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Biography

William Robert Turpin Pitts is born on March 14, 1835 in Berlin, Worcester, Maryland to
Robert Pitts1 and Eliza Jones Pitts2. Years ago, even before his ancestors arrived in America,
their family name was simply Pitt. A couple generations before the familys arrival in the New
World, this was changed, and regardless of whether it was due to a legislative misprint or a desire
to claim an inheritance, Pitt became Pitts.3 The name has yet to change again. The first Pitts
that immigrated to America was Tom Pitts. Like many other immigrants, he came because of
opportunity. Tom, however, was luckier than most men who had to fight for land upon their
arrival because King James I had granted him a thousand acres of land as a reward for his
excellent military service. 4
William Pitts is the sixth child to be born into the family, and the first of three boys.5 He
is the fourth youngest, only older than his brothers and a single sister. Laura William Pitts is born
in 1837, two years after William. The second son, John Emory Pitts, is born in 1839 while the
youngest, Frederick Pitts, is born in 1842.6 Williams father, Robert Pitts is a rather prominent
part of the entire town. He is a Methodist minister (Doc 1), as well as the mayor of Berlin.7 As a
result, William is raised in a rather wealthy8 and religious household (Doc 23). He grows up with
many luxuries and opportunities, a trend that will continue throughout much of his life. Even
disregarding their financial security, Williams family is a normal one. The children are raised
mainly by Eliza, while Robert focuses on his work. Despite this, the family is relatively close.
However, William clearly prefers his mother over his siblings.
1 Robert Pitts was born July 10, 1801 in Richmond, Virginia to Hilary Pitts, from whom he had inherited a
slave. Robert died March 22, 1888. "Robert Pitts (1801 - 1888)." Ancestry.com. Ancestry, n.d. Web. 06
Feb. 2016.

2 Eliza Jones Pitts was born Eliza Jones Williams on August 13, 1808. She married Robert on March 14,
1882 and died on October 21, 1862 in Berlin, Maryland. She is buried in the Buckingham Cemetery in
Berlin. Ancestry.com. "Web: Maryland, Find A Grave Index, 1632-2012." Ancestry. Ancestry.com
Operations, Inc., 2012. Web.

3 Mary Elizabeth Herr, the granddaughter of William Pitts, claims that this is a part of the family history
passed down through her family. Herr, Mary Elizabeth. Re: THOMAS PITTS of BLACKAWTON, DEVON
.23 March 2005. Pitts Family Genealogy. 7 November 2015.

4 Samuel Ricks, a researcher, and Mary Elizabeth Herr have both brought up the fact that surnames were
sometimes changed in order to claim a dead familys inheritance. Herr, Mary Elizabeth. Re: THOMAS
PITTS of BLACKAWTON, DEVON .23 March 2005. Pitts Family Genealogy. 7 November 2015.

5 "Robert Pitts (1801 - 1888)." Ancestry.com. Ancestry, n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2016.
6 Ibid.
7 Ricks, Samuel A. "William R. T. Pitts." Message to the author. 8 Dec. 2015. E-mail.
8 Robert comes from a family that owned many slaves, at least 9, and in order for this to be true, they had
to be wealthy. Robert himself also has a high position within their community.

