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Unit 3 - Rock Types

Sedimentary Rocks

Basic Rock Classifications

Igneous
Sedimentary
Metamorphic

Sedimentary Rocks
Make up 5% of Earths outer 16 km and
75% of continental crust.
Originate from sediment produced from:
(i) physical breakdown of pre-existing

rock
(ii) chemical weathering followed by
precipitation of dissolved materials.

Sedimentary Rocks
Sediment becomes eroded then
deposited in water or air and later
lithified into a solid mass.
Weathering: The break up of existing rocks
Two Types: Chemical and Mechanical
Erosion: The movement of eroded rock material

Lithification - pg. 158


Lithification: The process of when sediments form
into rock
Two sub processes
1. Compaction
2. Cementation

Lithification: Compaction
Compaction: Occurs when sediments get buried

deep underground
pressure from the burial solidifies material into

rock.
This results in reduced porosity (less space)
and permeability.

Lithification: Cementation
Cementation: Minerals precipitate from
groundwater and fill the spaces between
sediments
It is crystallization of minerals in the pore
space.
Reduces porosity and permeability
Precipitates include: Silica, calcite, iron

Cementation

Classes of Sedimentary Rocks


Sedimentary Rocks are classified in three
ways:
1. Clastic (formed from weathering)
2. Chemical (formed from precipitates)
3. Biochemical (formed from living
material)

1. Clastic/Detrital Rocks
Formed from mechanical weathering of
preexisting rocks
e.g., shale, siltstone, sandstone,
conglomerate, breccia

1. Clastic/Detrital Rocks
Clastic rocks are classified based on:
1. Grain size
2. Grain Shape
3. Sorting

Clastic Sedimentary Rock classification:


Shale
grain size
Clay (very fine) - shale
Sandstone
Silt (fine) - siltstone
Sand - sandstone

Siltstone

Grain Shape
Angular gravel particles - Breccia
Rounded gravel particles- Conglomerate

Conglomerate

Breccia

Sorting
Is the degree of similarity in particle size in a
sedimentary rock
well sorted sediment: all the particles are the
same size
- wind blown,
- transported a great distance,
- deposited slowly

Sorting
poorly sorted sediment: show variation in size
and shape
- wave action,
- turbulent streams,
- transported a short distance,
- deposited rapidly

Sorting
Degree of rounding indicates the distance or time
involved in transportation in air or water
Size of sediment indicates strength of
current/wind

Sorting

The faster flowing the wind/water the finer the


sediment and more rounded

High Velocity
Low Velocity
Breccia, Conglomerate Sandstone Siltstone

Shale
COARSE

FINE

Horizontal Sorting
Vertical Sorting

What can we tell from grain


Large grain size = (less current velocity)
size/shape?

closer to

source

Smaller grain size = (more current velocity) father


from source

Angular grains = (less current velocity) closer to


source

Rounded grains = (more current velocity) farther

Clastic Depositional Environments

Sedimentary rock types form in specific places


Fluvial (Rivers/streams) Conglomerate,
Breccia, Sandstone, Siltstone, Shale
Lagoonal/Bays Siltstone, Shale
Beaches Conglomerate, Sandstone

Clastic Depositional Environments


Deep

Marine Conglomerate, Sandstone,


Siltstone, Shale,
but is dominated by chemical sedimentary
rocks.
Shallow Marine Conglomerate, Sandstone,
Siltstone, Shale

Fluvial

Beach

Fluvial

Shallow
Marine

2. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks


2 Types of Chemical sedimentary rocks:
1) Evaporites
2) Precipitates

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks types


1) Evaporites
When water evaporates dissolved
minerals are left behind
e.g., halite (rock salt), gypsum, sylvite

Salt
flats

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks types


2) Precipitates
Due to Changes in Environmental
conditions.
E.g., Temperature change, chemical
change, concentration change.
Chemical weathering dissolving of
chemicals
e.g., compact limestone, travertine,

Chemical Depositional Environments:


1. Shallow Marine
e.g., gypsum, halite, sylvite, limestone
and
dolomite
2. Deep Marine
e.g., limestone, dolomite and nodular
chert
3. Cave - Stalactites and stalagmites

Stalactites and stalagmites


StalaCtites: are icicle-like pendants that
hang from the Ceiling. Water seeps
through cracks in the ceiling of the cave.
StalaGmites: form from the Ground.
The precipitated limestone that makes up
stalactites and stalagmites is called

Stalactites and
Stalagmites

Biochemical Sedimentary Rocks


Biochemical: Rocks that are formed from
living material

Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

Coquina forms from the build-up,


Examples
compaction, and cementation of shells
from dead organisms (mostly on
beaches).

Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

Chaulk forms from the accumulation,


Examples
compaction, and cementation of
microscopic marine organisms such as
formaminifera (i.e. deep marine)

Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

Chert forms from the accumulation of


Examples

microscopic marine organisms, such as


radiolaria and diatoms, that form a very
hard rock consisting of microcrystalline
silica.
E.g. of chert include jasper, flint, and
agate (i.e. deep marine)

Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

Coral limestone accumulations of coral


Examples
can be compacted and cemented into
coral limestone (i.e. shallow marine)

What are corals?

Corals: organisms that are capable of


creating large quantities of marine
limestone from their shells and external
skeletons which are composed of
calcium carbonate.

Biochemical Sedimentary Rock

Coal formed from the accumulation of


Examples

plant material, which is buried and


chemically altered over millions of years.

The Formation of Coal - Swamps

There are 4 stages of coal formation:


1) Peat earliest stage of plant accumulation. Contains

large amounts of volatiles. (PEAT IS NOT A ROCK).


2) Lignite decreased levels of volatiles.
3) Bituminous higher grade of coal than lignite.
4) Anthracite final stage of coal formation. It is

Increasing
Grade

classified as a metamorphic rock due to heat,


pressure, and hot chemical fluids. It burns cleaner.
Small amount available world-wide.

Depositional Environments
Swamp

Coal
Shallow Marine Coquina, Limestone (Coral)
Beach Coquina
Deep Marine Chaulk, Chert
Think

about the concept of systems. How do


biochemical sedimentary rocks and coral
represent interaction of the spheres?

Core Lab 3 Sedimentary


Rocks
Concept
Next

Map for rocks

class Metamorphic Rocks