A Project Report On Competency Mapping and Knowledge Management in Krishak Bharati Co-Operative Ltd.

HAZIRA

PREPARED BY:JIGNESH R LUHARIYA

SUBMITTED TO:Shree Samanvay Institute Of MBA, BOTAD Bhavnagar University

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DECLARATION

I undersigned Mr. JIGNESH R LUHARIYA a student of MBA-II semester, Shree Samanvay Institute Of MBA, BOTAD Bhavnagar University admit that this project report with “KRISHAK BHARTI CO-OPERETIVE LTD” is the result of our study which carried out during 04 May to 13 June, 2009 and has not been previously submitted to any other university or institute for any other examination and for any other purpose by any other person.

Place: Surat Date: 13.6.2009 JIGNESH R LUHARIYA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am glad to express my profound sentiments of gratitude to all who rendered their valuable help for the successful completion of this project report titled, “A Project Report On Competency Mapping and Knowledge Management.” I record my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. N K Sahoo (Chief Mgr.-HR) who had given me a chance to do a project under this roof of KRIBHCO and given opportunity to work under his guidance.

I would also like to thank sincerely from the deep of my heart to all those persons who constantly guided me and gave me the practical knowledge and materials of the subject.

I would finally like to thank all employees of KRIBHCO for their kind cooperation, guidance and support which lead us to right direction of our research.

My genuine sense of gratitude goes to my university that gave me a chance to brighten my academic qualification that provided me this opportunity to have a practical knowledge of relevant fields.

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PREFACE
The MBA training of the Shree Samanvay Institute Of MBA, BOTAD Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar provides the Students an opportunity to have and insight of any large scale unit so that we get the exposure to an Actual managerial environment of company. I am lucky to have vocational training in a company like KRIBHCO Ltd which is considered to be one of the “largest fertilizer establishments” in India.

During this period, I had an overview of the human resource department within which I could make a detailed study of all the section which comes under the roof of human resource management in KRIBHCO. This training will help me to correlate theoretical knowledge and its practical applications. It was a thrilling experience while studying working of KRIBHCO and understanding it. This programme has led me to realize the contribution of KRIBHCO to the Fertilizer Industry of India.

I am grateful to all the employees of KRIBHCO for their cooperation and interest in my project without which it could not have been possible to go ahead with my project.

With due honor, I present this project which consists of a brief study of KRIBHCO Ltd.

JIGNESH R LUHARIYA MBA (First year) SHREE SAMANVAY INSTITUTE OF MBA BHAVNAGAR UNIVERSITY BOTAD

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Success of any organization depends largely on its competent employees and the extent to which the knowledge is shared in that organization. Competency Mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one’s strengths as an individual worker ad in some cases as a part of an organization where as Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, learning, communication, association and reasoning. Hence, competency mapping and management of knowledge and its resources play a significant role in growth and development of the organization. Knowledge Management ('KM') comprises a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge. It is divided into stages like acquiring knowledge, sharing, storing and leveraging the knowledge both at personal level as well as professional level.

Competency mapping examines two areas: emotional intelligence quotient(EQ),and strengths of the individual in Areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making. Knowledge management refers to all systematic activities for creation and sharing of knowledge so that knowledge can be used for the success of the organization. KM processes provide a framework for connecting people to people and people to information, to develop and share distilled learning and best practices.

This report is an attempt to check the competency level and study the status of the Knowledge management in this organization. The report starts with Introduction of the Company, its achievements and then elaborates the concept of competency mapping and Knowledge Management; in KRIBHCO, and data analysis and interpretation on the basis of perception of employees.

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CONTENTS

Declaration Acknowledgement Preface Executive Summary

2 3 4 5

……………………………………………………………………………………………………… Company Profile 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Competency Mapping An Introduction to Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Knowledge Management Roles and Organizational Structure Why Knowledge Management An Overview of Knowledge Process Barriers for implementing Knowledge Management Challenges for HR Professionals in Knowledge Industry Research Methodology Data Analysis and Interpretation Questionnaire Research Findings Suggestions Conclusion 21 27 29 34 39 40 41 43 47 49 78 84 86 87

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Introduction to Fertilizer Industry

India lives in villages” said Mahatma Gandhi decades ago. It is true even today. Like every developing economy, the economy of India is also agro-based. Agriculture accounts for nearly 1/4th of India's GDP and more importantly, about 2/3rd of the country's population is dependent on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. As per statistics nearly 175 lakh MT of fertilizer nutrients are required every year in this country. The demand of fertilizers was so high that India had to import almost 30% of its requirement from other countries. Therefore, to achieve the economic growth, agriculture base of the country must be strengthened. To attain this objective, agriculture practices have to be improved from their traditional pattern to a higher technological track involving better irrigation and use of better quality seeds, fertilizers, insecticides & pesticides. Therefore, chemical fertilizers are key player in this process and fertilizer industries plays quite a major role in increasing food production in the country and also helps to modernize the out look of the common farmers and make them innovative and respective to the new technology change. A fertilizer is any material, organic, inorganic, natural or synthetic, that is placed on or incorporated into the soil to supply plants with one or more of the chemicals elements necessary for normal growth. Fertilizer is the material, which supplies the chemicals elements required for plant growth. Primary nutrients like nitrogen, phosphates and potassium (required for fertilizer land) are supplied through chemical fertilizer. Fertilizer response studies have proved that one kg. of fertilizer nutrient application can the food grain production by 8-10 kg. Fertilizer production is of permanent importance for this country because fertilizer increases agriculture productivity. One hand population increasing but on the other the supply of -7-

land is totally fixed. So we have to produce more without any increase in arable land area. This can be done if productivity goes up. And fertilizer plays a major role in productivity escalation. As this is a vital commodity it is in the interest of nation that farmers get fertilizers at reasonable rate and in adequate quantity. Looking to the poor economic condition of Indian farmers Government of India framed fertilizer policy in 1977 based on Maratha committee report. The purpose behind introducing this policy was to supply fertilizer to resource poor at a price they could afford, so as to increase the consumption of fertilizer, to increase food production, and ensure fair return to fertilizer producers. With this twin objective, Retention Price Scheme (RPS) for fertilizers came into picture. In this scheme government has brought the fertilizer under the preview of Essential Commodities Act (ECA) in which the retail price of fertilizer to the farmer is notified by the Government of India from time to time. This retail price to the farmer is uniform throughout the country and is subject to local taxes applicable under the respective States. Further under ECA, the government also operates a system of distribution control in which the manufacturers including the handling agents for the imported fertilizers are directed to sell specified quantities of fertilizers in given states/union territories. While doing so, the logistics of fertilizer distribution including storage, transportation, handling etc. are also suitably regulated conforming to overall supply plans of the government to meet the requirement in all the parts of the Country. Now manufacturers also should get reasonable rate of return as all incentive for producing fertilizers. Manufacturers should get at least that much, which call enable them to remain in the industry. Government of India fixes the price of fertilizers in such a way that manufacturer's cost of production including cost of marketing is covered and the manufacturer gets a 12% post tax return on net worth of the unit at a pre-defined capacity utilization. Norms are fixed for consumption of raw material, utilities, services, capacity utilization, depreciation etc. The price so fixed is called Retention Price (RP). This price is reviewed every three years. In a nutshell fertilizers can not be sold in open markets and producing unit has almost nil say in fixing fertilizer price. Then how to increase profits? By operating plant efficiently only.

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The work of administering the Retention Price Scheme (RPS) is entrusted to Fertilizer Industry Co-ordination Committee (FICC) which works under the control of department of chemicals and fertilizers.

Growth of Fertilizer Industry
One of the most significant achievement of the post Independence period of our country has been the ability to achieve self-sufficiency in food grain production. This achievement is due to the rapid growth and improvement of Fertilizer industry. The Fertilizer industry is growing at the rate of 4% for the last 10 years and has been contributing a significant part of G.D.P. The growth and importance of Fertilizer industry in India can be divided in to three distinct phases, these are given below. 1. Pro Green Revolution Period: This period is described in 1952-1953 era where increased growth of food grains took place however this increased production in food grains took place due to increased irrigation methods. In this phase the land under agriculture was made more, during this period about 80% of the country's population was involved in Agriculture either directly or indirectly. During this period the fertilizer's which were manufactured were Super Phosphate & Ammonium Sulphate. Irrigation was thought to be heart of Agriculture. 2. Green Revolution Period: During this phase Government stated the programme aimed at making our country self sufficient in Food Products. This was the period between the years 1959-1960. This plan laid the emphasis on production of High Yielding Varieties. To make this plan a success there was a high need to make soil fertile by providing it with nutrients like Phosphorus, Nitrogen and Potassium. During this phase Fertilizer industry tried to play a vital role, became one of the most important, and inherits part of our economy. 3. The Post Green Revolution Period: The world's population along with Indian population has kept on growing at a alarming rate, the fertilizer companies all over India are trying to expand their scale of operations in order to increase the production rate. The demand for fertilizers per year is increasing. The current demand of fertilizers in India is 18 million tones.

