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History Of Bread-Making Bread-
Bread, in one form or another, has been one of the principal forms of food for man from earliest times. Loaves and rolls have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs.
Woman grinding corn, Limestone, about 2500B.C.
Ingredients Used For Bread Making
Essential Ingredients Non-essential Ingredients
Flour Yeast (Sacharomyces Cerevisae) Salt Water
Sugar (sweetening agents) Milk and Milk products Fruits Fats and oils Herbs Eggs Etc.
Flour Usually Flour is made of Wheat Wheat Consists of a protein called ³Gluten´ Flour serves as a structure builder The elasticity in dough is due to gluten Other flours consist of less gluten .
Structure of Wheat Grain 85% is Endosperm Endosperm consists of Starch and Protein (Gluten) 13% is bran Bran is the roughage which is removed while the process of milling and refining. . 2% is germ Germ consists of Mineral and Ash.
9% Gluten) Medium Flour (10% .Types of Wheat Flours Soft Flour (7% .11% Gluten) Strong Flour (12% . This wheat is usually found in Punjab. It is also used for the manufacture of Pasta. .14% Gluten) In India Strong Flour is obtained Durum wheat which is most preferable for bread making due to high Gluten content.
and compressed yeast. causing those doughs to rise. Yeast comes in two forms. which grows in warm moist doughs.Yeast Yeast is the most typical leavening ingredient used for breads. active dry yeast. . It is a living plant.
and bringing out other flavors in the food. . Bread made without salt will have a coarser texture and a blander flavor than bread made with salt. Adding salt to bread dough controls the action of the yeast and improves the flavor. Salt if comes in contact with yeast directly it retards its action completely. Hence Salt is ³poison´ for yeast. helping to reduce bitterness and acidity.Salt Salt is a terrific flavor enhancer.
Water Soft Water Warm water (110°F / 43°C). .
In bread-making sugar is not an essential ingredient because flour itself consists of an invert sugar called maltose which serves the purpose for growth of yeast. Many Varieties of sugars are used for Baking and confectionery. .Sugars and Sweetening Agents Any sugar serves as added ³food´ for yeast.
Enriching Agents Milk and Milk products Eggs Fruits and Nuts Fats and Oils .
Steps in Bread Making WEIGHING SIEVING KNEADING ROUND-UP MOULDING FINAL PROOFING WRAPPING BULK-FERMENTATION KNOCK BACK SCALING/DIVIDING BAKING COOLING SLICING .
Success of bakery and confectionery products depends very much on the formula balance. . Accurate weighing & measuring of ingredients is very essential as unlike in other cooked products.WEIGHING The ingredients are weighed according to the formula.
husk. grain particles etc. It also helps in removing lumps.SIEVING All the dry ingredients are then passed through fine mesh sieves in orders to remove the impurities such as dirt. stones. .
KNEADING / MIXING Thorough and complete distribution of the ingredients Maximum development of Gluten .
BULK FERMENTATION This is the chemical stage of bread making. . Enzymes and acid bacteria are activated. CO2 gas raises the dough and alcohol imparts flavour. Fermentation is for a predetermined time. Yeast feed on simple sugar and produce Carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
. Sugar produced from starch of the flour by the action of diastase enzymes. Amount of yeast added 2.) There are three sources of sugar for yeast in the fermenting dough:1. Lean Dough or Rich dough . (78 ± 80 degrees F) 3. The time required for fermentation depends on the following factors:1. The Type of dough example. Natural sugar present in the flour 3. Temperature at which dough is maintained.BULK FERMENTATION (cont. Formula Sugar 2.
It equalises the dough temperature for uniform yeast activity. . After knock back the dough is further fermented for remaining one-third. It stretches the gluten network which in turn conditions the gluten.KNOCK BACK After the dough has fermented for two ± third of the total fermentation time it is punched or knocked back so that the whole mass comes in contact with fresh air. It expels all the gas in the dough so that yeast comes in contact with sugar and functions more efficiently.
SCALING / DIVIDING At the end of bulkfermentation. . this step is followed in order to divide the whole mass into the required portions on a weight basis or on volume basis.
That part of the dough leaks gas that is being produced due to fermentation. This process is called ³Bleeding´. the cut surface is exposed to atmosphere. This process is know as ³rounding´ or ³handing up´ .ROUNDING When the dough is cut with a dough cutter. If the dough piece is moulded in this state the texture of the bread will be affected. Rounding is therefore to bring the dough in a nice condition.
This resting of the rounded dough piece is know as ³intermediate or panary proofing´ .INTERMEDIATE OR PANARY PROOFING The rounded dough piece is allowed to rest for 10 ± 15 minutes so that the dough is filled up with gas and becomes more pliable.
