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Foundations of Technology, Third Edition

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Technology, Engineering, and Design
Unit 2: The Engineering Design Process
Overview
Big Idea
The Engineering Design process is a systematic, iterative problem solving method that
produces solutions to meet human wants and desires.
Teacher’s Note: Big ideas should be made explicit to students by writing them on the
board, reading them aloud, and/or posting them on worksheets associated with the lessons.
For deeper understanding, have students write the Big Idea in their own Engineering Design
Journal (EDJ), using their own words, if they choose.
Purpose of the Unit
This unit will enable students to apply the engineering design process as they solve a
variety of problems.
Standards/Benchmarks
Technology: Standards for Technological Literacy (STL) (ITEA/ITEEA, 2000/2002/2007)
STL 8
H

I
J
K
STL 9
I
J
K
L
STL 11
N
O

Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.
The design process includes defining a problem, brainstorming, researching and
generating ideas, identifying criteria and specifying constraints, exploring
possibilities, selecting an approach, developing a design proposal, making a
model or prototype, testing and evaluating the design using specifications,
refining the design, creating or making it, and communicating processes and
results.
Design problems are seldom presented in a clearly defined form.
The design needs to be continually checked and critiqued, and the ideas of the
design must be redefined and improved.
Requirements of a design, such as criteria, constraints, and efficiency, sometimes
compete with each other.
Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.
Established design principles are used to evaluate existing designs, to collect
data, and to guide the design process.
Engineering design is influenced by personal characteristics, such as creativity,
resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize and think abstractly.
Requirements of a design, such as criteria, constraints, and efficiency, sometimes
compete with each other.
The process of engineering design takes into account a number of factors.
Students will develop the abilities to apply the design process.
Identify criteria and constraints and determine how these will affect the design
process.
Refine a design by using prototype and modeling to ensure quality, efficiency,
and productivity of the final product.

©2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/
Technology, Engineering, and Design

R

STL 12
P
L
STL 13
J

Evaluate final solutions and communicate observation, processes, and results of
the entire design process, using verbal, graphic, quantitative, virtual, and written
means, in addition to three-dimensional models.
Students will develop the abilities to use and maintain technological
products and systems.
Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain,
interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate.
Document processes and procedures and communicate tem to different audiences
using appropriate oral and written techniques.
Students will develop the abilities to assess the impact of products and
systems.
Collect information and evaluate its quality.

Science: Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993/2009)1

The Nature of Mathematics/Mathematics Science and Technology
● Mathematical modeling aids in technological design by simulating how a proposed
system might behave. 2B/H1
The Nature of Technology/Technology and Science
● Engineers, architects, and others who engage in design and technology use
scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. They also usually have to take
human values and limitations into account. 3A/M3
The Nature of Technology/Design and Systems
● Design usually requires taking into account not only physical and biological
constraints, but also economic, political, social, ethical, and aesthetic ones. 3B/M1
Mathematics: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000)2
Algebra Standard (NCTM, 9-12)
Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
(NCTM-5)
● Use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships.
(Algebra-5L)
Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships. (NCTM-6)
● Draw reasonable conclusions about a situation being modeled. (Algebra-6F)
Geometry Standard (NCTM, 9-12)
Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and
develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships. (NCTM-8)
● Analyze properties and determine attributes of two- and three-dimensional objects.
(Geometry-8M)
Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems. (NCTM-11)
● Draw and construct representations of two- and three-dimensional geometric
object. (Geometry-11W)
● Visualize three-dimensional objects and spaces from different perspectives and
analyze their cross sections. (Geometry-11X)
● Use geometric ideas to solve problems in, and gain insights into, other disciplines
and other areas of interest such as art and architecture. (Geometry-11AA)
1

Material reprinted from Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993, 2009) with permission from Project 2061,
on behalf of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.
2

Standards are listed with the permission of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). NCTM does
not endorse the content nor the validity of these alignments.

©2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/
Technology, Engineering, and Design

Unit Objectives
Lesson
Lesson 1: Design
Process
(8 Hours)

Big Idea
The Engineering Design
process is a systematic,
iterative problem solving
method which produces
solutions to meet human
wants and desires.

Objectives
Apply the steps of the design process
including defining a problem, brainstorming,
researching and generating ideas,
identifying criteria and specifying
constraints, exploring possibilities, selecting
an approach, developing a design proposal,
making a model or prototype, testing, and
communicating results.
Use symbolic algebra to represent and
explain mathematical relationships.
Draw reasonable conclusions about a
situation being modeled.
Analyze the cross sections of threedimensional objects and spaces from
different perspectives.
Contribute to a group endeavor by offering
useful ideas, supporting the efforts of
others, and focusing on the task.
Work safely and accurately with a variety of
tools, machines, and materials.
Actively participate in group discussions,
ideation exercises, and debates.