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Fertilizer Industry Scenario in India
In India, First of all in 1906, A Single Super Phosphate (SSP) manufacturing unit was set up at Ranipat near Chennai (Madras) with annual capacity of 6000 tones per annum. 1. Public Sector The Fertilizer And Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACT) Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Ltd. (HFC) Madras Fertilizer Ltd. (MFL) Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL) Naively Lignite Corporation Ltd. (NLC) Pyrites, Phosphates And Chemicals Ltd. (PPCL) Pradeep Phosphates Ltd. (PPL) Rashtriya Chemicals And Fertilizers Ltd. (RCFL) National Fertilizer Ltd. (NFL) 2. Co-Operative Sector There are only two fertilizer manufacturing societies in Co-operative sector. Indian Farmers Fertilizers Co-Operative Ltd. (IFFCO) Krishak Bharati Co-Operative Ltd. (KRIBHCO) 3. Private Sector There are 17 companies in private sector, which are producing fertilizer. Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizer Co. Ltd. (GNFC) Hindustan Lever Ltd. (HLL) Hari Fertilizer ICI India Ltd. Indo Gulf Fertilizers & Chemicals Corporation Ltd. Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd. (MCFL) Southern Petro Chemicals Industries Corporations Ltd. Nagarjuna Fertilizer & Chemical Ltd. (NFCL)

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Shri Ram Fertilizer & Chemicals Ltd. Tuticorian Alkali Chemicals & Fertilizer Ltd. Zuari Agro Chemicals Ltd. Bindali Agro Chemicals Ltd. Chambal Fertilizer & Petrochemical Corporations Ltd. (DEPCL) E.D.I. PASSY (I) LTD. Gujarat State Fertilizer Company (GSFC)

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Krishak Bharti Co-operative Limited

“KRIBHCO” the world’s premier fertilizer producing co-operative has an outstanding track record to its credit in all spheres of its actives. Since 17th April 1980 as a rational level Co-operative society to manufacturing and distribute. Chemical fertilizer and allied farm imputes “KRIBHCO” imbibed the co-operative philosophy fulfilling its commitment to strengthening and promoting the cause of agriculture development and co-operative movements in the country. Krishak Bharti co-operative limited popularly known as “KRIBHCO” has been registered as national level co-operative society under the provision of the multi-state cooperative societies act, 1984. The”KRIBHCO” hazira unit is located around 15 kms, west of Surat and lies on the north of river Tapti. An all weather road from Surat to hazira connects the plant site with the city. The cannel belonging to irrigation department is running on the plant site and is feeding water from ukai. A railway feeder line apporx.. 55 kms. Long has connected the site with Bombay –Ahmedabad main line.

KRIBHCO Network: A. Head office: - fertilizer plant, Noida, Delhi B. (i) Plant: - Surat Gujarat

(ii) Bio fertilizer plant: - Surat (Gujarat) (iii) Seed processing plant: - Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, haryana, M.P. Punjab, Rajasthan,

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U.P. (For Punjab&Haryana) C. Zonal offices: - Bhopal, Bangalore, Lucknow and Chandigarh. D. State mktg. offices: - Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Chennai, Mumbai, Banglore, Patna, Lucknow, Chandigarh, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Dehradun, Kolkota

Besides marketing its products “KRIBHCO” carries out various other programmed like farmers benefit programmed, sanket Haran bima yojana, marketing of BVFCL (Brahmputra valley fertilizer corporation limited) vred seed multiplication programmer, gramin vikas trust (rural development trust)

A cooperative thrives on the trust of, its members. Membership of “KRIBHCO” is open to government of India, national state and district and village level cooperative society. At the initial stage, way back in june, 1981 the total membership in ”KRIBHCO” was only 221 cooperative societies which rose significantly to 6044 cooperative societies as on march 31,2005 as against 5790 as on march 31 2004. Phenomenal progress made by the society becomes a testimony to the ever-increasing membership over the years. The total paid up share capital as on March 31, 2005 was rs.39, 354.15 lakh as against rs.49, 170.72lakh in the previous year. During the current financial year, the society has refunded share capital of rs.9700 lakh to “IFFCO” and government of India respectively .the state –wise membership with share capital contribution as on March 31,2005 vis-à-vis march 31 2004.

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MISSION: A) B) C) To contribute to agriculture &rural development in the regins. Services to members of cooperatives society by selecting financing Managing society desirable and commercial profitable investment

opportunity preferable at multiple locations.

VISION:-

They want to be a world class organization that represents the farmer community and maximizes returns to them through specialization in agricultural inputs and products and other diversified businesses that maximize stakeholder value.

OBJECTIVES: -

a) To undertake the activities for the rural upliftment and agriculture development.

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b) To promote economic interest of its members by undertaking manufacturing of chemical fertilizer & allied product. In furtherance of these objectives “KRIBHCO” may undertake one or more of the following activities: (I) To undertake production processing, manufacture, sale distribution, marketing, import export and to otherwise deal in agriculture production requisites. (II) To set up storage units for storing fertilizer and other goods by itself or in collaboration with other agency. (III) To act as warehousing agency under the warehousing act and own godowns or hire godowns for the storage of fertilizers and other goods.

AWARDS: The excellence performance of the society has brought a number of laurels from various organizations .The awards received during year were as follows: (I) National productivity council has awarded productivity award the society for bio fertilizer product for the year 1999-2000, 2001-2002 in the year 2003-2004. (II) Certificate of merit by public relations society of India, Hyderabad chapter for house journal of “KRIBHCO” (III) (IV) Best technical innovative award for the year 2003 by fertilizer association of India. Certificate of merit Gujarat safety council for relining 30 lakh accident free manhours. (V) Hazira ammonia extension project (HAEP) rotating shield winner and certificate for lowest disabling injury index in group-c industries. (VI) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Agriculture and Technical University, Meerut – All India Farmers Fair And agro Industrial Exhibition – First Prize To Kribhco on 10-03-2005.

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(VII) Kribhco has won first prize for Bio-Fertilizer Production, Marketing And Promotion Award For the year 2003 And 2004 by National Productivity Council (NPC). Award Has been given formal function held on 10 th May,.2005 by Honble Minister For Agriculture Shri Shard Pawar Ji. (VIII) Special Participation Award in Corporate Sector Event “ Vyapar 2005” Event Organized By Southern Gujarat Chamber OF Commerce And Industries From February 11 – 16, 2005, the theme of pavilion was “ Development OF BioTechnology In Kribhco “

HISTORY OF KRIBHCO: Encourage with the successful operation of fertilizer plant of Kalul, Kandla and Phulpur in the co-operative Limited. (IFFCO) higher to the one and the only co-operative in the fertilizer industry has promoted another co-operative namely “KRIBHCO” Ltd to made the new giant plant of Hazira. MILE STONES: (I) Project zero Date : 31/03/1981 5/02/1982 31/03/1985 26/11/1985 1/3/1986 Urea 99% Ammonia95% (VII) Plant ready of production (VIII) Gas available by ONGC : : January/September 1985 PHASE 1 & PHASE 2 18-9-85 (IX) Trial production Ammonia : 6-11-85

(II) Foundation stone laid by Smt. Indira Gandhi : (III) Project completion (IV) Plan completion (V) Commercial production (VI)Percent capacity utilization : : : :

PHASE 1 & PHASE 2 14-11-85 30-11-85 13-12-85 01-12-85

Urea

(stream 11/31)

26-11-85 31-12-85

Ammonia (stream 21/41)

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(X) ISO certificate

(I)

KRIBHCO plant ISO 9001-2000

(II)

KRIBHCO plant ISO 14001

(III) KRIBHCO Mktg office ISO 9001-2000

DEPARTMENT AND MANPOWERS AT “KRIBHCO”

Director Financing & Accounting Vigilance Training HR Security Material Medical Mechanical Transportation Fire safety Instrument Electrical & civil Ms System Laboratory Production Technical Total Manpower

