Organization and Administration Career Guide

Maria Veronica Heard
California Baptist University
February 21, 2016

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Table of Contents

Opening Statement

3-4

Leading Organizations

5-7

Ethics & Biblical Principles

8 - 10

Planning

11- 12

Organizing (Programming)

13-21

Controlling

22- 23

Summary

24

References

25

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Opening Statement
The purpose of this guide is to demonstrate the best practices for running an efficient and
effective athletic training program at a Junior College Level.

What is an Athletic Trainer?
Athletic trainers are health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to provide
preventive services, emergency care clinical diagnosis, therapeutic intervention & rehabilitation
of injuries and medical conditions (Prentice, 2011).
It is vital for head athletic trainers to understand the importance of good leadership and
managerial skills due to the array of responsibilities and unpredictable work situations. A head
athletic trainer is directly involved with injury prevention, first aid and injury management, the
design and supervision of timely and effective rehabilitative programs and the facilitation of safe
and expeditious returns to activity.

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Personal Philosophy Statement
My mission as an athletic trainer is to work alongside doctors, coaches and trainers to help
student athletes achieve their full, athletic potential. Each athlete is unique and therefore requires
individualized treatment in order to prevent injuries, receive safe and effective rehabilitation
when an injury does occur, and facilitate a safe and expeditious return to activity.

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Leading Organizations
“Leadership is a set of qualities that causes people to follow” (Sawyer & Judge, 2012)
What is Management?
Management is the process of an organizational function. Like a machine, when properly
operated, it maintains an organization running efficiently and effectively. The functions of
management are planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.

Planning is the central function from which all others come forth. It is the continuing
process of developing the business’s ultimate goals and figuring out how they will be

accomplished.
Organizing systematizes the internal structure of the business. Its focus is on division,

coordination and control of tasks and the flow of information within an organization.
Staffing is directly involved with filling all positions within the organization with
qualified people and keeping said positions filled. Tasks like recruiting, hiring, training,
evaluating and compensating are all included in staffing.
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Leading influences the behavior of people through motivation, communication, group
dynamics, leadership and discipline. A Leader guides the behavior of an organization in

order to achieve said organization’s mission and goals.
Controlling establishes the performance standards of an organization and measures and
reports its actual performance. Preventive or corrective action can be implemented
depending of their findings (Sawyer & Judge, 2012).

The functions of management flow through a cycle, beginning with planning, then followed
by organizing, staffing, leading and controlling, in that order. However, the flow can also be
interactive between functions, depending on the specific needs of an organization at any given
time (Sawyer & Judge, 2012).
What Does Leadership Involve?
Leadership impacts management and the success of the organization by communicating the
vision so clearly that there is no room for doubt with those that must implement it. They not only
explain the vision, but motivate people towards achieving it (Sawyer & Judge, 2012).
Five leadership styles are Impoverished, Country Club, Middle of the Road, Authoritarian,
and Team Leader. Each style can be used effectively in different situations and circumstances.
For example, the Operational Manager of a fitness gym may want to implement a Country Club
style of leadership in order to be attentive to his member’s needs and develop lasting
relationships with them. A coach of a football team may utilize the Team Leader style, achieving
high work performance from his players to achieve a common goal.
My personal preference of leadership style is the Team Leader approach, where the leader
achieves high work performance through leading his/her people to become dedicated to the
organizational goals. Team Leaders are characterized as open minded, flexible, and one who

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inspires movement. It is my view that it is vital for each individual to know they are part of the
team that makes our athletic program successful.
Two of the most important characteristics of a true leader are altruism and honesty. By
placing the needs of others before their own, leaders can communicate to their followers that
they matter and that they are not just a means to an end, this is true altruism. Honesty assures
followers that their leader will not try to manipulate them or fool them in any way, it builds
trust.
California Baptist University, Azusa Pacific University and the National Athletic Trainers
Association are professional organizations that have developed educational programs and
guidance for the athletic training industry.

