ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN

L

Considerable confusion exists about the correct procedure for the design of anchor bolts & their embedment. Historically the procedure was to design the anchor bolt net area for tension uplift and horizontal shear based on the AISC equations for a 307 bolts . And then the procedure was to design the depth of embedment for "bond stress devolpement length" based on the ACI code & provide a hook or other positive anchorage device at the bottom of this length. This procedure was safe because it mimicked the ~depth required by"to "ltys 1\ accepted minimum anchor depthbased on pullout shear cones.

Currently the accepted procedure for the design of anchor bolts is to design them as a pullout shear cone, anchored at their base by heads or embedded nuts. At Penta anchor bolts should be set deep enough so that pullout is not likely to occur. On larger foundations we often set the anchor at the bottom of the footing, then by inspection pullout will not occur.

On highly stressed anchor groups I often prefer to detail anchor bolts so that, when possible, the threads start above the BOTTOM of the base plate. This approach is optional, but allows the shear load to be transferred to the anchor bolts across gross, not net, area.

Many engineers also design the anchor bolts for local bending between the bottom of the baseplate & the top of the concrete pier. I have never followed this procedure.

Often ,when shear loads are large, shear keys wilr~volve"C£}>elow the bottom of the base plate sticking into the footing to transfer shear into the concrete without going thru the anchor bolts. Since inspection is impossible for these keys, they must be used cautiously with high factors of safety and with a provision for air relief holes in the base plate. This is because no one can guarantee that such keys are always POSITIVELY grouted solid into the footing, but air relief holes , coupled with grout pumping help.

. Please note that fixed base plate details cannot be cre~ted with baseplates welded to the

column shaft. The base assembly must allow the anchor a~2 inches of STRETCH LENGTH between the top of the concrete & the anchor bolt nut before an base plate -anchor bolt pattern can be considered "fixed".

Please note anchor bolts are also used to align columns for erection & alignment. To serve this function they are preferably set in a square pattern, this square pattern also allows the bolts to miss bracing gussets on the column CENTERLINES. A square anchor bolt pattern requires the columns be WIO minimum. One of the most common mistakes made on structures is to mismatch anchor bolt patterns between foundations & superstructures, square patterns avoid this mistake .. I am not saying all columns must be 10 inches deep, but please check anchor bolt patterns closely when patterns are not square. On a large past job, for many reasons, out of 1800 anchor bolt sets, all sets required field adjustment. Do your best to reduce these field problems.

Please note: on expansion anchors the capacity of the anchor in tension is zero unless the hole is clean of dust & debris. Traditionally the factor of safety on such anchors is 4. Traditionally the center to center distance & embedment depth of such anchors as 12 times the bolt diameter, & an edge distance of 6 times the bolt diameter to the free edge of the concrete. However when you use a vendor catalogue the numbers are usually reduced. Contractors usually like" red head" self drilling anchors.

Anchor bolts for stacks are designed for a stress of 15 ksi based on wind fatigue loading.

Stack anchor bolt patterns have steel embedment rings at the anchor level & the top of concrete,

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as much to align the bolt pattern as to anchor it.

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5 28 • Alse Specijic(lli(J1l (F.//edive 11/1/70)

Structural Steel/or Building» • 5·2'

ance with Sect. 1.5.6, the constants in the formulas listed in Table 1.6.3 shall be increased by Ih, but the coefficient applied to tv shall not be increased.

For A325 and A490 bolts used in friction-type connections, the maximum shear stress allowed by Table 1.5.2.1 shall be multiplied by the reduction factor (1 - ttAbITb), where II is the average tensile stress due to a direct load applied to all of the bolts in a connection and Tb is the specified' pretension load of the bolt. When allowable stresses are increased for wind or seismic loads in accordance with the provisions of Sect. 1.5.6, the reducedallowable shear stress shall be increased by Ih-

1.7.2 Design for Fatigue

Members and their connections subject to fatigue loading shall he proportioned in accordance with the provisions of Appendix R.

SECTION 1.8 STABILITY AND SLENDERNESS RATIOS

TABLE 1.6.3

ALLOWABLE TENSION STRESS (F,) FOR FASTENERS IN BEARING·TYPE CONNECTIONS

1.8.1 General

General stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and for each compression element. Design consideration should be given to significant load effects resulting from the deflected shape of the structure or of individual elements of the lateral load resisting system, including the effects on beams, columns, bracing, connections, and shear walls.

In determining the slenderness ratio of an axially loaded compression member, except as provided in Sect. 1.5.1.3.3, the length shall be taken as its effective length Kl and r as the corresponding radius of gyration.

Description of Fastener Threads Not Excluded Threads Excluded
from Shear Planes from Shear Planes
Threaded parts
A449 bolts over 11h-in. 0,43Fu - 1.8[" .s a.33Fu 0,43Fu - L4f" .s 0.33Fu
diameter
A325 bolts 55 - L8/" ~ 44 55 - 1.4f" ~ 44
A490 bolts 68 - L8!" ~ 54 68 - 104/" .s 54
A502 Grade 1 rivets 30 - 1.3!" :S 23
A502 Grades 2 and 3 rivets 38 - L3/" :S 29
A307 bolts 26 - L8/u ~ 20 1.8.2 Braced Frames

In trusses and in those frames where lateral stability is provided by adequate attachment to diagonal bracing, to shear walls, to an adjacent structure having adequate lateral stability, or to floor slabs or roof decks secured horizontally by walls or bracing systems parallel to the plane of the frame, the effective length factor, K, for the compression members shall be taken as unity, unless analysis shows that a smaller value may be used.

1.8.3 Unbraced Frames

In frames where lateral stability is dependent upon the bending stiffness of rigidly connected beams and columns, the effective length Kl of compression . members shall be determined by a rational method and shall not be less than the actual unbraced length.

SECTION 1.7 MEMBERS AND CONNECTIONS SUBJECT TO REPEATED VARIATION OF STRESS (FATIGUE)

1.8.4 Maximum Ratios

The slenderness ratio, Kllr, of compression members shall not exceed 200. The slenderness ratio, llr, of tension members, other than rods, preferably should not exceed:

For main members. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 240 For lateral bracing members and other secondary members . . 300

1.7.1 General

Fatigue, as used in this Specification, is defined as the damage that may result in fracture after a sufficient number of f1uctuations of stress. Stress range is defined as the magnitude of these fluctuations. In the case of a stress reversal, stress range shall be computed as the numerical sum of maximum repeated tensile and compressive stresses or the sum of maximum shearing stresses of opposite direction at a given point, resulting from differing arrangements of live load.

