no other way. Insurance is the only way to safeguard against the unpredictable risks of the future. It is unavoidable. The terms of life are hard. The terms of insurance are easy. The value of human life is far greater than the value of property. Only insurance can preserve it. Life insurance is not surpassed by many other savings or investment instrument, in terms of security, marketability, stability of value or liquidity. Insurance, including life insurance, is essential for the conservation of many businesses, just as it is in the preservation of homes. Life insurance enhances the existing standards of living. Life insurance helps people live financially solvent lives. Life insurance perpetuates life, liberty and the persuit of happiness. Life insurance is a way of life.
The Business of Insurance :
Insurance companies are called insurers. The business of insurance is to (a) bring together persons with common insurance interests (sharing the same risks), (b) collect the share or contribution (called premium) from all of them, and (c) pay out compensation (called claims) to those who suffer. The premium is determined on the same lines as indicated in the examples above, but with some further refinements. In India, insurance business is classified primarily as life and non-life or general. Life insurance includes all risks related to the lives of human beings and General insurance covers the rest. General insurance has three classifications viz., Fire (dealing with all fire related risks), Marine (dealing with all transport related risks and ships) and Miscellaneous (dealing with all others like liability, fidelity, motor crop, personal accident, etc.). Personal accident and sickness insurance, which are related to human beings, is classified as non-life in India, but is classified as life , in many other countries. What is Non-life in India is termed as Property and Casualty in some other countries. The premium is based on expectations of the losses. These expectations are based on studies of occurrences in the past and the use of statistical principles. There is, in statistics, a law of large numbers . When you toss a coin, the chance of a head or tail coming up is half. If the coin is tossed 10 times, one cannot be sure that the head will come up 5 times. If the coin is tossed 1 million times, the number of heads will be closer to half a million proportionately than in the case of 10. The variation will be less as a percentage. So also, the larger the numbers (of risks) included in the pool, the better the chances that the assumptions regarding the probability of the risk occurring, which is the basis of premium calculation, will be realized in practice. In order to be amenable to statistical predictions, insurers have to insure large numbers of risks. Larger the spread of business better is the experience in relation to expectations. The business of insurance is nothing but one of sharing. It spreads losses of an individual over the group of individuals who are exposed to similar risks. People who suffer loss get relief because their loss is made good. People who do not suffer loss are relieved because they were spared the loss. The insurer is in the position of a trustee as it is managing the common fund, for and on behalf of the community of policyholders. It has to ensure that nobody is allowed to take undue advantage of the arrangement. That means that the management of the insurance business requires care to prevent entry (into the group) of people whose risks are not of the same kind as well as paying claims on losses that are not accidental. The decision to allow entry is the process of underwriting of risk. Underwriting includes assessing the risk, which means, making an evaluation of how much is the exposure to risk. The premium to be charged depends on this assessment of the risk. Both underwriting and claim settlements have to be done with great care.
Criticism of Insurance Companies :
Some people believe that modern insurance companies are money-making businesses which have little interest in insurance. They argue that the purpose of insurance is to spread risk so the reluctance of insurance companies to take on high-risk cases (e.g. houses in areas subject to flooding, or young drivers) runs counter to the principle of insurance. Other criticisms include: Insurance policies contain too many exclusion clauses. For example, some house insurance policies do not cover damage to garden walls. Most insurance companies now use call centre and staff attempt to answer questions by reading from a script. It is difficult to speak to anybody with expert knowledge.
Role of Insurance in Economic Development :
For economic development, investments are necessary. Investments are made out of savings. A life insurance company is a major instrument for the mobilization of savings of people, particularly from the middle and lower income groups. These savings are channeled into investments for economic growth. As on 31.3.2002, the total investments of the LIC exceeded Rs. 245000 crores, of which more than Rs. 130000 crores were directly in Government (both State and Centre) related securities, more than Rs. 12000 crores in the State Electricity Boards, nearly Rs. 20000 crores in housing loans and Rs. 4000 crores in water supply and sewerage systems. Other investments included road transport, setting up industrial estates and directly financing industry. Investments in the corporate sector (shares, debentures and term loans) exceeded Rs. 30000 crores. These directly affect the lives of the people and their economic well-being. A life insurance company will have large funds. These amounts are collected by way of premiums. Every premium represents a risk that is covered by that premium. In effect, therefore, these vast amounts represent pooling of risks. The funds are collected and held in trust for the benefit of the policyholders. The management of life insurance companies are required to keep this aspects in mind and make all its decisions in ways that benefit the community. This applies also to its investments. That is why successful insurance companies would not be found investing in speculative ventures. Their investments, as in the case of the LIC, benefit the society at large. Apart from investments, business and trade benefit through insurance. Without insurance, trade and commerce will find it difficult to face the impact to major perils like fire, earthquake, floods, etc. Financiers, like banks, collapse if the factory, financed by it, is reduces to ashes by terrible fire. Insurers cover also the loss to financiers, if their debtors default.
