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Technical Reference Documentation

**Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase)
**

ElmTr2,TypTr2

DIgSILENT GmbH

Heinrich-Hertz-Str. 9

72810 - Gomaringen

Germany

T: +49 7072 9168 0

F: +49 7072 9168 88

http://www.digsilent.de

info@digsilent.de

Version: 15.2

Edition: 1

**Copyright © 2014, DIgSILENT GmbH. Copyright of this document belongs to DIgSILENT GmbH.
**

No part of this document may be reproduced, copied, or transmitted in any form, by any means

electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of DIgSILENT GmbH.

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

1

Contents

Contents

1 General Description

1.1 Model diagrams

4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.1.1 Positive and negative sequence models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

1.1.2 Zero sequence model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

1.2 Tap changer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

1.3 YN-YN transformer with internal delta winding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

1.3.1 Dependent parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

1.4 Short-circuit impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

1.4.1 Positive sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

1.4.2 Zero sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

2 Load Flow Analysis

17

2.1 Element data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2.1.1 Measurement report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

2.1.2 Automatic tap changer control

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

2.2 Type data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

2.2.1 Tap changer with two taps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

3 Short-Circuit Analysis

25

3.1 IEC calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

3.1.1 Element data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

3.1.2 Type data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

4 RMS-Simulation

26

5 EMT-Simulation

26

5.1 Element data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

5.1.1 Stray capacitances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

5.2 Type data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

5.2.1 Saturation characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27

5.2.2 Zero sequence magnetising reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

2

Contents

5.3 Residual flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 Harmonics/Power Quality

32

33

6.1 K-Factor, Factor-K and FHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

6.1.1 K-Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.1.2 Factor-K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.1.3 FHL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

6.1.4 Input data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

6.2 Frequency-dependent zero sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

7 Modelling Details and Application Tips

37

7.1 Reference values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2 Zero sequence models for common vector groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2.1 Yd-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2.2 YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

7.2.3 Model of YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer with closed tertiary delta winding . .

38

7.2.4 Model of YNzn/YNz/Zyn-transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

7.3 Auto transformer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

8 Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models

42

9 Input Parameter Definitions

43

9.1 2-winding transformer type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

9.2 2-winding transformer element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

48

10 References

53

List of Figures

54

List of Tables

55

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

3

1

General Description

1

General Description

**The two-winding transformer model is a highly-detailed model for various kinds of three-phase,
**

two-winding transformers in power systems. It can be used to represent network transformers,

block transformers, phase-shifters, auto transformers or MV-voltage regulators.

The 2-winding transformer model in PowerFactory is comprised of the 2-winding transformer

element (ElmTr2), and the 2-winding transformer type (TypTr2). The transformer element allows

input of data relating to the control of the transformer under steady-state conditions, and the

transformer type allows input of the physical properties of the transformer. For simplicity, these

will simply be referred to hereafter as the ‘element’ and the ‘type’, respectively.

The first section of this document describes the general model which is valid for all PowerFactory

calculation functions. Other aspects such as saturation or capacitive effects, which are only

relevant to specific calculation functions are described in later sections. Section 7 provides

useful tips for special applications of the 2-winding transformer model.

1.1

Model diagrams

1.1.1

Positive and negative sequence models

**The positive sequence (per-unit) equivalent circuit of the transformer is shown in Figure 1.1.
**

The leakage reactances and winding resistances are included on the HV and LV sides, and the

magnetising branch accounts for core losses. These losses are represented by the magnetising

reactance and a parallel resistance. The ideal transformer has a complex winding ratio with a

magnitude of 1:1 and models the phase shift representing the vector groups of the two windings.

Figure 1.1: Positive sequence (per-unit) equivalent circuit of the 2-winding transformer

**The relation between the mathematical parameters in the model and the parameters in the
**

transformer type and element dialogs are described below, and the corresponding nomenclature

is provided in Table 1.1.

The nominal impedance is given by:

Zr,HV =

Urh 2

Sr

(Ω)

(1)

Zr,LV =

Url 2

Sr

(Ω)

(2)

The short-circuit impedance (zsc ), short-circuit resistance (rsc ), and short-circuit reactance (xsc )

are calculated as follows:

usc

zsc =

(p.u.)

(3)

100

Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2,TypTr2)

4

) (14) rF e 2 Table 1.u.) (6) (7) The resistive losses in the windings (HV and LV sides.) Sr p = zsc 2 − rsc 2 (p.HV.1 (p.LV = rsc · (1 − γR.) (13) and the magnetising reactance is calculated as follows: xM = r 1 1 zM 2 − 1 (p.HV = rsc · γR.LV.1 )) + (xsc · (1 − γX.) (10) (11) The magnetising impedance is dependent on the no-load current.LV = xsc · (1 − γX.u.) (8) (9) The leakage reactance (HV and LV sides. respectively) are represented by: rCu. respectively) is: zshv = (rsc · γR.1 )) (p.) (4) rsc = xsc (5) The leakage impedance (HV and LV sides. I0 . Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.u.and calculation parameters described above.TypTr2) 5 .) xσ.u. and is given by: zM = 1 I0 /100 (p.) zslv = (rsc · (1 − γR.) (12) The resistive iron losses in the core are calculated as: rF e = Sr PF e /1000 (p.LV.HV = xsc · γX.LV.1 provides a comprehensive list of the input.1 ) (p.u.HV.1 ) + (xsc · γX.HV.u.1 ) (p.u.u.1 General Description PCu /1000 (p.1 ) (p.LV.u. and their associated symbols and descriptions.) rCu.HV.u. respectively) is calculated as follows: xσ.u.1 (p.

u.LV utrnh utrnl strn pcutr uktr zs rs xs itrdl Symbol Urh Url Sr PCu usc zsc rsc xsc γX. itrdr γR. p.TypTr2) 6 .HV.u.1 General Description Table 1.LV zshv zshl xσ.1: Input.1 p.LV.u.u. p.1 p. p. Transformer models for a variety of configurations are provided in Section 7.u.2 I0 PF e p. p.HV xσ. p.LV curmg pf e zM xM rF e 1.HV Zr.u. p.u.LV. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.2.u. itrdr lv γR.1. p. p.1 p.2.1 Unit Ω Ω kV kV MVA kW % p.u.and calculation parameters Name Zr. Description Nominal impedance. itrdl lv γX.u.u.u.u. rCu.u.HV rCu.u.u.HV. p. % kW p. HV side Nominal impedance. p. LV side Rated voltage on HV side Rated voltage on LV side Rated power Copper losses Relative short-circuit voltage Short-circuit impedance Short-circuit resistance Short-circuit reactance Proportion of transformer short-circuit reactance on HV side in the positive sequence system Proportion of transformer short-circuit reactance on LV side in the positive sequence system Proportion of transformer short-circuit resistance on HV side in the positive sequence system Proportion of transformer short-circuit resistance on LV side in the positive sequence system Resistance on HV side Resistance on LV side Leakage impedance on HV side Leakage impedance on LV side Leakage reactance on HV side Leakage reactance on LV side No-load current No-load losses Magnetising impedance Magnetising reactance Shunt resistance Zero sequence model The zero sequence equivalent model of a Yd-transformer including a tap changer at the HV side is shown in Figure 1.

TypTr2) 7 .3 and Figure 1.1 General Description (a) (b) Figure 1. For most applications. ideal transformer connected to either the HV or LV side (see Figure 1.2: Zero sequence equivalent circuit of a Yd-transformer with HV side tap changer (a) detailed representation (b) simplified representation 1. the winding ratio of this transformer is real and is defined by the actual tap position (in number of steps) multiplied by the additional voltage per step.3: Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the HV side Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.4). Figure 1.2 Tap changer The tap changer is represented by an additional.

4: Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the LV side Phase-shifting transformers are modelled by a complex ratio using a complex value.6. Figure 1. du.5. du1 and du2 are expressed as: du1 = j · dutap 2 du2 = −j · dutap 2 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. which is expressed as: du = dutap (cos(phitr) + j · sin(phitr)) (15) This is illustrated for the asymmetrical tap changer model in Figure 1.5: Complex tap changer model (asymmetrical) in PowerFactory For the symmetrical phase shifter. as illustrated in Figure 1.TypTr2) (16) (17) 8 .1 General Description Figure 1.

The zero sequence contribution factor will also be kept constant and is calculated from the corresponding type data.7: Internal zero sequence model of a YN-YN transformer From the transformer type data.) (18) and ur0 = | Re(z0H ) + Re(z0L )| (p.) (20) 9 .) (19) The quantities uk0 and ur0 will be overwritten by the defined Measurement Report. When the Internal Delta Winding option is ticked. or 2.u.TypTr2) (p. In the element (Load Flow page.7. The zero sequence impedance of the delta (tertiary) winding will be kept constant.1 General Description Figure 1.u. Figure 1.3 YN-YN transformer with internal delta winding The transformer type provides the option Internal Delta Winding for transformers defined as YN-YN. Distribution factor for the zero sequence reactance: x0dist = Im(z0H ) Im(z0H ) + Im(z0L ) Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. The internal zero sequence model of a YN-YN transformer is depicted in Figure 1.6: Complex tap changer model (symmetrical) in PowerFactory PowerFactory provides two ways of defining a phase-shifting transformer: 1. z0L and z0T are calculated.u. 1. In the type (Basic Data page): by entering the magnitude (dutap ) and angle (phitr) of the additional voltage per tap step. uk0 and ur0 between the HV and LV windings are: uk0 = |z0H + z0L | (p.1 for further details. Refer to Section 2. the quantities z0H . option According to Measurement Report and associated table): by defining the magnitude (U + dutap ) and angle (ΦU ) at each individual tap step.