Few members or connections in conventional buildings need to be designed for fatigue, since most load changes in such structures occur only a small number of times or produce only minor stress fluctuations. The occurrence of full design wind or earthquake loads is too infrequent to warrant consideration in fatigue design. However, crane runways and supporting structures for machinery and

equipment are often subject to fatigue loading conditions. .

SECTION 1.9 WIDTH-THICKNESS RATIOS

• See "Minimum Bolt Tension" values, Table 1.23.5.

l.9.1 Unstiffened Elements Under Compression

l.9.1.1 Unstiffened (projecting) compression elements are those having one free edge parallel to the direction of compression stress. The width of unstiffened plates shall be taken from the free edge to the first row of fasteners or welds; the width of legs of angles, channel and zee flanges, and stems of tees shall be taken as the full nominal dimension; the width of flanges of 1- and H-shape members and tees shall be taken as % tbe full nominal width. The thickness of a sloping flange shall be measured at a section half-way between a free edge and the corresponding face of the web .

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SUGGESTED DETAILS Column base plates

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Base plates are normally detailed and shipped loose.

Note: Hole sizes for anchor bolts are normally

made oversize to facilitate erection as follows:

Bolts % to 1 "~_5;'6n oversize Bolts 1 to 2"~-1f2" oversize Bolts over 2"$-1" oversize

AMERICAN INSTITIITF ()e ST!"!" , r""CTn, '~T'~.'

SUGGESTED DETAILS Column splices Riveted and bolted

Washer

r bolts

}o'-lIf-----:------i1l-'t

i.i:

Erection pin hole (optional)

DEPTH OF Du AND DL NOMINALLY THE SAME

Erection clearance

Shim as required

DEPTH Du NOMINALLY 2 IN. LESS THAN DL

clearance = Va in.

\E iD, I ,\

4 1

Erection clearance

Shim as required

Erection clearance

Finish bearing plate

in accordance with AISC Spec. Sect. l.21.

A ... r-r-o ....... "", l'dC'TITIITe tit:" ~Tt:'1:'1 rnNc:.TRI H"":TION

Bun PLATE

PENTA ENGINEERING CORP.

Project _

Page __ 11--_ of _-",2,--

Job No. _

i 633 Des Peres Rd. Suite 325 St. Louis, Missouri 63131

Ph. (314) 965-7300 Fax: (314) 965-7326

Designed by _

Checked by _

Date _

Date _

Page Z of ~

PENTA ENGINEERING CORP.

Project _

Job No. _

1633 Des Peres Rd. Suite 325 8t. Louis, Missouri 63131

Ph. (314) 965-7300 Fax: (314) 965-7326

Designed by _

Checked by _

Date _

Date _

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COLUMNS / 7-3

the column shape in cross section, and are located by

system of numbering. Their location may be established by using either a simple numerical sequence, as 1, 2, 3, etc., or a two-way grid system, with column center lines assigned letters in one direction and numbers in the other direction. Thus, a column at the intersection of lines D and 4 would be D4.

The required size and makeup of a particular col-

umn, including loading, is given in the column sched-

r. ule. As the total load supported by a column increases through an accumulation of loads from each level of framing, the size of the column usually increases. The

schedule shows the column sizes and specifies the elevation at which the sizes must change. For reasons of economy in fabrication and handling, splices usually occur at every second or third level. Thus, each individual column length supports two or three floors, termed a tier. Horizontal reference lines in the column schedule represent finished floor lines or some other reference plane. Elevations of floor framing, as well as column splices, are referred to by note or dimension to these lines. Bottoms of columns (or tops of base

. plates), and the "cutoff points" at the column tops are similarly located.

The size and length of columns in low buildings of

one or two stories, where the same section may be

.. [ .. wsed from top to bottom, usually are shown on the lans and in elevations or typical sections.

The location of the column splice can affect the cost

[of a high-rise structure. The following situations are ... cited for consideration:

1. Since the lower column tier is normally heavier, it is appropriate to keep the splice level as low as possible in order to reduce weight of materials.

2. The elevation of the splice must provide sufficient space to allow for the splice plate and beam connection to be made without interfering with each other. If it is a braced structure, there should be sufficient space for the bracing connection. It is very undesirable for the column splice to share fasteners with or be dependent upon some other connection.

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3. The splice elevation should accommodate the ironworker who will make the connection. It may appear desirable to splice a column at the midheight or point of contraflexure, but since this is several feet above the steel framing it can require additional expense in the initial connecting of the next higher tier, in the installing and tightening of permanent bolts, or in the field welding of the splice, since scaffolding can be required for access. This is particularly troublesome during the erection of the next tier and is sometime:- an unsafe procedure.

8ase plate. Finished top

of concrete

Through rods.

GRILLAGE FOOTING

Figure 7-2

COLUMN BASES

Base plates distribute the column loads over an area of foundation large enough to prevent crushing the masonry. The size and thickness of base plates are usually listed at the bottom of the column schedule. For extremely heavy loads in major structures, or where subsoil conditions are poor, the designer may distribute the column loads by using a grillage (see Fig. 7-2). This consists of one or more layers of closely spaced beams (usually S shapes because of the thicker webs) encased in the concrete foundation.

Although the construction of foundations is not a part of the fabricator's work, masonry design plans may show certain items which the fabricator is required to furnish. These may include anchor bolts, leveling plates, grillages, machinery supports, curb angles and other embedments. These items are ordinarily shipped in advance and are placed by the masonry contractor prior to steel erection. The masonry plan usually shows typical column base details. An example of a masonry plan is shown in Fig. 7-8.

An anchor bolt plan is prepared by the fabricator concurrently with the details of advance material. This plan, which is similar in appearance to the masonry plan, gives complete information for field placement, including erection marks, elevations at the tops of base plates and leveling plates (elevations should not be given to the bottom of a base plate), grout thickness and the projection of anchor bolts above the top of concrete. Although much of this data may be taken from the masonry plan, it should be verified by any other means available. This is particularly true for elevations of the tops of footings, which must be com" patible with base plate elevations. Also, the orientation and location of columns must agree throughout all tiers

7-4 / DETAILING FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION

r -

Figure 7-3

above the foundations. Attention paid to these details at the outset of ajob will save much time and expense at a later date.