2. GLOBAL INSURANCE INDUSTRY :
The global insurance industry is one of the largest sectors of finance. It ranges from consumer to corporate and industrial insurance, and even reinsurance, or insurance of insurance. The major insurance markets of the world are obviously the US, Europe, Japan, and South Korea. Emerging markets are found throughout Asia, specifically in India and China, and are also in Latin America. With the internet and other forms of high-speed communication, companies and individuals are now able to purchase insurance and related financial products from almost anywhere in the world. Increasing affluence, especially in developing countries, and a rising understanding of the need to protect wealth and human capital has led to significant growth in the insurance industry. Given the evolving and growing socio-economic conditions worldwide, insurance companies are increasingly reaching out across borders and are offering more competitive and customized products than ever before. Over the past ten years, global insurance premiums have risen by more than 50%, with annual growth rates ranging between 2 and 10%.In 2004, global insurance premiums amounted to $3.3 trillion. The majority of insurance comes from developed nations such as most of Europe, the US, and Japan. In 2004, premiums in North American amounted to $1,217 billion, while the European Union generated $1,198 billion, and Japan produced $492 billion. The UK amounted to $295 billion. The four biggest generators of insurance premiums comprised almost two-thirds of premiums for 2004, the US and Japan amount to half, while they only make up 7% of the world s population. In contrast, the emerging markets that make up 85% of the world s population produced only 10% of the premiums. The leading global insurance companies are:
• • • • • • • • • •
Zurich Financial Services, AXA Berkshire Hathaway/ Berkshire Hathaway Re Allianz Aviva ING Group Munich RE Group American International Group (AIG) Nippon Life Insurance Assicurazioni Generali
GLOBAL LIFE INSURANCE DENSITY :
Continent/Country North America United States Canada Latin America Brazil Mexico Uruguay Argentina Panama Chile Colombia Europe United kingdom Switzerland Netherlands France Belgium Sweden Denmark Germany Italy Austria Portugal Spain Poland Russia Croatia Hungary Greece Bulgaria Ukraine Turkey Asia South Korea Japan Tiwan Hongkong Israel Malaysia Singapore Thailand India China Phillipines UAE Srilanka Indonesia Oman Vietnam Iran Kuwait Pakistan Saudia Arabia Africa South Africa Mauritius Zimbabwe Morocco Kenya Nigeria Egypt Algeria Oceania Australia New Zealand World 2001** 1508.6 1602 675.9 26.3 10.8 53.2 21.5 68.8 39.3 122.1 11.5 573.2 2567.9 2715.7 1345 1268.2 1155 1356 1364.4 674.3 720.8 632 302.9 491 48.7 33.2 25.3 59.3 108.9 5 0.1 5.5 125 763.4 2806.4 760.9 1249.7 525.2 129.5 713.2 34.1 9.1 12.2 6.6 56.3 4.3 3.6 13.6 2.1 1.1 30.3 1.2 0.6 22.4 377.2 95.3 12.4 9.4 2.9 0.5 2.7 0.4 697.5 1040.3 198.4 235 103.7 7.8 12.2 3 0.5 2.4 0.5 668.7 1010.4 211.1 247.3 2002** 1563.8 1662.6 657.3 29.1 27.2 59.2 17.8 19.7 44.6 103.5 12.5 620.4 2679.4 3099.7 1296.1 1349.5 1323.6 1232.2 1574.9 736.7 904.9 648.7 418.6 588 50.7 23.1 33.2 76.7 116 9.9 0.1 6.5 128.1 821.9 2783.9 925.1 1237.9 459.3 118.7 730.1 42.1 11.7 19.5 8.7 74 4.5 5.2 14.8 3.8 1.5 36.8 1 1.7 21.5 360.5 119.1 21.4 12 3.4 0.6 2.7 0.5 750.7 1129.3 272 267.1 2003** 1565.7 1657.5 722.9 30 35.8 41.3 15.4 24.2 42.4 138.3 12.4 726.9 2617.1 3431.8 1561.7 1767.9 2004.8 1602.3 2037.5 930.4 1238.3 811 611.4 488.6 59.9 33.9 46.3 99.1 152.1 5.5 0.3 8.4 140.1 873.6 3002.9 1050.1 1483.9 460.8 139.8 1300.2 52 12.9 25.1 8.6 72.5 5.3 6.4 13.8 4.1 1.7 36.9 1.1 1.7 26.1 476.5 2004** 1617.2 1692.5 926.1 37.2 45.9 50.2 N/A 34.5 50.6 164.5 14.3 848.1 3190.4 3275.1 1936.5 2150.2 2291.2 1764.3 2310.5 1021.3 1417.2 955.3 768.1 571.9 73.3 24.8 58.7 117.3 177.9 8.2 0.6 12 147.2 1006.8 3044 1494.6 1884.3 467.4 167.3 1483.9 50.8 15.7 27.3 9.4 59.7 6.2 7.5 14.2 7.3 2.3 39.1 1.5 2.1 30.3 545.5 133.1 N/A 10.6 3.7 0.7 3.1 0.8 851 1285.1 318 291.5 2005** 1686.3 1753.2 1071.9 42.0 56.8 49.9 15.5 35.4 47.2 174.9 16.8 911.8 3287.1 3078.1 1954.2 2474.6 2988.7 2105.2 2489.9 1042.1 1449.8 1095.1 1113.7 615.8 101.9 6.3 70.9 148.2 213.1 11.1 1.3 12.7 149.6 1210.6 2956.3 1699.1 2213.2 510.2 188 1591.4 54.6 18.3 30.5 10.6 74.7 6.9 10.5 17.3 6.1 2.2 35.7 1.9 0.7 30.7 558.3 136.1 N/A 11.7 4.5 0.5 4 0.9 885 1366.7 219.7 299.5 2006** 1731.8 1789.5 1204.1 51.3 72.5 62.9 16.6 43.8 51.2 176 20.5 1119.6 5139.6 3111.8 2071.6 2922.5 2427.7 2214.6 2840.8 1136.1 1492.8 1104.6 1131.5 651.0 150.5 4.0 81.8 192.3 256.7 13.2 1.9 13.1 154.6 1480.0 2829.3 1800.0 2456 532.6 189.2 1616.5 60 33.2 34.1 13.1 89.8 8.5 12.5 14.3 6.1 2.6 40.9 2.3 0.8 38.3 695.6 N/A N/A 14.7 5.3 0.8 4.7 1.2 896.3 1389 215 330.6
Source: Swiss Re, Sigma volumes * Insurance density is measured as ratio of premium to total population ** Data relates to calender years Figure in US$ www.indiainsuranceresearc h.com
3. PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN INSURANCE INDUSTRY :
Performance up to October 2006
The performance growth rate that was 22.8 percent as at September 2006 has moved up to 23.3 percent at the end of October 2006, an improvement of significance. The total premium at the end of October is Rs.14,628 crore as against Rs.11,855 crore. The established players have added Rs.807 crore at a growth rate of 8.3 percent with the new players adding Rs.1966 crore at a growth rate of 62 percent. Here again, ICICI Lombard has achieved an accretion of Rs.887 crore; whereas the total accretion of all the established players is Rs 807 crores, a truly impressive record. New India with Rs.286 crore, closely followed by Oriental with Rs.277 crore are the major contributors for the established players. Reliance, a late starter in the race for premium acquisition has recorded an accretion of Rs.357 crore as against a meager last year renewal of Rs.89 crore. The growth path is now led by several players: with eight out of the twelve players having achieved accretions in excess of Rs.100 crore and more at the end of October 2006. With the imminent detariffing around the corner in January 2007, the next two months should witness even more fierce battles for supremacy of the market turf. A few of the new players are inching towards breaking into the big league premium players of yesteryears and this may happen sooner than one thought. Interesting and challenging times are certainly ahead for all the players.