Lesson 2:
Collecting and
Processing of
Information
(5 Hours)

Computers assist in
organizing and analyzing
data used in the
engineering design
process.

Collect data and information and use
computers and calculators to organize,
process, and present the collected data and
information.
Collect information and evaluate its quality.
Draw reasonable conclusions about a
situation being modeled.

Lesson 3: Design
Principles
(8 Hours)

There are several factors
that significantly influence
the design process.

Identify the design principles used in a
current design, collect data on the
effectiveness of the design principles used
and propose a redesign using the design
process.
Describe the importance of creativity,
resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize
and think abstractly when engaged in
engineering design.
List three factors that must be considered
when engaged in engineering design.
Use mathematical modeling aids in
technological design by simulating how a
proposed system might behave.
Identify human values and limitations when
using scientific knowledge to solve practical
design problems.
Use symbolic algebra to represent and
explain mathematical relationships.

©2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/
Technology, Engineering, and Design

Use geometric ideas to solve problems in,
and gain insights into, other disciplines and
other areas of interest such as art and
architecture.
Contribute to a group endeavor by offering
useful ideas, supporting the efforts of
others, and focusing on the task.
Work safely and accurately with a variety of
tools, machines, and materials.
Actively participate in group discussions,
ideation exercises, and debates.
Lesson 4:
Criteria and
Constraints
(3 Hours)

Specifying criteria and
identifying constraints is
essential when defining a
problem and determining
the most appropriate
solution.

Describe a design problem that does not
clearly define all criteria and constraints.
Describe a design where the requirements,
such as criteria, constraints, and efficiency,
compete with each other.
Distinguish the criteria and constraints and
reflect on how the criteria and constraints
affected their final solution.
Identify pertinent information needed to
solve a given problem on two or more case
studies.
Draw reasonable conclusions about a
situation being modeled.
Explain how design usually requires taking
into account not only physical and biological
constraints, but also economic, political,
social, ethical and aesthetic ones.
Identify human values and limitations when
using scientific knowledge to solve practical
design problems.

Lesson 5:
Prototypes and
Modeling
(6 Hours)

At various intervals of the
engineering design
process, conceptual,
mathematical, and
physical models are used
to evaluate the design
solution.

Demonstrate how to check or test a design
in order to redefine and improve the design.
Demonstrate the use of a prototype to test
a design concept.
Use prototypes and models to ensure
quality, efficiency, and productivity of their
final product.
Demonstrate how mathematical modeling
aids are used when simulating how a
proposed system might behave.
Use symbolic algebra to represent and
explain mathematical relationships.
Analyze the cross sections of threedimensional objects and spaces from
different perspectives.
Use geometric ideas to solve problems in,
and gain insights into, other disciplines and
other areas of interest such as art and
architecture.

©2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/
Technology, Engineering, and Design

Lesson 6:
Applying the
Design Process
and
Documentation
(8 Hours)

Documentation of the
Engineering Design
Process is essential so
that the solution can be
communicated to the
intended audience.

Communicate their observation, processes
and results of the entire design process and
the final solution, using appropriate verbal,
graphic, quantitative, virtual, and written
means, in addition to three-dimensional
models.
Present their completion of the design
process through a presentation with two
target audiences, using appropriate oral and
written techniques.
Analyze the cross sections of threedimensional objects and spaces from
different perspectives.
Draw and construct representations of twoand three-dimensional geometric objects
using a variety of tools.

Total: 38 Hours

Assessments
There are no unit level assessments. Lessons in the unit are assessed using:



Selected Response Items
Brief Constructed Response Items
Extended Constructed Response Items
Performance Rubrics

Specific tools are incorporated into each lesson as Supporting Files.
EbD™ Video
There are many ways to hook students, but one great way is through the EbD™
, or
a video introduction to the unit and/or lessons. This allows visual cues while helping
students to start thinking about what they already know about the Big Idea. The frog puts
the content in context by using themes (Custer/Daugherty/Meyer, 2010;
Hacker/Rousseau/Devries, 2009). Engagement is the first step to introducing a lesson.
Engagement involves activating students' prior knowledge about the subject of study. In
order to activate prior knowledge, the teacher must hook the students in and make them
become interested in the lesson.
The EbD MediaRichedition™ of this Course Guide, available to those teachers and schools in
the EbD™ Network, includes the opportunity for teachers to submit frogs that are shared
with other teachers in the Network.

©2012 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association Foundations of Technology, Third Edition/
Technology, Engineering, and Design