Small base plates, as shown in Figs. 7-3a and 7-3b, are often attached to the bottoms of columns in the shop. The difficulty of supporting such columns while leveling and grouting their bases makes it advisable to provide footings finished to the proper elevation. The required smooth bearing area is usually achieved by means of a steel leveling plate approximately 1/4-in. thick. This is easy to handle and set level to elevation prior to erection of the columns. Holes serve as a setting template for the anchor bolts. Very light columns may be set with wedges or shims in lieu of a leveling plate.

Leveling plates and loose base plates that are small enough to be set manually are placed by the masonry contractor (see Figs. 7-3c and 7-3d). Larger base plates that must be lifted by a derrick or crane are set to elevation and leveled by the steel erector. This is accomplished either by using shims of various thicknesses (see Fig.7-4a), or by leveling screws with weldments to the edges of the base plate (see Figs. 7- 4b and 7-4c). The top of the rough masonry footing is purposely set 1 in. or so below the bottom of the base plate to provide for adjustment and subsequent grouting. Cement grout is worked under the plate to insure full bearing under the entire plate area. For large base plates, the design should call for one or more largesize holes near the center of the plate through which grout is poured to obtain an even distribution. If the structural contract includes steel anchor bolt setting

templates, it is customary to furnish light plates, similar in all respects to leveling plates except that the overall size need be only large enough to include the bolt pattern.

In lightly loaded structures, tall narrow frameworks and mill buildings where crane loading is a factor, horizontal forces may tend to overturn columns, or cause an uplift from the base. To resist these forces, anchor bolts are used to tie the column to the foundation. Anchor bolts also serve to locate and to prevent displacement or overturning of columns due to accidental collisions during erection.

For ordinary size anchor bolts, 11/4-in. dia. and less, heavy clip angles bolted or welded to the columns, as shown in Figs. 7-3c and 7-3d, are generally adequate

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~ L6rouf \__ 'TOp ofc Shim POCKS for levelin; 5req'd.

oncrere

Anchorbolfs Angle sflffeners construction (aJ

ear sfiffeners - welded c(J/7sfrvcfion

Alfemafe angle sfiffener' welded

Lb)

/ icvetinq Screw .:>: Oip Welded Nut Rounded Point

Steel Pad

(c)

Figure 7-4

COLUMNS / 7·5

Table 7·1. Recomended Hole Sizes For Anchor Bolts

Bolt size

Hole size

Diameter + 5/16" Diameter + Ijz" Diameter + 1"

3/4" to I" inc!. Over 1" to 2" incl. Over 2"

to transfer overturning or uplift forces from the column shaft to the anchor bolts. When a more positive an· chorage is needed to provide against uplift or to resist a calculated moment force, stiffeners are employed with horizontal fitting angles or bars. In such cases, the design plans should contain sketches and design of the required base details (see Fig. 7·4).

Table 7-1 gives recommended hole sizes in steel members to accommodate anchor bolts. The oversize permits a reasonable tolerance for misalignment in setting the bolts and permits more precision in the ad-. justment of the base plate and column to their correct center lines. The oversize hole should be covered with a flat washer.

Anchor boIts are sometimes located and drilled into the foundation after a piece has been installed in final position. The details should be arranged and dimensioned to permit access and clearance for the drilling. The bolts should be spaced to miss the reinforcing bars.

Insert holes are sometimes precast in the foundation.

These holes are oversize and accommodate a "swedge" type bolt which is grouted in the hole, usually with the piece installed in final position. These holes should be sealed in locations subject to freezing, to avoid spalling of the foundation by the freeze-thaw cycle of waterfilled holes.

Observe that the angle or bar stiffeners in the moment base of Fig. 7-4 are cut back about 1 in. from the base plate. This eliminates a pocket and permits drainage to protect the column base. These stiffeners are intended to resist uplift from an overturning moment and are not usually designed as part of the column area in bearing on the base plate. The clip angles shown in Figs. 7-3c and 7-3d preferably should be set back from the column end about lis-in. for the same reasons.

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Base Plates

In the absence of specific job requirements, the surface preparation of rolled steel base plates is governed by AISC Specification Sect. 1.21.3. This section stipulates that if satisfactory contact in bearing is present in plates 2 in. or less in thickness, machining is not necessary. Plates over 2 in. through 4 in. in thickness may be either straightened to obtain this contact, or finished at the option of the fabricator. To insure satisfactory flatness, all unfinished base plates and leveling plates are noted "Straighten" on detail drawings. Plates over

Table 7-2. Finish Allowances (Carbon Steel)

Add to Fin. Add to Fin.
Size Thickness, One Side, Two Sides,
in. in. in.
Maximum 11/. or less '/16 'Is
dimension
24" or less Over 11/. to 2 '18 'I.
incl.
Maximum 11/. or less '/s '14
dimension
over 24" Over 1'1. to 2 3/16 V8
incl.
56" wide, Over 2 to 71/2 'I, V8
or less incl.
Over 7'12 to 'h 5,18
10 incl.
Over 10 to 15 If, 7/8
incl.
Over 56" wide Over 2 to 6 1/4 V8
to 72" wide incl.
Over 6 to 10 '/2 5,18
incl.
Over 10 to 15 31. 7/8
incl. 4 in. thick must. be finished. However, finishing is not required on the underside of base plates when grout is used to insure full contact on the foundations.

When finishing is required, as for BP2 in Fig. 7-5, the plate must be ordered thicker than the specified finished dimension to allow for the cut. Finish allowances will vary, depending on the overall dimensions and thickness of the plates.

Table 7-2 provides information on finish allowances for carbon steel for a variety of plate widths and thicknesses and for finishing one or both surfaces. These tabulated finish allowances are based on many years of experience and have been proven satisfactory for structural work. Manual Part 1 lists mill flatness tolerances for both carbon and alloy steels, and an adjustment should be made in applying Table 7-2 to alloy steel base plates in proportion to the differences with carbon steel. Base plate thickness should be specified in multiples of eighths of an inch.

Since no useful purpose is served by finishing more than the area in contact with the finished end of the column, the shop detail is dimensioned to show the area on which finishing (Fin.) is required (see Fig. 7- 5). To reduce machine time, the cut should be made in the direction producing the least possible finished area. The finishing is usually carried across the full width of the plate to avoid interrupted machining operations, although it is not required from a design standpoint.