Premiums Rise 163.68% over October, 2006
Individual premium: The life insurance industry underwrote Individual Single Premium of Rs.1336610.10 lakh for the period ended October, 2006 of which the private insurers garnered Rs.118242.78 lakh and LIC garnered Rs.1218367.32 lakh. The corresponding numbers for the previous year were Rs.443296.40 lakh for the industry, with private insurers underwriting Rs.64530.68 lakh and LIC Rs.378765.72 lakh. The Individual Non-Single Premium underwritten during April-October, 2006 was Rs.1771903.71 lakh of which the private insurers underwrote Rs.536863.16 lakh and LIC Rs.1235040.55 lakh. The corresponding numbers for the previous year were Rs.743586.24 lakh, Rs.260432.63 lakh and Rs.483153.61 lakh respectively. Group premium: The industry underwrote Group Single Premium of Rs.467348.58 lakh of which the private insurers underwrote Rs.30147.74 lakh and LIC Rs.437200.84 lakh. The lives covered being 7678192, 456696 and 7221496 respectively. The corresponding numbers for the previous year were Rs.171382.70 lakh with private insurers underwriting Rs.17261.98 lakh and LIC Rs.154120.72 lakh and the lives covered being 8547743, 397721 and 8150022 respectively. The Group Non-Single Premium underwritten during April-October, 2006 was Rs.53221.05 lakh which was underwritten entirely by the private insurers, covering 2366084 lives. The corresponding numbers for the previous year were Rs. 18031.15 lakh and covering 1277400 lives.
Segment-wise segregation: A further segregation of the premium underwritten during the period indicates that Life, Annuity, Pension and Health contributed Rs.2329869.52 lakh (64.24%), Rs.74006.48 lakh (2.04%), Rs.1221904.91 lakh (33.69%) and Rs.897.90 lakh (0.02%) respectively. In respect of LIC, the break up of life, annuity and pension categories was Rs.1677831.45 lakh (58.04%), Rs.69437.82 lakh (2.40%) and Rs.1143339.44 lakh (39.55%) respectively. In case of the private insurers, Rs.652038.07 lakh (88.58%), Rs.4568.66 lakh (0.62%), Rs.78565.47 lakh (10.67%) and Rs.897.90 lakh (0.12%) respectively was underwritten in the four segments. Unit linked and conventional premium: Analysis of the statistics in terms of linked and non-linked premium indicates that 49.46% of the business was underwritten in the non-linked category, and 50.54% in the linked category, i.e., Rs.1793702.35 lakh and Rs.1832976.45 lakh respectively. In case of LIC, the linked and non-linked premium was 41.38% and 58.62% respectively, as against which for the private insurers taken together this stood at 86.53% and 13.47% respectively. During the corresponding period of the previous year, linked and non-linked premium indicates that 54.74% of the business was underwritten in the non-linked category, and 45.26% in the linked category, i.e., Rs.752509.54 lakh and Rs.622185.30 lakh respectively. In case of LIC, the linked and non-linked premium was 33.96% and 66.04% respectively, as against which for the private insurers taken together this stood at 77.02% and 22.98% respectively. Growth momentum continues in October 2006 with 25.3 percent
All-round growth :
The month of October 2006 has been the month of extraordinary growth for the nonlife insurers with the growth rate high at 25.3 percent. This achieved rate is only slightly below that of September of 25.8 percent. As against the monthly renewals of Rs.1772 crore in October last year, the premium income scaled in 2006 is Rs.2220 crore. The established players have recorded an accretion of Rs.151 crore at a growth rate of 11.3 percent. The new players have had an accretion of Rs.297 crore at a growth rate of 63 percent. Among the former, New India leads with an accretion of Rs.60 crore followed by Oriental with Rs.56 crore. But the stellar performances in the month have come from ICICI Lombard that has produced a massive accretion of Rs.167 crore with Reliance adding Rs.56 crore to its meager renewal premium of Rs.12 crore. The new players have continued to maintain a strong grip on their market share that stands at 35 percent. Two points of interest to the market have emerged. One is that the monthly accretion of ICICI Lombard at Rs.167 crore is higher than the combined accretion achieved by all the established players of Rs.151 crore. This performance should stand out as of interest to the market. The second point of market interest is that for the first time, the October monthly premium of ICICI Lombard at Rs.310 crore has exceeded the monthly premium performances of National Insurance and UIIC that have accomplished premiums of Rs.305 crores and Rs.257 crore respectively. The established players do seem to be coming under increasing pressure by the new players with their relentless high growth rates and premium productions.
41 per cent growth in life insurance industry in 2006 :
New Delhi: Life insurance sector grew by 41 per cent in 2005-06 due to better performance of country's largest life insurer, LIC, and private players like Bajaj Allianz and ICICI Prudential. The 15 life insurance companies together collected Rs 35,898 crore in the fiscal ended March this year, compared to Rs 25,343 crore in the previous fiscal, according to data compiled by regulator IRDA. Life Insurance Corporation's premium income rose more than 28 per cent to Rs 25,645 crore after it sold 3.16 crore policies as against Rs 19,972 crore collected a year ago. However, LIC's market share dipped by 6.63 per cent to 71.44 per cent from 78.07 per cent in the year ago period due to stiff competition and aggressive marketing of private life insurers. The 14 private players were able to steadily increase their market share from 21.93 per cent to 28.56 per cent in a year's time by collecting Rs 10,252 crore during the period under review.
Private sector life insurance business jumps 90% :
In a tough battle to expand market shares the private sector life insurance industry consisting 14 life insurance companies at 26% have lost 3% of market share to the state owned Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) in the domestic life insurance industry in 200607. According to the figures released by Insurance Regulatory & Development Authority the total premium these 14 companies have shot up by 90% to Rs 19,471.83 crore in 2006-07 from Rs 10, 252 crore. LIC with a total premium mobilization of Rs 55,934 crore has been able retain a market share of 74.26 % during the reporting period. In total the life insurance industry in first year premium has grown by 110% to Rs 75, 406 crore during 2006-07. The 2006-07 performance has thrown a few surprises in the ranking among the private sector life insurance companies. New entrants like Reliance Life and SBI Life had shown a huge growth of over 381% and 210% respectively during the year. Reliance Life which has become one of the top five companies ended the year with a premium of Rs 930 crore during the year. Though ICICI Prudential Life Insurance remained as the No 1 private sector life insurance company during the year Bajaj Allianz overtook ICICI Prudential in terms of monthly market share in March, for the first time ever. Bajaj's market share among private players in non-single premium for March stood at 29.1% vs. ICICI Prudential's 23.8%. Bajaj gained 4.6 percentage point market share among private sector players for FY07. Among other private players, SBI Life and Reliance Life continued to do well, each gaining 4% market share in FY07. SBI Life's growth was driven by increasing contribution from ULIP premiums. Another notable development of the 2006-07 performance has been the expansion of retail markets by the life insurance comapnies. Bajaj Allianz Life insurance has added 20 lakh policies while ICICI Prudential has expanded over 19 lakh policies during the year.