From a young age, Pitts is captivated by the sea. To him, it is the gateway to the outside world,
and he desires nothing more than to explore. His father, unfortunately, does not wish for him to
go out to the sea. Robert feels that the menial labor that accompanies seafaring individuals is
below their familys social standards. Regardless, William relentlessly begs his father for a
chance to travel. Finally, in the summer of 1847, his father reluctantly concedes. Robert arranges
for the master of a merchant ship whom he knows to take William on a trip. Robert told the
master to let [William] see hard work, and try to disgust him with this side of life (Doc 1) as a
final attempt to sway William. William, however, is overjoyed and could not care less about the
hard work. Before his first voyage, his worried mother makes William promi e to never drink a
drop of liquor or play cards, as they were completely inappropriate behaviors for devout
Methodists such as their family.9 William agrees, and until [his] dying day, [has] kept that
promise (Doc 1).
Williams first voyage spans a blissful nine months. He departs from Maryland as
summer reaches a close and ends up traveling far. The ship travels to several of the powerful
countries in Europe, including England, Italy and France. Two places in particular capture
Williams interest- Liverpool in England, and Milan in Italy. He finds these two locations the
most exciting cities as the ship travels through the Mediterranean Sea (Doc 1). This excursion is
life-changing. While there might have been a chance for William to accept never seeing the
world before, it is impossible now. The voyage ignites his sense of adventure, and there is no
way William will give it up. He has fallen deeply in love with the seafaring life and the
excitement attached to it.
William finally returns home joyfully and with sun-kissed skin. However, he finds that he
is lonely at home, and soon returns to the sea. He remains in the sea-faring business for several
more years, slowly gaining enough experience to be promoted from a lowly ship boy to a
respected seaman, despite only being a teenager. He is a Captain, a seaman who was most
likely in charge of the topsails.10 In 1851, at the age of 15, he joins the twenty-eight man crew of
a mercantile ship- most likely a Down- Easter ship11- bringing a cargo down around Cape Horn12
for China. Unfortunately, the ship meets bad weather five months into the voyage. A typhoon and
bad storms off the Island of Yesso13 causes the ship to sink. The ferocity of the shipwreck leaves
William with a head injury that puts him in a coma for three days. When he finally wakes, he
9 Methodists, especially 19th century Methodists, felt that things like liquors and gambling were immoral
pastimes meant to draw believers to Hell. This especially applied to the Pitts family because Robert was a
minister. "Prohibition." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2016.

10 The position with the most power on a merchant ship was the master position. A captain position
did not exist but according to Ricks, the captain position was sometimes used in reference to seamen
who manned an aspect of the ship by themselves. Ricks, Samuel A. "William R. T. Pitts." Message to the
author. 8 Dec. 2015. E-mail.

11 "The Crew." The Crew. Penobscot Marine Museum, 2012. Web. 27 Jan. 2016.
12 In the 19th Century, the Panama Canal had yet to be built. In order to get from the Atlantic Ocean to
the Pacific Ocean, or vice versa, ships had to sail around the Horn, otherwise known as Cape Horn of
South America. "Cape Horn - Map & Description." Cape Horn Map and Map of Cape Horen Information
Page. World Atlas, 17 Nov. 2015. Web. 01 Feb. 2016.

finds out two things: the first is that out of the original crew of twenty-eight, only two others
besides himself had survived. The second is that he is now in Japan, and he owes his life to the
Japanese.
William appears to be smiled on by fortune, because despite Japanese wariness towards
foreigners, he is still accepted and welcomed. Their attitude flatters as well as impresses William
so much that when his fellow survivors leave for America six months later, he chooses to remain
in Japan and learn more about this new, fascinating country. It is intimidating at first because he
is initially unable to communicate verbally. However, he eventually finds a teacher in a man by
the name of Manokite. After learning some conversational and useful Japanese, William is able
to fit into society better. William can not thank the Japanese enough for helping him. It surprises
him to no end on how much kindness he receives. The Japanese help William salvage his cargo,
selling what they could, and giving the profits to William. The profits allow William to be
financially independent, and for this, he is very grateful.
He settles in Hakodadi14, and is one of the only foreigners in Japan, as there are still a
couple years until Japan begins to open its ports to the world in 1854 (Docs 24 and 25).15 As a
result, he quickly becomes well-known. To make a living now that he no longer frolics upon the
seas, Williams becomes a supplier for the vessels that visit Japan. After Japan opens its ports,
William, as one of the only fluent English-speaking residents in Hakodadi, ends up working with
the many of the Western vessels and soon manages the American ones almost exclusively. This
work satisfies William to an incredible degree, and he is very proud, as there was no place
where so many American Vessels came as Hakodadi, and [he] managed them all(Doc 1).
A little more than two and a half years later, William has become prominent enough that
he is named the primary assistant of the U.S. Consul in Hakodadi, Mr. Elisha E. Rice.16 Because
of the slight intertwining with politics this position holds, William was actually brought into
contact with the Japanese government. This is an amazing chance, and such luck allows William
to live in relative luxury, with his own manservant. Williams reputation is good and he is wellknown. Even more fortunately is the fact that his career becomes the catalyst for Williams
meeting with someone he will eventually share a strong friendship with.