05 49 01 09 58 72 50 31 172 39 29 69 88 13 35 365 27 1112

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PERFORMANCE HIGHLIGHT
Highest Production Urea Highest Dispatch Of Urea Lowest Urea Energy Consumption Lowest Ammonia Energy Consumption Highest Production of Seeds Highest Sales Of Seeds Highest Sales Of Bio-Fertilizers Highest KBSK’s Turnover Highest KBSK’s Profitability Profit Before Tax Profit After Tax Proposed Dividend 18.06 Lakh mt (Previous Best 17.73 Lakh mt, 2003-2004) 18.05 Lakh mt (Previous Best 17.85 Lakh mt, 2003-2004) 5.861 G.Cal/mt (Previous Best 5.886 G.Cal/mt, 2003-2004) 8.204 G.Cal/mt (Previous Best 8.222 G.Cal/mt, 2003-2004) 1.54 Lakh Qtls (Previous Best 1.21 lakh Qtls, 2003-2004) 1.49 Lakh Qtls (Previous Best 1.11 Lakh Qtls, 2003-2004) 611 mt (Previous Best 516 mt, 2003-2004) Rs.3608 Lakh (Previous Best Rs.3052 Lakh , 2003-2004) Rs.72.91Lakh (Previous Best Rs.29.91Lakh , 2003-2004) Rs.183.83 Crores Rs.140.59 Crores 20 %

QUALITY POLICY Management of KRIBHCO, Hazira plant is committed to operate and maintain its fertilizer manufacturing complex through quality assurance, environmental protection and to the satisfaction of customers. KRIBHCO, Hazira plant shall achieve this quality policy through following objectives: 1. Continually upgrading technology to improve plant efficiency & reliability. 2. Maintaining & improving the safety & environmental performance. 3. Improving the skills & knowledge of personnel. 4. Continuously improving the quality Management system.

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FUTURE PLANS
A joint venture fertilizer project in Oman: Society has invested US$ 80 million as equity in Oman India Fertilizer plant which has achieved commercial production on 14th July 2005. The Project has annual capacity of 16.52 lakhs MT Urea and 2.50 lakhs MT surplus ammonia and has been built at a cost of US$ 969 million. Marketing of Urea produced by this plant has since been commenced by the society. Hazira Phase-II Society is in the process of setting up a state of the art mega size ammonia plant of capacity of 1850 MTDP and urea plant of capacity of 3250 MTDP at existing fertilizer complex at Hazira. Existing infrastructure facilities will be utilized resulting in saving of cost. Plant will be based on natural gas and we have energy consumption. Gujarat state energy generation limited (GSEG) Society has diversified to power sector and has invested Rs. 48.75 crores being 30% equity in Gujarat State Energy Generation Limited, a joint venture company promoted by government of Gujarat, GSEG is operating 156 MW Power Plant at Mora, District Surat. KRIBHCO’s Hazira plant is also going to be expanded. The society is also exploring the possibilities to set up a 200 MW liquid fuel based power project at Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan. Society has deposited a development security of Rs.25 lakhs with Rajasthan State Electricity Board (RSEB). Minister of power has given No Objection Certificate (NOC).

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ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF KRIBHCO
Government of India Ministry of Agriculture Department of fertilizer & Chemical Chairman Board of Directors Managing Director Operational Director

GM (P) JGM (P) CM (P)

GM
(Material)

GM (F&A) JGM (F&A) CM (F&A)

GM (P&A) JGM (P&A) CM (P&A)

GM (Tech) JGM (Tech) CM (Tech)

GM (Mai.)

CM (MIS)

JGM
(Material)

JGM (Maintain) CM (Maintain) Instrument Electrical Mechanic Civil

CM
(Material)

Ammonia Urea Power PHP Transportation Purchase Store

Process Project F&S Laboratory

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COMPETENCY MAPPING
In today’s competitive market, companies are aware that their workforce must be properly trained and fully competent over a range of tasks within any given work discipline. Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one’s strengths as an individual worker and in some cases, as part of an organization. It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of the individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making. Large organizations frequently employ some form of competency mapping to understand how to most effectively employ the competencies of strengths of workers. They may also use competency mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in different workers to produce the most effective teams and the highest quality work. Competency mapping can also be done for contract or freelance workers, or for those seeking employment to emphasize the specific skills which would make them valuable to a potential employer. Competency mapping also requires some thought, time, and analysis, and some people simply may not want to do the work involved to sufficiently map competencies. Competency mapping alone may not produce accurate results unless one is able to detach from the results in analyzing past successes and failures. Many studies find that people often overestimate their abilities, making self-competency mapping results dubious. The value of competency mapping and identifying emotional strengths is that many employers now purposefully screen employees to hire people with specific competencies. They may need to hire someone who can be an effective time leader or who has demonstrated great active listening skills. Alternately, they may need someone who enjoys taking initiative or someone who is very good at taking direction. When individuals must seek new jobs, knowing one’s competencies can give one a competitive edge in the job market. Usually, a person will find themselves with strengths in about five to six areas. Sometimes an area where strengths are not present is worth developing. In other cases, competency mapping can indicate finding work that is suited to one’s strengths, or finding a department at one’s current work where one's strengths or needs as a worker can be exercised. A problem with competency mapping, especially when conducted by an organization is that there may be no room for an individual to work in a field that would best make use of his or her competencies. If the company does not respond to competency mapping by reorganizing its employees, then it can be of little short-term benefit and may actually result in greater unhappiness on the part of individual employees. A person identified as needing to learn new things in order to remain happy might find himself or herself in a position where no new training is ever required. If the employer cannot provide a position for an employee that fits him or her better, competency mapping may be of little use.

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However, competency mapping can ultimately serve the individual who decides to seek employment in an environment where he or she perhaps can learn new things and be more intellectually challenged. Being able to list competencies on resumes and address this area with potential employers may help secure more satisfying work. This may not resolve issues for the company that initially employed competency mapping, without making suggested changes. It may find competency mapping has produced dissatisfied workers or led to a high worker turnover rate. Competency also means the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual’s behavior. Competencies in organizations tend to fall into two broad categories:

- Personal Functioning Competencies. These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors). - Functional/Technical Competencies. These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry. Three other definitions are needed:

• Competency Map. A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs, departments, organizations, or industries that are part of the individual’s current career plan. • Competency Mapping. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role. • Top Competencies. Top competencies are the vital few competencies (four to seven, on average) that are the most important to an individual in their ongoing career management process. “Importance to the individual” is an intuitive decision based on a combination of three factors: past demonstrated excellence in using the competency, inner passion for using the competency, and the current or likely future demand for the competency in the individual’s current position or targeted career field. Although the definition above for “competency mapping” refers to individual employees, organizations also “map” competencies, but from a different perspective. Organizations describe, or map, competencies using one or more of the following four strategies: 1. Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success)

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2. Job Family or Business Unit Competency Sets 3. Position-Specific Competency Sets 4. Competency Sets Defined Relative to the Level of Employee Contribution (i.e. Individual Contributor, Manager, or Organizational Leader)

How can it help the overall HRD process of an organization?
Competency is a vehicle for organizational HRD applications such as:

• Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization. • Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles. • • Mapping Assigning succession compensation possibilities grades for and employees levels to within particular the jobs organization. and roles.

• Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques ETC.

Why

Should Individual

Employees

Map Their

Competencies?

A list of compelling reasons includes, at a minimum, the following. An individual: • Gains a clearer sense of true marketability in today’s job market; once the individual knows how his/her competencies compare to those that are asked for by the job market in key positions of interest.

• Projects an appearance as a “cutting-edge” and well-prepared candidate, who has taken the time to learn about competencies, investigate those in demand, and map his/her own competencies prior to interviewing. • Demonstrates self-confidence that comes from knowing one’s competitive advantages more convincingly, and from being able to articulate those advantages in specific language. • Secures essential input to resume development - a set of important terms to use in describing expertise derived from prior career experience. • Gains advanced preparation for interviews, many of which may be delivered using a competency- based approach called “structured behavioral interviewing” or “behavioral event interviewing.” • Develops the capability to compare one’s actual competencies to an organization or position’s required/preferred competencies, in order to create an Individual Development Plan.