Building a Vibrant Insurance Market in India :
India's insurance industry is an example of the positive effects of competition and new investors in the marketplace. As we know, India opened its insurance market to the private sector in 1999 when parliament passed a new law establishing an independent regulatory body to oversee the insurance market. The law opened the door for participation of private insurance companies and a limited participation of foreign insurance companies through joint ventures with Indian companies. The law also charged insurance companies to make available insurance products and services to the huge segment of the population that are vulnerable and not necessarily part of the formal economy. The results of the liberalization are there for everyone to see. The insurance markets -both life and non-life -- have grown impressively. IRDA is working on a regulatory framework that helps level the playing field for all types of insurance companies, irrespective of their ownership. Since 1999, IRDA has licensed 22 new private Indian insurance companies, an overwhelming number of which have global insurance companies as their partners. To date, the industry has attracted foreign direct investment of $235 million. In 2006, Indian insurance companies mobilized over $29 billion, nearly four times as much as in 1999 ($8 billion). In other countries, this kind of capital mobilization provides crucial resources for investment in infrastructure, corporate businesses, long-term bonds, and municipal projects. Once India does more to free insurance companies to invest in such important sectors, it too can gain benefit from this long-term financial resource. Other improvements are occurring as well. New insurance products such as product liability insurance, professional liability insurance, small/medium size enterprise insurance, weather insurance, and group health insurance for the poor have been launched. Private insurance companies are also using banks, microfinance institutions and cooperatives to increase their market share and compete with well-entrenched stateowned insurance companies. The marketplace is getting competitive, but the market share of private insurance companies remains very low in the 10-15 percent range. The heavy hand of government still dominates the market, with price controls, limits on ownership, and other restraints. We have seen what happens in India when a market is truly opened up. We saw it in the IT sector, we saw it in the telecom sector, and we are seeing it in the aviation sector. Why can't insurance be next? India's insurance market remains very small compared with some of the major emerging markets. South Africa and South Korea, with a fraction (onetwentieth) of India's population, do at least twice as much insurance business as Indian companies did in 2004. This is a major missed opportunity for India's economy. A vibrant insurance market can support the economy by providing long-term capital -- equity and debt -- to the private sector. For example, in the U.S. over two-thirds of financial assets of insurance companies are in corporate bonds and equities, municipal securities and commercial mortgages. Insurance also shields households and businesses from irrecoverable loss, such as from major natural disasters, illness and death. In India, 80 percent of health care is privately provided, yet only 10 percent of the population has access to health insurance. Therefore, many individual households have to pay the full out-of-pocket costs for health treatment. What will expand the insurance industry and help it contribute to the economy? Major policy and institutional issues have to be addressed and changed.
Insurance is a capital-intensive industry. It is also a long-gestation business. India's insurance industry needs capital, and a major source of capital would be from foreign investors, who are now limited to 26 percent ownership. India needs to raise the cap on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to attract capital for the industry. For some time there has been an understanding that the FDI cap will be raised to 49 percent, and many companies entered the Indian market with this expectation. Failure to follow through in raising the cap is increasingly seen by investors as a breach of faith. This promise needs to be delivered, not 5 years from now, but soon, if India wishes to regain its credibility in the eyes of foreign investors. Increasing the cap on FDI will both enhance the growth of the insurance industry and improve global confidence in India as a business and investment destination. The cap should be raised above 50 percent within a short period so that foreign investors would have management control commensurate with their investment and the flow of FDI to the sector will increase. Leading foreign companies bring more than capital to the insurance industry. They also bring generations of successful experience in managing and growing the industry. The benefit of the long-term capital that the insurance industry mobilizes is also being lost as a source of long-term capital. In India, over 60 percent of the insurance industry's financial assets are locked in government securities. Investment guidelines for insurance companies prescribed by the regulator must be changed to allow and promote access to insurance funds by the corporate sector and infrastructure projects. There is also a strong case for raising the FDI cap for reinsurance and auxiliary insurance services, such as brokerage and actuarial services. Major lines of non-life insurance business such as fire and car continue to be governed by a pricing regime that is administered and not risk-based. This distorts the market and makes it inefficient. It has prevented the emergence of a culture of underwriting in insurance companies. The IRDA needs to dismantle this regime to make these segments of the market truly competitive. The IRDA should also seek to create a regulatory regime that promotes the most efficient use of capital, eliminates avoidable micro-management of business practices, allows companies to price their products prudentially, and levels the playing field between private and state-owned insurance companies. When markets are competitive and responsive to consumer demand and preference, it is the consumer that benefits in terms of lower cost and increased ability to manage risks. Health is an area that is underserved by the insurance industry. India as an economy has high health spending but poor health outcomes. With no pooled risk sharing from insurance policies and a health care system that is primarily private, the cost to individuals becomes a major economic burden. For this reason, many microfinance institutions are finding that a primary use of micro loans to the poor is to pay medical bills. The current minimum capital requirement of $22 million capital for setting up a health insurance company is a significant barrier to entry, particularly when FDI is restricted to 26 percent. The lack of data from both health providers and from existing claims makes risk-based pricing of health insurance products difficult. The absence of an appropriate regulatory framework that enforces a minimum level of service and hygiene standards is
an important reason the health insurance market in India is so underdeveloped. It is not surprising that not a single health insurance company is among the 22 new private insurance companies licensed since 1999. Clearly, the IRDA and the Ministry of Health need to work in tandem to solve these problems. Another area where the insurance industry is not doing its job is helping mitigate the risks for personal and business loss from natural catastrophes. In the past decade, India and China accounted for one-fourth of the global economic losses from natural disasters. Insurance availability in India for natural catastrophes is almost negligible. As we have seen with the Indian Ocean tsunami, the absence of a "safety net" for property lost in a disaster has led to substantial personal loss and slowed economic recovery.
