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,mm

Air &
Aerodynamics


Name:______________ Homeroom:_______

Glossary
Word
Aerodynamics
Air
Airfoil
Air Pressure
Air resistance
Atmosphere
Bernoullis
Principle
Compression
Drag
Gravity
Hovercraft
Jet Engine

Lift
Propeller
Oxidation
Resistance
Rusting
Streamlined
Thrust
Weight

Definition

Study of the movement of objects through a


fluid
Invisible mixture of gases that make up the
Earths atmosphere
Shape designed to produce life when air flows
around it
Force exerted on the surface of objects by air
particles- air pressure acts equally in all
directions
Resistance or friction that acts to slow down an
object as it moves through air
Layer of air around the Earth
The pressure exerted by a fluid is inverse to the
speed at which it is moving
Squeezing particles into a smaller space
Resistance or friction that slows things down as
they move through the air
Force of attraction that every mass in the
universe exerts on another mass
A machine that floats on a cushion of
compressed air
Engine that generates a powerful thrust in a
chamber where the explosion of burning fuel
pushes the airplane in a forward direction but
escapes out the back
Upward force that works against gravity
Curved blades that spin around to move an
aircraft forward
Occurs when a substance combines with oxygen
Drag or friction that acts to slow down an object
as it moves through a gas or liquid
Slow chemical reaction between iron and
oxygen to form rust
An object shaped so it moves through air or
fluids easily (with less resistance)
Force that causes an object to move forward or
up
Force with which gravity pulls down on an
object

Do I know this
word? Yes or No











Composition of Air

Properties of Air

Does air take up space?


Diving Paper

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:


Diagrams

Air is everywhere
Video Demonstration

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:


Diagrams



Read the following information below about air and aerodynamics. Highlight or
underline key information.

Air is a mixture of gases that have no smell or taste, and surrounds


the earth. The main gases of air are nitrogen (78%) and oxygen
(21%). Without air there would be no life on earth, a person cannot
live more than a few minutes without air.

Air does much more than making it possible for us to breath. It
shields the earth from specific harmful sunrays. Our planet doesnt
float off into space because of the Earths gravity pulls the air
molecules and keeps them close to the planet.

Air around us pushes against things in all directions. The air on top
of things pushes down, the air under things pushes up, and the air
inside things pushes out. This is called air pressure.

Aerodynamics is the study of how objects move through the air, like
flying animals and airplanes. If we look at the image below we can
see that air flows around the object that are moving through it, and
when air is able to hold things up it is called life.

Huff N Puff Demonstration


Question:

Prediction:

Inference:


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Huff NPuff Experiment Follow Up Questions


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Does air weigh


anything? (Circle one)

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Yes No

Air Pressure
Draw Straws

Question:

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Inference:


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Air Pressure
Magic Seal

Question:

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Air Pressure
Tube in a Cup

Question:

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Inference:


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Air Pressure
Let it Shine

Question:

Prediction:

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Air Pressure
Balloon in a Bottle

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:


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Is air a fluid? (Circle one)

Yes No

The gas particles in air are in constant ___________. It


is the unique nature of air in motion or
______________ that allows __________ and ____________
to fly. Air posses a quality essential to flight. Air is
a ________ that flows around all __________.

Which demonstration done in class shows that air is a fluid?

Bill Nye Video Questions- Air is a fluid

Fluids ______________, like water.
Everything we touch is either a ______________, _________________, or a
________________.
Liquids and gases are ______________________.
We can ______________ through fluids, like swimming.
Fluids are _____________, thats why they rise. Then, they ________________
when they ____________.
When a solid passes through a fluid there is _______________________________
Biking helmets are shaped to ____________________ drag.
The ____________ of an object has a large effect on the resistance on it.
How can big, heavy planes fly? The air gets ________________ back by the
large fans. Air is pushed ____________ and ______________ while the plane is
pushed _____________ and _______________.
When things rub together there is ____________________.
NOW! Fluids can ________________________________, ____________________________,
and _________________________.
What is Bill in at the end of the show? ___________________________.