13 It is now commonly known as Hokkaido.1855 J. H. Colton original hand colored engraved map
showing Japan with Nippon, Kiusiu, Sikok, Yesso, and the Japanese Kuriles. Digital image.
Printsoldandrare. N.p., n.d. Web.

14 Hakodadi is now known as Hakodate. It is a part of the Hokkaido Prefecture, and is on the southern tip
of the Hokkaido Island. 1854 Hakodadi Harbor (Hokkaido). Original lithograph from Perry's Expedition to
Japan in 1854. Digital image. Printsoldandrare. N.p., n.d. Web.

15 The US is the first western country that Japan opened its ports to as shown by the Treaty of
Kanagawa in 1854.

16 He was the first U.S. Consul in Hokkaido, from January 18, 1865 to November 2, 1870. United States.
Consulate General of the United States. Sapporo Japan.Consulate History. By Consulate General of the
United States. US Department of State, n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2016.

One evening, in late 1854, William is preparing for bed when his manservant approaches
him with news of a visitor. He says that there is a persistent young man at the door who insists on
seeing William for an interview immediately. The young man apparently refused to go away,
saying that he could not wait until morning to return. The youth seems to be worried that he will
not get another chance to visit if he is turned away now. William agrees to meet him out of
curiosity. The youth is tall [and] good looking(Doc 1). However, William is unable to
understand him because the dialect of Hakodadi is much different from the rest of Japan.17
Despite this, William is able to discern that the youth before him is cultured, intelligent and
earnest, so instead of turning him away, William offers him a bed for the night and an
opportunity to continue the discussion tomorrow.
The next day, William leads this man to Mr. Manokite, in hopes that his teacher would be
able to act as a translator. At first, the youth is hesitant to speak with a third party present, but
reluctantly complies once William assures him that Mr. Manokite can be trusted. In this meeting,
William finds out several things about the young man. Firstly, the young man declines to reveal
his family name. Instead, he simply tells William to use his given name, Kinzo. Kinzo is twenty
years old and is, in fact, very similar to William in his overwhelming desire to travel the world.
This desire had been further fueled by his background- he comes from a good family, meaning
he is very well-educated. Kinzo has a strong knowledge of the Dutch language, as well as
multiple Chinese languages.18 This allows him to read extensively of the wonders of foreign
countries, fostering a fascination with the outside world, America in particular. Kinzo had heard
of Williams generosity towards the Japanese, as well as his affiliation with the foreign ships, so
in a burst of desperation, he had abandoned everything to come see William. Kinzo had left
without any money, without his fathers consent, and without any clothes but those on his back.
Hed traveled a month from his comfortable home in Yedo19 to reach Hakodadi, walking nearly
two hundred miles. Kinzo left his whole family and his entire life behind in exchange for a
dubious future.
At the end of his explanation, Kinzo bows deeply before requesting for William to take
him on as a student. Kinzo desperately hopes that William will teach him English and allow him
to stay at his home. In return, Kinzo offers his services, with his only condition being that he
would not be given tasks of menial labor, as those are below him both socially and intellectually.
William, however, is hesitant. If Kinzo did make it to America, he would arrive there as a
stranger with no friends, family, or trade. He might die from starvation, all for a simple curiosity.
Was he really willing to trade his comfortable life for that? A chance at death?

17 This remains true today. Most people from Hokkaido still have an accent that is very distinctive and it
is obvious when a person is from a different region of Japan. "Kids Web Japan." Regions of Japan.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2016.

18 As can be seen later on, Kinzo came from Yedo, which was the center of politics and culture in the
early 19th century. "TOKYO'S HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, AND POPULATION." History of Tokyo. Tokyo
Metropolitan Government, n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2016.

19 Now known as Tokyo "Edo Period Timeline." Japanese Paintings and Prints [USC Pacific Asia
Museum]. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2016.

