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Rule of Law Training

t&yfom;jynfolawGukd
umuG,fay;&ef
wm0ef&dSjcif;
Responsibility To Protect & Roles of
ESifh
EkdifiHwum
International
Laws
Oya'tcef;ursm;
Ekdifv0Datmif
jrefrmEkdifiHa&S@aer
sm;aumifpD
Venue Peace Law
Academy

2011 ckESpf/
{+yDv (4)

tykdif; (1)
EkdifiHwumOya'rsm; pepfukd
tajccHrdwfqufjcif;
Part: I

Basic Introduction on System of


International Laws

I. urBmhEkdifiHrsm;

usifhoHk;aeqJjzpfaom
urBmrSm t"duusaom Oya'pepf.
Oya'pepfrsm;
trsKd;tpm;rsm;

t*Fvdyf&kd;&m Oya'pepf Common Law


System;

a&mr Oya'pepf Civil Law System;


tpPvrf Oya'pepf Muslim Law System;
"avhxHk; Oya'pepf Customary Law

System;

a&maESm(yl;wGJ)usifhoHk;aom
Oya'pepf Mixed System;

Oya'pepf (5)rsKd;ukd
usifhoHk;aom a'orsm;

Source: University of Ottawa Research Group on World Legal


Systems

1. EkdifiHwumOya'

1.1. EkdifiHwumOya'qkdwm bmvJ?


zGJ@pnf;wnfaqmufyHk

omreftm;jzifh Oya'. yifukd,ft& EkdifiHwumOya'ukd


(2)rsKd; cGJjcm;Ekdifjcif;
woD;yk*~vqkdif&m Oya' Private Law;
trsm;qkdif&m Oya' Public Law;
Oya'onf tcGifhta&;ESifhwm0efawGukd jyXmef;ay;jcif;/
jynfol ESifh jynfolt=um; Private Law;
jynfol ESifh tpkd;&t=um; Public Law;

EkdifiHwum Oya'rSm vnf; EkdifiHawGu


cHpm;cGifh&dSaomtcGifhta&;ESifh vkduf&
aomwm0efawGukd jyXmef;owfrSwfay;jcif;? (Civitas &
Civitas)

yk*~KdvfwOD;csif;pDESifh
tpkd;&r[kwfaomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;vnf; EkdifiHwumOya'
atmufY tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0efawGukd ae&m,lvmjcif;?

EkdifiHwumOya'.
t&if;tjrpfrsm;
EkdifiHwumOya'ukd EkdifiHrsm;Oya'
1.2.

qif;oufvm;cJh/ 1594 ckESpf/ Hookers Ecclesiastical Polity usrf;xJrSm


awG@&dScJhjcif;?
tajccHusaom tcsuf (3)csufawG@&dSjcif;

Law of Nations

Oya'wGif vlom;wkd@ESifh oufqkdifaomt&mjzpfjcif;


(ukd,fusifhw&m;ykdif;)?
Oya'wGif vlom;wkd@. vl@tzGJ@tpnf;u ykdifqkdifxm;jcif;
(EkdifiHOya')?
Oya'wGif EkdifiHwckESifhwckt=um; qufqHr_rsm;/
ul;oef;a&mif;0,fr_rsm;ESifh
EkdifiHa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wkd@tay:rSm oufqkdifaejcif;
(EkdifiHwumOya')?

t*FvdyfygvDref tufOya'rSm- 1708 ckESpf/ oHwrefa&;&m


txl;tcGifh ta&;qkdif&m tufOya' Diplomatic of Privileges Act, 1078 ESifh
1878 ckESpf/ ul;oef;a&mif;0,fa&; tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;qkdif&m
tufOya' Bills of Sale Act, 1878 awG@&dScJh?

EkdifiHwumOya'ukd
ykdif;jcm;Ekdifaom
oGifjyifvuQ
EkdifiHwum w&m;r#waom w&m;&Hk; (International
%mrsm;
Court of Justice) . jyXmef;Oya' (Statute) yk'fr 38(1)rSm
1.3.

awG@&dSEkdifjcif;? ,if;wkd@tm;

EkdifiHwum. oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm; (Treaties)

Oya'tjzpf pnf;aESmif;tm;&dSaom oabmwlpmcsKyf (Legal


Binding-force)

ydnmOf oabmwlpmcsKyf Charter (e.g. U.N. Charter)

EkdifiHwumqkdif&m "avhxHk;wrf;Oya'

(international

customary law);

EkdifiHwumOya'. trsm;v$rf;+cHKaom tajccHrlrsm;


(General Principle)

w&m;pD&ifa&; qHk;jzwfcsufESifh pD&ifxHk;rsm;