Altruism – An unselfish concern or devotion to the welfare of others
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2015)

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Honesty – The refusal to lie, steal, or deceive in any way (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2015)
Ethics and Biblical Principles
“Faithless is he that says farewell when the road darkens” -J.R.R. Tolkien
Ethics are moral principles that govern our behavior. They can be applied to individuals
as well as groups and organizations (Sawyer & Judge, 2012). What this means to me is that I
have a responsibility to take the principles God has taught me and use them to serve the
individuals under my care.
The National Athletic Trainers’ Association Code of Ethics states the principles of ethical
behavior that should be followed in the practice of athletic training. It is intended to establish
and maintain high standards and professionalism for the athletic training profession.

PRINCIPLE 1: Members shall respect the rights, welfare and dignity of all.
1.1 Members shall not discriminate against any legally protected class.
1.2 Members shall be committed to providing competent care.

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1.3 Members shall preserve the confidentiality of privileged information and shall not
release such information to a third party not involved in the patient’s care without a
release unless required by law.
PRINCIPLE 2: Members shall comply with the laws and regulations governing the
practice of athletic training.
2.1 Members shall comply with applicable local, state, and federal laws and institutional
guidelines.
2.2 Members shall be familiar with and abide by all National Athletic Trainers’
Association standards, rules and regulations.
2.3 Members shall report illegal or unethical practices related to athletic training to the
appropriate person or authority.
2.4 Members shall avoid substance abuse and, when necessary, seek rehabilitation for
chemical dependency.
PRINCIPLE 3: Members shall maintain and promote high standards in their provision
of services.
3.1 Members shall not misrepresent, either directly or indirectly, their skills, training,
professional credentials, identity or services.
3.2 Members shall provide only those services for which they are qualified through
education or experience and which are allowed by their practice acts and other pertinent
regulation.
3.3 Members shall provide services, make referrals, and seek compensation only for
those services that are necessary.
3.4 Members shall recognize the need for continuing education and participate in

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educational activities that enhance their skills and knowledge.
3.5 Members shall educate those whom they supervise in the practice of athletic training
about the Code of Ethics and stress the importance of adherence.
3.6 Members who are researchers or educators should maintain and promote ethical
conduct in research and educational activities.
PRINCIPLE 4: Members shall not engage in conduct that could be construed as a
conflict of interest or that reflects negatively on the profession.
4.1 Members should conduct themselves personally and professionally in a manner that
does not compromise their professional responsibilities or the practice of athletic training.
4.2 National Athletic Trainers’ Association current or past volunteer leaders shall not use
the NATA logo in the endorsement of products or services or exploit their affiliation with
the NATA in a manner that reflects badly upon the profession.
4.3 Members shall not place financial gain above the patient‘s welfare and shall not
participate in any arrangement that exploits the patient.
4.4 Members shall not, through direct or indirect means, use information obtained in the
course of the practice of athletic training to try to influence the score or outcome of an
athletic event, or attempt to induce financial gain through gambling.
4.5 Members shall not provide or publish information, photographs, or any other
communications related to athletic training that negatively reflects the profession (NATA
Code of Ethics, 2013).

Ethical decision making can be very challenging, especially if the ethical choice does not
benefit the organization or department. This, however, is a crucial time to stand strong and
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follow the department’s designed code of ethics and one’s own personal moral beliefs in order to
set a precedence for all members to follow. “Therefore we do not lose heart. Though outwardly
we are wasting away, yet inwardly we are being renewed day by day. For our light and
momentary troubles are achieving for us an eternal glory that far outweighs them all. So we fix
our eyes not on what is seen, but on what is unseen, since what is seen is temporary, but what is
unseen is eternal”, 2 Corinthians 4:16-18.

Planning
“Whatever you do, do all to the glory of God” – 1 Corinthians 10:31
Planning is the continuing process of developing a business's goals and how they will be
accomplished. Planning for an athletic training program should include clinical and
administrative tasks routinely performed, like injury/illness prevention, wellness protection,
clinical evaluation and diagnosis, immediate and emergency care, treatment and rehabilitation,
organizational and professional health and wellbeing, program funding, and proper keeping of
athlete records.
SWOT Analysis
A SWOT analysis is a simple, yet effective way of assessing a program’s strengths,
weaknesses, market opportunities and threats. The following is a SWOT analysis for the
utilization of funding for the athletic training department.

Strengths: (internal positive factors) Strengths describe the

Weaknesses: (internal, negative factors) Weaknesses are
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positive attributes, tangible and intangible of your organization.
These are within your control.

aspects of your business that detracts from the value you offer
or place you at a competitive disadvantage.