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7·6 / DETAILING FOR STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Flame -!!J:- ~GroUf holes lt Lifting,
Flame cut.
cut Z _'\l hole
po ... -
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Yf;o 91 94 ftl. ~
2L 7 2'-7 FIN,2rf!.
5'-2 PL -7x57x5'-EBP2
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I /~6 PL -Ii x /5 x/!6 BPI straighten

Holes are punched in those plates which are within the machine capacity of the fabricator. Thicker plates must be either drilled or flame cut to provide the holes. Most fabricators are limited to a maximum drilling capacity of l l/z-in. diameter holes. From a practical and economic standpoint, the design should permit flamecut holes when the holes are over about 11/2-in. diameter in any thickness of base plate. The flame-cutting operation produces holes with slightly tapered walls and the holes should be inspected with a go-no-go gage to assure proper clearances of anchor bolts. Grout holes do not require the same accuracy of size and location and generally are flame cut. Heavy base plates should be provided with some means of handling at the erection site. On BP2, lifting holes are provided in the vertical legs of the connection angles (see Fig. 7-5).

Various means have been developed for use in leveling the base plates at erection. Three-point leveling is normally used, since it is faster and more sensitive to adjustment. Figure 7-4 indicates three leveling screws on the base plate. A threaded attachment is welded to the base plate and may consist of a welded nut, a threaded bar as in Fig. 7-5, or an angle and nut as

PL-ixI8xZ!OMI Sfroiqhten (Levelinq plate)

red"';' 'et!!p-Top 4.

2L 8 x d: x 4 x ] 3 00 3Borlit/lx2-po

Figure 7-5

shown in Fig. 7-4c, depending on the weight of the plate. The leveling screw must be long enough to compensate for the grout space and preferably should have the point slightly rounded to prevent it from "walking" as it is turned down. A small steel pad under the point reduces friction.

It is not intended that the leveling screws or the shims support the weight of the column. If the grouting is to be delayed until after steel erection, it is required that adequate shim packs be installed to properly distribute loads into the foundation without overstressing either the base plate or the foundation.

Anchor Bolts

Anchor bolts for structural work may take any of the forms shown in Fig. 7-6. Although not suitable for high strength steels, perhaps the most commonly used are hook bolts, which are illustrated in Fig. 7-6a. Their resistance to uplift is due largely to the bond formed between the shank and the poured concrete, although the hooks provide additional mechanical anchorage.

COLUMNS / 7·7

l

(0)

(b)

~ -H2

Iop ot n

.• concrete U

(c)

(d)

(e)

Figure 7-6

Figure 7-6b illustrates single and paired bolts provided with anchor plates to increase resistance through mechanical anchorage.

Figure 7-6c shows a swedged bolt which may be set either prior to pouring concrete, or, as shown, in a drilled hole for subsequent grouting. Uplift is resisted by bonding with the concrete and by the mechanical anchorage of the deformations.

Figure 7-6d shows an anchor bolt set in a metal sleeve.

Its advantage lies in the opportunity for some horizontal adjustment at the time the base plate is set in place. The bolt is fixed in place by subsequent grouting.

The nut shown in Fig. 7-6e is generally acceptable in lieu of a bolt head. Since headed rods, in the lengths and diameters required for anchor bolts, generally are not stock items, this substitution relieves the shop of the costly tooling that would be required to form heads on odd lots of various rods.

Figure 7-7 shows typical shop details of anchor bolts.

Note that no attempt is made to picture the swedging or to show conventional thread symbols, since the shop will understand what is required by reading the notes. Thread and nut sizes will be ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard for the rod diameters used. Because of possible inaccuracies in the setting of anchor bolts, the distance H, shown in Fig. 7-6d, should be sufficient to permit the bolt to project a positive distance above the nut. Thread lengths will therefore be somewhat longer than the standard lengths furnished on regular bolts. Washers, which may be either

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hex. nut ") hex.not
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tJ"¢J 0\ -- ..__ Bar4xi x4 -WI (Washer)

f

V)

f3or-1i ¢ x "-3 -A81 (Rod)

Bar- i '" x J'-.5l -AB2 (Rod)

Figure 7-7

round or square, will have holes which are 1/16-in. larger than the bolt diameter and will be furnished from ASTM A36 steel plates for most applications. Their use is required because of the large bolt holes provided in the base plate and column details.

Manual Part 4, Table I-C, lists a variety of ASTM specification-type material that is suitable for use as anchor bolts and tie rods. Distinction should be made between those items that are available as headed bolts and as rod stock. The headed bolts are generally stocked in lengths up to about 8 in., depending on material specification, and considerable delay and expense can be expected when non-standard sizes and lengths are specified. The designer should review the material availability when either high strength or large diameter are under consideration. Suitable nuts can be selected from ASTM Specification A563.

Table I-B, Manual Part 4, tabulates allowable tension values and Table I-D tabulates allowable shear values for the usually specified materials ofASTM A36, A572 Gr. 50, A588, and A449. It should be noted that these values are based on F,o the specified minimum tensile strength. Also note that although A572 Gr. 50 and A588 steels both have yield strengths of SO ksi, they have differing values of F,,:

A572 Gr. 50: F" = SO ksi, F" = 65 ksi A588: F; = 50 ksi, F" = 70 ksi

Occasionally it is required that rods or bars be welded to base plates to increase shear or pull-out resistance. The use of a weldable material such as A36 or A572 is recommended for this purpose. Regular deformedtype concrete reinforcing bars such as ASTM A615, A616 and A617 are not produced to a controlled chemistry and their weldability must be very carefully controlled.

Fig.6.1.12 Shear cone development forwelded headed studs

concrete surface

surface area Ao == Vi Ie 7f' (Ie + dh )

stud

(a) Fu" Shear Cone

Effective surface area of partial shear cone

Apo == Ao - 2Aop

Aop == .J2rr/e + dh,) 2 cos-1 ( m ) . _ m J(I + d-h)2' _ m2 Jl

~ 2 2 Ie + dh 2 e 2 4

(b) Partial Shear Cone

l \

6-18

6.1.13 Welded Headed Studs

The pull-out capacity of headed studs cast into concrete is assumed to be governed by the shear cone as shown in Fig. 6.1.12, or by the tensile strength of the stud. If the full shear cone can be developed, the pull-out capacity is the lesser of:

P~ == 4>16(le+dh)~/e (Eq.6-12)

or

p~ == 0.9 Aso f~ where

rp == 0.85

l« == embedment length

dh == head diameter of the stud

Aso == shank area of the stud

f~ = ultimate tensile strength of stud steel

If the stud is located near a free edge, or if the spaci ng of studs is less than 2 Ie + dh , the capacity is reduced in proportion to the reduction of the surface area of the shear cone. These proportions are shown in Table 6.2.8.