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Compressed Air Notes


The particles of gases that make up


___________ have lots of __________________
energy (energy that has motion). The
moving particles collide with each other
with enough ___________ to create relatively
large ___________ between particles.
Because of this free-flowing space, air,
like other gases, can be ______________.
Extra air can be __________ into a container
so the air pressure inside the container
becomes ________. Squeezed air is called
_______________ ___________

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learnalberta.ca

Compressed Air
Taking the Plunge

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:


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Compressed Air
Pull Back

Question:

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Inference:


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Compressed Air
Powered Rocket

Question:

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Inference:


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Hovercraft

Question:

Prediction:


Inference:

A hovercraft is a flying machine that is carried


on a ___________________ A powerful engine
drives a fan that blows air ____________. A
rubber __________ that runs round the edge of
the hovercraft traps the air, lifting it clear of the
ground. Other engines drive propellers that push
the hovercraft along. A large hovercraft can
support dozens of _______ and as many as 400
passengers because the weight is distributed
over the whole air cushion.

Diagrams


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Compressed Air
Medicine Dropper Submarine

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:
The medicine dropper will _______ in water but if
the right amount of water is taken up by the dropper,
it can be made to _____. By varying the __________
of the bottle the submarine will ______ and ______.
As the bottle is compressed the _____ in the dropper
is compressed and more water moves into the
_______. Water has more ______ than air and as a
consequence the dropper ________.

Diagrams

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Bernoullis Principle

Long ago, in the early 1700s, a famous


scientist and mathematician, ___________,
was investigating what happened to
___________ when it flowed through partly
blocked pipes. He experimented with
different __________ of pipe and kept track
of the differences in ___________ and
__________ of the flowing water.












(learnalberta.ca)

Bernoullis Principle Simplified:


High Air Speed =

Low Air Speed =

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Bernoullis Principle
Lift Off

Question:

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Inference:


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Bernoullis Principle
Take a Balloon for a Walk

Question:

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Inference:


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Video Demonstration
Balloon Behavior
Question:

Inference

When we blow between the balloons we create


low pressure, the high pressure of the
surrounding air pushes toward the low pressure
moving the balloons.



Answer the following questions about Bernoullis
Principle

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Blowing in the Wind


Question: How does the speed of the air affect the pressure it exerts?

Structure
(Draw a
picture)

Prediction

Observation

Inferences

Part A

Part B

Part C

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Lift
Ball in a Funnel

Question:

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Inference:


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Lift

Whenever an aircraft ________ moves into


the wind, it cuts the ______ into two.
Instead of one air steam, there are now two.
One flowing over the _____ of the wing, the
other flowing ______ the wing.
If the wing had been built with a curved top
and a flat bottom, the air stream running _____ the top follows a different path than
the air stream passing under the _______.
This creates a difference in ___________
between top and bottom of the wing and
_______ is resulted.

Label:




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Copyright 2003 Geoffrey Hill, University of Colorado Boulder

Lift
So thats what they mean by lift

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:
Copyright 2003 Geoffrey Hill, University of Colorado Boulder


Diagrams



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Lift
What holds up an airplane?

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The heavier they are the harder they fall


Questions:

Prediction:

Inference:

The balls will fall at the _______ speed


because acceleration due to the force of
gravity is constant. However, the ________
ball will fall with __________ force and
make a _________ depression

Diagrams






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Resist the Force


Questions:

Prediction:

Inference:
Pressure is a force that can be used to overcome or resist the force
of gravity. Lift is a force created by air pressure differences. Lift
can overcome the force of gravity.

Pressure differences can be used to resist the force of


gravity. The _________ the pressure the ___________ the
water from the bottom of the bottle will travel, horizontally,
before reaching the table. The greater the amount of
___________, which is generated by pressure differences,
the ____________the object that can be lifted against the
force of gravity.

