GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF

INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK

PAVEMENT

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
2004

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in

2014

https://archive.org/details/govlawircy2004sp63

IRC:SP:63-2004

GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF

INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK

PAVEMENT

Published by

THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road,

New

Delhi-

noon

2004
Price Rs. 200/-

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and postage)

IRC:SP:63-2004
First Published

October, 2004

Reprinted

July,

Reprinted

July,

2006
2008
October, 2010

Reprinted

(The Rights of Publication and Translation are Reserved)

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:

India Offset Press, A-1, Mayapuri Industrial Area, Phase-I,

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Delhi-

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10064

Materials . 7 5. 2 3. Background . 1 1. 12- 7.. Maintenance . Composition of Block Pavement . Structural Design of Concrete ... - (iii) . 35 Annexure Block Pavement ^ (i) ' .....IRC:SP:63-2004 GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK PAVEMENT CONTENTS & Personnel of the Highways Specifications and Standards Committee ..... Construction .. 4 4... 19 9.... 17 8. Drainage . 12 6.. 2 2. Types and Shapes of Blocks . Applications .. 33 ... Scope ......

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K.P. Almora 10. ^Executive Director. National Rural Rural Dev. of India. G.9 1 IRC:SP:63-2004 PERSONNEL OF THE HIGHWAYS SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE (As on 22.L. L. 5. New Delhi. Mathur Chief Engineer (Retd. Hauz Khas. Sharan Chief Engineer (Co-Convenor) Highways. Dhingra Delhi. New Chief General Manager (NS). Chakrabarty P.. Navrangpura..) Road Dev. Secretary to the Govt. 11. New Delhi-1 10066 15. Kadiyali & Associates.2004) 1. R. 9. Transport Delhi-1 10001 (Member-Secretary) Member 4. 14. Ambuja House. Sector 12. Jain Professor Dr. Services Nehru 7. Plot 6. Chief Engineer. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Ministry of New Road Transport & Delhi. 452. of India. Dr. X-15 (First Floor). Delhi. S.Gupta Dwarka.P. E-44. Greater Kailash (Part I) Enclave.). Director General (Road Development) Transport Bhavan. Mumbai-400076 (Retd. Ministry of Road Transport DG(RD) Mumbai. Powai. New D. Sector Place. Prabha Kant Katare Joint Director (PI). S. New Delhi-1 10016 14. Datta Desai J.R. P. G/5-6. No..).K. the meeting was presided by Shri Indu Prakasli. Ltd.1 1 000 (R&B) S&R. Indian Institute of Technology. The Chief Engineer (G. 2. Transport Bhavan. Transportation System. Indu Prakash* (Convenor) & Spl. KadiyaU Sonepat-13 1001 & Coordinator (COTE). House No. Indian Institute of 13. Gujarat Professor. Distt. Agency (Min.P. of Civil Engg. 77. 5th Floor.1 10001 & Highways.B. Bahadur . Roorkee. J. Noida-201301 * ADG(R) being not in position. Sharan) Ministry of Road Transport (R&B) S&R New Bhavan.Jain Chief Engineer (Retd. S. & Highways. Roorkee-247667 Chief Executive. Civil Engg. Ishwarbhuwan Road. New Delhi-1 10045 (I) Pvt. 10. Transport Bhavan.).R.K. 3. Ser. New Delhi-1 10048 PWD. Dr.Gupta Chief Engineer. Technology. Ahmedabad-380009 Sr. Sector 15A. Deptt. Bhikaji Cama Place. Secretary to the Govt. MORT&H . Vice-President (Tech.S. National Highways Authority of India. 8. H.1 1 000 No. 1st Floor.5. (i) DG(RD) & Spl. A. Gautam Budh Nagar. of NBCC Tower.1 1 00 1 Ambuja Cements Ltd. L. Consulting Engg.). Department. 57.K.

. Plot No. National 10. Delhi-1 10021 (B. Secy.K.). National Highways Authority of India. Nirmal Jit Singh Member No. Delhi-1 10017 Velayudhan (Retd.V. S-108. Panchshila Park. .C. B-19. to the Govt. DG(RD) & AS. D. Momin Secretary (Works). Addl. T. Sinha DG(RD & SS.S. MORT&H Chittranjan Park. Mayur Vihar (Retd. Ministry of Road Transport Transport Bhavan. Sharma MORT&H DG(RD) & AS. New Delhi-1 10045 (Tech. CRRI.. 28. of Gujarat. Delhi-1 10001 (Retd. 24. Hyderabad-500082 (ii) R&B Department.. 15.W.) Hermu Housing Colony.S. Sardar Bhavan. M-504. Post Box No. New Chief Engineer. Plot Commercial Complex. Delhi- Delhi. A.D.G. Sector 10 27. Delhi. Mumbai-400032 18. New Delhi-1 10010 Executive Director-Marketing. P.K. Delhi 31. A. 27.L. Pune-41 1008 19. Delhi-1 10045 Delhi-1 10019 Sadak Bhavan. Sachivalaya. V.). Errum Manzil. S. S. Abhimanshree Housing Society. Delhi 22. 175. G/5-6. Verma New MOST & Highways. P. Jacob Road. Habitat (Highway) CGHS. C-58. Maharashtra P.K.B. Roorkee-Hardwar Road.). V. (Retd.W.Singh Road Research Director. Diplomatic End. College of Engg. Mina Chief Engineer-cum-Addl. Prof. Main Hermu Road. S. 29. Roorkee-247667 20. Vasundhra Enclave. R&B Department.K. Central New Institute. 21. Chief General Manager. P.. K. Sikdar Mathura Road. Block No. New The Chief Engineer (NH) G-1365.). Ring Road.D. Secy. Dr. Vigyapan Lok.R. Pvt. Sarin 30. Rathore Secretary to the Govt.. House M-10 ISfo.S. India.B. Pawar Secretary (Works) (Retd..-Spl. C.K. Off Pashan Road. (D. Gopal Ranjan Director. 32.O. Directorate General Border Roads. Dr.110091 23.1 1 0020 Engineer-in-Chief-cum-Addl. Maj.. Seema Ltd. Oriental Structural Engrs. (Near Samachar Apartments). Vardhman Puram. Arghya Pradip Saha Sr.M. N. 14/1.Roorkee. H. Gandhinagar-382010 21. New Cantt.P.IRC:SP:63-2004 16. Sector 26.. Phase-I Extn. Ranchi (Jharkhand) 25. Prabhakar Rao).C. Malcha Marg. of Rajasthan. G/5-6. Mantralaya. Dwarka.).). Jaipur-302006 17. Comm-cum. Ground Floor. Sinha New K. Consultant. Sinha Highways Authority of Dwarka.