If the device is within 4 Ie of a free edge, and loaded toward the edge the concrete shear capacity should be checked for:

v~== rp (2500 de - 3500) where

4> = 0.85

de = edge distance in the direction of the load

(Eq.6-13)

Fig.6.1.13 Shear loading on stud near a free edge

'1-------.-'" ~ V,

. ""0

e concrete shear capacity of a stud which is 4 Ie or greater from a free edge should be as the ste.el shear capacity of the stud.

(Eq. 6-14)

should not exceed p~ determined for the

'. U

full or partial shear cone.

For combined tension and shear loading on ed studs, the ultimate capacity can be deter-

ned by:

S 1

(Eq.6-15)

~ 1 (Eq.6-16)

and V u are the calculated tensile and shear respectively.

e connection shown at the right is subjected ultimate shear of 25 kips. Determine the mum eccentricitv.ie.

= 25 (4/3)* = ~3.3 kips .3/6 = 5.55 kips per stud

p~ = 10.6 kips V~ 8.82 kips

(Pu/10.6)2 = 1 -(5.55/8.82)2 Pu = 8.24 kips

ncrete capacity:

rom Table 6.2.8, 2m = 6", m = 3", on factor = 0.93

rom Table 6.2.7, P~ = 0.93 (19.2) = 17.9 kips

= 5.55 = 0.73 7.65

Fig. 6.1.15 Pu/P~ = 0.45

;:: 0.45 (17.9) = 8.06 kips (controls)

Assume couple develops between upper and lower studs

Moment capacity = 2 (8.06) (12) = 193 in. kips Mu = 193 (3/4) = 145 in. kips

e = M, = 145= 5.8 in. v: 25

P L 1/2 x 8 x l' - 2"

e

6"

·1

LO

4"

free edge

Example 6.8:

6.1.14 Deformed Bar Anchors

Deformed bar anchors which are automatically welded (similar to headed studs) to steel plates should have their development length calculated by:

Id = 0.03 db (fy)

~

(Eq.6-17)

where

db = diameter of bar fy -s;; 60rOOO psi

For fy > 60,000 psi, the above value should be multiplied by the quantity:

(2- 60~~00) (Eq.6-18)

Horizontal bars placed so that. more than 12 in. of concrete is below the bar (top bars) should have the above value of ld multiplied by 1.4.

PCI Design Handbook

6-19

L

L

6-20

6.1.15 Inserts Cast in Concrete

Loop inserts of the type shown in Fig. 6.1.14 can be investigated in a manner similar to that for welded studs. The pull-out capacity can be determined from:

P~ = 1> 4Ao Vf

c

(Eq.6-19)

where

1> = 0.85

Ao = lateral surface area of the shear cone

If the full shear cone cannot develop, this value should be reduced by the proportion of the surface area of the partial cone to the surface of the I full o~e.· \

Actual capacity of the insert will often be controlled by the mechanical capacity of the insert, or the capacity of the bolt or threaded rod used .

. Yield strengths of various sizes of wires commonly used in inserts, and typical capacities of bolts and rods are shown in Table 6.2.9. Information from the insert manufacturer and AISC recommendations for standard threaded members should be checked. If the insert is located 4le or greater from a free edge, the shear capacity should be assumed equal to the pull-out capacity; within 4 l« of a free edge, shear capacity should be calculated the same as for headed studs. Combined shear and tension capacities can be evaluated in a manner similar to that shown for headed studs.

Fig. 6.1.14 Shear cone development for loop inserts

concrete surface

Q) -..

surface area Ao == 1rJ2 (ie ) 2

concrete

su rface~L'--~~-'"

Ao == y'2(1e) 1T (Ie + dh) Note: See Fig. 6.1.12 for partial

shear cone development

Fig. 6.1.15 Interaction diagram for pullout and shear of inserts and headed studs

1.0
0.8
0.6
_ :::J
c, 0.4
-
c_:::J
0.2 ............. r-, I I I II I
(P y/3 (V y/3
<, ~ + ~ = 1.0
r-, P~ V~
~
-.
'"
'"
1\
\
- 1\ o

o

0.2

0.8

0.4

0.6

Wedge inserts of the type shown in Fig. 6.1.16 are usually made of malleable iron and used with connection angles. Data limited to tests with 5000 psi normal weight concrete indicate a shear capacity determined by

00 1.2.5 - eevjlJ' V~ = 1> 50 l

(Eq. 6-20) ·20)

where

1> == 0.85 ev/ej ~ 1.0-

Minimum bolt size should be 3/4 in. diameter and of a shear and tension capacity greater than the shear value determined above.

Fig. 6.1.16 Forces on typical wedge insert

wedge insert

e, V

1-----1 u

PCI Design Handbook

1.0

Fig.6.1.17 Design relationships for connection angles

II - g -p:-

OJ Pu ~ 6
, ci)
....::- ....::- Pu Pu gusset plate
....::-
~ t---_
OJ Vu~ OJ Vu~
ev < ""\j
WVc - 1 WVc
ej
(a) without gusset (b) with gusset 6.1.16 Connection Angles

\

Angles used to support precast members can be designed by statics as shownin Fig. 6.1.17. Inaddition to the applied vertical and horizontal loads, the design should include all loads induced by restraint of relative movement between the precast member and the supporting member. The minimum thickness of non-gusseted angles loaded in shear as shown in Fig. 6.1.18 can be determined by:

t = ]_ jr-4-V-u -e-v '

¢ fyb

(Eq.6-21)

where

¢ :;:: 0.90

b :;:: width of the angle

design ev :;:: specified ev + 1/2 in.

Fig.6.1.18 Vertical loads on connection angle

connection to support V u structure not shown

The tension on the bolt can be calculated by:

(Eq.6-22)

For angles loaded axially, Fig. 6.1.19, either in tension or compression, the minimum thickness of non-gusseted angles can be calculated by:

t = .l. 4 4 T c g, (Eq. 6-23)

¢ fyb

where

¢ 0.90

9 :;:: gage of the angle

b width of the angle

It is recommended that the bolt hole gage be no greater than 21/2 in. The ultimate shear stress for A36 steel should not exceed 19.6 ksi on the 'cross-section resisting shear.