Insurance Sector Reforms in India: Challenges and Opportunities :
Insurance in India started without any regulations in the nineteenth century. It was a typical story of a colonial era: a few British insurance companies dominating the market serving mostly large urban centers. After the independence, the Life Insurance Company was nationalized in 1956, and then the general insurance business was nationalized in 1972. Only in 1999 private insurance companies were allowed back into the business of insurance with a maximum of 26 per cent of foreign holding (World Bank Economic Review 2000). The entry of the State Bank of India with its proposal of bank assurance brings a new dynamics in the game. On July 14, 2000 Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority bill was passed to protect the interest of the policyholders from private and foreign players. The following companies are entitled to do insurance business in India. The private insurance joint ventures have collected the premium of Rs.1019.09 crore with the investment of just Rs.3,000 crore in three years of liberalization. The private insurance players have significantly improving their market share when compared to 50 years Old Corporation (i.e. LIC). As per the figures compiled by IRDA, the Life Insurance Industry recorded a total premium underwritten of Rs. 10,707.96 crore for the period under review. Of this, private players contributed to Rs.1, 019.09 crore, accounting for 10 percent. Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), the public sector giant, continued to lead with a premium collection of Rs.9,688.87 crore, translating into a market share of 90 per cent. In terms of number of policies and schemes sold, private sector accounted for only 3.77per cent as compared to 96.23 per cent share of LIC (The Economic Times, 21March 04). he ICICI Prudential topped among the private players in terms of premium collection. It recorded a premium of Rs. 364.9 crore and a market share of 25 per cent, followed by Birla Sun Life with a premium under- written Rs.170 crore and a market share of 15 percent, HDFC Standard with 132.7 crore and Max New York Life with Rs.76.8 crore with a market share of approximately 15 per cent each. Unlike their counterpart in the life insurance business, private non-life insurance companies have not yet started addressing the retail market. All is set to change in the coming years. Like in the banking sector, nonlife insurance companies will soon have no choice but to focus on individual buyers. The latest series of bomb attacks, attack on parliament, attack on Ayodhya, attacks of the Maoists, nature calamities like tsunami, floods and drought, ragging are prevailed in the country and need not to say about the farmer who has been insecure about rains, seeds, crops and suitable price for his crop. In developed countries, the owners have insured
even pet dogs. Whereas in India about 80 percent of human beings and major natural resources have not been insured in globalization era. It is, therefore, an urgent need to explore the challenges and opportunities faced by the insurance sector in India.
India’s Insurance Industry Likely To Jump By 500% In 2010: ASSOCHAM :
The Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) has projected about 500% hike in the size of domestic insurance business which will grow to US$ 60 billion by 2010 from the current size of around US$ 10 billion as the growing competitive age is developing a larger appetite among people for wider insurance coverage. The projections of the Chamber are based on feedback that it received from its various constituents, engaged in the insurance business, highlighting that India s life insurance premium as a percentage of GDP is currently estimated at 1.8% against 5.2% in US, 6.5% in UK and about 8% in South Korea. Releasing the analysis, ASSOCHAM President, Mr. Venugopal N. Dhoot said that rural and semi-urban India will contribute US $35 billion to the Indian insurance industry by 2010, including US $20 billion by way of life insurance and the rest US $15 billion through non-life insurance schemes. A large part of rural India is still untapped due to poor distribution, large distances and high costs relative to returns. Urban sector insurance is estimated to reach US $25 billion by 2010, life insurance US $15 billion and non-life insurance US $10 billion , added Mr. Dhoot. ASSOCHAM findings reveals that in the coming years the corporate segment, as a whole will not be a big growth area for insurance companies. This is because penetration is already good and companies receive good services. In both volumes and profitability therefore, the scope for expansion is modest. ASSOCHAM has suggested that insurer s strategy should be to stimulate demand in areas that are currently not served at all. Insurance companies mostly focus on manufacturing sector; however, the services sector is taking a large and growing share of India s GDP. This offers immense opportunities for expansion opportunities. To understand the prospects for insurance companies in rural India, it is very important to understand the requirements of India's villagers, their daily lives, their peculiar needs and their occupational structures. There are farmers, craftsmen, milkmen, weavers, casual labours, construction workers and shopkeepers and so on. More often than not, they are into more than one profession. The rural market offers tremendous growth opportunities for insurance companies and insurers should develop viable and cost-effective distribution channels; build consumer awareness and confidence. The Paper found that there are a total 124 million rural households. Nearly 20% of all farmers in rural India own a Kissan Credit cards. The 25 million credit cards used till date offer a huge data base and opportunity for insurance companies. An extensive rural agent network for sale of insurance products could be
established. The agent can play a major role in creating awareness, motivating purchase and rendering insurance services. There should be nothing to stop insurance companies from trying to pursue their own unique policies and target whatever needs that they want to target in rural India. ASSOCHAM suggests that insurance needs to be packaged in such a form that it appears as an acceptable investment to the rural people. In the near future, when we ll see more innovations in agriculture in the form of corporatization or a more professional approach from the farmers side, insurance will definitely be one option that the rural Indian is going to accept. ASSOCHAM believes that insurers should enter into tie-ups or understandings with government agencies to ensure the success of the insurance schemes. The need of the hour is to have innovative policies that have explicit benefits for the people to observe, understand and measure.
Indian Insurance Industry: New Avenues for Growth 2012 :
Description: With an annual growth rate of 15-20% and the largest number of life insurance policies in force, the potential of the Indian insurance industry is huge. Total value of the Indian insurance market (2004-05) was estimated at Rs. 450 billion (US$10 billion). According to government sources, the insurance and banking services contribution to the country's gross domestic product (GDP) is 7% out of which the gross premium collection forms a significant part. The funds available with the state-owned Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) for investments are 8% of GDP. Till date, only 20% of the total insurable population of India is covered under various life insurance schemes, the penetration rates of health and other non-life insurances in India is also well below the international level. These facts indicate the of immense growth potential of the insurance sector. The year 1999 saw a revolution in the Indian insurance sector, as major structural changes took place with the ending of government monopoly and the passage of the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) Bill, lifting all entry restrictions for private players and allowing foreign players to enter the market with some limits on direct foreign ownership. Though, the existing rule says that a foreign partner can hold 26% equity in an insurance company, a proposal to increase this limit to 49% is pending with the government. Since opening up of the insurance sector in 1999, foreign investments of Rs. 8.7 billion have poured into the Indian market and 21 private companies have been granted licenses. Innovative products, smart marketing, and aggressive distribution have enabled fledgling private insurance companies to sign up Indian customers faster than anyone expected. Indians, who had always seen life insurance as a tax saving device, are now suddenly turning to the private sector and snapping up the new innovative products on offer. The life insurance industry in India grew by an impressive 36%, with premium income from new business at Rs. 253.43 billion during the fiscal year 2004-2005, braving stiff competition from private insurers. This report, Indian Insurance Industry: New Avenues for Growth 2012 , finds that the market share of the state behemoth, LIC, has clocked 21.87% growth in business at Rs.197.86 billion by selling 2.4 billion new policies in
2004-05. But this was still not enough to arrest the fall in its market share, as private players grew by 129% to mop up Rs. 55.57 billion in 2004-05 from Rs. 24.29 billion in 2003-04. Though the total volume of LIC's business increased in the last fiscal year (2004-2005) compared to the previous one, its market share came down from 87.04 to 78.07%. The 14 private insurers increased their market share from about 13% to about 22% in a year's time. The figures for the first two months of the fiscal year 2005-06 also speak of the growing share of the private insurers. The share of LIC for this period has further come down to 75 percent, while the private players have grabbed over 24 percent. There are presently 12 general insurance companies with four public sector companies and eight private insurers. According to estimates, private insurance companies collectively have a 10% share of the non-life insurance market. Though the focus of this market research report is on the potential growth on the Indian Insurance Sector, it also talks about the market size, market segmentation, and key developments in the market after 1999.
CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. To compare the performance of LIC and private insurance companies in India. 2. To find out the performances of LIC and private insurance companies in each category (size. growth, productivity and efficiency) 3. To compare grievance management of LIC and private insurance companies.
RESEARCH DESIGN :
a. Type of research design b. Data collection : : : Analytical Research Secondary Sources Ratio Analysis Bar Graph
c. Statistical Tools
In this research my research objective was to compare the performance of LIC and Private insurance companies. For this purpose I decided the four broad categories under which I have compared the LIC and Private insurance companies. These are: 1. Size 2. Growth 3. Productivity 4. Grievance Handling Under these Broad Categories I have analyzed 13 factors which are: 1. Size • Total Premium • Total Income • Size of Balance Sheet • Total number of Policies • Total number of Branches
2. Growth • Growth in Premium • Growth in Income
Growth in number of Policies Growth in Market share
3. Productivity • Business per Branch • Income per Branch • New Premium per Branch 4. Grievance Handling
I have used the Secondary data of last five financial years. I have collected data from the various balance sheet of LIC and other private insurance companies, web sites and in some cases I personally met some employees of some insurance companies. I tried to find out most of the information required to compare the LIC and private insurance companies. In Analysis I have found all the required data and on the basis of performance gave the rank to LIC and Private Insurance Companies on each factor and then points. Now these Points have been multiplied with the weightage of that factor. And then after the analysis of each factor a consolidated point table has been prepared to know that which sector is performing better than other.
The Weightage for different categories are:
Factors Size A. Total Premium B. Total Income C. Balance Sheet Size D. Total No. of Policies E. Total No. of Branches Growth A. First Premium B. Growth in Income C. Increase in No. of Policies D. Growth in Market Share Productivity A. Business per Branch B. Income Per Branch C. First Premium per Branch Grievance Handling
Weightage 25% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 40% 10% 10% 10% 10% 15% 5% 5% 5% 20%
1. Could reach to a limited number of documents of different insurance companies in regard to the management and other policies and resultant figures so as to identify the exact cause of their lag in performance. 2. Due to the limited time could not study all the insurance companies original documents individually. 3. Non-Proficiency in technical aspects of insurance companies might have hindered the best analysis of the findings.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
The Detailed Study has been done with the purpose of finding out the relative share of LIC and Private Insurance in India. It is useful for the people associated with the Insurance Industry and the research associates related to the Insurance Sector in India. This study will acquaint them with the data of all the banks complied at one place along with the findings, conclusion and recommendations.
CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
1. SIZE :
(A) TOTAL PREMIUM :
FY 03-04 63533 FY 04-05 75127 7727 FY 05-06 90792 15083 (Rs. In crores) FY 06-07 FY 07-08 127822 28253 149789 51561
Private Insurers TOTAL 66653 82854 105875 156075 201350
160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0
PREMIUM OF LIC
PREMIUM OF PVT INSURERS
60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 3120 7727 15083 28253 51561
Avg. Premium ( In Crores)
Rank 1 2
points 1 0.5
points after multiplying by weightage (7.5%) 7.5 3.75
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Average premium of LIC is much more than that of all insurance companies altogether. LIC s average premium of the last five years is nearly five times the average premium of the all other private insurance companies. It can be said that up to that time their were less number of private players in the field of insurance but then also undoubtedly LIC is the king.
(B) TOTAL INCOME :
FY 03-04 93089
FY 04-05 112393 9049
FY 05-06 132147 18863
FY 06-07 174425 24242
(Rs. In crores) FY 07-08 206363 52648
Private Insurers TOTAL 97412 121442 151010 198667 259011
250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 FY 03-04 93089
INCOME OF LIC
206363 174425 112393 132147
INCOME OF PVT INSURERS
60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 4323 9049 18863 24242 51561
Avg. Income ( In Crores)
Rank 1 2
points 1 0.5
points after multiplying by weightage (7.5%) 7.5 3.75
LIC Private Insurance Co.
All over income of LIC is much more than than of private players. It is due to the fact that LIC being a government agency is being trusted by lot of companies and has large number of shares in big corporates.
(C) SIZE OF BALANCE SHEET :
(Rs. In crores) FY 03-04 FY 04-05 346022 416910 13653 FY 05-06 531390 28910 FY 06-07 625956 53048 FY 07-08 776904 100774
Private Insurers TOTAL 352607 430563 560300 679004 877678
1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0
BALANCE SHEET SIZE OF LIC
776904 531390 346022 416910 625956
BALANCE SHEET SIZE OF PVT INSURERS
120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 6585 13653 28910 53048 100774
Avg. Balance Sheet Size ( In Crores)
Rank 1 2
points 1 0.5
points after multiplying by weightage (7.5%) 7.5 3.75
LIC Private Insurance co.
Total average size of balance sheet of LIC in the last five years is certainly higher than that of private insurance companies. There is a huge gap in this value. It is obvious that LIC has bigger balance sheet as being working in the insurance field for quite large time. As compared to average balance sheet size of 40,594 crores of private insurance companies, LIC s average balance sheet size goes to much high as that of 5,39,436.4 crores.
(D) TOTAL NUMBER OF POLICIES :
FY 03-04 26968069
FY 04-05 23978123 2233075
FY 05-06 31590515 3871410
FY 06-07 38229292 7922294
FY 07-08 37612599 13261558
Private Insurers TOTAL
28626916 26211198 35462117 46151586 50874157
TOTAL NUMBER OF POLICIES
60000000 50874157 50000000 46151586
35462117 26211198 LIC PVT.INSURERS INDUSTRY
0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08
Avg. number of policies
Rank 1 2
points 1 0.5
points after multiplying by weightage (7.5%) 7.5 3.75
LIC Private Insurance Co.