The injury prevention program has given the
athletes a strong foundation to be aware of the
demands of their bodies and take caution to
train properly.

Lack an Assistant Athletic Trainer. An
assistant would allow our department the
ability to cover more events and better care
for our athletes.

State of the art examination tables, ultrasound,
electric stimulation, whirlpools and an
industrial ice machine, in our training facility,
give us the opportunity to provide the best
care possible for our athletes in a timely
matter.

Our athletic training students’ clinical hours
are not being maximized, due to the lack of
constant supervision of an athletic trainer. An
assistant would be able to help supervise
athletic training students in order to put
student’s clinical hours to better use, also
helping to cut back on paid labor hours.

Separate rehabilitation area equipped with
necessary equipment, i.e. Thera- bands, Bosu
Balls, balance boards, treadmill, stationary
bicycle, etc. This allows students to
rehabilitate under direct supervision of our
staff.

Overtime hours put in by the head athletic
trainer are placing a large demand on our
funding. Hiring an assistant athletic trainer
would cut down on overtime hours and
would allow the head athletic trainer more
time to better focus on the department needs.

Close, working relationships, with local Sport
Medicine Doctors, Physical Therapists and
Chiropractors gives us an upper hand in
providing a well-rounded recovery regiment
for our athletes. These specialists also
volunteer their time to be present at our events
to cover our urgent needs in case of
emergencies or serious injury.

Opportunities: (external, positive factors) Opportunities are

Threats: (external, negative factors) Threats are external

external attractive factors that represent reasons for you your
business to exist and prosper.

factors beyond your control that could put your
business/organization at risk. You may benefit from having a
contingency plan for them.

Working with local specialist has given us an
advantage within our community. Having one
of them present at our games provides our
athletes and their families with a sense of
security, knowing that we are well prepared to
handle any situation.

Some of the other Junior Colleges within our
district have better training equipment and
provide their athletes with full time Strength
and Conditioning Coaches, who are certified,
and specialize in training athletes.

Fan participation is low, which can further
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This not only helps our department, but also
provides local specialist with the opportunity
to serve the community and gain some clients
in the process.

threaten our funding if ticket sales do not
improve.

Organizing/Programming
It is common for the organization of athletic training programs to vary greatly, depending
on the facility. At the Junior College level, the organization of the athletic training department
includes injury prevention and rehabilitation. The individual needs and specialized care of each
athlete must be considered when designing a program.
Athletic Training Program Goals
Goal 1: To help athletes understand their body. Working with their strengths and improving any
physical shortcomings in order to prevent serious injury.

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Goal 2: Provide the best care possible for each individual, according to their unique needs.
guiding them through their recovery process, physically, mentally and spiritually, in order for
them to make a full recovery.

Career-Specific Program Design for Athletic Training
Grade Level: Nineteen-year-old female, college basketball player, first month post-op from
ACL surgery. The objective of this program is for the patient to gain mobility, strength and
stability of the knee joint (Prentice, 2011).
Rehabilitation Program – First 4 weeks, progressions of 4 – 5 basic exercises, working on
range of motion, strength and stability.

Week 1 post-op: Working on minor range of motion exercises in order to keep the joint mobile.
All exercises are to be performed 3 times during the week, on non-consecutive days.

1. Seated heel drags using a lubricant or towel under the heel for smooth movement.
Begin with 2 sets of 10 repetitions, slow and controlled movements.

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2. Quad setting from a seated position, (press the back of the knee towards the top of the
exam table), hold for 5 seconds, 10 repetitions, 2 times.

3. Straight leg raises in 4 directions, hip flexion, hip abduction, hip extension and hip adduction,
2 sets of 10 repetitions per direction.

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3. Prone leg hangs, no added weight, for 5 minutes, or the length patient is able to hold.

4. Finish with icing the knee for 20 – 30 minutes.
Week 2 Post-Op: Range of motion, strength and flexibility improvement. All exercises are to be
performed 3 times per week, on non-consecutive days.

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1. Supine heel slides on exam table, 3 sets of 10 repetitions

2. Quad setting, push down against a towel from a seated position, (press the back of the
knee towards the top of the exam table), hold for 5-10 seconds, 10 repetitions, 3
times.