Connections may be made by welding instead of bolting and the welds designed in accordance with AISC specifications.

Fig. 6.1.19 Horizontal loads on connection angle

low-friction washer

OJ

surface of precast unit

connection to support structure ·not shown

PCI Design Handbook

6-21

r

l

t.

t l t L L L \ ..

6-22

$C • _= $ • JliS

Fig.6.1.20 Column base connections

(b) Flush base plate

(a) Base plate larger than column

1 3/4" to 2 1/2"

,~,~

.N

'1

';:.0

6.1.17 Column Base Connections

Column bases must be designed for both erection loads and loads which occur in service the former often being more critical. Two comm~nly used base connections are shown in Fig. 6.1.20.

If in the analysis for erection loads or temporary construction loads before grout is placed under the plate, all the anchor bolts are in compression, the base plate thickness required to satisfy the ultimate bending condition is determined from:

1

t = -

cf> where

cf> = 0.90

l: F = greatest sum of anchor bolt ultimate

forces on one side of the column

If the analysis indicates the anchor bolts on one or both sides of the column are in tension the

base plate thickness is determined by: '

t = ..!.1 (l: F) 4xt (Eq.6-25)

cf> bfy

(Eq.6-24)

Under loads which occur at service, the base plate thickness may be controlled by bearing on the concrete or grout. I n this case, the base plate thickness is determined by:

t = xo t/ 2 fbu

rp fy

(Eq.6-26)

Ultimate base plate shearing stresses for A36 steel should not exceed 19.6 ksi.

The anchor bolt diameter is determined by the tension or compression on the root area of=the threaded portion of the bolt. Anchor bolts may be ASTM A307 bolts or, more frequently, threaded rods of ASTM A36 steel.

In extreme cases, the buckling of the bolts before grouting may be a consideration. The strength of the concrete when the bolt is in tension may be critical and can be determined by assuming a shear cone pull-out failure as described for headed studs. However, with the usual dimensions used for column bases, these considerations are rarely critical.

The length of the anchor bolt should be such that the concrete will develop the desired strength ?f t.he bolt in bond and bearing on the hook proiecnon or bolt head. Bearing area of bolt heads can be increased by welding a washer or steel plate to the bolt head. Ultimate bond stress on smooth

anchor bolts should not exceed 250 psi. The ultimate confined bearing on the hook or bolt head should not exceed ¢ f~. The bottom of the bolt should be a minimum of 4 in. above the bottom of a footing, and above the footing reinforcing.

Compression on anchor bolts during erection can be substantially reduced by the use of steel shims. The required area of the shims can be determined by the bearing stress of the concrete.

Confinement reinforcement should be provided around the anchor bolts embedded in piers or ~alls. This may be designed by shear-friction principles but should be a minimum of four ties at 3-in. centers placed near the top of the bolt in addition to the normal amount of ties provided in the concrete pier or wall.

6.1.18 Welding of Reinforcing Bars

Welding of reinforcement is a practical means of developing the force transfer required in many con nections. The followi ng recommendations should be followed when welding reinforcement to avoid damage to the bars and to provide the required force transfer.

1. Carbon content of the bars should be not more

than 0.5 percent. 1

2. Use only low hydrogen electrodes AWS class c ~

E7015 or E"1016. r J

3. Do not weld within 8 in. of any cold bend. .II" c-

4. When preheating is required, the surface where the weld is being deposited must be at or above the required preheat temperature. Preheat for a distance of 3 in. in all directions from the point of welding.

5. Tack welding of reinforcing bars in connections should not be permitted unless indicated by

the design. '

6. The welding of bars larger than No. 11 is a special case, and outside the scope of these recommendations.

The ultimate strength of reinforcement welds is determined by:

T w = cf> (25,000) lw tw

(Eq.6-27)

where

cf> = 0.70
Tw = tensile capacity of the weld
lw = length of the weld
tw thickness of the weld at the throat Typical weld details are shown in Fig. 6.1.21.

PCI Design Handbook

6-23

l

l_

l L

6-24

Fig. 6.1.21 Typical reinforcement welds

Side view

Top view

(a) Welded cross bar anchorage

Section

Side view

(b) Reinforcement welded to plate or angle

1 ~eelangle gg ~rea = 1.5 bar area

\ : __:_ I =::::::: : ''<,

(c) Reinforcing bars welded together

6.1.19 Grouted Flexible Tube Connection

Reinforcing bars No.8 'and smaller, may be embedded into non-rusted metallic flexible interlocking conduit and grouted to provide a connection for a column base, column splice or other tension or compression connection. The required embedment length may be determined by:

I = Aso fy

e ¢ ~o (1200)

(Eq.6-28)

where

Aso area of the bar

fy = yield strength of the bar ~o = perimeter of the bar

¢ 0:85

The following limitations are recommended:

11.

1. The minimum concrete cover over the grouted

reinforcing bar should be 3 in.

2. The conduit should have a minimum thickness of 0.023 in., and a minimum internal diameter of 1 3/4 in.

3. The grout material should have a minimum compressive strength of 6000 psi.

4. Confinement reinforcement consisting of a spiral or ties having Ash = Aso fy/Jlfys may be required to prevent splitting or bond failure between the conduit and the surrounding concrete.

5. le should not be less than 6 in.