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How Do Competencies Relate to MANPOWER PLANNING?
COMPETENCE MAPPING PROVIDES THE MANPOWER PROFILE -1. Organization-Wide (often called “core competencies” or those required for organization success) 2. Job Family or Business Unit Competency PROFILE 3. Position-Specific Competency PROFILE 4.INDIVIDUAL profile. THE ANALYSIS OF THESE INDICATES TO THE MANPOWER PLANNERS -required manpower / competency profiles -current availability of manpower / competency profiles -estimated gap in manpower / competency . THIS INFORMATION [COMPETENCY] IS USED BY MANPOWER PLANNERS IN -Recruitment/Section Process -Training -Development Since competency mapping provides database information for manpower planning they are closely linked -without competency mapping it is not possible to complete a successful effective manpower planning.

How Does Competency-Based Interviewing and Selection Work?
Competency-based interviewing and selection presupposes that a set of organization-wide, job family/department, or position-specific competencies have been identified by the organization. Interviewers are then trained in the art of Structured Behavioral Interviewing, which has several hallmarks: A structured set of questions is used to interview all candidates. Each question is designed to elicit behavioral examples from the candidate which demonstrate the use of one or more key behaviors underlying each competency that is accounted for in the interview. A team of interviewers is usually used and they typically divide the list of competencies among themselves so that each interviewer can focus on asking the related detailed behavioral questions and documenting candidate responses. Interviewers typically ask open-ended and situation-based questions such as, “Think of a specific time when you faced ____________? How did you handle the situation? How did it turn out?” Interviewers record evidence of behaviors that the candidate relates, and they ask probing questions to gather complete behavioral evidence that includes details of the circumstance, the actions taken by the candidate, and the results achieved. This process is called the CAR

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(circumstance, action, results) Model. At the conclusion of the interview, all interviewers of a particular candidate meet and compare the behaviors they heard from the candidate that support the assertion that the candidate possesses a specific competency. If the candidate did not offer specific examples with relevant behaviors, after additional attempts at rephrasing the question or asking different but related questions, then the determination is made that the candidate does not possess the competency. The underlying philosophy here is that the best predictor of future performance is past performance that was demonstrated by concrete, observable behavior. A final hiring decision is made based on the total strength of competencies demonstrated by each candidate, compared with those competencies that are considered essential for success in the position and in the organization, and as compared with the competency strengths of the remaining candidates for the same position.

COMPETENCY MAPPING IS HR TOOL USED IN
-Recruitment /Selection -Training/Development -Performance Management -Career Planning/Development -Succession Planning -Manpower Planning -Human Resource Development -Human Resource Planning -Human Resource Strategic Planning. etc

How Do Competencies Relate to Individual Career Development?
First and foremost, competencies must be demonstrated by individuals. Perhaps the most common place where they are demonstrated is within the scope of a particular job or project involvement. However, competencies are also developed and demonstrated by individuals in the following settings: volunteer roles in the community, professional associations, school projects, sports participation settings, and even within one’s own home life. One of the first encounters with competencies for most individuals is in securing employment with a new organization. Organizations that are purposefully using cutting-edge methods to choose talent for positions or project roles are engaging in what is called “competency-based interviewing and selection”. These interviewing and selection methods are being used not only for hiring external applicants, but also for staffing internal roles. Many organizations that use competency-based interviewing and selection are also later using the same competencies to assess performance, to encourage future development plans from individuals, and to plan for succession in the organization. Therefore, the individual employees in such an organization will have an ongoing need to use and map their competencies.

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Up to this point, it is implied that the main need for identifying and mapping competencies is for individuals who may be pursuing full-time employment with an organization. However, the need for mapping of competencies also extends to independent contractors seeking project work with those organizations that broker their services.

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AN INTRODUCTION TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. Philosophical debates in general start with Plato's formulation of knowledge as "justified true belief". There is however no single agreed definition of knowledge presently, or any prospect of one, and there remain numerous competing theories. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception, learning,

communication, association and reasoning. The term knowledge is also used to mean the confident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose.

Reliable knowledge
The knowledge based on the logical considerations and scientific calculations is known as reliable knowledge. The degree of reliability is high regarding the information here, hence known as reliable knowledge.

Communicating knowledge
Symbolic representations can be used to indicate meaning and can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include imitation, narrative exchange along with a range of other methods. There is no complete theory of knowledge transfer or communication.

Situated knowledge
Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation. Some methods of generating knowledge, such as trial and error, or learning from experience, tend to create highly situational - 27 -

knowledge. One of the main benefits of the scientific method is that the theories it generates are much less situational than knowledge gained by other methods. Situational knowledge is often embedded in language, culture, or traditions. Knowledge generated through experience is called knowledge "a posteriori", meaning afterwards. The pure existence of a term like "a posteriori" means this also has a counterpart. In this case that is knowledge "a priori", meaning before. The knowledge prior to any experience means that there are certain "assumptions" that one takes for granted. For example if one is being told about a chair it is clear to him that the chair is in space, that it is 3D. This knowledge is not knowledge that one can "forget", even someone suffering from amnesia experiences the world in 3D.

Partial knowledge
One discipline of epistemology focuses on partial knowledge. In most realistic cases, it is not possible to have an exhaustive understanding of an information domain, so then we have to live with the fact that our knowledge is always not complete, that is, partial. Most real problems have to be solved by taking advantage of a partial understanding of the problem context and problem data. That is very different from the typical simple math problems that we solve at school, where all data are given and we have a perfect understanding of formulas necessary to solve them.

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Knowledge management is a management theory which emerged in the 1990s. It seeks to understand the way in which knowledge is created, used and shared within organizations. A significant part of Knowledge Management theory and practice aligns two models: (i) The DIKW model, which places data, information, knowledge and wisdom into an increasingly useful pyramid. (ii) Nonaka's reformulation of Polanyi's distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge.

Both of these models are increasingly under challenge with different schools of thought emerging which are more fully described and referenced in the main article. An objective of mainstream knowledge management is to ensure that the right information is delivered to the right person just in time, in order to take the most appropriate decision. In that sense, knowledge management is not interested in managing knowledge per se, but to relate knowledge and its usage. This leads to Organizational Memory Systems. More recent developments have focused on managing networks (the flow of knowledge rather than knowledge itself) and narrative forms of knowledge exchange. Knowledge Management ('KM') comprises a range of practices used by organizations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge. It has been an established discipline since 1995 with a body of university courses and both professional and academic journals dedicated to it. Most large companies have resources dedicated to Knowledge Management, often as a part of 'Information Technology' or 'Human Resource Management' departments, and sometimes reporting directly to the head of the organization. As effectively managing information is a must in any business, and knowledge and information are intertwined, Knowledge Management is a multi-billion dollar worldwide market. HR has a key role in the KM movement. Key HR processes- corporate education, performance management and nurturing culture, have a key role in the development of the knowledge based enterprise.

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Sustainable competitive advantage a firm has come from what it “collectively knows,” how effectively it uses what it knows and how readily it “acquires and uses new knowledge,” in short by becoming a Knowledge Driven Organization. Knowledge Management (KM) provides an enabling framework to derive this advantage. It helps institutionalize processes to fully leverage the “collective knowledge” in an organization.

Knowledge management refers to all systematic activities for creation and sharing of knowledge so that knowledge can be used for the success of the organization. KM processes provide a framework for connecting people to people and people to information, to develop and share distilled learning and best practices.

Approaches to Knowledge Management
There is a broad range of thought on Knowledge Management with no unanimous definition. The approaches vary by author and school. Knowledge Management may be viewed from each of the following perspectives:  Techno-centric: A focus on technology, ideally those that enhance knowledge sharing/growth.  Organizational: How does the organization need to be designed to facilitate knowledge processes? Which organizations work best with what processes?  Ecological: Seeing the interaction of people, identity, knowledge and environmental factors as a complex adaptive system. In addition, as the discipline is maturing, there is an increasing presence of academic debates within epistemology emerging in both the theory and practice of knowledge management.

Key concepts in Knowledge Management
Dimensions of knowledge A key distinction made by the majority of knowledge management practitioners is Nonaka's reformulation of Polanyi's distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge. The former is often

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subconscious, internalized, and the individual may or may not be aware of what he or she knows and how he or she accomplishes particular results. At the opposite end of the spectrum is conscious or explicit knowledge -- knowledge that the individual holds explicitly and consciously in mental focus, and may communicate to others. In the popular form of the distinction, tacit knowledge is what is in our heads, and explicit knowledge is what we have codified. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) argued that a successful KM program needs, on the one hand, to convert internalized tacit knowledge into explicit codified knowledge in order to share it, but, on the other hand, it also must permit individuals and groups to internalize and make personally meaningful codified knowledge they have retrieved from the KM system. The focus upon codification and management of explicit knowledge has allowed knowledge management practitioners to appropriate prior work in information management, leading to the frequent accusation that knowledge management is simply a repackaged form of information management. Another common framework for categorizing the dimensions of knowledge include embedded knowledge (knowledge which has been incorporated into an artifact of some type, for example an information system may have knowledge embedded into its design) and embodied knowledge (representing knowledge as learned capability of the body’s nervous, chemical, and sensory systems).