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3. Straight leg raises in 4 directions, hip flexion, hip abduction, hip extension and hip
adduction, 3 sets of 10 repetitions per direction, using light resistance of 1 – 3 lbs.

4. Prone leg hangs, with additional weight of 1 – 3 lbs., for 5 – 8 minutes, or the length
patient is able to hold

5. Electrical stimulation and ice knee for 20 – 30 minutes.

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Week 3 and 4 post-op: Increasing range of motion, strength and flexibility. All exercises to be
performed 3 times per week, on non-consecutive days.
1. Seated heel slides on exam table, 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Range of motion of knee flexion
should be increasing, getting the heel closer to the torso.

2. Seated quad setting/knee extension 10 repetitions, 3 times.

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3. Straight leg raises in 4 directions, hip flexion, hip abduction, hip extension and hip adduction,
3 sets of 10 repetitions per direction, using Thera-bands.

4. Prone leg hangs, with additional weight of 3 - 5 lbs., for 8 - 10 minutes, or the length patient
is able to hold.

5. Timed weight bearing & balancing 15 – 30 seconds, repeat 3 times

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6. STIM and Ice 20- 30 min.

Content Framework
Because this is a rehabilitation program, the framework utilized is progression of joint
mobility, increase of strength and stability of the knee joint (Prentice, 2011) . The ultimate goal
is to aid the athlete in complete recovery and return to playing her sport.
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Controlling
Controlling, or monitoring, is to establish, maintain and measure performance standards
for the efficient function of an organization.

Legal Liability
Legal liability is a major concern in any athletic training program. Because athletic
trainers are dealing with the welfare and care of athletes, it is critical to be aware of legal liability
and maintain the performance and safety standards of our profession. Legal liability factors
commonly affecting athletic trainers include negligence and breach of duty. Developing a risk
management plan, specific to the athletic training field, is essential in order clarify the duties and
actions required from the athletic training staff. Two ways of assuring a positive and safe athletic
training department are, making sure athletes complete all necessary paperwork and obtain a

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physician's release prior to participation in sport, all athletic training staff should be certified
according to the governing board requirements.
Staffing
Minimal professional preparation necessary for entry into the practice of athletic training
are organized across twelve content areas:

Risk management and injury prevention

Pathology of injuries and illnesses

Orthopedic Clinical Examination and Diagnosis

General medical conditions and disabilities

Acute care of injuries and illnesses

Therapeutic modalities

Conditioning and rehabilitative exercise

Pharmacology

Psychosocial intervention and referral

Nutritional aspects of injuries and illnesses

Health care administration

Professional development and responsibilities

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o Continuing education required as part of professional practice requirements
o Can result in additional qualification & enhanced skill sets
Video Promoting Fitness
https://youtu.be/XEhX34nKQ-U

Fiscal Management
Athletic trainers must keep a close eye on the inventory coming in and out of the training
room. It is crucial to have the necessary medical supplies available for any situation that may
arise. The training room and medical kits should be kept stocked and ready to be utilized. Items
that may be running low should be ordered right wary, before they are completely exhausted.
Summary
Athletic trainers are health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to provide
preventive services, emergency care clinical diagnosis, therapeutic intervention & rehabilitation
of injuries and medical conditions (Prentice, 2011).
It is vital for head athletic trainers to understand the importance of good leadership and
managerial skills due to the array of responsibilities and unpredictable work situations. A head
athletic trainer is directly involved with injury prevention, first aid and injury management, the
design and supervision of timely and effective rehabilitative programs and the facilitation of safe
and expeditious returns to activity.

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Being able to utilize all of the functions of management; planning, organizing, staffing,
leading and controlling can provide an athletic trainer with an effective and efficient athletic
training program.

References
Code of Ethics. (2013, September). Retrieved January 21, 2016, from NATA:
http://www.nata.org/codeofethics
Merriam-Webster Dictionary. (2015). (Merriam-Webster, Inc.) Retrieved 2016, from MerriamWebster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/altruism
Prentice, W. E. (2011). Principles of Athletic Training (14th ed.). New York, NY, USA: McGraw
Hill.
Sawyer, T. H., & Judge, L. W. (2012). The Management of Fitness, Physical Activity, Recreation,
and Sport. Urbana, Illinois, USA: Sagamore Publishing LLC.

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