Fig. 6.1.22 Grouted tube connection

Flexible metallic interlocking conduit

Confi nement ties, ASh

Reinforcing bar

PCI Design Handbook

Min i mum r----::..----l. 6" .

~~~~~e:;ate '---"'[1

tube . ( ~

A" (Wo' J

0'31 _

Section

6-25

CONNECTIONS

Table 6.2.7 Design data for welded headed studs

Procedure: r
1. For studs loaded in shear, determine
capacity from Table A. de ~ d,
P'
2. For studs loaded in tension, determine u
-
capacity by applying reduction factors t
from Table 6.2.8 to values in Table B.
Check stud capacity in right column.
3. For combined shear and tension see Fig. 6.1.15 \ Ie I

Table A. Ultimate Stud Shear Capacity (V~), lb. (1)
Diameter, ds, in. 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" 5/8" 3/4" 7/8"

Min. stud length, in. _ 2 1/2" 2 1/2" 4" 4" 4" 5"
2 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280 1280
2.5 2200(3) 2340 2340 2340 2340 2340
3 3400 3400 3400 3400 3400
3.5 4460 4460 4460 4460 4460
4 4950(3) 5520 5520 5520 5520
4.5 6590 6590 6590 6590
5 7650, 71350 7650 7650
5.5 8710 8710 8710 8710
c: 6 8820(3} 9.780 9780 9780
(\) 6.5 10,840 10,840 10,840
"C
~
Q) 7 11,900 1',900 11,900
Cl
-0 7.5 12,960 12,960 12,960
CI)
CI) 8 13,770(3) 14,020 14,020
e 8.5 15,090 15,090
'+-
0 9 16,150 16;150
....
~ 9.5 17,210 17,210
c: 10 18,280 18,280
ttl
.... 10.5 19,340 19,340
.!!.!
c 11 19,890(3) 20,400
11.5 21,460
12 22,520
12.5 23,590
13 24,650
13.5 ~5,710
14 ' 26,780
14.5 27,140(3)
Table B. Ultimate Stud Pull-out Capacity (P~), kips
Concrete capacity, full shear cone developed (1) (2) Maximum
Stud stud
length, in. 2 1/2" 4" 5" 6" 7" 8" capacity
c: 1/4" 7.2 17.3 26.4 37.5 50.5 65.4 2.65
.
-0"' 3/8" 7.8 18.3 27.6 38.9 52.2 67.3 5.94
. 1/2" 8.4 19.2 28.9 40.4 53.9 69.2 10,58
.~ -' _ _._ .. "
-0 5/8" 9.0 20.2 30.0 41.8 55.5 71.2 16.52
'0 3/4" 9.2 20.4 30.4 42.2 56.0 71.7 23.87
:J
.... 7/8" 9.7 21.3 31.4 43.5 57.5 73.4 32.56
(f.) Values above heavy line for use with reduction factors (Table 6.2.8) only. (3) Limiting values based on maximum stud shear capacity.

(1) Multiply table values by 0.85 for sand-llqhtweiqht concrete

(2) Multiply pull-out capacities b~/500Otor values other than 5000 psi

PCI Design Handbook 6-33

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6-34.

CONNECTIONS

Table 6.2.8 Reduction factors for partial shear cone - studs and inserts

------------------------------------- __

Both Sides of Shear Cone Not Developed

H~ (j _c_a_s:_~ 1

I nterior studs or inserts in a group.

m < z t,

m (in.) l« = 2.5" Ie = 4" Ie = 6" Ie = 8" Ie = 9" Ie = 12" Ie = 15" Ie = 18"
3 0.72 0.47 0.31 0.24 0.21 0.16 0.13 0.11
4 0.90 0.61 0.42 0.31 0.28 0.21 0.17 0.14
5 1.0 0.74 0.51 0.39 0.35 0.26 0.21 0.18
6 1.0 0.86 0.61 0.47 0.42 0.31 0.25 0.21
7 1.0 0.95 0.70 0.54 0.48 0.37 0.29 0.25
8 1.0 1.0 0.78 0.61 0.55 0.42 0.34 0.28
9 1.0 1.0 0.86 0.68 0.61 0.47 0.38 0.31
10 1.0 1.0 0.92 0.74 0.67 0.51 0.42 0.35
11 1.0 1.0 0.97 0.80 0.73 0.5.6 0.46 0.38
12 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.86 0.78 0.61 0.50 0.42
13 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.91 0.83 0.65 0.53 0.45
14 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.95 0.88 0.70 0.57 0.48
15 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.98 0.92 0.74 0.61 0.51
16 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.96 0.78 0.65 0.55
17 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.98 0.82 0.68 0.58
18 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.86 0.72 0.61 lH_jn

~n</e Case 1

P'

u

Exterior studs or inserts in a group

n < Ie

I n (in.) Ie = 2.5" Ie = 4" Ie = 6" l« = 8" Ie = 9" Ie = 12" Ie = 15" i; = 18" I
1.5 0.85 0.73 0.66 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
2 0.95 0.80 0.71 0.66 0.64 0.61 0.58 0.57
2.5 1.0 0.86 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.59
3 1.0 0.93 0.80 0.73 0.71 0.66 0.63 0.61
4 1.0 1.0 0.89 0.80 0.77 0.71 0.67 0.64
5 1.0 1.0 0.96 0.87 0.83 0.76 0.71 0.67
6 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.93 0.89 0.80 0.75 0.71
7 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.97 0.94 0.85 0.79 0.74
8 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.98 0.89 0.82 0.77
9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.93 0.86 0.80
10 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.96 0.89 0.83
11 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.99 0.92 0.86
12 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.95 0.89
13 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.97 0.92
14 1.0 1.0 y. 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.99 0.94
15 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.96
16 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.98
17 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.99
18 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 PCI Desian Handhonk

CONNECTIONS

Table 6.2.9 Design data for concrete loop inserts

Procedures:

1. Apply reduction factors, if required to P~ values for concrete capacity

2. Check both concrete and insert capacity.

Concrete Capacity
Shear, V~ ( 1 ) Pullout P' (1 ) (2)
, u
de, in. V~, lb. de, in. V~, lb. Ie, in. p~, lb.
2 1280 10 18,280 2 4300
2.5 2340 11 20,400 3 9600
3 3400 12 22,520 4 17,100
3.5 4460 13 24,650 5 26,700
4 5520 14 26,780 6 38,400
4.5 6590 15 28,900 7 52,300
:s-- 7650 16 31,060 8 68,300
5.5 8710 17 33,150 9 86,500
6 9780 18 35,280 10 106,800