Knowledge access stages
Knowledge may be accessed at three stages: before, during, or after knowledge-related activities. For example, individuals undertaking a new project for an organization might access information resources to identify lessons learned for similar projects, access relevant information again during the project implementation to seek advice on issues encountered, and access relevant information afterwards for advice on after-project actions and review activities. Knowledge management practitioners offer systems, repositories, and corporate processes to encourage and formalize these activities with varying degrees of success.

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Similarly, knowledge may be accessed before the project implementation, for example as the project team learns lessons during the initial project analysis. Similarly, lessons learned during the project operation may be recorded, and after-action reviews may lead to further insights and lessons being recorded for future access. Note: In this context recording knowledge relates only to those aspects of knowledge which can be codified as text, or drawings. Different organizations have tried various knowledge capture incentives, including making content submission mandatory and incorporating rewards into performance measurement plans. There is considerable controversy over whether incentives work or not in this field and no firm consensus has emerged.

Drivers of Knowledge Management
There are a number of claims as to 'drivers', or motivations, leading to organizations undertaking a knowledge management program. Perhaps first among these is to gain the competitive advantage (in industry) and/or increased effectiveness that comes with improved or faster learning and new knowledge creation. Knowledge management programs may lead to greater innovation, better customer experiences, consistency in good practices and knowledge access across a global organization, as well as many other benefits, and knowledge management programs may be driven with these goals in mind. Considerations driving a Knowledge Management program might include:

making available increased knowledge content in the development and provision of products and services

   

achieving shorter new product development cycles facilitating and managing organizational innovation and learning leverage the expertise of people across the organization benefiting from 'network effects' as the number of productive connections between employees in the organization increases and the quality of information shared increases, leading to greater employee and team satisfaction

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managing the proliferation of data and information in complex business environments and allowing employees rapidly to access useful and relevant knowledge resources and best practice guidelines

managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the workforce (such as the expertise and know-how possessed by key individuals) as individuals retire and new workers are hired.

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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ROLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Knowledge management activities may be centralized in a Knowledge Management Office, or responsibility for knowledge management may be located in existing departmental functions, such as the Human Resource (to manage intellectual capital) or IT departments (for content management, social computing etc.). Different departments and functions may have a knowledge management function and those functions may not be connected other than informally.

 Personal knowledge management
Personal knowledge management (PKM) is a label for the effort to integrate personal information management (PIM), focused on individual skills, with knowledge management (KM), which takes an organizational perspective, in light of expanding knowledge about human cognitive capabilities and the permeability of organizational boundaries. Focus on Individual Knowledge Worker PKM is focused on personal productivity improvement for knowledge workers in this environment. While the focus is the individual, the goal of PKM is to enable individuals to operate better in both in formal organizations and in looser work groupings. This is as opposed to the traditional view of KM, which appears to be more centered on enabling the corporation to be more effective by "recording" and making available what its people know. A core focus of PKM is 'personal inquiry', a quest to find, connect, learn, and explore. PKM is a response to the idea that knowledge workers increasingly need to be responsible for their own growth and learning. They need processes and tools by which they can evaluate what they know in a given situation, and then seek out ways to fill the gaps when needed. This frequently implies technology, but one can be good at PKM without much in the way of special tools.

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 Connections to Organizations and Groups
PKM has recently been linked to social book marking, blogging or knowledge logs (K-logs). The idea is individuals use their blogs to capture ideas, opinions or thoughts and this 'voicing' will encourage cognitive diversity, promote free exchanges away from a centralized policed knowledge repository that is additional to ordinary work. Some organizations are now introducing PKM 'systems' with some or all of four components:

Just-in-time Canvassing - templates and e-mail canvassing lists that enable people looking for experts or expertise to identify and connect with the appropriate people quickly and effectively

Knowledge Harvesting - software tools that automatically collect appropriate knowledge residing on subject matter experts' hard drives rather than waiting for it to be contributed to central repositories

Personal Content Management - taxonomy processes and desktop search tools that enable employees to organize, subscribe to, publish and find information that resides on their own desktops

Personal Productivity Improvement - knowledge fairs and one-on-one training sessions to help each employee make more effective personal use of the knowledge, learning and technology resources available to them, in the context of their own work

 PKM Skills
Skills associated with personal knowledge management.
  

Reflection. Continuous improvement on how the individual operates. Manage learning. Manage how and when the individual learns. Information literacy. Understanding what information is important and how to find unknown information.

 

Organizational skills. Personal librarianship? Personal categorization and taxonomies. Networking with others. Knowing what your network of people knows. Knowing who might have additional knowledge and resources to help you - 35 -

Researching, paying attention, interviewing and observational 'cultural anthropology' skills

 

Communication skills. Perception, intuition, expression, visualization, and interpretation. Creative skills. Imagination, pattern recognition, appreciation, innovation, inference. Understanding of complex adaptive systems.

Collaboration skills. Coordination, synchronization, experimentation, cooperation, and design.

 KM concepts
The Knowledge management discourse has adopted, invented and refined concepts from a wide range of disciplines and practices. There follows a list of concepts and language in use in the field. At the moment there is no clear consensus on what is or is not a core concept. The ordering of the list has no significance. Some knowledge of these terms and their background could be summarized as what one should know to be considered a proficient KM adviser and knowledge worker

Corporate memory - a collection of best practices, heuristics, process documents and other texts that help define how a business operates. (Related terms: organizational memory or group memory). Capturing, maintaining, and growing a knowledge base, selecting appropriate technologies, and motivating quality contributions are all key KM themes.

Intellectual capital - the intangible assets of a firm. These include competencies, culture and connections that enable and foster innovation, agility, awareness, adaptation and corporate survival. KM plays a role in mapping, recording, evaluating, stewarding, marketing and growing intellectual capital and knowledge assets.

Personal knowledge management - a KM theme that focuses on individual responsibility for learning, connecting, organizing and producing knowledge. This is closely tied to blogging, personal information management and branding.

tacit knowledge

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knowledge harvesting business intelligence knowledge transfer social capital social networking, Knowledge Ecosystems Knowledge representation DIKW (data / information / knowledge / wisdom) codification vs. personalization - the trade-off between capture and storage of explicit information and making connections to people who know as well as to acquire external knowledge yourself.

Exploration vs. exploitation - Exploration focuses on discovery, opening up to new concepts and ideas. Exploitation as it says is making those ideas work in practice. The general argument is that you cannot focus on both at the same time, but that both are necessary in a system

Practice vs. process - the balance between informal learning and strictly defined repeatable activities. .

After action reviews (AARs) - learning by gathering participants after completion of a significant project, exploring, reflecting, recording advances and mistakes.

Peer reviews - inviting colleagues who have experience with similar projects to share their tips, tricks and lessons learned before starting out.

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Knowledge mapping & audits - discovering opportunities, knowledge gaps and charting flows. A survey to understand where current knowledge is created and who needs it.

Lessons learned (learning histories) - a systematic review of failures and successes conducted by a neutral party.

Narrative - growing in use in KM based on an adoption of "we always know more than we say" to add "and we always say more than we can write down”. The use of narrative is growing in knowledge management as an alternative to content management and CoP and is linked in part to social computing.

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WHY KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT?
In this competitive knowledge economy, our most valuable asset is the knowledge asset. It is often said that, in this economy it is not what “we own,” but what “we know”. That would give us the competitive advantage. We must therefore, quickly learn the strategies and management techniques of knowledge Age. In short, we must adopt practice of knowledge management to strengthen our competitive advantage.

KM provides an enabling framework to leverage “collective knowledge.” When KM becomes “the way we work, it helps us deliver on strategic priorities and business goals – growth, innovation, speed of response, quality of response, faster time to market, strengthen organizational learning, protect functional and operational excellence in a dis-aggregated organizational structure.

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AN OVERVIEW OF KNOWLEDGE PROCESSES
The key knowledge management processes are:

Linking people to people in teams through formal/informal structures, for them to effectively share knowledge.

A community of Practice (CoP) is one such useful structure. In large organizations with geographical spread, multiple business units, businesses, organizational silos are likely to constrain effective knowledge of the enterprise. Communities of practice (knowledge communities or teams) formed around core competencies of the company help overcome this constraint.