Diagrams

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Four Forces of Flight


1.) ________________________________
2.) ________________________________
3.) ________________________________
4.) ________________________________
These forces interact and enable birds and airplanes to fly.

Lift
Lift is the force that holds an airplane in the air.
The _______ (wing) create most of the lift used
by airplanes. Lift acts at a _______ angle to the
direction of motion. Lift gives an airplane the
ability to climb into the air and holds it up during
flight. An airfoil moving through the air produces
lift because it has a _________ pressure on its
lower surface than on its upper surface. This
difference in pressure results from a difference
in the _________ of the air flowing along the
two surfaces. According to __________

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principle, the pressure of a fluid decreases as its


speed __________.
A typical airfoil has a _________ front edge and
a sharp rear edge. As the flow of air approaches
the front edge, it _________ to go around the
airfoil. To produce lift, the flow along the upper
and lower surface must be _____________. As
asymmetrical flow can be created by the curved
shape of the airfoil.
Drag
Drag is produced any time a solid object tries to
pass through a liquid or gas. Drag is simply the
force that _________ the forward movement of
objects. It is the force that _________ thrust.
The ________ of the object influences the
amount of drag. The more _________ area the

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more drag. Objects shaped to produce as little


drag as possible are called ______________ or
aerodynamically clean.
Aircraft designers build planes to reduce drag to
a minimum. Planes with low drag need less engine
power to fly and reduced drag also improves a
plane's performance. An airplanes use flaps,
elevators, a rudder, and ailerons when they need
drag to alter the direction of flight. Automobiles,
trains, trucks and other vehicles can also
encounter drag.
Example: An example of drag is putting your hand
out of a moving car window and feeling it pull
back.
Thrust
Thrust should be thought of as the driving

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______ and is produced by an aircraft or flying


animal. The direction of the thrust dictates the
direction in which the object will __________.
An aircraft uses jet engines or propellers for
thrust. Birds use strong muscles, flapping their
wings and even jumping to achieve thrust.
Example: The engines on an airplane propel the
aircraft forwards by moving a large quantity of
air backwards.
Gravity
In order for an object that is ________ than air
to fly, lift (the force that pushes the object
upwards) must be greater than gravity (the force
that attracts the object to the Earth). So the
force of gravity __________ with increase in
_________ of an object.

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Propulsion

-Airplanes need propelling force to get into the air.


-Animals need a propelling force to get into the air (jumping)

What creates Propulsion:

What are the two forms of propulsion that aircrafts use:




The Propeller
Purpose of the propeller is to move the ______,
just like a house fan. Both propellers and fans
_____ air from one direction and ______ it out the
opposite direction. Thrust is generated by air
movement caused by propellers which are driven
by an _________.
The Jet
As years went by, they wanted to have planes go
_______, so the jet engine was invented. This
works on the principle of forward ________

generated by hot _______.


(Learnalberta.ca)

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Drag & Streamlining


Paper Drag

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:
Crumpled piece of paper hits the floor ______
because of the difference in the amount of _____
between the paper and the particles of air. The
crumpled piece of paper has a ________ surface area.
There is ______ drag because fewer air particles have
to be pushed aside as the paper falls. The flat sheet
must push a greater amount of air out of the way to
fall through the air. The surface area is much larger.

Diagrams



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Drag & Streamlining


Parachute Drag

Question:

Prediction:

Inference:
The crumpled parachute drops ______ because its
parachute captures ______ air producing less drag.
This was a fair test because they were built the same
materials. What variable was changed?
If one chute had a heavier mass would it affect the
rate at which they fall?
Gravity pulls on both with the same forces so they
fall at the same rate in a vacuum. The only reason
one might hit the floor first is because:
___________________________________________

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Drag and Streamlining


Cutting through the air

Question:

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Gases

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Fruity Oxidation

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Gases
A Slow Burn

Question:

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Gases
Lights Out

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