6.5 10,840 19 37,400 11 129,200
7 11,900 20 39,520 12 153,700
7.5 12,960 21 41,650 13 180,400
8 14,020 22 43,780 14 209,200
8.5 15,090 23 45,900 15 240,200
9 16,150 24 48,020 18 345,900
(1) Multiply table values by 0.85 for sand-lightweight concrete
(2) Multiply pullout capacities by V f~/5000 for values other than 5000 psi. Capacity of Round Wire Used in Concrete Inserts

Leg Wire Dia., in.

C100S C103S C1038 C100S C100S C1035 C1035 C1035 C100S C1035

Typical Insert Capacities (3)

Capacity of Coil Bolts and Threaded Coil Rods

Bolt Diameter Min. Coil Ult. Tensile Ult. Shear
(ln.) Penetration (ln.) Strength (P~) Strength (V~)
1/2 1 1/2 13,500 S,100
3/4 2 18,470 11,080
1 21/2 37,S70 22,720
11/4 2 1/2 54,960 32,9S0
1 1/2 3 S3,340 50,000 Capacity of Machine Bolts used in "Ferrules" or ''Weld Nuts"

Bolt Dia., Tensile Shear
(ln.) Bolt Grade strength Strength Ferrule Data
(ASTM) P~ (lb.l V~ (lb.) Threads/in Bolt
1/2 A307 4820 3330 13 1
5/8 A307 7680 5220 11 1-1/S
3/4 A307 11,360 7510 10 1-1/S
1 A307 20,600 13,350 S 1-1/4 ",

2000 3900 3700 2900 3550 6000 6900 7500 7450

12,000

PCI Design Handbook

Wire Grade

Yield Strength, I

0.218 0.223 0.225 0.240 0.260 0.281 0.306 0.340 0.375 0:440

Data supplied by manufacturers.

6-35

CONNECTIONS

l_

Table 6.2.10 Shear capacity of support angles

I
t :::; .! J 4 v; ev ----
rjJ fy b
-F===t\E1 h
.rjJ :::; 0.90 IJ
Ig
~ f--1 It
b :::; Width of angle, in. ~
fy Yield strength of ~"1
:::;
angle steel= 36,000 psi
ev
Vu, lb. per inch of width
Angle
thickness ev :::; 3/4" ev :::; 1" ev = 1-1/2" ev = 2" ev = 2-1/2"
t
5/16" 949 712 475 356 285
3/8" 1367 1025 688 513 410
7/16" 1860 1395 930 698 558
1/2" 2430 1823 1215 911 729
9/16" 3075 2307 1538 1153 923
5/8" 3797 2848 1898 1424 1139 I

Table 6.2.11 Axial capacity of support angles

l_

t =.!~
rjJ fy b liE
rjJ = 0.90 I~
b = Width of angle, in.
fy = Yield strength of t Tu
angle steel = 36,000 psi I
Tu, lb. per inch of width I
Angle lz = 5" l[ = 6" lz = 7" It = 8"
thickness
t 9 = 3" 9 = 4" 9 = 5" 9 = 6"
5/16" 237 178
3/8" 342 256 205
7/16" 465 349 279 232
1/2" 608 456 364 304
9/16" 769 577 461 384
5/8" 949 712 570 475 f r

l l ~

CONNECTIONS

Table 6.2.12 Column base plate thickness requirements

Thickness Required For Concrete Bearing
fbu Xo = 3" x., = 4" Xo = 5"
(psi)
500 5/8 3/4 1
1000 3/4 1 1 3/8
1500 1 13/8 1 5/8
2000 1 1/8 1 1/2 1 7/8
2500 1 1/4 15/8 2
3000 1 3/8 1 7/8 21/4
3500 1 1/2 . 2 21/2
4000 1 5/8 21/8 25/8 External Anchor Bolts Internal Anchor Bolts

Tension On External Anchor Bolts

No. & Diameter Of A 36 Or A 307 Anchor Bolts Per Side
b
/" \ 2 -%" 2 -%" 2 - 1" 2 - 1" 2 - 1%" 2-1W' 2 - 1%" 2 - 1%"
un.) x, = 3.75" x, = 4.25" x, = 3.75" x, = 4.25" x, = 3.75" x, = 4.25" x, = 3.75" x, = 4.25"
12 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 3/4 1 7/8 2 1/8 21/4
14 1 1 1 3/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 1 3/4 2 2 1/8
16 7/8 1 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 7/8 2
• 18 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 3/4 1 7/8
20 7/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 3/4
22 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 3/8 1 5/8 1 5/8
24 3/4 3/4 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8
26 3/4 3/4 1 1 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 1/2
28 3/4 3/4 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 Compression On Anchor Bolts Or Tension On Internal Anchor Bolts
b No. & Diameter Of A 36 Or A 307 Anchor Bolts Per Side
Iln.) 2 - %" 2 - %" 2 - 1" 2 - 1" 2 - 1%" 2 - 1%" 2 - 1%" 2 - 1%"
x, = 1.5" x, = 2.0" Xc = 1.5" x, = 2.0" x, = 1.5" x, = 2.0" Xc = 1.5" Xc = 2.0"
12 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 3/8 1 5/8
14 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/2
16 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8
18 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/4
20 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4
22 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1 1/8
24 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1 1/8
26 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8
28 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8 1 PCI Design Handbook

6-37

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I [

L

6-38

CONNECTIONS

Table 6.2.13 Capacity of reinforcement welds

Tw '~---YI!~:W":~~W),,~:I~--_'~3

_ .. 'i\ . II j .. \in \ "-

"

¢ :::: 0.70

lw :::: Length of weld, in.

tw :::: Throat thickness of weld, in.

Values of Tw , kips

t; (ln.) tw :::: 3/16" tw :::: 1/4" tw :::: 5/16" tw :::: 3/8" tw :::: 7/16" tw :::: 1/2" tw :::: 5/8"
1 3.3 4.4 5.5 6.6 7.7 8.8 10.9
1.5 4.9 6.6 8.2 9.8 11.5 13.1 16.4
2 6.6 8.8 10.9 13.1 15.3 17.5 21.9
2.5 8.2 10.9 13.7 16.4 19.1 21.9 27.3
3 9.8 13.1 16.4 19.7 23.0 26.3 32.8
3.5 11.5 15.3 19.1 23.0 26.8 30.6 38.2
4 13.1 17.5 21.9 26.2 30.6 35.0 43.8
4.5 14.8 19.7 24.6 29.5 34.5 39,4 49.2
5 16.4 21.9 27.3 32.8 38.3 43.8 54.7
5.5 18.0 24.1 30.1 36.1 42.1 48.1 60.2
6 19.7 26.3 32.8 39.4 45.9 52.5 65.6
6.5 21.3 28.4 35.5 42.7 49.8 56.9 71.1
7 23.0 30.6 38.3 45.9 53.6 61.3 76.6
7.5 24.6 32.8 41.0 49.2 57.4 65.6 82.0
8 26.3 35.0 43.8 52.5 61.3 70.0 87.5
8.5 27.9 37.2 46.5 55.8 65.1 74.4 93.0
9 29.5 39.4 49.2 59.1 68.9 78.8 98.4
9.5 31.2 41.6 52.0 62.3 72.7 83.1 103.9
10 32.8 43.8 54.7 65.6 76.6 87.5 109.4 PCI Design Handbook

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