Too tight moulding will tear the top of the dough spoiling the appearance of baked product. . Too loose moulding will result in large pockets and tunnels in the crumb of bread.MOULDING AND PANNING The final shape and texture of the bread depends on this step Individual rounded and scaled dough is rolled into thin sheets and moulded as desired.
In this step the moulded dough gains volume. This final proofing is done at 95oF/34oC to 100oF/38oC in a special chamber which is called ³proofing chamber´ because yeast cells are most active at this temperature. .FINAL PROOFING This is the last step of fermentation stage and is the period between final moulding and entry of bread in the oven.
The temperature being around 200oC ± 230oC or higher in case the size of bread is smaller. Loss of moisture takes place (baking loss) Caramelization of sugar takes place. The increase of volume of a particular product in the oven is called ³oven-spring´ Starch cells gelatinize. it is placed in a pre-heated oven. Yeast cells are destroyed. . Proteins (Gluten) coagulate.BAKING After the moulded and panned bread dough acquires volume during proofing.
moisture is trapped between the bread and sides of the moulds. It is technically called ³Sweating´. If not. Bread should be released from mould immediately after baking and placed on a cooling rack. COOLING . This will make the product wet.
When the bread has cooled down properly the starch granules will shrink and stabilize in the gluten framework.SLICING Slicing should be done only after bread has cooled down properly. Blades of slicing machine should be clean. .
Such a condition is conducive to bacteria and bread diseases. . If not then ³Sweating´ takes place.WRAPPING / PACKING Bread is wrapped only after it cools down completely.
Ferment and dough method 5. Sponge and dough method 6. Chorleywood method .BREAD MAKING METHODS 1. Continuous bread making method 8. Salt delayed Method 4. sponge and dough method 7. Ferment. Straight dough method 2. No-time dough method 3.
type of flour. the temperature of the finished dough and the room where it is stored.STRAIGHT DOUGH METHOD All ingredients are mixed together in one operation Most widely used in India. Fermentation time could be from 30 minutes to 14 hours according to the amount of yeast. . water and salt. Very simple.
Straight Dough Method (Cont. In the long process the gluten becomes very soft and hence water content is reduced.. . The salt content is increased to confer a greater stability on the gluten.) Short process is 1-5 hours Long process is 6-16 hours provided flour is sufficiently strong. The yeast content and the temperature at which the dough is fermented is lowered.
NONO-TIME DOUGH METHOD No-time dough method comes under the Straight dough method and it is the quickest of all methods.5% as compared to flour (100%) . Minimum Yeast content is 2. After mixing of all ingredients thoroughly the dough is scaled and moulded straight into tins.
NoNo-time Dough Method (Cont. This bread stales rapidly. This happens because the gluten does not get enough time to soften. The bread smells of yeast .) The method is useful in an emergency The quality of finished bread is not generally satisfactory..
SALT DELAYED METHOD Salt delayed method also comes under Straight dough method It is simple and more effective. All ingredients but salt are mixed together to make the dough. . Dough is allowed to ferment two-thirds of its complete bulk fermentation.
..Salt delayed Method (Cont. Due to this process strong flours ripen faster.) Salt is added at Knock Back Stage where only one-third fermentation remains. This happens because the bacteria work faster due to absence of salt since it kills bacteria and yeast cells. Extra flavour is produced in breads.
Total bulk fermentation is divided into two stages. sugar and water.FERMENT & DOUGH METHOD Breads and buns can be made on a twostage method known as either a ferment and dough or a sponge and dough. yeast. Yeast starts reacting extremely fast. A batter is made out of some flour from the recipe. .
SPONGE & DOUGH METHOD
A Sponge can be described as a stiff ferment or a slack dough. It is made up by mixing a proportion of flour, yeast and some or all water.
FERMENT, SPONGE & DOUGH METHOD
The bread making process may be split into three stages. 1. Thin ferment is prepared with flour, sugar, yeast and water 2. After the above mixture rises and commences to fall, it is made thicker by addition of flour converting it into a sponge
Ferment, Sponge and Dough method (Cont..)
3. After sufficient fermentation time, the rest of the ingredients are added to the sponge and allowed for the remaining bulk fermentation. This method is used when the total time available is high.
CONTINUOUS BREAD MAKING METHOD
Machines are used Vigorous beating of ingredients takes place The total mixing time is approximately 90 seconds. The mechanical treatment to which the dough is subjected replaces the ripening of gluten by fermentation.
. The flavours of this bread are as superior as that of a bread made with the longer process.Continuous Bread Making Method Dough is developed and put into a machine where it is automatically divided and moulded. The only disadvantage of this method is that it is extremely expensive.