LIC is an undoubted leader in the field of average number of policies per year in the last five years. It is seen that private insurance companies are gaining momentum and are trying to defeat LIC in case of new insurances. Main reason behind LIC having such a large number of policies is the trust of a common man. LIC being a government agency has got a faith of indian mass. People are not yet prepared to give their savings in the hands of private players.
(E) NUMBER OF BRANCHES :
FY 03-04 2196 FY 04-05 2197 804 FY 05-06 2220 1645 FY 06-07 2301 3072 FY 07-08 2522 6391
Private Insurers TOTAL
10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 416 804 2196 2612 2197 3001 2220 1645 3865 3072 2301 2522 5373 6391 LIC PVT INSURERS INDUSTRY
%growth in number of branches
points 2 1 0.5 1
points after multiplying by weightage (7.5%) 3.75 7.5
LIC Private Insurance Co.
When the matter of total number of branches comes its very much obvious that LIC, being the oldest existing insurance company in India, has the large number of offices in the countryby any single insurance company. Since the number of private insurance companies is increasing, with continuous expansion in their business, now the number of branches of all private players has crossed the number of branches of LIC.
2. GROWTH :
(A) FIRST PREMIUM : (Rs. In crores)
FY 03-04 FY 04-05 17347 20653 5564 FY 05-06 28515 10270 FY 06-07 55934 19425 FY 07-08 59996 33715
Private Insurers TOTAL 19787 26217 38785 75359 93711
FIRST PREMIUM OF LIC
70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 17347 20653 28515 55934 59996
FIRST PREMIUM OF PVT INSURERS
40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 33715
19425 10270 2440 FY 03-04 5564
Growth in First Premium
(in Percentage Terms)
Growth in First Premium
(in Absoute Terms) (in crores)
points after multiplying by weightage Rank points (10%) 2 1 0.5 1 5 10
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Though LIC has attained more growth in absolute terms i.e. Rs.42649 crores but private players being so less in number five years back has achieved a dream come true growth of 1281.76 % which is certainly a matter of pride for them. (B) GROWTH IN INCOME : (Rs. In crores)
FY 03-04 12101 FY 04-05 19303 4725 FY 05-06 19754 9814 FY 06-07 42277 5379 FY 07-08 31988 28406
Private Insurers TOTAL 14793 24028 29568 47656 60394
% GROWTH IN INCOME :
FY 03-04 14.9 FY 04-05 20.7 109.3 FY 05-06 17.5 108.4 FY 06-07 32 28.5 FY 07-08 18.3 117
Private Insurers TOTAL 17.8 24.6 24.3 31.5 30.3
180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
117 LIC PVT INSURERS INDUSTRY 32 31.5 28.5 30.3
Growth in Income
(in Percentage Terms)
Growth in Income
(in Absoute Terms) (in crores)
points after multiplying by weightage Rank points (10%) 2 1 0.5 1 5 10
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Here LIC has neither attained more growth in absolute terms i.e. Rs.19887 crores as compared to 25714 crores of private players nor has got more growth in terms of percentage.this shows that private players are doing great job in enhancing their business.
(C) INCREASE IN NUMBER OF POLICIES :
FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08
Private Insurers TOTAL 2280688 9270919 2415718
% INCREASE IN NUMBER OF POLICIES :
FY 03-04 5.79 FY 04-05 -11.09 34.62 FY 05-06 31.75 73.37 FY 06-07 21.01 104.64 FY 07-08 -1.6 67.4
Private Insurers TOTAL 8.6 -8.4 35.3 30.1 10.2
% GROWTH IN NO. OF POLICIES
120 104.64 100 80 60 40 20 0 FY 03-04 -20 FY 04-05 -11.09 -8.4 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 -1.6 FY 07-08 34.62 31.75 35.3 21.01 5.79 8.6 10.2 94.21 73.37
67.4 LIC PVT INSURERS 30.1 INDUSTRY
Growth in number of policies
(in Percentage Terms)
Growth in number of policies
(in Absoute Terms)
points after multiplying by weightage Rank points (10%) 2 1 0.5 1 5 10
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Private players are doing extremely well as they are increasing their customer base rapidly.
(D) MARKET SHARE :
PVT. INSURERS LIC
LIC is still the market leader in insurance industry with 73.9 % share. But we cannot forget that in last five years market share of LIC has decreased. It was 87.7 % in year 2003-04 which came down to 73.9 % in 2007-08.
3. PRODUCTIVITY :
(A) BUSINESS PER BRANCH :
FY 03-04 28.93 FY 04-05 34.20 9.61 FY 05-06 40.9 9.17 (Rs. In crores) FY 06-07 FY 07-08 55.55 9.2 59.20 8.07
BUSINESS PER BRANCH
70 60 50 40.9 40 30 20 10 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 7.5 9.61 9.17 9.2 8.07 28.93 34.2 LIC PVT INSURERS 55.55 59.2
Avg. Business Per Branch (In crores)
points after multiplying by weightage Rank points (5%) 1 2 1 0.5 5 2.5
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Avg business per branch of LIC is much higher than that of whole private insurance companies.
(B) INCOME PER BRANCH :
(Rs. In crores) FY 03-04 42.39 FY 04-05 51.16 11.25 FY 05-06 59.52 11.47 FY 06-07 75.80 7.89 FY 07-08 81.80 8.23
INCOME PER BRANCH
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 10.41 11.25 11.47 42.39 59.52 51.16 LIC PVT INSURERS 75.8 81.8
Avg. Income Per Branch (In crores)
Rank 1 2
points 1 0.5
points after multiplying by weightage (5%) 5 2.5
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Average income per branch of LIC is much more than that of private insurance companies. Its almost six times the total value of all the private companies.
(C) NEW PREMIUM PER BRANCH :
(Rs.in crores) FY 06-07 FY 07-08 24.30 6.32 23.78 5.28
FY 03-04 7.90
FY 04-05 9.40 6.92
FY 05-06 12.84 6.24
NEW PREMIUM PER BRANCH
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 9.4 6.92 6.24 6.32 5.28 LIC PVT INSURERS 24.3 23.78
12.84 7.9 5.86
Avg. New Premium Per Branch (In crores)
Rank 1 2
points 1 0.5
points after multiplying by weightage (5%) 5 2.5
LIC Private Insurance Co.