A CoP is a team of people who are practitioners of a well-defined knowledge domain (Packaging, engineering, sales etc.) who come together to capture, create and share relevant knowledge, in pursuit of business excellence. Such a team is empowered to develop and deliver relevant training programs to build the capability in the knowledge domain.

Linking people to information/knowledge repositories/best practices.

Intranets with efficient search engines provide an effective way to connect people to knowledge repositories.

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BARRIERS FOR IMPLEMENTING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Conceptual/mindset related issues:

We need to create a culture of sharing. Often knowledge is seen as power and in a competitive environment there could be a tendency to hoard knowledge. Key to success of KM is creation of knowledge sharing culture and elimination of organizational and cultural barriers for communication. We should move from “hoarding of knowledge to gain power” to “sharing of knowledge to gain power.”

Operational issues:

Time – The typical executive is already hard pressed for time. He has no time for an additional initiative, if it is seen as a diversion from focus on immediate results. So, it is important to integrate KM into existing business processes in the company and embed into workflow. KM should not be seen as a separate initiative, but should be integrated into current workflow as a more effective way to achieve business results.

The experience of practitioners of KM demonstrates that it succeeds only when we are able to signal to employees, strong senior management endorsement for KM. Like all organizational transformation processes, KM needs to be led by senior management. Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organizational objectives and are intended to achieve specific outcomes, these can include, improved performance, competitive advantage innovation, lessons learnt transfer (for example between projects) and the general development of collaborative practices. One aspect of Knowledge Management, knowledge transfer, has always existed in one form or another. Examples include on-the-job peer discussions, formal apprenticeship, discussion

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forums, corporate libraries, professional training and mentoring programs. However, with computers becoming more widespread in the second half of the 20th century, specific adaptations of technology such as knowledge bases, expert systems, and knowledge repositories have been introduced to further simplify the process. Knowledge Management programs attempt to manage the process of creation (or identification), accumulation and application of knowledge across an organization. As such Knowledge Management is frequently linked to the idea of the learning organization although neither practice encompasses the other. Knowledge Management may be distinguished from Organizational Learning by a greater focus on specific knowledge assets and the development and cultivation of the channels through which knowledge flows. Frequent Knowledge Management practices include:

enabling organizational practices, such as Communities of Practice and corporate Yellow Page directories for accessing key personnel and expertise

enabling technologies such as knowledge bases and expert systems, help desks, corporate intranets and extranets, Content Management, wikis and Document Management

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CHALLENGES

FOR

HR

PROFESSIONALS

IN

THE

KNOWLEDGE INDUSTRY
“Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is progress; working together is success” The new millennium is here & this is definitely not a bad time for professionals to gear themselves up and think about the future, their future! It is time to plan, envision, prioritize and set goals for the new millennium. The challenge is not just in terms of updating technologies but also in terms of keeping young workforce motivated and challenged at all the time. This breed of young and energetic individuals is challenging a lot of the time-tested theories of employee recruitment, staffing, motivation and general HR practices. There are lots of challenges while recruiting these young bloods. They are as under:     Attract people with multidimensional experiences and skills. Infuse fresh blood in the organization. Develop a culture that attracts people. Design entry pay that competes on quality and not quantum.

Hence it follows that the role of HR will be:   To develop fully "self–expressed" individuals. To enable and facilitate their effective participation in teams.

We need to increase the credibility of HR within the organization that can be done by: a) Being accurate in all HR work b) Being predictable and maintaining consistency c) Meeting commitment to do what we say on time and within specified budget d) Being personally comfortable with peers, subordinates and superiors.

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 How then do HR processes and practices impact the knowledge sharing in a firm?
Some of the HR processes and practices that should be aligned to strengthen knowledge management are as follows:

Job rotations: Well-planned job (role) rotations across geographical locations and businesses in a firm help not only people development, but also provide an important vehicle for transfer of knowledge and best practices, even though an organization cannot obviously depend on this as the main source of knowledge transfer.

Networked organization : A networked organization with people playing multiple roles, being part of multiple teams- a vertical team (Business/category) as well a horizontal team (functional/knowledge domain), is the way forward to effectively “leverage collective knowledge” of an enterprise. HR should play a key role in developing such a networked organization, through sponsorship and or facilitation of knowledge communities, cutting across formal organizational silos.

Training: Learning and knowledge are inter-linked. Knowledge strategies should encompass learning initiatives and knowledge initiatives need to converge with training program needs to focus on functional and business specific skill development programs as well as competency development focused programs.

Knowledge communities (Teams), as the owners and users of the knowledge, should play an active role in developing suitable course material for the functional and business specific courses.

E – Learning is on line learning. It is made available through company web sites and even through CD – ROMs. It allows the learner to enroll in to courses or programs of

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their choice and acquire knowledge at their own pace at the place of their choice. Corporate online universities, exclusive learning space to induct managers or develop future leaders, ongoing programs for sales personnel and induction into new products and services are some of the e-learning offerings, some of the companies are making available to their employees to develop themselves. E- Learning provides the benefit of convenience—allows the learner to do the learning at his or her pace, flexibility –Learner does not have to sacrifice a training program because of its clash with customer or personal visit, and ease of learning. Experience in US / Europe seems to confirm that elearning also saves cost. As of now Band width might pose some constraints, but with fast changing IT infrastructure, even in India, this could offer interesting opportunities.

Another very useful role HR could play is to capture stories of success and failures in the company, archive them in the company training centre for reference for future. This would not only support learning but could prevent repeat same mistakes.

Culture Change: Leveraging collective knowledge is possible only when people value building on each other’s ideas and sharing their insights. Much of this shaped by the culture of the organization. In some cultures, where knowledge is seen as power, knowledge sharing may be seen to be in conflict with individual’s personal interest. Therefore, institutionalization of knowledge management requires HR to focus on the managing the culture change/mindset of the people to strengthen collaborative team working and knowledge sharing.

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 How can we create a knowledge sharing culture?
Realign incentive and reward program:

“People do not do what you tell them, but what you measure them for.” HR needs to institute a system of rewards and recognition, training and performance development practices- activities that reinforce the discipline of sharing, documenting knowledge and reuse of others ideas with pride to achieve business goals.

People in business most often behave in a way that increases their career opportunities, reward individual effort or task achievement. They reward something done in a crisis, but most incentive programs do not reward avoiding a crisis. The best KM practitioners reward employees for learning, sharing and collaborating.

APQC’s four-step knowledge management strategy for human resources professionals follows.

1. Identify -- Determine what knowledge is critical for the success of the enterprise.

2. Capture -- Collect critical knowledge using techniques such as interviews and best practices submissions.

3. Retain -- Store the captured knowledge in a format where it can be easily retrieved for use at a later time.

4. Transfer -- Transfer through training, apprenticeships, mentoring, and other opportunities.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Objective of the study: There are three main objectives of the study as follows:
1. To study the status of KM in the organization and to check the competency of the employees. 2. To study the perception of employees on the basis of job profile towards KM 3. To practice research methodology as a student

Research design: Exploratory as well as descriptive Universe: Universe belongs to E, F and G grade employees belonging to KRIBHCO, out
of which 50 samples is selected.

Sampling design: Stratified random sampling design Research method: Survey method Research tool: Questionnaire and informal personal interview Sources of data collection: Primary data and secondary data Sample size: 50 Research area: KRIBHCO, SURAT(Hazira)

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Limitations of research study: While conducting research, at most care was taken to collect data in unprejudiced manner to make this study precise and truthful. But, due to certain unavoidable reasons, there are certain limitations which are as mentioned below.

This study engrosses only a part of total number of employees working at Surat manufacturing plant.

 

Research was to be conducted maintaining the decorum of the company. Employees were busy in their work and thus did not spare much time to respond openly to the questions asked.

Information and responses given by the respondents may be a biased due to several reasons.

 

Limited time span for carrying out study also restricted the research work. As company is too large, as per their tactics and guiding principle employees were not ready to disclose confidential facets.

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
As reported earlier, the objective of the research is to get an idea regarding the competency level of the employees and to check status of KM in the organization. Through exploratory study data collection was done. It is based on the main parameter namely job profile. Frequency distribution method is used for data analysis. Job profile includes following three main categories: Chief Managers, Sr. Managers, Managers, and Dy. Managers.

