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Gas/liquid separators (scrubbers)


Generally, in the mostly vertically orientated gas/liquid separators (scrubbers), the
incoming multiphase mixture flows into the vessel through an inlet device. The inlet
section (1) ensures: a) preliminary gas/liquid(s) separation and b) a good flow
distribution across the vessel.
The design of scrubbers generally include subsequently a gas/liquid gravity separation
section (2), that ensures the creation and fall out of large liquid droplets.
The gravity separation section can include a coalescer stage (either a mesh type or
vane type coalescer). After the fall out of the bulk liquids the demisting section (3)
ensures the separation of finer mist particles.

The clean gas exits the vessel after this final stage. Separated liquids are degassed in
the degassing section (4). Generally it consists of a liquid hold up that provides
sufficient residence time for gas bubbles to escape from the liquids.

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Gas/liquid separators (Inlet section)


1) Inlet section
In vertically orientated gas/liquid separators (scrubbers), the
incoming multiphase mixture flows into the vessel through an
inlet device, or inlet cyclone (1). In the processing industry a
wide range of inlet devices are being used ranging from inlet
baffles, half open pipes to more elaborate vane type inlet
devices and cyclonic inlet devices. Irrespective of the service,
only vane type inlet devices and properly designed cyclonic inlet
devices will handle the fluids at the inlet nozzle adequately and
will maximise the separation performance. All other inlet devices
will result in a very poor gas distribution and in an increase of
the liquid content entrained in the gas due to the high shear
forces exerted by these devices.

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Gas/liquid separators (Inlet section)

B.Ruggeri

Gas/liquid separators (Inlet section)


The advantages of the Inlet Cyclones are:

High gas and liquid handling capacity


Efficient bulk gas-liquid separation
Low shear design to enhance oil-water
separation
Geometry optimised
Foam breaking, strong reduction of antifoam chemicals
No maintenance due to robust design
Installation through Man Way
No welding required for installation

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Gas/liquid separators (Inlet section)


The advantages of the Perforated
Distributor are:
Maximises liquid droplet separation
from gas
Maximises hydrocarbon droplet
separation from water
Maximises water droplet separation
from hydrocarbon liquid
Excellent sand handling capability
Low pressure drop
No maintenance due to robust design
Equipped with removable Man Way
Removable through vessel Man Way
No welding required for installation
Easily replaces existing older perforated
baffles

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Gas/liquid separators
(Gravity separation section)

2) Gravity separation section


As can be seen, the Vane Diffuser is essential to evenly distribute the gas and
therewith allowing the liquid entering the vessel in bulk to separate at the
inlet nozzle. The liquid in mist form will travel further with the gas. From the
vane diffuser to the mist eliminating equipment, the gas travels through the
gravity separation section (2), which allows smaller droplets to coalesce into
larger ones and drop out due to the gravity. In situations where the liquid load
to the vessel is simply too high, under demanding process conditions, in
retrofit situations where the size of the existing vessel/equipment is limited or
in high pressure applications where the mean droplet size is small, the
downstream mist eliminating equipment potentially may be overloaded with
liquid and the downstream equipment, may be experiencing an excess of
liquid carryover from this vessel.

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Gas/liquid separators
(Gravity separation section)

In clean services, i.e. no presence of wax or fouling tendencies, the


Mesh Coalescer can be used to increase the liquid handling capacity of
the gravity separation section. The wire mesh structure is designed to
coalesce small liquid droplets into larger ones. The specific
arrangement of the Mesh Coalescer ensures very good drainage of the
liquid accumulated within the mesh. It is particularly highlighted that
this device has excellent turndown properties as the mode of operation
changes from a flooded mode to a demisting mode once the gas
velocity is reduced to below the transition point. In situations where
the fluids do have a fouling tendency, alternatively a Vane Coalescer or
Cyclone Coalescer can be considered.

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Gas/liquid separators
(Demisting section)

3) Demisting section
The third section is the mist eliminating section (3) which ensures
the separation of finer mist particles. Essentially, the overall gasliquid separation efficiency of a scrubber depends on the fraction
of liquid entrained as mist in the gas, the droplet size
distribution, the volumetric amount of the liquid in mist form and
the efficiency of the mist eliminating equipment under those
conditions.

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Gas/liquid separators (Demister)


Mesh Pad

Vane Mist

The advantages of Mist


Eliminator are:
Maximises liquid droplet
separation from gas within
operating window
Significantly increased liquid
handling capacity
No maintenance due to robust
design
Removable through Man Way
No welding required for
installation
Easily replaces existing older
demisting equipment

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Gas/liquid separators (Demister)


The advantages of the Cyclone Mist Eliminator
are:
Newest Generation mist eliminating cyclones
Designed with advanced aeronautical
technology
Maximises liquid droplet separation from gas
Significantly increased liquid handling
capacity
Excellent gas distribution properties
Excellent performance in fouling service
Reduced pressure drop
No maintenance due to robust design
Removable through Man Way
No welding required for installation