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Factors Affecting

Reaction Rate
Lascano Normilando P. V
Lavarias Alyssa Katrina G.
Introduction

• Chemical reactions occur at different


rates.
• Rate is the speed at which the
reaction takes place and is
influenced by several factors.
• Collision theory and the transition-
state theory

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate


What affects the rates?

• Nature of Reactants
• Concentration
• Surface Area
• Temperature
• Presence of catalysts

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate


What affects the rates?

• Nature of Reactants
- The lesser the stability of the reactant, the
higher its kinetic energy, the greater its
reactivity
- In general, reaction that goes proceeds fast
have low activation energy.

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate


What affects the rates?

• Concentration
- The effect of the change in concentration
reactants can be summarized in the Rate Law
Expression
Rate = k[A]x[B]y
- For most reactions, RLE is more concerned
with the amount of the reactant present than
the product.

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate


What affects the rates?
• Surface Area
– The greater the amount of area exposed, the higher the
rate as it offers greater amount of the reactant available
for collision
• Temperature
- By increasing the temperature, the average KE of the
system also increases making it more entropic, which
also increases the frequency of effective collisions.

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate


What affects the rates?

• Presence of catalysts
- Catalysts are substances that speed up or slow down the
rate of reaction without being altered.
- In Homogenous catalysis, the catalyst alters the rate by
providing an alternative pathway with a different
activation energy for the reaction.
- Heterogenous catalysts are usually solid, and it distorts
the rate by providing a “breeding” grounds for the reaction

Factors Affecting Reaction Rate


Procedure : Nature of Reactants
Procedure : Concentration
Constant [HCl]
Treatments:
1.5.ml 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 1ml 3M HCl
2.4mL 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 1mL H2O 1ml 3M
HCL
3.3mL 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 2mL H2O 1ml 3M
HCL
4.2mL 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 3mL H2O 1ml 3M
HCL
5.1mL 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 4mL H2O 1ml 3M
HCL
10 ml beaker on
top of white Record reaction
paper marked time
with X Constant [Na2S2O3]
Treatments:
1.5.ml 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 2.5ml 3M HCl
2.5.ml 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 2ml 3M HCl + 0.5ml
H2O
3.5.ml 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 1.5ml 3M HCl + 1ml
H2O
4.5.ml 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 1ml 3M HCl + 1.5ml
H2O
5.5.ml 0.15M Na2S2O3 + 0.5ml 3M HCl + 2ml
H2O
Procedure : Surface Area
Procedure : Temperature

Test tube 1:
5ml of 0.15M
Na2S2O3 Mix
Water bath Repeat
Test reagents;
for 5min process for
tubes 1 record rxn
Record 2 different
and 2 time (X
Temp temp
Test tube 2: mark)
7.5 ml H2O +
2ml 3M HCl
Procedure : Catalysts
Results:

• Nature of Reactants:
– A. Mg —slow reaction; little bubble formation
– B. Na —fast reaction; evolution of gas
– because Na reacted faster than the Mg, it
must have a relatively lower activation energy
Results:
• Concentration of Reactants
• Constant [HCl]
Results:
• Concentration of Reactants
• Constant [Na2S2O3]
Results:
• Temperature
[Na2S2O3] = 0.052M
M1V1/V2=M2
(0.15M)(5mL)/(14.5mL)=M2
M2=0.0517

[HCl] =0.414
(3M)(2mL)/(14.5mL)=M2
M2=0.4138
Results:
• Surface Area
Strip of Mg - Slow bubble formation
Piece of Mg - Relatively faster bubble formation
• Catalyst
H2O2 + Rochelle salt: Slow rxn; White granules visible on the
wall of the tube
H2O2 + Rochelle salt + CoCl2: Fast rxn; turned brown and
back to pinkish hue
Discussion
• The nature or kind of reactant plays a key
role in the determination of reaction rate.
When a reactant has a low Ea or
activation energy the faster the speed of
the reaction and higher rate.
Discussion
• It is understandable that reaction goes
faster when reactants are in higher
concentration as that offers a higher
possibility of the particles colliding or
making contact with each other. In altering
the concentration, the Ea is unchanged
however, it increases the frequency of the
reactant “collision.”
Discussion
• When subjected to varying temperature
(consider treatments of the same solution)
resulting rates also varies. Almost all
reaction proceeds faster with an increase
in temperature. This is because heating
increases the energy of the particles,
making the move faster hence more
entropic which increases the frequency of
collision.
Discussion
• The amount of exposed area of reactants can pose a
difference in the rates likewise. Greater surface area
available for contact means greater amount of
particles can be collided.
• Catalysts are substances that alter the speed (in this
case, speed up) of reaction without being consumed.
It offers an alternative pathway for the reaction to go
on by either lowering the energy threshold—
homogenous catalysis—or by providing a surface for
the reaction to take place—heterogenous catalysis.
Conclusion
• In this experiment, it is palpable that under
different experimental conditions the
reaction rate differs. Several factors affect
reaction rate via different approaches.
Recommendations
• Accuracy if not precision is a must in
situations that results are very much
reliant upon several factors.
• In this experiment, observed data differs
from that of the theoretical. It can only be
concluded that there exist faults either in
the observer itself or in the environment in
which the experiment was concluded.
Recommendations
• It is recommended therefore that experiments in
general must be carried out in conducive
environment.
• It would also be very advisable to have a
preliminary discussion of the experiment so as to
have a better understanding of the topic not just
in theoretical aspect but also practically as the
discussion would justify the gathered results.
Recommendations
• It would be better also if the experiment
was given enough time to be done. It was
noted that the experiment that is
supposed to be done in a meeting was
forced to be finished in half the time.