The zero sequence current injected at the HV terminal with the LV terminal short-circuited: q (28) z0HLs = ur0hls + j · uk02hls − ur02hls (p.1 General Description and the distribution factor for the zero sequence resistance: r0dist = Re(z0H ) Re(z0H ) + Re(z0L ) (p.u.).u.).u.5.) and ur0hls is the HV resistance (in p.) (22) x0lv = x0(tap) · (1 − x0dist) (p.7.u.u.u.) (21) If the sum of the real parts equals zero.) (31) the second measurement: z0HLo = z0H + z0T (p. 3.TypTr2) 10 . with the LV terminal short-circuited in both cases.u.u.u.) (29) where uk0hlo is the HV impedance (in p.u.) (30) where uk0lho is the LV impedance (in p. three measurements are required: 1. x0dist. For the first measurement: z0HLs = z0H + z0L · z0T z0L + z0T (p.u.) (25) p uk0(tap)2 − ur0(tap)2 100 ur0(tap) r0(tap) = (p.) 100 x0(tap) = (p.u.u.u. the distribution factor.) and ur0lho is the LV resistance (in p. will be set to 0.u.u. The zero sequence impedance for the HV and LV winding (dependent on the tap position) is then calculated as follows: x0hv = x0(tap) · x0dist (p. The zero sequence current injected at the LV terminal with the HV terminal open-circuited: q z0LHo = ur0lho + j · uk02lho − ur02lho (p. with the LV terminal open-circuited in both cases. with the HV terminal open-circuited in both cases.) (23) and r0hv = r0(tap) · r0dist r0lv = r0(tap) · (1 − r0dist) with: (24) (p. r0dist will be set to x0dist.) where uk0hls is the HV impedance (in p.) (33) and the third measurement: Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.u.) (26) (27) To determine the complex impedances in Figure 1.).u.) (p. 2. If the sum of the imaginary parts also equals zero. The zero sequence current injected at the HV terminal with the LV terminal open-circuited: q z0HLo = ur0hlo + j · uk02hlo − ur02hlo (p.) and ur0hlo is the HV resistance (in p.u.) (32) z0LHo = z0L + z0T (p.

u. 2) (p.) (HV − LV ) (43) x0HT (1. 2) + x0T (1. then the solution with the smallest HV-LV reactance is used.TypTr2) (p. the following series reactances are calculated: x0HL (1.1 Dependent parameters When the Internal Delta Winding option in the transformer type is ticked.u. 2) = x0H (1.1 General Description Therefore. then solution (1) is used.) (34) z0L = z0LHo − z0T (p.u.u.) (46) 11 . 2) + x0L (1. • If all reactances in solution (1) are positive (but not in solution (2)).u.) (HV − T ) (44) x0LT (1. then solution (2) is used.) (38) The HV and LV zero sequence impedances are calculated for both solutions (37) and (38).) (40) z0H (2) = z0HLo − z0T (2) (p.u. 2) (p. 2) = x0H (1.) (35) Substituting (34) and (35) into (31). z0H (1) = z0HLo − z0T (1) (p. the six measured parameters are calculated from existing parameters: The HV zero sequence impedance is: Im(z0H ) = zx0hlh · p uk0tr2 − ur0tr2 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.) (37) (p. from (32) and (33): z0H = z0HLo − z0T (p. • If all reactances in solution (2) are positive (but not in solution (1)).u. • If all reactances in solution (1) and solution (2) are negative.) (LV − T ) (45) The criteria used to determine the solution are as follows: • If all reactances in solution (1) and solution (2) are positive.u.u.3. 1.u.u. the solution with the smallest HV-LV reactance (absolute value) is used.) Equation (36) leads to two solutions: p z0T (1) = + z0LHo · (z0HLo − z0HLs ) p z0T (2) = − z0LHo · (z0HLo − z0HLs ) (36) (p. 2) (p. 2) = x0L (1.) (42) For the first (1) and second (2) solutions.) (41) z0L (2) = z0LHo − z0T (2) (p.u. the tertiary impedances are obtained: p z0T = ± z0LHo · (z0HLo − z0HLs ) (p. 2) + x0T (1.) (39) z0L (1) = z0LHo − z0T (1) (p.u.

u.) (58) The LV impedance (HV side open-circuited) is: z0LHo = z0L + z0T uk0lho = |z0LHo | (p.) Im(z0T ) It should be noted that rtox0n is only set when rtox0n ≥ 0. z0H . and the parameters below are calculated as follows: Zero sequence impedance: uk0tr = |z0H + z0L | ur0tr = Re(z0H + z0L ) (p.u.TypTr2) 12 .u.u.) ur0lho = Re(z0LHo ) (p.u.u.u.u.) (61) (p.) (57) (p.) (63) The zero sequence magnetising impedance is: zx0hln = |z0T | |z0H + z0L | Re(z0T ) (p.) (65) It should be noted that zx0hlh is only set when 0 ≤ zx0hlh ≤ 1.u.u.) (55) The HV impedance (LV side open-circuited) is: z0HLo = z0H + z0T uk0hlo = |z0HLo | (p. z0L and z0T are calculated according to Section 1.u.u.u.) (51) The HV impedance (LV side short-circuited) is: z0HLs = z0H + z0L · z0T z0L + z0T uk0hls = |z0HLs | (p.u.u.) (54) (p.) (62) (p.3.) The LV zero sequence impedance is: Im(z0L ) = (1 − zx0hlh ) · p uk0tr2 − ur0tr2 Re(z0L ) = (1 − zx0hlh ) · ur0tr (p.) (p.) ur0hls = Re(z0HLs ) (52) (53) (p.u.) (59) (60) If the Internal Delta Winding option is ticked and one of the six impedances is changed. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.1.1 General Description Re(z0H ) = zx0hlh · ur0tr (47) (p.) ur0hlo = Re(z0HLo ) (56) (p.u.) (50) The tertiary zero sequence impedance is: Im(z0T ) = zx0hln · uk0tr 1 + rtox0n 2 Re(z0T ) = Im(z0T ) · rtox0n (p.) (49) (p.u. rtox0n = (64) The distribution of zero sequence leakage impedances is given by: zx0hlh = |z0H | |z0H + z0L | (p.u.) (48) (p.

13 .3: Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance (no internal delta winding) Zero sequence impedance Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and X0/R0 Ratio Reactance in p. Table 1. Input Short-Circuit Voltage uk Copper Losses Short-Circuit Voltage uk SHC-Voltage Re(uk) ukr Short-Circuit Voltage uk Ratio X/R Reactance x1 Resistance r1 Param.u.u. and Resistance in p. Unit uktr % pcutr uktr kW % uktrr % uktr % xtor x1pu r1pu p.u.u.3 and Table 1. p. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. depending on the user-selected Input option. Table 1.2: Type Basic Data: Positive sequence impedance Positive sequence impedance Short-Circuit Voltage uk and Copper Losses Short-Circuit Voltage uk and SHC-Voltage Re(uk) Short-Circuit Voltage uk and X/R Ratio Reactance in p. and Resistance in p.4 Short-circuit impedance The short-circuit impedance can be entered on the Basic Data page of the type. These Input options are described in Table 1.u.u. p.u.u.TypTr2) Input Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) ukr0 Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 Ratio X0/R0 Reactance x0 Resistance r0 Param. Unit uk0tr % ur0tr % uk0tr % x0tor0 x0pu r0pu p.2.1 General Description 1. Table 1.4.

4: Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance: YN-YN. Positive sequence impedance If r1pu and x1pu are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type: p uktr = r1pu2 + x1pu2 · 100 (%) pcutr = r1pu · 1000 · strn Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.u.u.u.1 General Description Table 1. x0pulho p.u.u.TypTr2) (66) (67) 14 . r0pulho p. r0puhlo p.u.u.u. 1. Unit HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV short-circuit) HV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (LV short-circuit) HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV open) HV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (LV open) LV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (HV open) LV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (HV open) HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV short-circuit) HV-Ratio X0/R0 (LV short-circuit) HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV open) HV-Ratio X0/R0 (LV open) LV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (HV open) LV-Ratio X0/R0 (HV open) HV-Reactance x0 (LV short-circuit) HV-Resistance r0 (LV short-circuit) HV-Reactance x0 (LV open) HV-Resistance r0 (LV open) LV-Reactance x0 (HV open) LV-Resistance r0 (HV open) uk0hls % ur0hls % uk0hlo % ur0hlo % uk0lho % ur0lho % uk0hls % xtr0hls % uk0hlo % xtr0hlo % uk0lho % xtr0lho % Zero sequence impedance Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and X0/R0 Ratio Reactance in p. r0puhls p.1 x0puhls p. x0puhlo p. with internal delta winding Input Param.4. and Resistance in p.

) s 2 uk0tmx x0putmx = − r0putmx2 (p.u.1 General Description Accordingly.) (73) 100 Accordingly.TypTr2) (%) 15 .2 (70) (71) Zero sequence impedance The two additional input options for zero sequence impedance are available via the options page in the type: Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 and X0/R0 Ratio and Reactance in p.4. if tap dependent. r1putmn. if tap dependent. For the minimum tap: uktmn = p r1putmn2 + x1putmn2 · 100 (%) pcutmn = r1putmn · 1000 · strn (68) (69) For the maximum tap: uktmx = p r1putmx2 + x1putmx2 · 100 (%) pcutmx = r1putmx · 1000 · strn 1.u.u. Tap Changer tab of the type.) (72) s 2 uk0tr x0pu = − r0pu2 (p. Tap Changer tab of the type.) s 2 uk0tmn x0putmn = − r0putmn2 (p.u. x1putmx are available as inputs on the Load Flow page. there are two situations: 1. If Internal Delta Winding is not ticked or vector group is not YN-YN: If uk0tr and x0tor0 are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type: p r0pu = ur0tr/100/ 1 + x0tor02 (p.) 100 (76) (75) For maximum tap: (77) If r0pu and x0pu are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type: p uk0tr = r0pu2 + x0pu2 · 100 (%) (78) ur0tr = r0pu · 100 (79) Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. x0tor0tmx are available as inputs on the Load Flow page.u.u. uk0tmn.u. For minimum tap: p r0putmn = uk0tmn/100/ 1 + x0tor0tmn2 (p.) 100 (74) p r0putmx = uk0tmx/100/ 1 + x0tor0tmx2 (p. uk0tmx and x0tor0tmn. r1putmx and x1putmn. Based on the combination of selections of Internal Delta Winding and vector groups for the HV and LV sides.u. and Resistance in p.