CHORLEYWOOD METHOD This process is based on the principles of mechanical dough ripening. It is developed by British Baking Industries Research Association Intense mechanical mixing takes place within a short period of time. . The machine used for this method is fitted with an automatic watt hour meter.
The dough develops like it would develop in many hours. This process takes only a few minutes and the machine automatically stops after mechanically beating the dough.) The work input is therefore well controlled Bulk fermentation is completely eliminated.Chorleywood method (Cont.. . In this method weaker flours may be used.
toasted. onions. seeds.BREADS OF THE WORLD bagel Pronunciation: BAY-gull Notes: A Jewish specialty. these ring-shaped rolls have a dense. and smeared with cream cheese. blueberries. chewy texture. They're usually served for breakfast after being sliced open. or herbs. The dough is sometimes studded with raisins. .
bialy Pronunciaton: bee-AH-lee Notes: These chewy Jewish rolls have indentations on top which are filled with onions. .
.bolillo = pan blanco Pronunciation: bow-LEE-yoh Notes: These are crusty Mexican sandwich rolls.
You can buy them plain. . garlic. to keep their guests occupied without filling them up too much. onion. or flavored with sesame seeds. or herbs.breadsticks = grissini = Italian breadsticks Notes: Italians serve these crunchy breadsticks before Italian meals.
slightly sweet yeast breakfast bread is made with eggs and butter. . and sometimes with fruit or nuts.brioche Pronunciation: bree-OSHE Notes: This rich.
and usually comes as a braided loaf. .challah = hallah = challa Pronunciation: HAH-lah Notes: This Jewish yeast bread is made with eggs and butter. It's wonderfully soft and rich.
.ciabatta Pronunciation: chuh-BAH-tah Notes: Ciabatta ("slipper" in Italian) is a rustic bread with a heavy crust and a dense crumb.
this rye bread is coated with cornmeal. It's often paired with corned beef. .corn rye bread = cornrye bread Notes: A staple of Jewish delicatessens.
croissant Pronunciation: krwuh-SAHN Notes: These French crescent-shaped rolls are made with puff pastry. or for making sandwiches. so they're wonderfully rich and tender. They're great for dunking into coffee. .
.crumpet Notes: These are moist yeast muffins that the British like to slather with butter or clotted cream and serve at teatime.
Dreikorn brot Notes: This German bread is made with rye flour. .
these muffins have an uncanny ability to trap and hold butter and jam.English muffin Notes: When split and toasted. . They're often served at breakfast as an alternative to toast.
is a bit smaller.French bread Notes: This is the traditional French bread that has a hard. while the baton (bah-TOH). . and the ficelle (fee-SELL) is much narrower. The baguette = baguet (bah-GET) is the standard tube-shaped French bread. dark brown crust and many large air pockets. The bâtarde = batarde (buh-TARD) is a bit larger than a baguette. about two feet long.
. hard crust and a slightly chewy interior.Greek bread Italian bread Notes: Like French bread. Italian bread has a dark.
.kommisbrot Notes: This German rye bread has a fine texture and is often thinly sliced.
. It's usually shaped in a ring and served at breakfast.kugelhopf = kouglof Pronunciation: KOO-guhl-hopf Notes: This German specialty is a sweetened yeast bread with currants and almonds baked inside.
kulich = Russian Easter bread Pronunciation: KOO-litch Notes: Russians serve this rich. . It typically has raisins in it and icing on top. sweetened yeast bread at Easter.
anise seed.limpa bread = Swedish limpa bread = sweet rye bread = Swedish rye bread Pronunciation: LIM-pah Notes: This delicious and fragrant rye bread is usually flavored with molasses. . and orange peel.
Portuguese sweet bread = pao duce = Hawaiian bread Notes: This sweet and tender bread is great for making French toast or for nibbling. .
Pugliese bread = pan Pugliese Pronunciation: pool-yee-AY-zee Notes: This simple. Italy. . Some producers flavor it with olives or cheese. crusty bread hails from Puglia. and is great for making sandwiches or dipping into olive oil.
pumpernickel bread Notes: This heavy and slightly sour bread is made with molasses and a blend of rye and wheat flours. It's often cut into thin slices and used for appetizers. .
Most of it is made with both rye and wheat flours. ranging from light tan to almost black. . There are dozens of varieties. who use it to make hearty sandwiches.rye bread Notes: This is a favorite of Northern Europeans.
