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Engine Troubleshooting Guide

Piston Scuffing

Piston scuffing as a result of fuel flooding:

Appearance: Piston with one sided, streaky, narrow piston wear areas and
considerable scuffing along the entire skirt length. The piston rings may also
exhibit burned spots.
Possible causes:
The oil film on the cylinder walls was washed away by excess fuel.
Piston and piston rings run dry. Scuffing first appears on the major thrust side;
finally, seizing appears.
Excess fuel is often the result of improper carburettor operation; either the
automatic choke failed to shut off soon enough, or a hand operated choke
remained engaged too long.
A defective fuel injection system (cold start enrichment), or ignition misfiring as
a result of damaged spark plugs in individual cylinders, can lead to fuel
deposits on the cylinder walls. At higher power levels, the resulting oil dilution
usually leads to piston damage.
Engine-related causes:
Defective fuel injection system, incorrect ignition settings, defective spark plugs

Failures in Crankshaft Contents

Introduction
Function of crankshaft
Material for crankshaft
Crankshaft Loading
Failure modes
Resonant Bending Fatigue Testing
Visual Analysis
Fillet Rolling method
Conclusion
References

Failures in Crankshaft Contents

Function of crankshaft
Material Selection for Crankshaft
Materials/Manufacturing/Layout - Crankshaft
Crankshaft Loading
Crankshaft Failures
Resonant Bending Fatigue Testing
Visual Analysis
Fillet Rolling method
Conclusion
References

Oil Analysis
Metals
Iron
Copper
Tin
Aluminium
Chrome
Lead
Silicon

Wear Metal Source

Compression test

Compression test

Compression test

Compression test

Compression test

Compression test

Pre-requisites delivered for the review:


Updated DDP, Industrialization plan if needed
Verification plan & protocol(s) updated when necessary since
the Phase 2a Design Review
Verification reports
Residual design anomalies
Validation Plan and/or Protocol(s)
Clinical Trials Plan & Protocol(s) as applicable
Product Safety Risk Management File updated (including
product and process bottom up as necessary
per the Safety Risk Management plan)
Design Freeze with preliminary DMR
Traceability Matrix
Any project change request occurring after the design freeze,
impact analysis and affected design
documents and Project Issue tracking

Product Development Process: Phase 3:


Validation
The goal of the Phase 3 is to confirm that the product meets its intended use and
customer needs and to prepare the launch of the product.
Design validation:
Design validation shall ensure that the product conforms to pre-defined user needs and
intended uses as established in the Product Requirements Document and shall include
testing under actual or simulated use conditions.
Design validation shall be performed according to planned arrangements detailed in the
Validation Plan(s) as established in the V&V Plan, validation protocols or procedures,
Validation results shall be recorded including identification of the design, methods, the
date, and the individuals performing the validation. All the Validation documentation shall
be maintained in the Design History File
The Design Traceability Matrix shall be updated with validation test cases to confirm that
all requirements have been adequately covered.

Design validation shall address:


Clinical or laboratory-based studies and/or performance evaluation as applicable
Software and/or full system validation, as applicable
Product packaging and labeling
Device usability, as applicable
The PRD needs of all relevant parties

For anomalies discovered during validation that shall be corrected and retested,
regression
testing shall be established at an appropriate level through an impact analysis, to show
that
the design changes have not induced adverse effects to the previously tested
functionality.
Anomalies found during the validation activities shall be tracked. Any residual design
anomalies remaining at the completion of the validation activities shall be approved by
QA,
through the validation report. QA can previously review those anomalies in Anomaly
review
Board.
Pre-requisites delivered for the review:
Updated DDP plan if needed
Last Verification reports when applicable
Validation / Clinical Trials plan & protocol(s) updated when necessary since the last Design Review
Validation reports
Residual design anomalies
Product Safety Risk Management File updated
Final DMR & DHF for the Regulatory Files
Traceability Matrix
Any change request occurring after the design freeze, impact analysis and affected design
documents
Project Issue tracking

Product launch process:


The product launch process is established to ensure
controlled commercialization of product.
A successful Phase 3 design review chaired by
Regulatory Affairs is a required prerequisite to
the Launch Review.
The decision to commercialize the product and the scope
of its launch shall be formalized in a launch memo
Pre-requisites delivered for the review:
Phase 3 Design Review minutes, list of issues and corrective
action items
Declaration of Conformity
Registration obtained in 1st wave of countries; plan for
following countries
Servicing Readiness
Logistics / product clearance