) (101) Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.) (88) (p. r0putmn. If Internal Delta Winding is ticked and vector group is YN-YN: If uk0(hls.u.) (83) For maximum tap: uk0tmx = p r0putmx2 + x0putmx2 · 100 uk0rtmx = r0putmx · 100 x0tor0tmx = x0putmx r0putmx (%) (84) (%) (85) (p.u.) (91) (p.TypTr2) 16 . x0putmx are available as inputs on the Load Flow page.u.) (92) (%) (93) (%) (94) (%) (95) uk0hls = r0puhls · 100 (%) (96) uk0hlo = r0puhlo · 100 (%) (97) uk0lho = r0pulho · 100 (%) (98) xtr0hls = x0puhls r0puhls (p.u. if tap dependent.u. For minimum tap: uk0tmn = p r0putmn2 + x0putmn2 · 100 uk0rtmn = r0putmn · 100 x0putmn x0tor0tmn = r0putmn (%) (81) (%) (82) (p.u. Tap Changer tab of the type.) (100) xtr0lho = x0pulho r0pulho (p.u. r0putmx and x0putmn.hlo.u.lho) are available as inputs on the Basic Data page of the transformer type: q 1 + xtr02hls q r0puhlo = ur0hlo /100/ 1 + xtr02hlo q r0pulho = ur0lho /100/ 1 + xtr02lho p x0puhls = (uk0hls /100)2 − (r0puhls )2 p x0puhlo = (uk0hlo /100)2 − (r0puhlo )2 p x0pulho = (uk0lho /100)2 − (r0pulho )2 q uk0hls = r0pu2hls + x0pu2hls · 100 q uk0hlo = r0pu2hlo + x0pu2hlo · 100 q uk0lho = r0pu2lho + x0pu2lho · 100 r0puhls = ur0hls /100/ (p.u.) (90) (p.lho) and xtr0(hls.) (86) 2.u.) (89) (p.1 General Description x0tor0 = x0pu r0pu (80) (p.hlo.u.) (99) xtr0hlo = x0puhlo r0puhlo (p.) (87) (p.) Accordingly.u.

1. % % The following points should be noted regarding the zero sequence impedance.e.1 Measurement report This can be used for the precise definition of a tap changer. 2. The input parameters are described in Table 2.1: Measurement report data (transformer element) Parameter Description Unit Voltage Angle Voltage at tap position i. kV Degrees (◦ ) uk PCu Add. all shunt and branch impedances are considered appropriately in the positive. Short-circuit voltage of the transformer. i. As the tap changer is of particular interest in load flow calculations. It allows all tap-dependent parameters to be entered per tap step.2 Load Flow Analysis 2 Load Flow Analysis The Load Flow Calculation in PowerFactory uses the detailed model of the transformer. uk0 and ur0. rating Factor uk0 ur0 % kW p. zero sequence (Only available if button Include Zero-Sequence Impedance has been pressed).TypTr2) 17 . If the option According to measurement report is ticked.and zero sequence systems. Short-circuit voltage of the transformer. the corresponding type parameters are overwritten by their respective element parameters. data relating to the tap changer is input as follows: • On the Load Flow page of the transformer element: control data and measurement report).u. • On the Load Flow page of the transformer type: tap changer positions and tap-dependent impedance). The additional rating factor is multiplied by the general rating factor (Rating Factor on the Basic Data page). in the Measurement report: Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. zero sequence (real part) (Only available if button Include Zero-Sequence Impedance has been pressed).5) Short-circuit voltage of the transformer Copper losses Rating factor for consideration of tapdependent transformer rating.1.1 Element data 2. Table 2. Absolute tap angle (parameter ΦU in Figure 1.

• The column ur0 is set to the corresponding spline-interpolated value of ur0 (at tap) from the transformer type.2. automatic tap adjustment can be globally enabled or disabled via the Load Flow Calculation command (ComLdf ). 2.2 Load Flow Analysis 1. The inputs required for the definition of tap changer control are described in Table 2. If the transformer type options Internal Delta Winding and Tap dependent impedance are disabled: • The column uk0 is set to the value of uk0tr (absolute uk0) from the transformer type. If the transformer type option Internal Delta Winding is enabled and the option Tap dependent impedance is disabled: • The column uk0 is set to the value of the calculated uk0 (absolute uk0) from the transformer type. 2. If the transformer type option Internal Delta Winding is disabled and Tap dependent impedance is enabled: • The column uk0 is set to the corresponding spline-interpolated value of uk0 (at tap) from the transformer type. • The column ur0 is set to the value of ur0tr (resistive part ukr0) from the transformer type. 3.TypTr2) 18 . • The column uk0r is set to the value of the calculated ur0 (resistive part ukr0) from the transformer type.1. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.2 Automatic tap changer control This is activated by setting the corresponding option on the Load Flow page of the transformer element. Additionally.

This function controls the voltage at a remote busbar without measuring the voltage at that busbar. V: Voltage control. voltage) must be entered in the transformer dialog bus target voltage: The voltage setpoint and voltage range settings (max. In the case of continuous tap changers. the flow through any cubicle can be controlled. the tap control can drive the controlled variable into a permitted band. Instead.or Q-control./min.reference (depending on selected control mode) Lower and upper bound of the controlled variable. If Automatic Tap Changing is ticked. HV: Tap controls the HV side LV: Tap controls the LV side EXT: Slave mode.TypTr2) 19 . For unbalanced load flow analysis. Voltage control includes optional line drop compensation (LDC). The tap changer follows the tap position of the selected Master transformer. continuous tap changer is assumed.1 and the corresponding transformer element input parameters are provided in Table 2. Allows for the selection of a busbar different to that at the transformer terminals (V-control). Activates automatic tap adjustment in load flow analysis. In the case of discrete tap changers.3. Automatic Tap Changing Tap Changer Controlled Node is at Control Mode Setpoint Remote Control Voltage Setpoint Lower/Upper bound Tap position used during the load flow calculation./min. the value is estimated by measuring the voltage at the HV or LV side of the transformer and simulating the voltage drop across the line. As a result. this value corresponds to the initial tap position. the tap controller ideally regulates to the reference point. The principle of line drop compensation is shown in Figure 2. Q: Reactive power control P: Active power control (only applicable to phase-shifters) Only for V control mode: local: The voltage setpoint and voltage range settings (max.2 Load Flow Analysis Table 2. the Measurement report defined in the element is used. continuous: An ideal. the controlled phase needs to be additionally defined. discrete: Standard option. Only integer tap positions are considered. V-/Q-/P. This option is useful for voltage regulators in distribution systems having a very large number of tap steps or for thyristor-controlled tap changers.2: Automatic tap changer control Parameter Description According to Measurement Report Tap Position Instead of the type data for the tap-dependent transformer values. the tap controller can ideally comply with the specified control condition. In the case of P. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. voltage) are taken from the controlled busbar (topological search).

In the case of flow controllers (P-/Q-control). the steady-state network solution cannot be easily obtained. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. defined as the voltage drop at rated current. specifying the speed of control actions and hence the participation of several transformers regulating the voltage at the same busbar. several transformers can control the voltage in certain areas. V There is usually more than one possible solution to a load flow problem considering automatic tap changer control. XSet Primary CT current rating A Ratio of the voltage transformer - LDC impedance. The approach is based on controller block diagrams according to Figure 2. In meshed networks in particular. In the load flow algorithm.3: Line drop compensation (for voltage control) Parameter Description Unit Current transformer rating Voltage transformer ratio RSet. especially when parallel transformers have different shortcircuit impedances or different tap steps. controller time constants and sensitivities are translated into equivalent participation factors.2 Load Flow Analysis Figure 2. which only considers steady-state conditions.1: Line drop compensation Table 2. In the case of parallel transformers.2. PowerFactory addresses this problem by allowing the user to enter a controller time constant. In a general configuration however.TypTr2) 20 . the problem can usually be solved by operating the two parallel transformers in master-slave mode. the controller sensitivity translating a power mismatch into an equivalent turns-ratio percentage can be entered additionally. It corresponds to the LDC impedance (in Ω) multiplied by the secondary CT current rating.

position Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. Degrees (◦ ) Additional voltage per tap Phase of du Neutral/min./max.2: Principle of simulated dynamic control for V and P/Q The controller input parameters for the transformer element are described in Table 2.2 Parameter Description Unit Controller time constant Controller sensitivity dv/dP Controller sensitivity dv/dQ Time constant of the controller s Estimated sensitivity of active power flow towards tap changer variations Estimated sensitivity of reactive power flow towards tap changer variations %/MW %/Mvar Type data The type data inputs available for the tap changer are listed in Table 2. Table 2. Table 2.4: Dynamic and static control parameters 2. At the neutral position. the winding ratio corresponds to the ratio of the rated voltages.5.5) Range of possible positions for the tap changer.2 Load Flow Analysis (a) (b) Figure 2.TypTr2) % - 21 .5: Load Flow tap changer data Parameter Description Unit Type At side Type of phase shifter Side at which the tap changer is modelled (not necessarily the side at which the tap changer is physically connected) Additional voltage per tap - Constant phase between fixed voltage and additional voltage of the winding (parameter phitr in Figure 1.4.