Graph showing the age of respondents:

AGE

20-25

26-30

31-35

36-40

41-45

46-50

50 & Above

No. of Employees

0

0

0

1

3

18

28

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 50 & > AGE

Graph showing the years of experience of the respondents:

YEAR No. of Employees

0-5 0

6-15 1

16-25 17

26-30 20

30 & Above 12

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20 15 10 5 0 6--15 16--25 26--30 30 & >

EXPERIENCE

QUESTIONS

1. Do you feel you are doing the job according to your job profile?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 45

NO 5

CAN’T SAY 0

50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and chart we can say that 90% of the respondents agrees that they are doing the job according to their job profile while the 10% disagree.

- 50 -

2. Do you finish every work assigned to you within the time limit?

ANSWER No. of Employee

ALWAYS 42

SOMETIMES 8

NEVER 0

50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and chart we can say that 84% of respondents always finishes every work assigned to them within the time limit, while 16% sometime complete their work in time.

3. Do you require the guidance from your superior?

ANSWER No. of Employee
50 40 30 20 10 0 Always

ALWAYS 0

SOMETIMES 45

NEVER 4

No. of Employees

Sometimes

Never

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Inferences: From the above table and chart it is clear that 90% of respondents sometimes need guidance from their superiors while 8% never need any guidance from their superior.

4. Do you feel you need training to perform your work?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 14

NO 32

CAN’T SAY 4

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employe es

Inferences: From the above table and chart its clear that 28% of respondents feel they need training to perform their work, 64% do not need training to perform their work, while 8% were unable to say anything about this.

5. Do you feel the type of work you were performing at the time of your joining and today is the same?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 14

NO 36

CAN’T SAY 0

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40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and chart we can say that 28% of respondents agrees that the type of work they were performing at the time of their joining and today is the same while 72% respondents disagree to the statement.

6. Does competency mapping helps you to do manpower planning?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 43

NO 1

CAN’T SAY 6

50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

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Inferences: From above we can say that 86% of respondents admits that competency mapping helps them to do manpower planning and only 2% disagreed while 12% didn’t answered.

7. Do you perform competency mapping regularly in your company?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 30

NO 10

CAN’T SAY 10

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employe es

Inferences: From above we can say that 60% of respondents admits that competency mapping is done regularly in KRIBHCO where as 20% disagreed and 20% didn’t answered.

8.

Does Recruitment and Selection processes carried out considering competency of the

individuals?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 35

NO 5

CAN’T SAY 9

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

Inferences: From above its clear that 70% of respondents agrees that Recruitment and Selection processes carried out considering competency of the individuals while 10% respondents disagreed.

9. Does competency mapping helpful in individual’s career development?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 42

NO 1

CAN’T SAY 7

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say

No. of Employe es

Inferences: From above its clear that 84% believes that competency mapping is helpful in individual’s career development while only 2% disagreed to the statement.

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10. Knowledge is critical for your kind of organization?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 39

NO 8

CAN’T SAY 3

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employe es

Inferences: From above table and chart its clear that 78% respondents believes that Knowledge is critical for their organization while 16% disagreed.

11. What are the sources of knowledge in this organization?

ANSWER

A) Reports and journals

B) Meetings and group discussions

C) Experience of the incidence sharing 24

D) Others

No. of Employees

18

35

6

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D No. of Employe es

Inferences: From above table and chart its clear that 18 employees feel Reports and journals, 35 feel Meetings and group discussions, 24 Experience of the incidence sharing, and 6 feels others are the sources of knowledge in KRIBHCO.

12. How knowledge is shared among different departments of this organization?

ANSWER No. of Employees

A) Formal meetings 42

B) Informal meetings/chat 17

50 40 30 20 10 0 A B No. of Employe es

Inferences: Looking to above graph it can be said that 42 respondents feel that knowledge is shared among different departments through formal meetings whereas 17 says that informal meetings is the way to share knowledge.

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13. What is the current status of knowledge management in your company?

ANSWER

A) Not in existence at all

B) Nascent stage

C) Introduction stage

D) Growth stage

No. of Employees

6

6

8

27

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D No. of Employe es

Inferences: It can be inferred that 6 respondents believe that knowledge management is Not in existence at all, 6 believe its in Nascent stage, 8 believe its in Introduction stage while 27 believe its in Growth stage.

14. Does IT play a part in sharing knowledge in this organization?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 46

NO 1

CAN’T SAY 2

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50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and chart we can say that 92% of the respondents agrees that IT plays a part in sharing knowledge while 2% disagreed and 4% didn’t answered.

15. Is available knowledge exploited to an adequate extent in this organization?

ANSWER No. of Employee

YES 23

NO 11

CAN’T SAY 15

25 20 15 10 5 0 Yes No Can't Say No. of Employees

Inferences: From above its clear that 46% respondents agrees that knowledge is exploited, 22% believes it is not exploited while 30% didn’t answered.

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16. Do you undertake additional personal efforts to enhance your knowledge level and improve your competency?

ANSWER No. of Employee

A) Invariably 13

B) Frequently 36

C) Rarely 1

D) Never 1

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D No. of Employees

Inferences: From above its clear that 13 employees invariably undertake additional personal efforts to enhance their knowledge level and improve their competency, 36 take frequently, 1 take rarely and 1 never take any personal efforts to enhance their knowledge level and improve their competency.

17. What additional personal efforts do you undertake to enhance your knowledge level and improve your competency?

ANSWER

A) None

B) Further education and training in my own time

C) Personal effort

D) Private research work

E) Magazines

No. of Employee

0

20

30

4

18

- 60 -

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself.

18. Do you share your learning with your colleagues?

ANSWER No. of Employee

A) Invariably 12

B) Frequently 38

C) Rarely 2

D) Never 0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D No. of Employees

Inferences: From above its clear that 12 employees invariably share their learning with their colleagues, 38 do it frequently, 2 do it rarely their learning with their colleagues.

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19. Which one is the biggest cultural barrier in knowledge management in company?

ANSWER

A) ‘I am in position’ attitude

B) Indifference of people towards developmental processes

C) Lack of significance and recognition to ‘knowledge sharing’ 7

D) Lack of open mindedness

No. of Employee

10

16

19

20 15 10 5 0 A B C D

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself. 20. How significant is the role that effective KM can play in achieving the best result with respect to the following in company? NOTE: The answers to this question (i.e. from a to l) is given point-wise from 1to 5 in ascending order.

a) Improving competitive advantage

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 1

2 3

3 13

4 8

5 18

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18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

b) Improving customer focus

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 0

2 4

3 12

4 8

5 15

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

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c) Innovations

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 0

2 5

3 8

4 18

5 8

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

d) Inventory reduction

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 1

2 3

3 10

4 10

5 17

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18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

e) Employee development

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 0

2 6

3 5

4 12

5 18

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

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f) Cost reduction.

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 1

2 6

3 8

4 8

5 20

20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

g) Revenue growth

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 1

2 3

3 10

4 11

5 16

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16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

h) Better decision-making.

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 1

2 8

3 1

4 13

5 19

20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

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i) Intellectual property rights management

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 0

2 5

3 20

4 5

5 9

20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E

No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

j) Faster response to key business issues

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 0

2 8

3 6

4 10

5 16

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16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

k) Improving quality

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 2

2 5

3 2

4 8

5 25

25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

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l) Improving delivery

ANSWER No. of Employee

1 0

2 8

3 6

4 6

5 21

25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

21. What is the biggest hurdle in effective implementation of KM in company? a) Changing people’s behavior from knowledge hoarding to knowledge sharing. b) Lack of understanding of KM and its benefits. c) Determining what kind of knowledge to be managed & making it available. d) Justifying the use of scarce resources for KM. e) Lack of top management commitment to KM. f) Overcoming technological limitations. g) Attracting & retaining talented people.

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ANSWER No. of Employees

a) 11

b) 34

c) 7

d) 5

e) 18

f) 2

g) 10

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 A B C D E F G No. of Employees

Inferences: The above table and graph are explanatory by itself

22. Knowledge is crucial for your type of organization.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees

25

21

0

0

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25 24 23 22 21 20 19 SA A D SD No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and graph 25 employees strongly agreed that Knowledge is crucial for KRIBHCO and 21 agreed to the same.

23. Your organizational culture is supportive to KM.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees

8

34

3

0

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SA A D SD No. of Employees

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Inferences: From the above table and graph 8 employees strongly agreed that KRIBHCO’s organizational culture is supportive to KM, 34 agreed to the same and 3 disagreed to the statement.

