TABLE OF CONTENTS
Description 1. Techniques Of Auditing 1.1 Ticking 1.2 Casting 1.3 Calling Over 1.4 Vouching 1.5 Verification 2. Procedures Affecting Audit 2.1 Compliance Procedures 2.2 Substantive Procedures 2.3 Analytical Procedures 3. Conduct Of Audit 3.1 Continuous Audit 3.2 Internal Audit 3.3 Interim Audit 3.4 Final Audit 4. Terms Of Audit Engagement 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Audit Engagement Letters 4.3 Principal Contents 4.4 Audits of Components 4.5 Recurring Audits 4.6 Acceptance of a Change in Engagement 5. Using the Work of Another Auditor 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Acceptance as Principal auditor 5.3 The Principal Auditor’s Procedures 5.4 Cooperation b/w auditors 6. Using the Work of An Expert 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Requirements 6.3 Understanding The Group 7. Organizational Setup of An audit Office 8. Commencement of a New Audit 8.1 Appointment 8.2 Document 8.3 Prospectus 8.4 Minute Books i Page No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7
8.5 contract 8.6 Technical Operations 8.7 List of Books 8.8 System of Accounting 8.9 Internal Check 8.10 Previous years Audited Accounts and Reports 8.11 Audit Repots 9. Audit Programme 9.1 Preparation 10. Audit Notebook 10.1 Audit Programme 10.2 Audit Review Notes 10.3 Audit Queries 10.4 Important Balances 11. Audit Working Papers
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Umair Ahmed(Okara) Owner
1-Techniques of Auditing
Ticking indicates the placing of a mark against an entry in the book to denote that it has been examined by the auditor for a certain purpose. To ensure consistency, most of the good auditors use a tick chart which is required to be learnt by the heart by all the members of the audit staff.
Casting refers to the checking of additions of books accounts and financial statements. It is essential that arithmetical accuracy be checked so that frauds or errors (if any) may be detected. This job is normally done by the junior member of audit staff.
A sizable part of the work of audit consistent of the comparison of entries in two or more books or of an entry in a book with its supporting evidence.
The function of the voucher is to authenticate an entry and the auditor must satisfy himself that it does exist. It must correspond in date and account to the entry in the books.
When an auditor has vouched the entries appearing in the books of account, his duty is not thereby fully discharged. If appointed for audit under the Act, he has to report whether or not financial statements present true and correct view to the state of the company.
After the above steps have been performed, the auditor will then be required to submit his report.
2-Procedures Affecting Audit
These tests are designed to obtain reasonable assurance that those internal controls on which audit reliance is to be placed are in effect.
These are designed to obtain evidence as to the completeness, accuracy and validity of the data produced by the accounting system.
These are used to describe the analysis of significant ratios and trends including investigation of unusual fluctuations and items.
3-Conduct of audit:
According to the conduct of audit the following are the types of audit:
A continuous audit is one where the auditor’s accounts the whole year round, or where the otherwise, during the currency of the financial such audits are adopted where the work involved staff is occupied continuously on the auditor attends at intervals, fixed or year and performs an interim audit; is considerable.
Internal audit as the term implies is an audit conducted within the organization by an internal auditor appointed by the management of an enterprise. Normally, all large business organization often set up an internal audit department to exercise an independent appraisal function within the organization. This department undertakes examination and evaluation of various accounting, financial and operating activities of the business enterprise. Internal audit aims at highlight the weak area of in the organization, besides assisting the management to discharge its responsibilities effectively. Internal auditor’s work assists the external auditor in fixing the extent of the necessary work.
Interim audit is one that relate to interim period and not to the full accounting period. It is conducted between two regular audits. It lies between final and continuous audit. It is conducted to know the reliability of the financial statements of the company for a part of the year. For example, if the directors of the company desire to pay the interim dividend, as a rule, the dividend only can be paid only out of profit and profit shall be determines only after the completion the financial year, so the directors may want to know the figure of profit which the company earned up to that date. Hence to get assurance about the reliability of financial statements and keeping in view some interim purpose, Board of Directors may decide to get the account audited by the independent auditor.
A final audit is one where the auditor undertakes the audit work only at the end of the financial year. In such a case, the audit work commences after all the accounts are closed and balance sheet and trading and profit and loss accounts are prepared. The auditor visits his client only once a year and completes the entire work in only one session. The final audit is very useful in case of a small concern. But in case of large business it takes more time to check accounts and submit their report, and therefore, final audit is not sufficient for large business houses.
4-Terms of Audit Engagement
According to ISA 210 these terms should be considered regarding to engagement.
1) The purpose of ISA to establish standards and provide guidance on: a) Agreeing the terms of the engagement with the client b) The auditor’s response to a request by a client to change the terms of a engagement to one that provides a lower level of assurance. 2) The auditor and client should agree on the terms of the engagement. The agreed terms need to be recorded in an audit engagement letter or other suitable form of contract.
4.2-Audit engagement letters:
It is in the interest of both client and auditor that the auditor sends an engagement letter, preferably before the commencement of the engagement, to help the avoiding misunderstanding with respect to the engagement. It involves the acceptance of the appointment, the objective and scope of the audit.