the magnitude of the voltage will not be changed. The complex transformer ratio is calculated as shown for the following cases: 1.3: Ideal phase shifter Symmetrical phase shifter If this option is selected for the tap changer type.TypTr2) (104) 22 . only the angle. Phase Shifter • Ideal Phase Shifter • Symmetrical Phase Shifter Ideal phase shifter If this option is selected for the tap changer type.2 Load Flow Analysis 2. A second tap definition is not available. 180◦ or −180◦ .2. The parameter dphitap or/and dphitap2 should not be set to 0◦ . If tap changer 1 is modelled at the HV side: thv = 1 + nntapint · du · (cos(phitr) + j · sin(phitr)) 2 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. the complex transformer ratio is calculated as follows: thv = cos(nntapint · dphitap) + j · sin(nntapint · dphitap) (102) If the tap is on the LV side: tlv = cos(nntapint · dphitap) + j · sin(nntapint · dphitap) (103) Figure 2.1 Tap changer with two taps The transformer tap model supports the definition of two taps. the parameter dphitap will be automatically set to 90◦ .3. This model is illustrated in Figure 2. which may have differing types: • Ratio/Asym. If the tap is on the HV side.

Transformer with two tap changers ratios are calculated as follows: If two tap changers are defined.4: Symmetrical phase shifter Example: symmetrical phase shifter • Tap changer 1 modelled at HV side • Type set to Sym. Phase Shifter • dutap > 0 and tap position > neutral position The absolute angle change between the HV and LV sides is calculated as follows: nntapint · dutap phi(ulv ) − phi(uhv ) = 2 · arctan 2 (108) A positive tap position (tap > neutral) leads to a negative voltage angle at the LV side.TypTr2) (109) 23 . the complex transformer du · (cos(phitr) + j · sin(phitr)) 2 du2 = 1 + nntap2int · · (cos(phitr2) + j · sin(phitr2)) 2 ttap1 = 1 + nntapint · ttap2 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.2 Load Flow Analysis with phitr = 90◦ and for the opposite tap at the LV side: tlv = 1 − nntapint · du · (cos(phitr) + j · sin(phitr)) 2 (105) 2.4. If tap changer 1 is modelled at the LV side: tlv = 1 + nntapint · du · (cos(phitr) + j · sin(phitr)) 2 (106) with phitr = 90◦ and for the opposite tap at the HV side: thv = 1 − nntapint · du · (cos(phitr) + j · sin(phitr)) 2 (107) This model is illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 2.

2 Load Flow Analysis If the second tap changer is an ideal phase shifter. For tap positions between minimum and neutral. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. Parameters that can be considered to be tap dependent are the short-circuit impedances and copper losses (short-circuit resistance) in the positive.and zero sequence systems.6. If tap changer 1 is at the HV side and tap changer 2 is at the LV side: thv = ttap1 (114) tlv = ttap2 4. If both tap changers are modelled at the HV side: thv = ttap1 · ttap2 (112) tlv = 1 2. Transformer type Load Flow tap dependent impedance data is shown in Table 2. If tap changer 1 is at the LV side and tap changer 2 is at the HV side: thv = ttap2 (115) tlv = ttap1 The internal voltages and currents are transferred accordingly: uhv thv = ihv · t∗hv u0 hv = i0 hv (116) and for the LV-side voltage: ulv tlv = ilv · t∗lv u0 lv = i0 lv (117) Tap dependent impedance Data relating to the tap dependent impedance can be entered when the Tap dependent impedance option in the type has been selected. the corresponding tap (ttap2 ) is calculated according to: ttap2 = cos(nntap2int · dphitap2) + j · sin(nntap2int · dphitap2) (110) and with the relative tap positions: nntapint = nntap0 − nntap (111) nntap2int = nntap02 − nntap2 The transformer ratios for the HV and LV sides are calculated as follows: 1. and between neutral and maximum. If both tap changers are modelled at the LV side: thv = 1 (113) tlv = ttap1 · ttap2 3. tap dependent parameters are interpolated using splines.TypTr2) 24 .

The first option.u. In such cases. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. and max. p.1 3. Long-term operating conditions before short-circuit are known. The second option. In the case of unit transformers. tap positions) Ratio X0/R0 (at min.1.TypTr2) 25 . independent of the actual operating conditions of a selected transformer. one common correction factor is applied to transformers and generators. defines whether the transformer is a unit transformer or a network transformer. and max. is more specific (requiring additional input data) and may lead to more precise calculation results. and max.6: Load Flow Tap dependent impedance data Parameter Description Unit Reactance x1 Positive sequence reactance (at min. and max.u. tap positions) Zero sequence reactance (at min. and • Long-term operating conditions before short-circuit are known (VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer element). 3 Short-Circuit Analysis 3. the calculated zero sequence impedance for the internal delta winding (tertiary winding) is used instead. Unit Transformer. and • On-load Tap Changer (VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer type). For a transformer with the option Internal Delta Winding ticked. If the following combination of options have been ticked: • Unit Transformer (VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer element). p.3 Short-Circuit Analysis Table 2. tap positions) Positive sequence resistance (at min. p. tap positions) Zero sequence resistance (at min. Network transformers are considered individually. the zero sequence magnetising admittance is ignored.u. Zero sequence magnetising admittance calculation The zero sequence magnetising admittance is always calculated from uk0 at the neutral position of the transformer type (independent of the Measurement Report or whether the option Tap dependent impedance is enabled). and max.1 IEC calculations Element data The VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer element provides inputs which are used to calculate the impedance correction factor of the transformer. Resistance r1 Reactance x0 Resistance r0 Ratio X0/R0 p.u.u. tap positions) p. then the parameter Minimum Operating Voltage can be entered on the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the transformer element.

The short-circuit calculation according to IEC distinguishes between no-load and on-load tap changers. the length of the windings. In addition.2 Type data Short-circuit calculations according to IEC assume that the shunt impedances (i.1 5.1. walls.and negative sequence are neglected. The following capacitances can be defined after ticking the Consider Capacitances option on the EMT-Simulation page of the transformer element: Capacitance HV to ground : applies to the positive. e. 5 EMT-Simulation For simulating non-linear. These can be defined in the transformer element. magnetising reactances and iron losses) in the positive. etc) but also on the installation environment as well (indoor or outdoor transformer. electromagnetic transients such as transformer inrush currents or ferro-resonance. proximity to other grounded components. positive sequence Capacitance HV-LV.1 Element data Stray capacitances In high frequency EMT applications. as described in Section 5. 4 RMS-Simulation The model used by the RMS simulation is identical to the load flow model.1.1. switching or lightning studies. etc).2. The shunt impedances in the zero sequence however. the transformer model has to account for the stray capacitances between windings and winding to ground. core dimensions. a separate dynamic model must be defined that can be interfaced with the transformer using the input variable nntapin (tap-input). On-load variation of the tap changer can be ticked on the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the type dialog. insulating material.1 5. must be considered.and zero sequence Capacitance LV to ground : applies to the positive.TypTr2) 26 . tap controller definitions are not considered. The saturation can be defined in the transformer type. core saturation needs to be included in the model of the transformer.and zero sequence Capacitance HV-LV.e.g. Different impedance correction factors apply for each group. However. depending on the frequencies involved in the transient simulation. transformer capacitances should be considered.1. zero sequence Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.5 EMT-Simulation 3. For the simulation of tap controllers.e. These input parameters are available on the VDE/IEC Short-Circuit page of the type dialog. The stray capacitances of a transformer do not only depend on the physical characteristics of the transformer (i. as described in Section 5.

4 and Figure 1. The model supports the following options.3. on the EMT Simulation page). The input parameters are listed in Table 5. For simplicity. The non-linear magnetising reactance XM represents the saturation characteristic of the transformer and is defined in the transformer type (EMT-Simulation page). the tap changer is not illustrated in the Figure. Figure 5. 3-phase transformer The position of the magnetising branch in the equivalent model of Figure 5. The input parameters of both plots are the same except for the saturation exponent.5 as described in previous sections. which is the magnetising current flowing through the non-linear reactance XM 1 in Figure 5.2 Type data 5.1 shows the equivalent model of a 2-winding. which means that the total leakage impedance of the transformer (short-circuit impedance) is equally distributed between the HV and LV windings. The excitation current of a transformer (no-load test) consists of an imaginary part.1.1: Positive sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding. 3-phase transformer for the positive sequence.TypTr2) 27 . Polynomial : the saturation curve is approximated by a polynomial of user-defined order. which are explained in detail in the following sections: Linear : no saturation considered. and a smaller real part flowing through the resistance RF e .5.5 EMT-Simulation For typical values please refer to [4]. which accounts for the excitation losses. Two slope and polynomial characteristic Figure 5. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. which only applies to the polynomial characteristic. Current/Flux values : the user inputs current-flux values as a sequence of points and selects either piecewise-linear or spline interpolation. The default value is 0.1. 5. The user can change the position of the magnetising branch in the transformer model by modifying these factors accordingly.1 is defined in terms of the distribution of the leakage reactance and resistance (in the type.2 shows the magnetising current-flux plots for the two slope and polynomial characteristics. however it is considered in the model according to Figure 1. Two slope : the saturation curve is approximated by two linear slopes.2. The polynomial fits asymptotically into the piecewise-linear definition. Figure 1.1 Saturation characteristic Figure 5.

values. 13.2: Two slope and polynomial saturation curves Table 5. This can be entered on the Load Flow page of the transformer type.1: Two-slope and polynomial saturation characteristic input parameters Parameter Description Unit Knee Flux Knee-point of asymptotic piece-wise linear characteristic. Typical value around 1.u.u. p. the linear reactance is equal to the reciprocal of the magnetising current (reactive part of the exciting current).u. and vice-versa: s 2 2 IM 1 Pexc = − (118) XM IR SR where: IM : magnitude of the exciting current in the no-load test.u.TypTr2) 28 . Magnetising reactance for unsaturated conditions Lunsat . In p. Exponent of polynomial representation (ksat ). Typical values are 9. Magnetising reactance for saturated conditions Lsat . Therefore. The higher the exponent the sharper the saturation curve.5 EMT-Simulation Figure 5.1 to 1. under Magnetising Impedance. magnetising current (i. PowerFactory automatically adjusts the unsaturated reactance based on the no-load current and no-load losses entered on the Load Flow page of the type. Linear (unsaturated) reactance Saturated reactance Saturation exponent p. the imaginary part of the exciting current). No Load Current (in %).u. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.u. - The reciprocal of the p. unsaturated reactance is equal to the p. p. 15.e.2 times the rated flux.