They both know that if Kinzo is caught trying to escape Japan, he will surely be executed,
as per Japanese law (Doc 27).20 However, Kinzo is adamant that it is the right decision for him. It
is not pure curiosity that is driving him, but a love for his own country as well. Japan, he argues,
with her mistaken policy and oppressive laws, had grown poorer and weaker and even the
people were declining in physical strength and good health. He believes that Japan must
eventually change, that it must eventually invite foreign visitors...and become one of the
Nations.21 That is why it is necessary for him to travel now. He needs to learn all he can about
foreign countries now, while he still can, in order to make himself of better aid to his rulers when
that time comes (Doc 1).
Impressed by his intelligence, loyalty and sincerity, William agrees to take Kinzo in. He
tells Kinzo to treat his house as his new home. William also enlists Mr. Manokites help in
teaching Kinzo English. After all, it is a bit difficult to teach someone a language when clear
communication is impossible. They begin lessons almost immediately. William and Mr.
Manokite are gratified to find out Kinzo is a very fast learner. Within just four months, Kinzo is
able to speak English with considerable ease and tolerable correctness(Doc 1).
On March 15th of the same year, the schooner Caroline E. Foote arrives at Hakodadi.22
The Caroline E. Foote (Doc 26) had come to Japan in hopes of settling down and establishing a
business providing provisions to any ships visiting Japan. Unfortunately, the Japan has just
recently created a policy that does not allow foreigners permanently settle. Thus, they are forced
to leave Japan. Remembering his agreement with Kinzo, William tries to facilitate a meeting
between the two parties. Finally, in late June, he introduces Kinzo to the master, A.J. Worth, and
a gentleman on board the Caroline E. Foote, Mr. Lenard (Doc 1). Kinzo quickly impresses both
men with his manners and dedication. They readily agree to take Kinzo with them to San
Francisco when they leave Japan. This decision leaves Kinzo ecstatic and he spends the
following days preparing for his departure. After the meeting, William takes the chance to
reaffirm Kinzos decision. Kinzo remains firm in his decision, and even a reminder of the
possible penalties cannot sway him.
On June 22nd, the fourth night after the meeting, William smuggles Kinzo on board the
Caroline E. Foote under the cover of darkness (Doc 1). Kinzo is hidden in a small cabin while
William sneaks back home. When morning dawns the next day, William returns to direct the boat
outside the harbor, as his job calls for. At the same time, he bids goodbye to the student who had
become a friend to him. Finally, about twenty miles away from the harbor, William leaves the
vessel and returns on his own boat. Sadly, though this is not the last time William hears from
Kinzo, it is the last time William ever sees Kinzo.

20 Citizens caught trying to sneak out of Japan were given the death penalty.
21 What Kinzo is anticipating is the Meiji Restoration. "The Meiji Restoration and Modernization." Asia for
Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web.

22 The Caroline E. Foote was a merchant ship, a whaler, really, that made many trips between Asia and
America. "National Maritime Digital Library." American Offshore Whaling Voyages: A Database. National
Maritime Digital Library, n.d. Web. 06 Feb. 2016.