24. Critical technical knowledge is given more preference in your organization.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees

12

36

6

1

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SA A D SD No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and graph 12 employees strongly agreed that Critical technical knowledge is given more preference, 36 agreed to the statement while 6 disagreed and 1 strongly disagreed to it.

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25. Competent and knowledgeable employees are given due recognition.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees

8

31

7

2

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SA A D SD No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and graph 8 employees strongly agreed that Competent and knowledgeable employees are given due recognition, 31 employees agreed, 7 disagreed while 2 strongly disagreed to the statement.

26. Experiences or knowledge shared in different organizational forum/meetings in practice needs to be documented in scientific and structural manner.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees

12

32

3

0

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SA A D SD No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and graph 12 employees strongly agreed that Experiences or knowledge shared in different organizational forum/meetings in practice needs to be documented in scientific and structural manner, 32 agreed, while 3 disagreed top the statement.

27. There is a need of a management system for managing knowledge in this organization.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees

10

33

5

0

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35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SA A D SD No. of Employees

Inferences: From the above table and graph 10 employees strongly agreed that there is a need of a management system for managing knowledge, 33 agreed, while 5 employees disagreed to the statement.

28. KM plays a significant role in organizational development.

ANSWER

STRONGLY AGREE(SA)

AGREE(A)

DISAGREE(D)

STRONGLY DISAGREE(SD)

No. of Employees
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 SA A

26

20

0

0

No. of Employees

D

SD

- 76 -

Inferences: From the above table and graph 26 employees strongly agreed that KM plays a significant role in organizational development and 20 respondents agreed to the above statement.

- 77 -

A QUESIONNAIRE ON STUDY OF COMPETENCY MAPPING AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN KRIBHCO

PERSONAL INFORMATION
    Department/Plant: __________________________ Discipline: Designation: __________________________ Age: 20-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 50 & above  ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) )  Number of years of experience: 0-5 6-15 16-25 26-30 30 & above ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) )

Gender: ______________

Education qualification: Stream Science Commerce Arts Engineering Management Research Graduate Post Graduate Doctorate

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QUESTIONS
1. Do you feel you are doing the job according to your job profile?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

2. Do you finish every work assigned to you within the time limit?    Always Sometimes Never [ ] [ ] [ ]

3. Do you require the guidance from your superior?    Always Sometimes Never [ ] [ ] [ ]

4. Do you feel you need training to perform your work?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

5. Do you feel the type of work you were performing at the time of your joining and today is the same?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

6. Does competency mapping helps you to do manpower planning?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

7. Do you perform competency mapping regularly in your company?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

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8.

Does Recruitment and Selection processes carried out considering competency of the

individuals?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

9. Does competency mapping helpful in individual’s career development?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

10. Knowledge is critical for your kind of organization?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

11. What are the sources of knowledge in this organization?     Reports and journals Meetings and group discussions Experience of the incidence sharing Others [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

12. How knowledge is shared among different departments of this organization?   Formal meetings Informal meetings/chat [ ] [ ]

13. What is the current status of knowledge management in your company?     Not in existence at all Nascent stage Introduction stage Growth stage [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

14. Does IT play a part in sharing knowledge in this organization?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

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15. Is available knowledge exploited to an adequate extent in this organization?    Yes No Can’t Say [ ] [ ] [ ]

16. Do you undertake additional personal efforts to enhance your knowledge level and improve your competency?     Invariably Frequently Rarely Never [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

17. What additional personal efforts do you undertake to enhance your knowledge level and improve your competency?      None Further education and training in my own time Private relationships Private research work Magazines [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

18. Do you share your learning with your colleagues?     Invariably Frequently Rarely Never [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

19. Which one is the biggest cultural barrier in knowledge management in company? a) ‘I am in position’ attitude b) Indifference of people towards developmental processes c) Lack of significance and recognition to ‘knowledge sharing’ d) Lack of open mindedness [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

- 81 -

20. How significant is the role that effective KM can play in achieving the best result w.r.t the following in company? a) Improving competitive advantage b) Improving customer focus c) Innovations d) Inventory reduction. e) Employee development. f) Cost reduction. g) Revenue growth h) Better decision-making. i) Intellectual property rights management. j) Faster response to key business issues. k) Improving quality l) Improving delivery 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2

21. What is the biggest hurdle in effective implementation of KM in company? h) Changing people’s behavior from knowledge hoarding to knowledge sharing. [ ] i) Lack of understanding of KM and its benefits. j) Determining what kind of knowledge to be managed & making it available. [ ] [ ]

k) Justifying the use of scarce resources for KM. l) Lack of top management commitment to KM. m) Overcoming technological limitations. n) Attracting & retaining talented people.

[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]

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In the following set of questions each question has four options.     Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree SA A D SD

NO. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

STATEMENTS: Knowledge is crucial for your type of organization. Your organizational culture is supportive to KM. Critical technical knowledge is given more preference in your organization. Competent and knowledgeable employees are given due recognition. Experiences or knowledge shared in different organizational forum/meetings in practice needs to be documented in scientific and structural manner. There is a need of a management system for managing knowledge is this organization.

SA A

D

SD

27.

28.

KM plays a significant role in organizational development.

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RESEARCH FINDINGS
 Employee in KRIBHCO believe that they are doing the job according to their job profile. They finish every work assigned to them within the time limit, which shows that they are competent, though many of them need guidance from their superiors sometimes.  Few believe that they need training to perform their job which is contradicting to their competency level, since the type of type of work they were performing at the time of their joining and today have changed.   Many admitted that competency mapping helps them to do manpower planning. Many believe that competency mapping is carried out regularly in KRIBHCO and recruitment and selection process is carried out considering the competency of individuals but few disagreed to this statement.  Almost all employees believes that competency mapping is helpful in individual’s career development.   Knowledge is critical for this organization Formal meetings are the major sources of knowledge in this organization informal meeting and chats are also alternative for knowledge sharing.  An excellent IT infrastructure exists in this organization. E-mail and intranet is the major source of sharing knowledge in the company as far as IT is concerned. Electronic media plays a significant role in networking of knowledge in this organization.  Knowledge is exploited to the adequate extent in this organization. Majority of employees frequently undertakes additional personal efforts to enhance their knowledge level as quest for knowledge is there in the employees.  Though employees frequently share their learning with their colleagues after attending seminars or training but it is in a non regular manner through informal chats. It is not institutionalized but can be structured in a proper manner as scope is there.  Some of the major cultural barriers are “Indifference of people towards developmental processes”, and “Lack of open mindedness”.

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Major outcomes out of the implementation of Knowledge Management can be Improving quality, Improving delivery, Better decision making, Intellectual property rights management and cost reduction etc.

“Lack of understanding of KM and its benefits.” and “Lack of top management commitment to KM” are the biggest hurdle in effective implementation of KM in company. Majority of employees believe that the organizational culture is supportive to KM and Critical technical knowledge is given more preference in your organization.

Majority of employees agree with Knowledge created is being captured in their organization up to some extent.

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SUGGESTIONS
 In this organization competency mapping must be regularly done in order to check the competency level of the employees.  Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.  There is an acute need of a structured knowledge management system in order to preserve and maintain the knowledge status in the company. In order to move in a unified path for leveraging the knowledge, it is important to link these nodes of knowledge in structured form of “Knowledge Management”.   Different sources of knowledge acquisition must be encouraged among the employees. Linkages of one’s Key Result Area with Knowledge Management implementation should be done.  There is need for the support from the top management since it is considered a major hurdle in effective knowledge management implementation and the employees must also be made aware of importance of knowledge management system.  For sure and systematic implementation of KM, organization should explore possibility of implementation of KM through some certified (accrediting) agency.  As there is an excellent IT network in this organization so it should be utilized efficiently for KM implementation through usage of some standard KM applications (soft wares).  Some motivation should be given to the employees so that they take interest in knowledge enhancement and management.  E – Learning is on line learning. It is made available through company web sites and even through CD – ROMs. It allows the learner to enroll in to courses or programs of their choice and acquire knowledge at their own pace at the place of their choice.

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CONCLUSION
Hence, with the given research study conducted in this organization, it can be concluded that the concept of competency mapping and Knowledge Management is in between the introduction and growth stage that is it is ahead of introduction stage and has not reached yet to growth stage. It has been also concluded that there is certainly a quest for knowledge in the employees and combining this factor with highly established HR Department and advanced Information Technology in the organization, competency mapping is need to be regularly carried out here and Knowledge Management will definitely reach to the growth stage in due course of time in this organization.

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