Typical values for two-winding transformers are 1 to 2 times the short-circuit inductance and 3 to 4 times for auto transformers [1]. The polynomial characteristic uses (119) to fit the curve asymptotically into the piecewise-linear definition. the sharper the saturation curve: ! . IR . The saturated reactance is also referred as the air-core reactance. respectively. SR : rated current and apparent power of the transformer.5 EMT-Simulation Pexc : excitation losses in the no-load test. it is fairly low compared to the unsaturated reactance. The higher the exponent.

.

.

ΨM .

ksat ΨM .

.

u. (p.) (119) · 1+.

iM X = lM Ψ0 .

u. Figure 5. lM : Linear reactance (p.3: Equivalent (per-unit) circuit of the 2-winding. ksat : Saturation exponent.). This polynomial characteristic always lies underneath the corresponding linear representation. i.e.). Compared to the two-slope curve.3). ΨM : Magnetising flux (p. Ψ0 : This parameter is automatically calculated so that the polynomial characteristic fits the saturated reactance in full saturation and transits steadily into the piecewise-linear characteristic at the knee flux point.) through the magnetising reactance (as shown in Figure 5.u. EMT-Simulation page. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. i. • Sbase [M V A]: nominal power of the (energising) winding.) entered by the user in the transformer type.u.u. Saturation Table (EMT). 3-phase transformer (magnetising current) The per-unit values used for the definition of the saturation characteristic of the positive sequence model are referred to the following base quantities: • Ubase [kV ]: nominal voltage of the (energising) winding.). Saturation tab. This is the current (in p. At full saturation the polynomial characteristic is extended linearly. polynomial degree.e. it does not contain a singular point at the knee flux and therefore its derivative (magnetising voltage) is continuously defined. the winding used for the noload test. (p.u.TypTr2) 29 . where: iM X : Current (p.

u. c) + ΨM knee ) ω0 (p. b. b.u.) (123) otherwise: bmsat iM X (a. c) < −ΨM knee : iM X (a. b.5 EMT-Simulation Sbase [M V A] • Ibase [A] = √ × 1000 3 · Ubase [kV ] √ Ubase [kV ]/ 3 • Ψbase [V · s] = × 1000 2πf [kHz] 2 Ubase [kV ] 1 • Lbase [H] = · Sbase [M V A] 2πf [Hz] bmsat −1 bm −log · (ksat + 1) Ψ0 = ΨM knee · e · iknee (p. b. b. c) = −iknee + bmsat · (Ψ(a. c) = iknee + bmsat · (Ψ(a.u. b.) (122) For Ψ(a.) (120) (p.) (121) ksat k ΨM knee sat bm = · ΨM knee · 1 + ω0 Ψ0 For Ψ(a. c) − ΨM knee ) ω0 (p.u. c) · ω0 . b. c) = · Ψ(a. b. c) > ΨM knee : iM X (a.

.

! .

Ψ(a. b. c) ksat .

.

.

1+.

.

.

.

u. Ψ0 (p.u.u. c) · gm(a. c) (p. b.) (p.) (125) where gm(a.) (124) and: iM (a. c) are available as input signals for EMT simulations and are initialised using gm. b.) ω0 = 2 · π · fnom Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. b. b.) (126) and: ymag = bm = q curmg 100 (p.) ymag 2 − gm2 · ω0 or bm = ω0 xmlin (p.u. b.u. c) + iM X (a.TypTr2) (rad/s) (127) (128) (129) (130) 30 .u. c) = uM (a. which is defined as: gm = pf e/1000/strn (p.

4: Zero sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding. shell-type. Consequently..). Figure 5.u.5 EMT-Simulation bmsat = ΨM knee = 1 · ω0 xmair ksat + 1 · Ψ0 ksat (p.u. The magnetising current. non-sinusoidal) because of the saturation √ curve. In such cases there is no need to represent zero sequence saturation.) (p. Current-flux values The saturation curve can also be defined in terms of measured currentflux values.4 shows the zero sequence equivalent circuit. Figure 5.TypTr2) 31 . values in the current-flux table are also referred to the peak values of the corresponding nominal variables: Ibase [A] = Ψbase [V · s] = 5. current-voltage curve. the magnetising flux in p.2 √ √ Sbase [M V A] 2× √ × 1000 3 · Ubase [kV ] 2× √ Ubase [kV ]/ 3 × 1000 2πf [kHz] Zero sequence magnetising reactance The zero sequence magnetising current depends largely on the physical characteristics of the transformer core (three-legged. hence the ratio of RMS to peak values of the voltage is given by 2.u. then any zero sequence excitation approximates a zero sequence short-circuit. Ψ0 is the knee flux (p.u. current-flux curve also represents a p. Furthermore.).u.u.u.u. the ratio of RMS to peak value of the magnetising current is no longer 2 and the user is required to enter true peak values in the table. five-legged.u.e. thus flux and voltage are interchangeable and the p. it can be assumed that the applied voltage remains fairly √ linear during no-load tests. as the delta-connected winding short-circuits the zero sequence current.2. The base quantities of the p. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. etc. and a choice of either piecewise linear or spline interpolation is available. on the other hand.) (131) (132) and xmair is the saturated reactance (p. 3-phase transformer Transformer with delta-connected windings If the transformer has delta-connected windings.u. is equal to the magnetising voltage in p. is distorted (i. and ksat is the saturation exponent. In a power transformer with impressed voltage. The current-flux values in the table are peak values in p.) and its vector group.

PowerFactory allows for the definition of a linear (unsaturated) zero sequence magnetising impedance. where Lm is the linear magnetising inductance. the model uses the saturation characteristic (of the positive sequence) in the zero sequence magnetising reactance as well. In this core type. 5-Limb core: this option should be used for five-legged and shell-type cores. To simulate the decaying magnetising current.3 Residual flux The residual flux is the magnetising flux that remains in the core after the transformer has been switched off. γ-component in p. A residual flux. Otherwise. the zero sequence magnetising current is almost linear and therefore the model uses the linear zero sequence magnetising impedance defined on the Load Flow page. Rm . In other words.TypTr2) 32 . zero sequence saturation effects are not considered. 5. β-component in p. and de-magnetises the core. this magnetising current circulates through the no-load losses resistance. The input parameters are displayed in the dialog depending on the vector group (and are therefore hidden in cases where a delta-connected winding has been selected). on the Load Flow page.u. Because of the fact that the air-gap and the tanks are non-magnetic. then the zero sequence excitation current is generally higher than the positive sequence excitation current and largely depends on the core type. 1 The remnant flux is the flux at i=0 in the hysteresis curve Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. This zero sequence magnetising impedance and its R/X ratio are defined in the type. Once the transformer has been switched off. The residual flux is entered in αβγ-components using the following signals: psimd: residual flux (ψα ). it is necessary to define the no-load losses. and hence the decaying residual flux. Lm /Rm . As the zero sequence fluxes return inside the core. To account for the higher zero sequence linear exciting current when no delta-connected winding is available. psimq: residual flux (ψβ ). the fluxes are roughly equal in the three legs and must therefore return outside the core through the air-gap and the tank.u. α-component in p. the transformer model supports the following two options on the EMT-Simulation page of the type: 3-Limb core: this option should be used for three-legged core designs. the magnetising current cannot circulate and PowerFactory will automatically set the residual flux to zero as soon as the transformer has been switched off. implies the circulation of a magnetising current (ΨM = LM · IM ).u. as opposed to a remnant flux1 . if Rm = 0.5 EMT-Simulation Transformer without delta-connected windings If the transformer does not have deltaconnected windings. psim0: residual flux (ψγ ). The user can also define the residual flux in the EMT simulation via a parameter event. The flux then decays exponentially with a time constant. To account for the core type dependency of the zero sequence saturation characteristic.

internal effects such as internal voltage stress cannot be simulated. However. typical maximum values between 0. 6 Harmonics/Power Quality In order to accurately model the high frequency effects of transformers. it should be considered in the model.9 p.8 and 0. as the residual flux strongly influences the amplitude of inrush currents. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. Generally speaking.u.1 provides an accurate frequency response with respect to voltages and currents at the transformer terminals.6 Harmonics/Power Quality The αβγ-fluxes are transformed to abc-fluxes (phase or natural components) as follows: 2 1 1 − 3 3 3 ψa ψα 1 1 × = √ √ 0 − ψb ψβ 3 3 1 ψc ψγ 1 1 3 3 3 The inverse transformation is given by: 1 ψa 1 ψb = − 2 ψc 1 − 2 0 √ 3 2 √ 3 − 2 1 ψα 1 × ψβ ψγ 1 The calculation parameters c:psim c. In order to obtain equivalent capacitances from winding capacitances. additional capacitances need to be considered.1. the winding connection (D/Y) must be additionally considered. c:psim b and c:psim c give the resulting flux (as a result of the simulation) in natural components for the phases a.TypTr2) 33 . as shown in Figure 6. However. can be assumed for worst-case conditions. The high frequency model according to Figure 6. These capacitances are equivalent capacitances of the model and do not represent the actual winding capacitances. b and c. it is difficult to reliably predict the residual flux of a transformer. If it is not known. respectively.