Six months after Kinzo left, William receives a letter from Kinzo, stating that he was doing well,
and informing William of all the opportunities hed received since arriving in America. In his
letter, Kinzo sounds extremely excited, and it is understandable. As soon as he had arrived in San
Francisco, Mr. Lenard had provided him with a steady job. Though Kinzo never says what the
job is, William never feels a need to worry because he trusts Kinzos intelligence, and based on
their interactions, Mr. Lenard seemed like a trustworthy, honest fellow. Better still for Kinzo was
the guarantee that he would not be stuck in San Francisco. Mr. Lenard was apparently planning
to travel to the East and had promised to take Kinzo with him when he did.
An additional six months after receiving this letter, William decides that it is finally time
to return home to his native Maryland (Doc 1). He arrives in America via San Francisco, and
while there, he makes inquiries about both Kinzo and Mr. Leonard, the man Kinzo had left with,
but he is unable to gain any information. William continues to search for a while longer, but
when his investigations are all unfruitful, he returns to Maryland. By the time he makes it back to
Maryland, the Civil War has begun. He is originally sent a draft for the Union Army. As a
citizen of Maryland, which was part of the Union, it was apparently his duty to fight for them.
However, Maryland shares many more characteristics with the South than it does with the North.
Growing tensions from seven years prior, ever since the passing of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, had
made Marylanders leery of the government (Doc 28). Unimpressed with the Union, he joins his
brother, Frederick, in the Confederate Army (Doc 2). Because of his time in Japan, William does
not feel it is within the Unions right to attempt to bind him to them, simply because he was born
in Maryland.23
Frederick had enlisted with the Confederates Company K, 1st Regiment when the war
was just threatening America. As luck would have it, the two brothers end up assigned to the
same company, allowing them to support each other in the four years to follow. However,
William is never interested in fighting. He also does not hold a particularly strong attachment to
America. Because of this, William never manages to stand out in the war like Frederick does.
Frederick is a celebrated soldier, especially after the Battle of Yellow Tavern in Virginia where
Fredericks general, J.E.B. Stuart, is severely wounded. Normally, in cases such as these, the
general will be captured, but due to his bravery and quick thinking, Frederick is able to bring
General Stuart to a safe place, preventing his capture.24
Though he does not stand out, William is a good soldier. He fights in several large battles,
including the Battle of Fredericksburg, the Second Battle of Bull Run, and the Battle of
Gettysburg.25 Unfortunately, near the end of the war, William is captured at Gettysburg shortly
23 Citizens of the border states were divided between the Souths history affiliation and the Norths
unionism and modernization. Gienapp, William E. "Abraham Lincoln and the Border States." Abraham
Lincoln and the Border States. Journal of The Abraham Lincoln Association, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

24 Frederick's contribution to the war was written in history when he used his horse to prevent the gravely
injured Major General J.E.B Stuart from being captured. "Philadelphia Chapter 972 West Laurel Hill
Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, PA." United Daughters of the Confederacy. Philaudc, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

25 It participated in more than 200 engagements of various types including the Seven Days' Battles and
Stuart's ride around McClellan. The regiment was active in the conflicts at Gainesville, Second Manassas,
Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Kelly's Ford, Chancellorsville, Brandy Station, Gettysburg, Bristoe Station,
The Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, Spotsylvania, Bethesda Church, and Cold Harbor.

after the battle. He is captured on July 5, 1863 and becomes a prisoner of war at Fort Delaware.
After a short internment, he is sent to Fort McHenry in Baltimore to await his trial (Docs 3 and
4). William is to be charged as a traitor to the Union because he had ignored his draft and joined
the Confederates instead. William could possibly face execution26 for betraying the Union, but
luckily, he manages to escape before his trial and subsequent punishment. His escape is
completed with the help of Rev. William D. Mackley, his brother in law. Rev. Mackley had
married Laura, Williams younger sister. Mackley had entered Fort McHenry on September 30th
under the pretense of interviewing William, and William is gone from Fort McHenry by October
11th (Doc 4). Some of his fellow soldiers follow Pitts along out of the Fort and they escape
together. Following his flight, William surprisingly returns to the war and continues to fight until
its end in 1865. Most would expect him to turn tail and flee, but he decides to go back to the
battlefield and fight for the Confederacy (Doc 3).
William remains off the radar for nearly another two years. Almost as soon as the war ends on
May 9, 1865, a flood of ex-Confederate soldiers begin filing for a pardon.27 William is among
them, and though he is initially denied, his pardon process finally begins on June 20. Taking
advantage of Andrew Johnsons rather lenient policies, William writes several letters to the
President himself in order to advocate his case (Docs 5 and 6). William believes that though
officials try to claim otherwise, he is allowed to gain a pardon because he is an exception of the
parties which are excluded from amnesty (Doc 7). Officials have tried to place him under the
10th category listed in the Amnesty Proclamation. The 10th exception states that whoever left the
jurisdiction of the United States in order to aid the rebels is not allowed to reap the benefits of
the proclamation (Doc 29). However, there is no evidence to support that he left he war to help
the rebels, so he is found innocent. He is finally pardoned on July 26, 1868, a few years after
submitting his application (Doc 8).
After receiving his pardon, William has thoughts about returning to Japan. In the end, he decides
not to, as the Meiji Restoration of 1868 has begun. Japan was now a dangerous place, filled with
fighting and rebellions.28 Instead, he stays in Maryland for several years. It is here in Maryland
that he meets a woman who he falls in love with. Mary Ella Dixon is a pretty, respectful woman
in her twenties.When they marry in 1871 (Doc 9) 29, Mary is only 23, while William is 36. Their
first child is born soon after that in 1872. Unfortunately, little Sarah Ann is a weak child and she
United States. National Park Service. "Battle Unit Details." National Parks Service. U.S. Department of
the Interior, n.d. Web. 3 Jan. 2016.