The form and content of audit engagement letter may vary for each client, but they would generally include reference to: 1) The objective of the audit of financial statements. 2) Management’s responsibilities for the financial statements. 3) The scope of audit, including regulations and legislations. 4) The form of any reports or other communication of result of the engagement. 5) Unrestricted access to whatever records, documentation and other information requested in connection with the audit and 6) Management’s responsibility for establishing and maintaining effective internal control.
4.4-Audits of the components:
The auditor of the parent entity is also the auditor of the subsidiary, branch or division. Then we have to send a separate engagement letter to the component include the following: 1) Who appoint the auditor of components? 2) Whether a separate auditors report is to be issued on the components. 3) Legal requirements. 4) Degree of ownership by parent. 5) Degree of the independence of the component’s management.
On recurring audits, the auditor should consider whether circumstances require the terms of the engagement to be revised and whether there is a need to remind the client of the existing terms of the engagement.
4.6-Acceptance of a Change in Engagement:
An auditor, who, before the completion of the engagement, is requested to change the engagement to one which provides a lower level of assurance, should consider the appropriate of doing so.
5-Using the Work of another Auditor
ISA 600 is in respect of Using the Work of another Auditor and is currently effects. This is given below:
1) When the principal auditor uses the work of another auditor, the principal auditor should determine how the work of the other auditor will affect the audit. 2) “Principal Auditor” means the auditor with the responsibility for reporting on the financial statements of an entity when those financial statements include the financial information of one or more components audited by another auditor. 3) “Other Auditor” means an auditor, other than the principal auditor, with responsibility for reporting on the financial information of a component which is included in the financial statement audited by the principal auditor. Other auditors include affiliated firms, whether using the same name or not, and correspondents, as well as unrelated auditors. 4) “Components” means a division, branch, subsidiary, joint venture, associated company or other entity whose financial information is included in financial statements audited by principal auditor.
5.2-Acceptance as Principal Auditor:
1) The auditor should consider whether the auditor’s own participation is sufficient to be able to act as principal auditor. For this purpose the principal auditor would consider: 2) The materiality of the portion of the financial statements which principal auditor audits; 3) The principal auditor’s components; degree of knowledge regarding the business
4) The risk of material misstatements in the financial statements of the components audited by the other auditor;
5.3-The Principal auditor’s Procedures:
1) The principal auditor should perform procedures to obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence, that the work of the other auditor is adequate for the principal auditor’s purposes, in the context of specific assignment. 2) The principal auditor might also, discuss with the other auditor the audit procedure applied, review a written summary of the other auditor’s procedures or reviews working papers. 3) The principal auditor should consider the significant findings of the other auditor.
5.4-Cooperation between Auditors:
The other auditor, knowing the context in which the principal auditor will use the other auditor’s work, should cooperate with principal auditor.
6-Using the Work of an Expert
ISA 620is in respect of Using the Work of an Expert. This is effective for Audit of Financial Statements for period beginning on or after December 15, 2004 which is given below:
1) The purpose of this ISA is to establish standards and provide guidance on using the work of an expert as audit evidence. 2) When using the work performed by an expert, the auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence that such work is adequate for the purposes of the audit. 3) “Expert” means a person or firm possessing special skill, knowledge and experience in a particular field other than accounting and auditing.
4) The auditor’s education and experience enable the auditor to be
knowledgeable about business matters in general, but the auditor is not expected to have the expertise of a person trained for or qualified to engage in the practice of another profession or occupation, such as an actuary or engineer.
The group engagement partner is responsible for the direction, supervision and performance of the group audit engagement in compliance with professional standards and regulatory and legal requirements, and whether the auditors report that is issued is appropriate in the circumstances. 6.2.2-Terms of engagement: The group engagement partner shall agree on the terms of the group audit engagement in accordance with proposed standards. 6.2.3-Overall audit strategy and audit plan: The group engagement team shall establish on overall group audit strategy and shall develop a group audit plan. The group engagement partner shall review the overall group audit strategy and group audit plan.
6.3-Understanding the group:
The auditor is required to identify and assess the risk of material misstatement through obtaining the understanding of the entity and its environment . the group engagement shall: a) Enhance its understanding of the group its components and environment including group wide controls ,obtained during the acceptance or continuance stage; b) Obtain and understanding of the consolidation instructions issued by group management. process including the
7-Organizational Set Up Of An audit Office
An auditor is required to have a sound organizational set-up in his office. Suggested organizational chart is given the chapter. This organizational chart has been developed on the assumption set-up will be different if the auditor were to deal in tax, Management Consultancy and Cost consultancy also. If the magnitude of work is big, the audit department will be divided into several sections. Each section will be under the charge of a qualified assistant (i.e. chartered Accountant). An audit manager is required to be there who will distribute the audit work amongst the staff in liaison with the qualified assistants (generally called as Principals). Besides this, he should maintain a record of the following: 1) Allocation of jobs amongst the senior in charge of the jobs. 2) Daily posting of audit staff to various jobs. 3) Audit work to be done (classified as monthly audit/inspection, quarterly, half yearly and yearly audits). 4) Details of jobs where targets are involved. 5) Dates as and when cash count and physical stock check (annual/monthly or surprise) are to be conducted. 6) Audit jobs to be started, in progress and completed. In order to ensure that the above record is maintained efficiently, audit completion register and audit work register should be maintained.