1: HF model for (a) external capacitances in the positive sequence system. In the presence of harmonic currents.57.1 K-Factor. and (b) zero sequence system 6. Transformer losses are comprised of: • Stray magnetic losses in the transformer core. eddy current losses can become large because they increase with the square of the frequency. and • Eddy current and resistive losses in the transformer windings. various factors are available: • K-factor (UL 1562). In the worst-case. Non-linear loads in the power system produce harmonic currents which are capable of causing unwanted side-effects. mainly used in Europe • Harmonic Loss Factor (FHL) (IEEE C.110-1998) These factors are indicators of the ability of a transformer to handle harmonic loads. To assist in the selection of an appropriate transformer. excessive losses can lead to transformer overheating and subsequent failure.TypTr2) 34 . including increased transformer losses. Factor-K and FHL Transformers experience increased losses in the presence of power system harmonic currents.6 Harmonics/Power Quality (a) (b) Figure 6. mainly used in the US • Factor-K (BS 7821). The eddy current loss at harmonic order h is given Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.

and 1. it is the ratio of eddy current losses in the presence of non-linear and linear loads [3]: hX max Pt = Ih 2 · h2 (135) K= Pf h=1 Following the calculation of the K-Factor. and the exponential constant. 6.1.7 for transformers utilising round/rectangular cross-section conductors in both windings.1 K-Factor The K-Factor accounts for the increased eddy current losses due to harmonic currents.5 for transformers which use foil-type low voltage windings.1. This value should be available from the transformer manufacturer. I is the rms value of the sinusoidal current including all harmonics. Typical values are 1. an appropriate K-transformer can then be selected which has a higher K-rating. q.TypTr2) (138) 35 .5 max X Ih h=1 6. Ph is the eddy current loss at harmonic order h. The total eddy current loss is given by the following summation: Pt = Pf · hX max Ih 2 · h2 (134) h=1 6. and Ih is the fraction of total rms load current at harmonic order h.5 2 (Ih ) = I1 "h 2 #0.2 Factor-K The factor-K was introduced in [2] and is described mathematically by: " e K = 1+ 1+e I1 I 2 · hX max hq h=2 Ih I1 2 !#0.6 Harmonics/Power Quality by: Ph = Pf · Ih 2 · h2 (133) where Pf is the eddy current loss at the fundamental frequency f . depends on the type of winding and the frequency.1.3 h=1 I1 (137) FHL The FHL is described mathematically by [3]: Phmax Ih 2 2 ·h h=1 I1 F HL = 2 Phmax Ih h=1 I1 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. Mathematically. The harmonic order is represented by h.5 (136) where e is the eddy current loss at the fundamental frequency divided by the loss due to a dc current equal to the rms values of the sinusoidal current. and is given by: I= hX max !0. both at reference temperature.

By default. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. the ratio of eddy current losses to copper losses should be entered in the transformer type (Harmonics/Power Quality page) using input parameter Ratio: eddy current-/copper losses.4 Input data For the calculation of any of these factors. for the calculation of Factor-K. • For a transformer with an Internal Delta Winding.2 Frequency-dependent zero sequence impedance On the Harmonics page of the transformer type.6 Harmonics/Power Quality 6. Distribution of Zero Sequ. the distribution factors are calculated as in Section 1. Additionally.1 (i.1. 6.e. the characteristic should be defined as relative otherwise the value in the Measurement Report will be overwritten. a frequency-dependent zero sequence impedance can be defined. this value is set to 0. If the zero sequence impedance is included in the Measurement Report. Leakage-Impedances (zx0hl h) for a transformer with no Internal Delta Winding. 10%). The distribution factor for the zero sequence impedance will be kept constant and is obtained as follows: • From the transformer type.3. the exponent q (from (136)) must be entered in the Harmonic Load Flow command (ComHldf ) via input parameter Calculation of Factor-K for Transformers (Exponent).TypTr2) 36 .

g. Transformer rated voltages different from nominal busbar voltages are correctly considered. Shell-type transformer (4/5-limb) : usc.1 Modelling Details and Application Tips Reference values All transformer parameters entered in p.2 as a general example for zero sequence system modelling. or % are referred to the transformer ratings. the following estimations can be used for the zero sequence impedance voltages as seen from the grounded side: Core-type transformer (3-limb) : usc.1 .7 Modelling Details and Application Tips 7 7. uRr.0 · Usc.. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.0 is the positive sequence impedance voltage.0 = 0 where usc. the zero sequence flux defined by (139) is not guided via the transformer limbs but uses parallel paths (e.1. Ψ0 = 7.0 = 1.2 7. In the 3-limb design. through the transformer vessel. If no accurate data is available from the manufacturer.0 = 0..TypTr2) 37 .u.2 1 · (ΨA + ΨB + ΨC ) 3 (139) YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer The zero sequence equivalent circuit diagram of the YNyn transformers is depicted in Figure 7. It should be taken into account that when modelling magnetic flux saturation characteristics.2.1.2.1 . 7. . The equivalent circuit diagram of star connected transformers with isolated star point can be derived from this equivalent circuit by assuming infinite grounding impedances at the respective side. oil.85 · Usc.0 = 0 uRr. transformer types with 3 or 4/5 limbs behave differently.) and can therefore be modelled linearly without saturation effects.1 Zero sequence models for common vector groups Yd-transformer This model is described in detail in Section 1.

Typical values are: zM 0 = 1.0.2. .0. 100 (or bank of 3 single-phase units) Model of YNyn/YNy/Yyn-transformer with closed tertiary delta winding An internal tertiary delta winding can be considered by either using the PowerFactory threewinding model or. 10 zM 0 zsc. both sides zsc.4 zsc. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.0 The short-circuit resistance of the delta-tertiary winding can be entered as R/X ratio in the Mag.0.LV Short-circuit impedance. HV-side zsc.0.3 = 3 .HV = rCu. R/X field available on the Load Flow page of the transformer type.0. .LV = rCu.7 Modelling Details and Application Tips Figure 7.0 = 10 .LV + xσ. .LV The zero sequence magnetising impedance ratio heavily depends on the construction of the magnetic circuit of the transformer. . .HV Short-circuit impedance.TypTr2) 38 . an internal delta winding can be modelled by simply assuming a very low zero sequence magnetising reactance.HV + xσ. in a simplified way.0 Shell-type transformer (4/5-limb) : 7. . . Typical ranges are: Core-type transformer (3-limb) : zM 0 zsc.2.0. . LV-side zsc. by taking into account that the short-circuit impedance of the internal delta winding can be modelled by an impedance parallel to the zero sequence magnetising impedance as shown in Figure 7.0. 2.0 = zsc.HV + zsc.1: YNyn-transformer (zero sequence system) Short-circuit impedance.0. Hence.

however this option is only visible when the transformer has no assigned type.3.3: YNzn-transformer (zero sequence system) with HV side tap changer (detailed representation) 7.2: Zero sequence model of YNYnd-transformer 7.3 Auto transformer model The PowerFactory model for the auto transformer is a special case of the 2-winding star/star (Yy)-transformer. The option Auto Transformer can be ticked on the Basic Data page of the element. as shown in Figure 7.2.7 Modelling Details and Application Tips Figure 7. or Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.TypTr2) 39 .4 Model of YNzn/YNz/Zyn-transformer A zig-zag winding completely decouples the primary and secondary sides of the zero sequence system. Figure 7.

TypTr2) 40 .u. Figure 7. ZE . currents and voltages and not the p.7 Modelling Details and Application Tips when the assigned type has its vector group set to YY.4. This makes it necessary to consider the absolute values of the impedances. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. The effect of this connection can be seen in Figure 7. The voltage over this grounding impedance. Besides the additional connection between the star points. only one grounding impedance can be entered.4: Yy-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration (incl. tap changer on the HV side) For the Yy auto transformer the currents on the HV side and the LV side both flow through the same grounding impedance ZE = RE + jXE . values. The approach for modelling this is equivalent to the internal delta tertiary winding modelling of Yy transformers. therefore affects the zero sequence system voltages on both sides. An additional delta tertiary winding is often used to reduce the zero sequence impedance of auto transformers.

7 Modelling Details and Application Tips Figure 7.5: YYd-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.TypTr2) 41 .

p. phase A Magnetising flux.u. Table 8. p. p. phase C p.TypTr2) 42 . phase C Magnetising current. p.u.u.u.and EMT-simulation Table 8.u.8 8 Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models Input/Output Definitions of Dynamic Models Figure 8.1: Input/output definition of 2-winding transformer model for RMS. p.1: Input variables of RMS and EMT transformer model Parameter Description Unit nntapin Tap position (input) - Table 8. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.u. p. phase A Magnetising current.3: Additional parameters and signals for EMT transformer model (calculation parameters) Parameter Description Unit psim a psim b psim c im a im b im c Magnetising flux. phase B Magnetising current.u. d-component Magnetising flux. 0-component p. p.u.u. q-component Magnetising flux. phase B Magnetising flux.2: State variables of transformer model for EMT-simulation Parameter Description Unit psimd psimq psim0 Magnetising flux.