.raisin bread Notes: This bread is studded with raisins and often flavored with cinnamon. It's usually served as toast for breakfast.
this is French bread made with a special starter of yeast and bacteria that imparts a pleasant. sour taste to the bread. .sourdough bread Notes: A San Francisco specialty. It's especially good with seafood.
water.starter breads = pain au levain = pane lievito naturale Notes: These are breads that are made with a starter instead of fresh yeast. for example. needs to be made with a starter to acquire a sour flavor. A starter is a mixture of flour. Starters lend a special character to the bread-sourdough bread. . and baker's yeast that been set out so that it can be colonized by airborne yeast and friendly bacteria.
It's usually split open and stuffed with grated cheese. cooked meats. . and other fillings.Arepa arepa Pronunciation: ah-RAY-pah Notes: This is a Venezuelan bread that's round and flat and usually made of cornmeal.
Pizza Base baked pizza crust = prebaked pizza shell Notes: This is precooked pizza shell .
and often soaked in coconut milk before being fried. . Bammies are made of grated cassava.Bammy bammy = bammy bread = yucca cake Notes: Jamaicans love to butter these cakes and eat them with fish.
eggplant slices. but you can also serve it plain. herbs. . onions. and other ingredients before baking it. Many cooks top it with cheese.Focaccia focaccia Pronunciation: foh-KAH-chee-uh Notes: A focaccio is an Italian flatbread that resembles a pizza crust without the topping.
.Barbari bread barbari bread = nan-e barbari = Persian flat bread Notes: This flatbread hails from Iran.
Bolo de milho bolo de milho Notes: This is a Brazilian corn cake .
Chapati chapati = chappati = chapatti = roti = Indian flat bread Notes: This unleavened flatbread is a staple in India. . where people spread ghee on it and eat it with curries.
If calories aren't an issue.Corn Tortilla corn tortilla Notes: These thin round wraps are widely used in southern Mexico. dry frying pan. and then cook the tortilla in a hot. If you're watching calories. fry them in oil. press the dough until it's very thin. Just mix masa harina with enough water to make a bread-like dough. dry frying pan or by wrapping them in moist paper towels and briefly heating them in a microwave oven. do this by cooking them on a hot. They should be served hot. and they're the preferred tortilla for making tacos and enchiladas. . You can make corn tortillas at home if you have a tortilla press.
You can soften hard lavash by moistening both sides and then placing it in a plastic bag for a few hours. .Lavash cracker bread = lavash = lawaash = paraki = Armenian cracker bread = lahvosh = lavosh = lawasha = naan-e-lavaash Notes: This is a large flat Middle Eastern bread that comes either hard (like a cracker) or soft (like a tortilla).
thin "burrito tortillas. so they're a good choice if you need to roll or fold the tortillas before cooking them. Flour tortillas come in different sizes. including small. fajitas and other Mexican dishes." .Flour tortilla flour tortilla Notes: These thin flour wraps from northern Mexico are used to make burritos. chimichangas. thick "fajita tortillas" to large. They're more pliable than corn tortillas.
only smaller and fatter.Gordita gordita Pronunciation: gore-DEE-tah Notes: A "gordita" (Spanish for "little fat one") is like a corn tortilla. It inflates a bit when grilled. . so it can be split to form a pocket and filled.
.Hönö hönö = hono = honokakor Notes: These Swedish flatbread is made with rye flour and flavored with aniseed and fennel seed.
Idli idli Notes: A south Indian specialty. then served with sauces. . these rice cakes are steamed.
.Injera injera = Ethiopian flat bread Pronunciation: in-JER-ah Notes: Ethiopians use this slightly sour flat bread as both a plate and spoon when eating their traditional stews. The injera becomes saturated with juices. and is eaten at the end of the meal.
Pita bread pita bread = pocket bread = pide bread = khubz = baladi Pronunciation: P EE-tuh Notes: This puffy Middle Eastern flatbread is often cut in half. and served with dips. or cut into wedges. pulled open to form a pocket. . and then filled with hot savory ingredients. It's also served like bread at meals. toasted.
Look for boxes of them among the Mexican foods in your supermarket.Taco shell taco shell Notes: These are crunchy corn tortillas that have been loosely folded and deep-fried. forming them into a Ushape. then allowing them to harden into a crispy shell. . You just fill them and serve. or make them yourself by deep-frying corn tortillas.
. and quesadillas.Tortilla tortilla Pronunciation: tore-TEE-yuh Notes: These thin wraps are used to make countless Mexican dishes. chimichangas. though some cooks use them to make everything from spring rolls to peanut butter sandwiches. and they're the preferred tortilla for making tacos and enchiladas. flautas. fajitas. Corn tortillas have little or no fat. Before filling tortillas. higher in fat. dry frying pan or wrap them in damp paper towels and heat them in the microwave. Flour tortillas are softer. and more pliable. cook them briefly on a hot. They're traditionally used to make burritos.