26 The Union often regarded anyone who abandoned their state as traitors, and the most severe
punishment was execution. Andrews, Evan. "6 Generals Who Fought Against Their Home State in the
Civil War." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 28 Jan. 2014. Web.

27 In the end, 654 pardons were granted between 1861 and 1865. The amount of pardons issued by
Johnson ended up significantly higher than any of previous president. Hughes, Mark. "Presidential
Pardons." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

28 "The Meiji Restoration and Modernization." Asia for Educators. Columbia University, n.d. Web.
29 According to "Maryland Marriages, 1667-1899", they had gotten married on July 5, 1871 in Somerset
County, Marys home town.

dies soon after her birth. She doesnt even live to see a year. Devastated but determined, Mary
and William want to try again. However, before they do, William decides it is finally time for the
family to move out of Maryland and look for a new start. Both William and Mary want more
children, but realize that in order to support a family, they need to live in a place with better job
opportunities. It is true that there is some family money, but it is always better to have an
income. Although they loved the their quaint home, the economy was not doing so well. There
were better chances further up north, where the industry was booming. With that decided, they
move up to Philadelphia, where Williams brother, Frederick, is already residing. Frederick had
moved up there to pursue his passion for art as soon as he was pardoned. Frederick had studied at
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and he currently presides over a sketch club he
founded.30 It often attracts a fairly large crowd and can be considered to be quite popular. After
seeing Frederick enjoying what he loves, William and Mary knows that they made the right
decision to move to Philadelphia.
After their move to Philadelphia, Mary Virginia Pitts is quickly conceived and she is
welcomed into the world on July 2nd, 1873. She is a lively child and brightens up the house
considerably. Williams religious background is still evident more than a decade after leaving his
family; just a year after Marys birth, William has her baptised at an Episcopal church (Doc 11).
Mary and William are ecstatic and heap love onto her. Soon after Mary Virginias birth, William
and Mary find out that Mary is pregnant again. They are both overjoyed, and are eagerly
awaiting their newest child. Finally, on February 12, 1875, their third child, Henrietta Dixon
Pitts, is born bright-eyed and healthy. Similar to her older sister, Henrietta is also baptised at an
Episcopal Church a year after her birth (Doc 12).
However, William and Mary dont stop there. They have several more children following
Henrietta. On January 24, 1877, Mary gives birth to their first son, an adorable Thomas Dixon
Pitts (Doc 13). His fourth daughter, Eleanor Neville Pitts is born on February 23, 1880. In order
to support all these children, Mary finds a job as a housekeeper while their children are cared for
by Livina and Clara, two domestic servants they had brought with them from Maryland. William
works as the Chief Clerk for the Pennsylvania Legislator ( Doc 10). Unfortunately, Eleanor gets
into an accident and pass away on March 20, 1884, less than a month after her fourth birthday.
William and Mary are devastated by this and decide not to try for anymore children. They decide
to simply dote on their living children and build up a happy life for themselves. In order to do
this, Mary quits her job as housekeeper and decides to remain a housewife. Surprisingly, Eleanor
is not their last child. Despite not purposely trying, Mary finds out that she is pregnant once
again, two years after Eleanors death. Their second son and final child, Robert Mackey, is born
on July 30, 1887. Now holding responsibility for both a wife and four children, William works
harder than ever. William has been working as a bookkeeper for several years now, but it does
not pay as well as hed like. Finally, a couple years later, William finds a better job opportunity
and moves the family an hour away from Philadelphia to Glenolden, Pennsylvania.31 Williams
30 The Philadelphia Sketch Club is the oldest organization of artist in the U.S.A. and Frederick was the
president of it. His works of art was mainly focused on marine subject and it was probably influenced by
the adventures of William. "Philadelphia Chapter 972 West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd, PA."
United Daughters of the Confederacy. Philaudc, n.d. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.