Short-Circuit Voltage: Absolute uk0 Zero Sequ.TypTr2) Unit MVA Hz kV kV % kW % *30deg % % % deg % kW 43 . Impedance. HV-Side pcutr uktrr xtor tr2cn h tr2cn l iIntDelta nt2ag vecgrp uk0tr ur0tr tap side dutap phitr nntap0 ntpmn ntpmx curmg pfe zx0hl n rtox0 n zx0hl h Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. Short-Circuit Voltage: Resistive Part ukr0 Tap Changer: at Side Tap Changer: Additional Voltage per Tap Tap Changer: Phase of du Tap Changer: Neutral Position Tap Changer: Minimum Position Tap Changer: Maximum Position Magnetising Impedance: No Load Current Magnetising Impedance: No Load Losses Zero Sequence Magnetising Impedance: Mag. Impedance / uk0 Zero Sequence Magnetising R/X ratio: Mag. Zero Sequ. Impedance. Leakage-Impedances: z.9 Input Parameter Definitions 9 9.1 Input Parameter Definitions 2-winding transformer type Parameter Description loc name nt2ph strn frnom utrn h utrn l uktr Name Technology Rated Power Nominal Frequency Rated Voltage: HV-Side Rated Voltage: LV-Side Positive Sequence Impedance: Short-Circuit Voltage uk Positive Sequence Impedance: Copper Losses Positive Sequence Impedance: SHC-Voltage (Re(uk)) ukr Positive Sequence Impedance: Ratio X/R Vector Group: HV-Side Vector Group: LV-Side Vector Group: Internal Delta Winding Vector Group: Phase Shift Vector Group: Name Zero Sequ. R/X Distribution of Zero Sequ.

Re(uk0) Delta Winding. p.u. Zero Sequ.u. LV-Side Zero Sequence Impedance: Ratio X0/R0 Zero Sequence Impedance: Reactance x0 Zero Sequence Impedance: Resistance r0 Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV short-circuit) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (LV short-circuit) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (LV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (LV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: LV-SHC-Voltage uk0 (HV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: LV-SHC-Voltage Re(uk0) (HV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Reactance x0 (LV short-circuit) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Ratio X0/R0 (LV short-circuit) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Resistance r0 (LV short-circuit) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Reactance x0 (LV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Ratio X0/R0 (LV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: HV-Resistance r0 (LV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: LV-Reactance x0 (HV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: LV-Ratio X0/R0 (HV open) Zero Sequence Impedance: LV-Resistance r0 (HV open) Delta Winding.u.u. % % % % % % p.u.u.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description zx0hl l Distribution of Zero Sequ. p.u. Leakage-Impedances: z. p. 44 . uk0 Delta Winding. p.u.u.TypTr2) Unit p. X0/R0 Delta Winding. p. r0 Tap Changer 1 Tap Changer 1: Type x0tor0 x0pu r0pu uk0 hls ur0 hls uk0 hlo ur0 hlo uk0 lho ur0 lho x0pu hls xtr0 hls r0pu hls x0pu hlo xtr0 hlo r0pu hlo x0pu lho xtr0 lho r0pu lho uk0delta ur0delta x0tor0delta x0delta r0delta itapch tapchtype Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. % % p.u. p. x0 Delta Winding. p.

u. tap) Tap dependent impedance: r1 (max.u. p. p.u. % 45 .u.u.TypTr2) Unit % deg % deg deg % p. p. kW % p. tap) Positive Sequence Impedance: Copper Losses Positive Sequence Impedance: SHC-Voltage (Re(uk)) ukr Positive Sequence Impedance: Ratio X/R Positive Sequence Impedance: Resistance r1 Tap dependent impedance: r1 (min. p. p. tap) Zero Sequence Impedance: Short-Circuit Voltage uk0 Zero Sequence Impedance: Reactance x0 Tap dependent impedance: x0 (min.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description tap side dutap Tap Changer 1: at Side Tap Changer 1: Additional Voltage per Tap Tap Changer 1: Additional Angle per Tap Tap Changer 2 Tap Changer 2: Type Tap Changer 2: at Side Tap Changer 2: Additional Voltage per Tap Tap Changer 2: Additional Angle per Tap Tap Changer 2: Phase of du Tap Changer 2: Neutral Position Tap Changer 2: Minimum Position Tap Changer 2: Maximum Position Tap dependent impedance Positive Sequence Impedance: Short-Circuit Voltage uk Positive Sequence Impedance: Reactance x1 Tap dependent impedance: x1 (min. p.u. tap) Tap dependent impedance: x0 (max.u. tap) Zero Sequence Impedance: SHC-Voltage (Re(uk0)) uk0r dphitap itapch2 tapchtype2 tap side2 dutap2 dphitap2 phitr2 nntap02 ntpmn2 ntpmx2 itapzdep uktr x1pu x1putmn x1putmx pcutr uktrr xtor r1pu r1putmn r1putmx uk0tr x0pu x0putmn x0putmx ur0tr Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. % p. tap) Tap dependent impedance: x1 (max.u.u.

tap) Tap dependent impedance: r0 (min.Seq.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description x0tor0 Zero Sequence Impedance: Ratio X0/R0 Zero Sequence Impedance: Resistance r0 Tap dependent impedance: X0/R0 (min. p.): r.u.TypTr2) Unit p.u.): x. HV-Side Distribution of Leakage Reactances (p. tap) Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk) (min.): r. tap) Tap dependent impedance: X/R (min.u.Pos.u.Seq.): x. HV-Side Distribution of Leakage Resistances (p. tap) Tap dependent impedance: uk (max. tap) Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk0) (min. tap) Tap dependent impedance: uk0 (max. tap) Tap dependent impedance: r0 (max. tap) Tap dependent impedance: X/R (max. tap) Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk0) (max. tap) Tap dependent impedance: X0/R0 (max. tap) Tap dependent impedance: Re(uk) (max.u. tap) Tap dependent impedance: Pcu (max.u.u. tap) Tap dependent impedance: Pcu (min.Seq. p. tap) Distribution of Leakage Reactances (p.u.Seq. % % kW % kW % % % % % % p. 46 .Pos. LV-Side Distribution of Leakage Resistances (p. tap) Tap dependent impedance: uk0 (min.Pos.Pos. LV-Side Magnetising Reactance: Type Magnetising Reactance: Current Magnetising Reactance: Voltage r0pu x0tor0tmn r0putmn x0tor0tmx r0putmx itapzdep uktmn uktmx pcutmn ukrtmn xtortmn pcutmx ukrtmx xtortmx uk0tmn uk0tmx uk0rtmn uk0rtmx itrdl itrdl lv itrdr itrdr lv itrldf satcue satvol Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. tap) Tap dependent impedance Tap dependent impedance: uk (min.

u.-Sequence Impedance: l1(f) Frequency Dependencies of Zero-Sequence Impedance: r0(f) Frequency Dependencies of Zero-Sequence Impedance: l0(f) Rated Power (forced cooling) On-load Tap Changer Object modified Object modified by Manufacturer Characteristic Name Data source Foreign Key Additional Data () Description Approval Information: Status Approval Information: Modified Approval Information: Modified by p.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description Unit satflux iInterPol smoothfac Magnetising Reactance: Flux (peak) Magnetising Reactance: Interpolation Magnetising Reactance: Smoothing Factor Magnetising Reactance: Core Transformer Ratio Adaptation Tap Changer: Voltage Range Class Inrush Peak Current: Ratio Ip/In (1) Inrush Peak Current: Max.u.-Sequence Impedance: r1(f) Frequency Dependencies of Pos.u. iLimb itratioadpt pT ansiclass pict1 pitt1 itrtype pict2 pitt2 itrmt psi0 xmlin xmair ksat it0mt pStoch eddypc fcharr1 fcharl1 fcharr0 fcharl0 strnfc oltc gnrl modif gnrl modby manuf chr name dat src for name doc id desc appr status appr modif appr modby Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. Time Magnetising Reactance: Type Magnetising Reactance: Knee Flux Magnetising Reactance: Linear Reactance Magnetising Reactance: Saturated Reactance Saturation Exponent Zero Sequence Magnetising Reactance: Type Zero Sequence Stochastic model Ratio: eddy current-/copper losses Frequency Dependencies of Pos.u. p. s p. s p. p.TypTr2) % % p.u.u. StoTyptrf MVA 47 . Time (1) Transformer Type Inrush Peak Current: Ratio Ip/In Inrush Peak Current: Max.

phase 2 internally grounded Grounding Impedance. ) Neutral Conductor: N-Connection Neutral Conductor: HV-Neutral (StaCubic) Neutral Conductor: HV-Neutral Neutral Conductor: LV-Neutral (StaCubic) Neutral Conductor: LV-Neutral Neutral Connection HV-side. HV Side: Star Point i eahv ignd h re0tr h xe0tr h i ealv ignd l re0tr l xe0tr l rSbasepu xSbasepu r0Sbasepu x0Sbasepu cpZone iAreaBus cpArea pRating Snom a cneutcon bushvn bushvn bar buslvn buslvn bar iintgnd i hvcon cgnd h Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. LV Side: Re Grounding Impedance./Sbase p. LV Side: Neutral Point Grounding Impedance.TypTr2) Unit MVA Ohm Ohm Ohm Ohm p.u. phase 2 connected Internal Grounding Impedance. HV Side: Neutral Point Grounding Impedance. HV Side: Xe LV-side. phase 2 internally grounded Grounding Impedance./Sbase MVA 48 ./Sbase p.u./Sbase p.9 Input Parameter Definitions 9. LV Side: Xe r (Sbase) x (Sbase) r0 (Sbase) x0 (Sbase) Zone Area Area Thermal Rating (IntThrating) Rated Power (act.2 2-winding transformer element Parameter Description loc name typ id bushv bushv bar buslv buslv bar iZoneBus outserv ntnum ratfac Snom i auto Name Type (TypTr2) HV-Side (StaCubic) HV-Side LV-Side (StaCubic) LV-Side Zone Out of Service Number of: parallel Transformers Rating Factor Rated Power Connected Star Points (Auto Transformer) HV-side.u. HV Side: Re Grounding Impedance.u.