The audit manager should also maintain an up-to-date list of the clients. It is generally advisable to review it periodically, specially marking new audit jobs undertaken. Generally one or two jobs should be allocated to a senior who would be assisted by a semi-senior and a few junior members of the audit staff in the conduct of the audit work. The senior would be accountable to the qualified principal for getting the audit work finalized who would then submit his work to the auditor to go through in the synthesis of final stage and reporting. The auditor should also keep and use job Completion register. This should include a snapshot of the total jobs in hand. From this register a periodical summary should be prepared indicating jobs completed and jobs still in hand (making separately in progress, to be shortly taken up and arrears, if any).
8-Commencement of a New Audit
Before the commencement of a new audit the following instructions must be given by the auditor to his client: 1) A complete list of books use together with a list of employees engaged upon them with their respective duties, a note on the system of book-keeping in operation and a statement of the system of the internal control in practice should provide to the audit staff. 2) All the books of original entry should be totaled and all the ledgers should be balanced and ruled off. The final trial balance and the draft final account should kept ready for the audit and the examination. 3) All supporting vouchers to all books should be kept properly arranged. The auditor of a newly-established limited company should carry out the following preliminary work before commencing the actual audit:
He should ascertain whether his appointment is in order. He should obtain a certified true copy of the resolution of Board of Directors or shareholders and keep it is in the permanent audit file. I an auditor is being appointed in place of the retiring auditor he should see that the requirements if the Companies Ordinance, 1984, have been compiled with.
A copy of the Memorandum and Articles Association should be obtained and studied carefully. Particulars affecting the auditor in relation to account books and internal procedures relating ti relevant matters should be noted.
Relevant matters affecting the accounts and allied information should be examined.
He should go through the directors and shareholders minute books and job down notes of important decisions.
Service contracts concerning the terms of appointment and the scope of authority in respect of officers of the company should be scrutinized. All material contracts entered into by the company with the outsiders should be procured and studied. Important matters should be noted.
He should acquaint himself as far as possible with the technical operations of the company. It is advisable that he should visit works before starting the audit.
8.7-List of Books:
He should obtain a list of books –statutory, statistical and accounting, which are in use together with names and duties of various clerks who are to write them up.
8.8-System of Accounting:
A note on the system of accounting employed by the company should be obtained.
He should ascertain whether the whole internal check system on operation appears in black and white in some accounting manuals. If so, he should go through the same and carefully note any loopholes. The system, whatever exists in practice, should be tested in all practical aspects.
8.10-Privious Years Audited Accounts and Reports:
With the exception of a new company, the auditor should examine the last balance sheet for the for the purposes of checking the opening entries for the period under audit. The previous year auditor’s report should also be inspected and if ant qualifications are contained in it, the possibility of their being applicable the year under audit should be carefully examined.
He should then draft an audit programme and commence the work of audit.
An audit programme is a written scheme of the exact details of the work to be done by the auditor and his staff in connection with a particular audit. It is generally contained in the audit notebook and is variably in black and white. A space is also provided in the audit programme against each of the work to be done so that each audit clerk, responsible for any portion of the particular work, may put done his signature or initial. One audit program is prepared for one audit. The details of the audit programme will depend upon the adequacy or otherwise of the system of internal control, special provisions of Memorandum and Articles of Association affecting the duties of an auditor and the nature of the business etc.
The audit programme must be developed with due care and skill. Particular attention should be given to the following: 1) Exact scope oh the duties of an auditor. 2) Books of original entry and ledgers in use. 3) The system of book-keeping employed, and its weaknesses (if any). 4) System of internal check and the extant of its reliability. 5) General nature and routine of the business. The audit programme should not be very rigid; it must be capable of being reviewed in view of changing circumstances. A similar audit programme is required to be prepared in respect of all books of original entries and ledgers. The scope of contents of the audit programme should cover all the routine checking and vouching.
It is a book in which a permanent record is kept of the following:
It has already been explained at length earlier.
10.2-Audit review notes:
During the conduct of the audit, certain points do crop up which need further elucidation and discussion with the management. Therefore notes are taken during the conduct of work. A record of the progress of the disposal of audit notes is also maintained.
During the conduct of the audit, all those vouchers which remain insufficiently vouched are to be noted in query list of the audit notebook.
A note of the important closing balances particularly in respect of cash and bank should be noted so that after the work has been done in alteration of any of the closing balances may be made difficult.
11-Audit Working Papers
Working papers are the connecting link b/w the client’s records and the audited accounts. These include all the evidence gathered by the auditor indicating what work has been done by him and the procedure he has followed in verifying a particular asset or liability. These provide a permanent historical record logically arranged in order, in which each item appears in the balance sheet. These also serve as a great guide to the staff to whom the work of audit has been assigned after the previous year audit. These would come to the help of the auditor in future in case the client files a suit against the auditor’s negligence.