31 Glenolden is roughly 10 miles from Philadelphia, and a horse going at a canter runs 10-17 miles an
hour. "Google Maps." Google Maps. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Feb. 2016.

new job is a paint salesman for Harrison Brothers and Co, a job he finds monotonous but
generous. By 1910, he has risen up to the position of company manager (Docs 16 and 30).
Of course, ever since the war ended, William had often wondered about Kinzo and what
became of him. He fears that Kinzo has suffered some unfortunate fate, and is now dead. But as
chance would have it, William is lucky enough to meet a Japanese man named Oteri who is
apparently acquainted with Kinzo. Oteri tells William about how Kinzo has managed to fulfill
his dream. His overseas experience allowed him to become a part of the Japanese Legation in
London. William, though not feeling very hopeful about receiving a reply, writes to Kinzo and is
pleasantly surprised when he does. They continue to exchange many letters and they talk about
what had happened over the years. Apparently, Kinzo had attempted to contact William many
times, but when years went by without a response, Kinzo had reluctantly assumed that William
had died in the long war.
On the other hand, William had, not so much assumed, but hoped that Kinzo had returned
to Japan. William feared to think of alternate situations where Kinzo had not returned to Japan.
Very few of them were good, because when considering Kinzos determination to aid his country,
it is obvious that only something horrible would have kept Kinzo from Japan. Luckily, not only
was Kinzo able to return to Japan, he also met with a lot of success. In fact, Kinzo is the
Secretary of Foreign Affairs for Japan. There is even a chance that he might accompany the
American ambassador Count Terashima on his next trip as the Secretary of Legation. This is the
chance Kinzo is most excited about because if he does go to America, he will be able to reunite
with his mentor and dear friend. Sadly, before this can happen, Kinzo dies from brain fever on
July 22, 1882 in Tokyo. Kinzo is only forty-two years old.
Days pass by quickly in Williams life. His life, though it is no longer as exciting,
remains fruitful. While they live in Pennsylvania, William only owns a house once (Doc 16). For
many of the other years, he rents different houses, changing residence so often that no census has
him in the same sector (Docs 10, 14, 16, and 17 ).32 His multiple jobs have allowed him to amass
a sizable amount in savings, and his family is comfortably upper-middle class (Doc 15). He
singularly supports his wife and his remaining children up until his death. For several years
before his death, William is also unable to work. Repeated illnesses plague him, leaving him half
blind, nearly deaf, and definitely disabled (Doc 17). In the end, the primary cause of his death is
chronic interstitial nephritis33 but a secondary cause is pulmonary edema.34 He passes away at the

32 William had moved away from Maryland in the 1880s, and had stayed in Pennsylvania until his death.
However, every decade, his name and his familys was found in the census of an area different from
before.

33 Interstitial nephritis is type of nephritis, it is a disease where the tissues between the kidney tubules
are inflamed. The type that Pitts have is chronic. His disease would last forever and worsen over time
until kidney failure. "Interstitial Nephritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of
Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2016.

34 Pulmonary edema is the shortness of breath due to excess fluid in the air sacs in the lungs. Pitts
probably developed pulmonary edema because of his kidney failure. Mayo Clinic Staff. "Pulmonary
Edema." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic, 24 July 2014. Web. 03 Feb. 2016.

age of eighty-one in his Glenolden home, attended by his physician, Harry Gallagher, with his
loving family by his side (Doc 18). William has lived a long and rewarding life, much more
successful than many of the other middle class citizens in his generation. After Williams death,
she moves back to Philadelphia (Doc 19). She lives her days there quietly by herself; her
children have all moved away in pursuit of their own lives. A couple years later, on September 2,
1929, she follows her husband and enters the afterlife. They were buried together at the
Woodlands Cemetery (Doc 20). As a husband, William was a loving partner. As a father, William
was an influential role model who had a great impact on his children, and his grandchildren.
Both of his sons enlist in the U.S. Army when WWI breaks out and served bravely (Docs 21 and
22).

Maps
Philadelphia

Japan

Maryland