This value tells us about increase in the business of an insurance company in a period. Here we see that LIC is ahead of private insurance companies in case of increasing their business.
4. GRIEVANCE HANDLING :
TOTAL NUMBER OF GRIEVANCES : FY 03-04 474 FY 04-05 704 195 FY 05-06 851 540 FY 06-07 354 507 FY 07-08 651 1406
NUMBER OF GRIEVANCES RESOLVED : FY 03-04 39 FY 04-05 123 83 FY 05-06 215 216 FY 06-07 313 450 FY 07-08 80 1103
% OF GRIEVANCES RESOLVED : FY 03-04 8.2 FY 04-05 17.5 42.6 FY 05-06 25.3 40.0 FY 06-07 88.4 88.7 FY 07-08 12.2 78.4
GRIEVANCES IN LIC
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 704 474 540 507 450 TOTAL 80 RESOLVED 651
FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08
GRIEVANCES IN PVT. COMPANIES
1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 45 26 195 83 540 216 507 450 TOTAL RESOLVED 1406 1103
FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08
% OF GRIEVANCES RESOLVED
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 FY 03-04 FY 04-05 FY 05-06 FY 06-07 FY 07-08 8.2 17.5 57.7 42.6 40 25.3 12.2 LIC PVT INSURERS 88.7 88.4 78.4
% Grievances resolved
Rank 2 1
points 0.5 1
points after multiplying by weightage (7.5%) 3.75 7.5
LIC Private Insurance Co.
Grievance Handling is one of the major issues in any organization. It plays an important role in Insurance sector. People do attract towards companies who handles their grievances. Here we see that private players are much ahead of LIC when the matter comes to grievance management. In the last five years LIC has resolved only 25.37 % of cases brought in front of them while the percentage of cases resolved in case of private players is 69.7 %. This shows that private players are very serious about their image and are working hard to provide the solution of the problems of the people as early as possible.
TOTAL POINTS TABLE:
Factors Size A. Total Premium B. Total Income C. Balance Sheet Size D. Total No. of Policies E. Total No. of Branches Growth A. First Premium B. Growth in Income C. Increase in No. of Policies D. Market Share Productivity A. Business per Branch B. Income Per Branch C. First Premium per Branch Grievance Handling
LIC 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 3.75
Private Insurance Companies 3.75 3.75 3.75 3.75 7.5
5 5 5 10
10 10 10 5
5 5 5 3.75 77.75
2.5 2.5 2.5 7.5 72.75
CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS
FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS:
• LIC is the giant of the insurance sector. The overall size of LIC is much more than that of all private insurance companies. Private insurers are in expansion mode and are increasing their size but are still much behind LIC. Total premium deposits in LIC is much higher than the private insurance companies. Total premium of LIC in FY 07-08 was 149789 crores which three times more than that of private insurance companies. Income of LIC is much greater than private insurance companies. Last year total income from investments of LIC was 48244.14 crores which was nearly equal to the total income of the all private insurance companies. By this we can imagine how big the LIC is. Size of balance sheet of private insurance companies are lagging much behind LIC. Balance sheet of LIC is seven times bigger than that of private insurance companies. If we see the total number of policies issued by LIC and private insurance companies, we find that there is a huge gap between them. No doubt that LIC is a well established player in the field of insurance and many private companies have just started their business. Hence it is obvious that LIC is having large number of policyholders. Number of branches of private insurance companies is increasing as the new players are entering in this market. Also the established players are in expansion phase and hence are expanding there business. There are many private insurance companies and hence there total number of branches has gone past LIC in the last financial year. But offices of private insurance companies are mostly in urban areas and still it is LIC which covers most of the area. Hence we see that LIC is leading when it comes to size. It is giant in insurance sector having huge network and customer base. • We see that due to excellent service quality and attractive offers private insurance companies have started getting a number of customers. They are growing rapidly. Though LIC is also increasing its customer base but private insurance companies are moving at a fast pace. Though the income of private insurance companies is negligible when compared with LIC but then also the pace with which they are increasing their income is tremendous. Private insurance companies are expanding their business and will certainly going to give a tough competition to LIC in the coming days. LIC is certainly having a large customer base. Private insurance companies are not having that much number of customer base but they are increasing it rapidly. They have registered a decent growth of 104.64 % in number of new policies in the year 2006-07. Last year also their growth rate was 67.4 %.
LIC, being the oldest player in the existing insurance market, has the biggest market share of 73.9 % which was 87.3% five years earlier. We see that private insurance companies are penetrating in the customer base of LIC. Overall we can see that private insurance companies are giving a tough competition to the LIC and will certainly create a good business for themselves in the coming days.
There are many new entrants in this sector. There are many private insurance companies who have reported loss in this and previous years. This is the main reason why private insurance companies lag behind LIC in case of business per branch. There is a big difference between them. Same is the case when it comes to income per branch. LIC is much ahead of private insurance companies in this field. They are undoubted champions in insurance when it comes to profit earning. New business is increasingly going towards private insurance companies but still the customer base of LIC is very strong. In issuing new policies per branch also, they are ahead of private insurance companies though not by very large margin. Customer base of LIC is very strong and still business per branch, profit per branch or premium per branch, they are leading much ahead of private insurance companies.
LIC has not shown their good concern when the matter of grievance handling comes. Private insurance companies are far ahead in this matter. LIC has just resolved 25% cases in the last five years while private insurance companies have resolved nearly 70% cases. This is a matter from where customer shift starts. We have seen the rapid increase in customer base of private insurance companies which can be very much affected by this factor.
Overall we have seen that still LIC is very famous but private insurance companies are growing at exceptionally fast pace. Private companies show due concern in grievance management and brings innovative schemes to attract the customers. Right now they are giving good competition to LIC and very soon they will give very tough competition to Life Corporation of India.
Ø Data on Indian Insurance from http://www.irdaindia.org Ø Different statistics from http://www.rbi.org.in Ø Journals published by Insurance Regulatory & Development Authority. Ø Management of financial institutions by R.M. Srivastava Ø http://www.businesstoday.com Ø http://www.businessworld.com Ø http://www.economictimes.com Ø Different Survey on Insurance sector conducted by IIRC. Ø Profile of Indian Insurance Companies by IRDA. Ø www.licindia.co.in Ø www.sbilife.co.in/ Ø www.tata-aig-life.com Ø www.bharti-axalife.com/ Ø www.hdfcinsurance.com/ Ø www.reliancelife.co.in/ Ø www.bajajallianz.com/ Ø www.metlife.co.in/ Ø www.birlasunlife.com/
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