LV Side: Star cpeter l Internal Grounding Impedance. HV Side: Petersen Coil i lvcon LV-side. Rated Current Inom l LV-Side. phase 2 connected cgnd l Internal Grounding Impedance.TypTr2) p. LV Side: Petersen Coil bSbasepu b (Sbase) cpCtrlNode Controller. Tap Changer 1: Setpoint dutap Additional Voltage per Tap dphitap Additional Angle per Tap phitr Phase of du nntap Tap Changer 1: Tap Position iTaps Tap Changer 1: According to Measurement Report dutap2 Additional Voltage per Tap dphitap2 Additional Angle per Tap Unit cpeter h Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.u. kA kA % deg deg % deg 49 . Rated Current iTaps According to Measurement Report nntap Tap: Tap Position ntrcn Tap: Automatic Tap Changing i cont Tap: Tap Changer t2ldc Tap: Controlled Node ilcph Tap: Phase imldc Tap: Control Mode uset mode Controller. Tap Changer 1: Target Node cpGrid Grid cpOwner Owner cpOperator Operator cpBranch Branch cpSubstat Substation cpSite Site cpMeteostat Meteo Station cpHeadFold Head Folder fold id In Folder () ciOutaged Planned Outage ciEnergized Energized ciEarthed Earthed cDisplayName Display Name cpSupplyTransformer Supplying Transformer cpSupplyTrfStation Supplying Secondary Substation cpSupplySubstation Supplying Substation Inom h HV-Side.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description Internal Grounding Impedance.

MW MW MW Mvar Mvar Mvar s %/Mvar %/MW A kV kA kV 50 .u. Category II(III) ) deg c pstac i rem p rem p cub usetp usp low usp up psetp psp low psp up qsetp qsp low qsp up Tctrl Kqctrl Kpctrl ildc ldcct ldcpt ldcrs ldcxs tapctrl iMeasLoc mTaps iblock ilt op Ub lv Ib lv cosphib lv Ubqmin hv ifrqft Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.ElmTerm) Tap: Controlled Branch (Cubicle) (StaCubic) Tap: Voltage Setpoint Tap: Lower Voltage Bound Tap: Upper Voltage Bound Tap: Active Power Setpoint Tap: Lower Active Power Bound Tap: Upper Active Power Bound Tap: Reactive Power Setpoint Tap: Lower Reactive Power Bound Tap: Upper Reactive Power Bound Tap: Controller Time Constant Controller. Tap Changer 1: External Tap Controller Controller. p. Tap Changer 1: Controller Sensitivity dv/dQ Controller. p.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description Unit phitr2 nntap2 c ptapc Phase of du Tap Changer 2: Tap Position Controller. Tap Changer 1: Controller Sensitivity dv/dP Tap: Line Drop Compensation Tap: Current Transformer Rating Tap: Voltage Transformer Ratio Tap: Rset V Tap: Xset V Tap Controller (ElmTr2) Measured at Measurement Report Unit Transformer Long-term operating condition before short-circuit are known Values for LV-Side: Highest Operating Voltage Values for LV-Side: Highest Operating Current Values for LV-Side: Power factor Values for HV-Side (only for Unit Transformer): Minimum Operating Voltage Frequent Fault ( >10(5)/lifetime. Tap Changer 1: External Station Controller Tap: Remote Control Tap: Controlled Node (StaBar.u.TypTr2) p.u.

Loading Optimal Power Flow Controls: Tap Position Optimal Power Flow Controls: Optimise Optimal Power Flow Controls: Control Mode Feeder Distance from infeed in number of buses Lateral Index Distance from first infeed in number of buses Distance from infeed in number of buses including switches Distance from first infeed in number of buses including switches Forced Outage Rate Forced Outage Expectancy Forced Outage Duration Ideal component Type model Element model Failures Double Earth Fault: Frequency of single earth faults Failures Double Earth Fault: Conditional probability of a second earth fault Failures Double Earth Fault: Repair duration Time-Overcurrent Plot: Frequent Fault ( >10(5)/lifetime. Category II(III) ) Time-Overcurrent Plot: ANSI Curve Shift Time-Overcurrent Plot: Draw Inrush Current Cg l Cc1 hl Cc0 hl iOPFCload i uopt ionlyPre i uoptCont cpFeed ciDist ciLater ciDistRoot ciDistAll ciDistAllRoot FOR1 FOE FOD iperfect pTypStoch pStoch CCEarFr CCEarProb CCEarRepMu ifrqft iansish drawInr Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.TypTr2) Unit uF uF uF uF 1/a h/a h StoTyptrf 1/a % h 51 .9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description iopt hf Cg h Consider HF-Parameter HF-Parameter: Capacitance HV-Ground HF-Parameter: Capacitance LV-Ground HF-Parameter: Capacitance HV-LV. 1-Sequence HF-Parameter: Capacitance HV-LV. 0-Sequence Optimal Power Flow Constraints: Max.

TypTr2) Unit % 52 . Loading Object modified Object modified by Serial Number Year of Construction Commissioning Date Characteristic Name Data source Foreign Key Additional Data () Owner (ElmOwner) Operator (ElmOperator) Description Approval Information: Status Approval Information: Modified Approval Information: Modified by Forced Cooling Enabled Operator Comment RDF ID dpl1 dpl2 dpl3 dpl4 dpl5 coldloadtab2 i uopt maxload gnrl modif gnrl modby sernum constr iComDate chr name dat src for name doc id pOwner pOperator desc appr status appr modif appr modby ifc sOpComment cimRdfId dpl1 dpl2 dpl3 dpl4 dpl5 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.9 Input Parameter Definitions Parameter Description fr coldload Time-Overcurrent Plot: Cold load curve Values OPF-Controls: Tap Position OPF-Constraints: Max.

1990.02. Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2.TypTr2) 53 . from 50 to 2500 kva with highest voltage for equipment not exceeding 36 kv. [4] Allan Greenwood. [3] IEEE Std c57. Electrical Transients in Power Systems. 1999. 50 hz. 1991. Determination of the power rating of a transformer loaded with non-sinusoidal currents.110-1998 Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability. 1995. [2] Three phase oil-immersed distribution transformers.10 10 References References [1] Guidelines for representation of network elements when calculating transients. John Wiley & Sons. Cigre Working Group 33. Technical report.

2 Zero sequence equivalent circuit of a Yd-transformer with HV side tap changer (a) detailed representation (b) simplified representation . . 41 8.4 Symmetrical phase shifter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5. 39 7. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5. . . 8 1. . . . . . . . . .4 Yy-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration (incl. . 28 5. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Ideal phase shifter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 YYd-transformer (zero sequence system) in auto transformer configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. . 39 7. 4 1. . . . . 3-phase transformer (magnetising current) . . . . . . . . . . . 3-phase transformer . . . . . . 20 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. . . . . . . . 22 2.1 Input/output definition of 2-winding transformer model for RMS. . . . . . .and EMT-simulation 42 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. .2 Two slope and polynomial saturation curves . . .4 Zero sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding. . . . . and (b) zero sequence system . . .1 Positive sequence (per-unit) equivalent circuit of the 2-winding transformer . . . . . 29 5.1 Line drop compensation .3 YNzn-transformer (zero sequence system) with HV side tap changer (detailed representation) . . . . . . . .3 Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the HV side . . . . . . . . . .4 Transformer model with tap changer modelled at the LV side . . . . 3-phase transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures List of Figures 1. . . . . .2 Principle of simulated dynamic control for V and P/Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 HF model for (a) external capacitances in the positive sequence system. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Positive sequence equivalent circuit of the 2-winding. . . . . . . .3 Equivalent (per-unit) circuit of the 2-winding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TypTr2) 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 YNyn-transformer (zero sequence system) . . . . . . 8 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7. . . . . . . . .6 Complex tap changer model (symmetrical) in PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Zero sequence model of YNYnd-transformer . . . . . . . . tap changer on the HV side) . . . . 31 6. . . . .7 Internal zero sequence model of a YN-YN transformer . 40 7. . . 38 7. 21 2. . . . . . . .5 Complex tap changer model (asymmetrical) in PowerFactory . . . . . . .

. 19 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Two-Winding Transformer (3-Phase) (ElmTr2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Input variables of RMS and EMT transformer model .4 Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance: YN-YN. . . . . . 20 2. .3 Type Basic Data: Zero sequence impedance (no internal delta winding) . 42 8. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Two-slope and polynomial saturation characteristic input parameters . . . . . . . . 21 2. . . . .1 Input. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. . .TypTr2) 55 . . . . . . . .1 Measurement report data (transformer element) . with internal delta winding 14 2. . . 13 1. . . . . . . . . . . 42 8. . . . . . .5 Load Flow tap changer data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Load Flow Tap dependent impedance data . . . . . . . . . . 25 5. . .3 Line drop compensation (for voltage control) . . . . . . . . . .and calculation parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables List of Tables 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 8. . . . .4 Dynamic and static control parameters . . . . . . . . . . .3 Additional parameters and signals for EMT transformer model (calculation parameters) . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 State variables of transformer model for EMT-simulation .2 Automatic tap changer control . . . . . . . 13 1. 21 2.2 Type Basic Data: Positive sequence impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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