(Judicial Decision & Case-Laws)

Oya'ynm&Sifwkd@rS usrf;jyKpkcsufrsm;
Legal Scholars)

(Encyclopedia of

1.3. EkdifiHwumOya'. tajccHusaom

oGifjyifvuQ%mrsm;
woD;yk*~vqkdif&m Oya'

trsm;qkdif&m Oya'

vufeufukdif yduQqkdif&m Oya' (Law of Armed Conflict)


yduQukd ukdifwG,fpDrHjcif; (Jus ad Bellum = to prevent conduct in war)
ukvor*~ ydnmOfpmcsKyf
vufeufxdrf;csKyfr_rsm; (0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif;/ rdrd.
ckcHumuG,fjcif;)
EkdifiHwum "avhxHk;wrf;qkdif&m Oya'
ppfyGJjzpfr_rsm;qkdif&m pnf;urf;csuf (Jus in Bello = to regulate/control

conduct)

[dwf('f)oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;
(ppfyGJqkdif&musifhoHk;cGifh&dSaom owfrSwfcsufrsm;)
*sDeDAmoabmwlpmcsKyfrsm; (t&yfom;jynfolrsm;ESifh
ypPnf;ukd umuG,fay;jcif;)

+idrf;csrf;a&;qkdif&m Oya'

2. EkdifiHwumjypfr_qkdif&mOya'
International Criminal Law

EkdifiHwumjypfr_qkdif&mOya'wGif
trsm;qkdif&mOya'tpdwftykdif;wck jzpfjcif;/
TOya'onf vlyk*~Kdvfcsif; tajccHtcGifhta&;tay:
umuG,fay;zkd@ tajccH &nf&G,fcsuf jzpfjcif;/
TOya'. t&if;tjrpfuawmh

EkdifiHwum oabmwlpmcsKyf
EkdifiHwum "avhxHk;wrf;qkdif&m Oya'
ppfyGJqkdif&mOya'rsm; (okd@) "avhxHk;wrf;rsm;

(Law

or Custom of War)

TOya'wGif t"duusaom tpdwftykdif; (3)ck &dSjcif;

EkdifiHwum vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;qkdif&mOya'

(International

Human Rights Law)

EkdifiHwum vlom;csif;pmemr_qkdif&mOya' (International


Humanitarian Law)

EkdifiH (jynfwGif;) jypfr_qkdif&m Oya'rsm;


Criminal Law)

(National/Domestic

EdkifiHwum
vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;qkdif&m
Oya'
IHRL Oya'. rlv&nfrSef;csufu EkdifiHwum
2.1.

vl@tzGJ@tpnf;tqifhqifh vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;qkdif&m
umuG,fay;jcif;ESifh jrSifhwifay;jcif; jzpfonf?
wOD;csif;. tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;tay: tajccHI
jyXmef;ay;xm;jcif;?
tcGifhta&;qkdwm (2)ykdif;jzifh
ykdif;jcm;awG@&dSEkdifjcif;

trsm;qkdif&m tcGifhta&;
woD;yk*~vqkdif&m tcGifhta&;

IHRL Oya'.

tajccHwnfaqmufxm;aom tpdwftykdif;rsm; -

oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;
ydnmOfpmcsKyfrsm;
uGefAif&Sifrsm;
qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;

IHRL Oya'ukd

tqifh (3)qifhjzifh omreftm;jzifh


prf;ppfawG@&dSEkdifjcif;

EkdifiHwumtqifh vl@tcGifhta&;qkdif&m Oya'


tjynfjynfqkdif&mvl@tcGifhta&;

a=unmpmwrf;
EkdifiHa&;ESifh EkdifiHom;rsm;
tcGifhta&;qkdif&moabmwlpmcsKyf ICCPR 1966
pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;/ ,Ofaus;r_
tcGifhta&;qkdif&moabmwlpmcsKyf ICESCR

- UDHR 1948

a'otwGif;tqifh vl@tcGifhta&;qkdif&m Oya'


Oa&mywkduftwGuf

1953;

vl@tcGifhta&;oabmwlpmcsKyf

ECHR

tmz&dwkduftwGuf

vlom;ESifh jynfolrsm;
tcGifhta&;qkdif&m oabmwl pmcsKyf ACHPR 1986;
tar&duwkduftwGuf vl@tcGifhta&;oabmwlpmcsKyf 1978;

tmpD,HtwGuf

vl@tcGifhta&;qkdif&m
ydnmOfpmcsKyf ??????

jynfwGif;tqifh vl@tcGifhta&;qkdif&m Oya'


oufqkdif&mEkdifiHrsm;.

tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;/

zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'/

ACHR

2.2. EkdifiHwumvlom;csif;pmemr_
Humanitarian Law

Oya'

Oya'ukd ppfyGJqkdif&mOya' (okd@)"avhxHk;wrf;tay:


tajccHjcif;

IHL

IHL

Oya'onf 1949 ckESpf *sDeDuGefAif&Sifrsm;ESifh


[dwf('f)uGefAif&Sifrsm; yl;pyfxm; jcif; - *sDeDAmuGefAif&Sif
(4)ck 1? 1864 ckESpf/ yxr *sDeDAmuGefAif&Sif
ajrjyifppfyGJxJrSm '%f&m&&dScJholrsm;ESifh
zsm;em;olrsm;ukd umuG,fay;jcif;
2? 1906 ckESpf 'kwd, *sDeDAmuGefAif&Sif
a&jyifppfyGJrSm '%f&m&&dScJholrsm;/ zsm;em;olrsm;/
oabFmysuf&mYyg&dSol
rsm;ukd umuG,fay;jcif;
3? 1929 ckESpf wwd, *sDeDAmuGefAif&Sif
ppftusOf;om;rsm;ukd jyKrlqufqHa&;ESifh pyfvsOf;I jyXmef;csuf
4? 1949 ckESpf pwkw *sDeDAmuGefAif&Sif
ppfyGJtajctaeatmufrSm t&yfom;jynfolrsm;ukd umuG,fay;jcif;

*sDeDAmuGefAif&SifeJ@oufqkdifaom
tjcm;oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;
(3)ck 1977 ckESpf/ pmcsKyftrSwf - (1) Protocol I (1977)

1977 ckESpf/ pmcsKyftrSwf - (2) Protocol II (1977)

jynfwGif;vufeufukdifydyuQatmufrSm usL;vGefcH&olrsm;ukd
umuG,fay;jcif;

2005 ckESpf/ pmcsKyftrSwf - (3) Protocol III (2005)

EkdifiHwumvufukdufydyuQrSm usL;vGefcH&olrsm;ukd
umuG,fay;jcif;

aemufqufwGJvufcHcsuftjzpf ykdif;jcm;owfrSwfxm;aom
trSwfwHqdyfESifh pyfvsOf;I umuG,fay;jcif;?

[dwf('f)uGefAif&Sif (2)ck

1899 ckESpf/ yxr [dwf('f)uGefAif&SifoabmwlpmcsKyf


1907 ckESpf 'kwd, [dwf('f)uGefAif&SifoabmwlpmcsKyf
'DoabmwlpmcsKyfESpfckpvHk;wGif ppfyGJrSm
oHk;pGJcGifhrjyKaomvufeufud&d,mrsm; ukd
ppfyGJqkdif&mOya'rsm;ESifh "avhxHk;wrf;rsm;ukd
vkdufema&;wkd@ t"duxm;?

3. EkdifiHwum w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf
International Judiciary System
1? w&m;rr_qkdif&m w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf

Civil judiciary

system

1. EkdifiHwum wnf+rJaom w&m;r#wr_ w&m;&Hk;


PCIJ
2. tjynfjynfqkdif&m w&m;r#waom w&m;&Hk; ICJ

2? jypfr_qkdif&m w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf Criminal


judiciary system

1? EsL;&rfbuf EkdifiHwum ppfcHk&Hk;

International Military

Tribunal-IMT

2? wkdusKd EkdifiHwum ppfcHk&Hk; International Military Tribunal

for Far East


IMTFE

3? ,l*kdpvm;AD;,m;twGuf EkdifiHwumjypfr_qkdif&m
w&m;&Hk ICTY
4? &m0rf'gtwGuf EkdifiHwumjypfr_qkdif&mw&m;&Hk; - ICTR
5? EkdifiHwumjypfr_qkdif&m w&m;&Hk; ICC

3. EkdifiHwum w&m;pD&ifa&;pepf
International Judiciary System

3? tjcm;aom
EkdifiHwumtxl;w&m;&Hk;rsm;
(aygif;pyfpepf Hybrid System)

1? vufzEGeftwGuf txl;w&m;&Hk; Special Court for


Lebanon SCL

2? ZD&mvD,GeftwGuf txl;w&m;&Hk; Special


Tribunal for Sierra Leone
SCSL

3? uarBm'D,m;twGuf txl;w&m;&Hk;
Chambers of in

Extraordinary

Court for Cambodia ECCC

4? 'DvDc&kdifw&m;&Hk;. jypfr_qkdif&m
txl;cHk&Hk; Special Panels of the Dili
District Court SPDDC