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Name

Discussion Section

Methods of Integration

Solutions to these problems should show all of your work, not just a single

final answer.

Part 1: Integration by parts. Do each problem as follows: (1) specify u and dv, (2)

compute du and v, (3) use integration by parts with your choice of u and dv. (4) If you need

integration by parts more than once, each time go through steps 1, 2, and 3 again.

Z

Example. Compute x2 ex dx.

Solution.

(1) Set u = x2 and dv = ex dx.

(2) We have du = 2x dx and v = ex .

Z

Z

Z

Z

Z

2 x

2 x

x

2 x

(3) Now x e dx = u dv = uv v du = x e e (2x) dx = x e 2 xex dx.

Z

Z

Z

Z

x

u dv = uv v du = xe ex dx = xex ex .

(5) Substituting the result of (4) into (3),

Z

x2 ex dx = x2 ex 2(xex ex ) + C = (x2 2x + 2)ex + C.

Z

1. Compute

x cos(5x) dx.

xex dx =

Z

2. Compute

differentiate 2x .)

Z

2x + 1

dx using partial fractions.

Example. Compute

x2 4

2x + 1

A

B

Solution. Write 2

=

+

for some A and B. Clearing the denominator,

x 4

x+2 x2

2x + 1 = A(x 2) + B(x + 2). Setting x = 2 we get 5 = 4B, so B = 5/4. Setting x = 2

2x + 1

3/4

5/4

we get 3 = 4A, so A = 3/4. Thus 2

=

+

, so

x 4

x+2 x2

Z

Z

2x + 1

3/4

5/4

3

5

dx =

+

dx = ln |x + 2| + ln |x 2| + C.

2

x 4

x+2 x2

5

4

Z

3. Compute

x3

Z

4. Compute

10

dx using partial fractions.

x2 6x

x2 + x + 1

dx using partial fractions.

x(x2 + 4)

Z

Example. (a) Compute the trapezoid approximation to

x dx using n = 4 subin-

(b) Use the error bound for the trapezoid rule to determine an n such that the trapezoid

approximation is guaranteed by the error bound to be with .01 of the value of the integral.

Solution.

(a) The trapezoid approximation with n = 4 is

ba

2

(f (x0 ) + 2f (x1 ) + 2f (x2 ) + 2f (x3 ) + f (x4 )) =

(f (1) + 2f (1.5) + 2f (2) +

2n

8

2f (2.5) + f (3))

2.79306.

(b) An upper bound on the error from the trapezoid rule with n intervals is K(ba)

(x)2 ,

12

00

where x = (b

a)/n and K is an upper bound on |f (x)| for all x in [a, b]. In our

problem, f (x) = x, so f 00 (x) = 14 x3/2 . For 1 x 3, we have x3/2 1, so

|f 00 (x)| 1/4 when 1 x 3. Thus we can use K = 1/4, so the trapezoid error bound

is (1/4)(31)

( n2 )2 = 6n1 2 . Having the error be less than .01 means

12

1

1

< .01 n2 >

n >

2

6n

6(.01)

1

4.082,

.06

Z 3

5. (a) Compute the trapezoid approximation to

x sin x dx using n = 4 subintervals,

2

rounding your approximation to 5 digits after the decimal point. (Remember to set your

calculator to radian mode for trigonometric functions.)

(b) Use the error bound for the trapezoid rule to determine an n such that the trapezoid

approximation is guaranteed by the error bound to be with .01 of the value of the integral.

Z

6. (a) Compute the Simpsons rule approximation to

x dx using n = 4 subintervals,

(b) Use the error bound for Simpsons rule to determine an n such that the Simpsons

rule approximation is guaranteed by the error bound to be with 106 of the value of the

integral. (Remember n must be even.)

Z

0

Z

8. Compute the improper integral

0

ax

will be in terms of a.

Z

dx and

dx

using partial fractions.

(x + 2)(x + 5)

Z

9. Decide if the improper integral

gent, evaluate it.

x2

x

dx is convergent or divergent. If it is conver+1

Optional Question.

10. Vibrations show up in many places: civil engineering (oscillations in a bridge or the

reaction of a building to an earthquake), music (sound is a vibration of pressure waves),

and ski design (smaller vibrations make a smoother ride). The following computation is

fundamental in any mathematical study of vibrations: for all positive integers m and n,

use integration by parts to show

Z 2

sin(mx) cos(nx) dx = 0.

0

(Hint: Use the bounds of integration during the integration by parts, and treat m = n

and m 6= n separately. It may help to first try this for specific m and n, such as m = 2

and n = 3, and then m = 5 and n = 5.) There are two other integral formulas related

the one above, with products of two sines and two cosines:

(

(

Z 2

Z 2

, if m = n,

, if m = n,

cos(mx) cos(nx) dx =

sin(mx) sin(nx) dx =

0, if m 6= n.

0, if m 6= n

0

0

Here too m and n are positive integers. The optional question is only the first formula.

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