Ex-Officio 39. Unit IV. Bhagheeratha Engg. Bangalore-560070 3. 96. Khurdha (Orissa) 37. Bhubaneswar- 751001 Block. Hincon House. Ministry of (Road Development) Transport Bhavan. 25th Cross. Circle.. K. PWD Sachivalaya. 4th Floor. Sunny C. Mumbai-400083 4. Dr. Kolkata-700001 Distt.V. The Chief Engineer National Highways. Sachivalaya Marg.) House No. A-47/1344. Hindustan Construction Co. 2nd Stage. Madathil Director (Project). Ministry of Road Transport New Bhavan. Jamnagar House. New & Highways.K.E.) (S. Panampily Avenue. Sector Panchkula-134113 Emeritus Fellow. 334. Sharma). Delhi-110001 & Special Secretary 41. 34.R. . Road. Haryana 16. Bangalore-560001 Members Momin). Khattar Executive Director.S. Agarwal Engineer-in-Chief. Secretary.G. > Corresponding Members 1. C.D. The Chief Engineer (NH) (Ratnakar Dash). Cochin-682036 5.D.P. WorU. P. Basu). New Road Transport & Highways.IRC:SP:63-2004 33. (R. The Chief Eilgineer (Mech.) & Highways. PWD Annexe. The Chief Engineer (Mech.) PWD. Indian Indian Roads Congress New Delhi. Delhi. Transport Delhi.11 0001 (V. The Chief Engineer (Pig. Mumbai-400032 The Director General (Indu Prakash).W. The Engineer-in-Chief U. Ministry of Road Transport Transport Bhavan.. N. President. Secretary (Works). Merani Principal Secretary. 40. M.B. Vikhroli (W). Sachdev).). M.G..noon Roads Congress.1 10001 35. 14th Main. Road Congress (S. Lucknow-226001 38. Justo PWD (Retd. G 36. Indian 40. Ltd.S. Lai Bahadur Shastri Marg. Maharashtra PWD Adarsh Nagar. Ltd. Banashankari. 132. M.K. Writers' Building. Mumbai-400025 (iii) (Retd. 2.

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(Indu Prakash) IRC Momin) Secretary.S. B. 2003 discussed the draft Guidehnes for the Use of Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements and desired to recirculate the modified document in light of the suggestions made by the members to improve the document.M. Rastogi S.V.S.C.B. Y.S. Chary Brajendra Singh R.R. 2004 and the document was approved with certain modifications : Rigid Pavement Committee (H-5) Convenor Dr. Vasan MSRDC (P. MORT&H (G.B.M. De K. Ravi Shankar Dr. Indoria V. Sabnis Director. Venkatesha Member-Secretary Members Sharma H.D. Jain Dr. (Satandar IRC Sharma) Corresponding Members K. A Rep.C.P.P. Sodhi) of NCC&BM (R.U. Pandey A Rep. Bhaumik D. DG(RD) & SS (S. Kadiyali The CE (R&B) S&R.N. Thangarasu) Ex-Officio Members President. A Rep. Wason) of of of CRRI (K. A Rep.C. (Mrs.IRC:SP:63-2004 GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK PAVEMENTS Background The Rigid Pavement Committee (H-5) in its meeting held on the 28th November. (R.) Vandana Tare 1 Kumar) . Sharan) Co-Convenor M. Sinha R.R.C. L. Dr. Kulkami) DGBR (M. Accordingly. Phull S. Krishna Rao A. Chahal S.L.K. the modified document was circulated and discussed during the meeting of H-5 Committee (Personnel given below) held on the 8th March.S. Prof.K. HRS R. M.

IRC:SP:63-2004 The was discussed by the Highways Specifications and Standards Committee during its meeting held on the 22nd May. Cycle Tracks 3. Industrial floors 15. Container Depots 18. Intersections 12. construction practices and specifications for their use. Convenor. Kadiyali.R. Residential streets 4. giving the suggested applications. the guidelines have been prepared for the design and construction of such pavements. design catalogues. 2. H-5 Committee. L. to Railway Level Crossings Urban Sections of Highways 16. 2004 and the draft was approved subject to modifications in light of the comments made by its members. draft 1. 2004 approved the document for publication subject to modification in light of the comments/suggestions given by the participants. APPLICATIONS Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements have been found to have applications in several Such as : 1. The document has been modified suitably by Dr. Roads Wharf and Roads in high altitude areas 2 . The modified document as received from the Convenor. SCOPE Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements have been extensively used in a for quite sometime. Road Repairs during Monsoon 17. Considering their advantages number of countries and potential for use. Highway Rest Areas 8. Truck Parking Areas 14. The Council in its 172nd Meeting held at Nainital (Uttaranchal) on the 12th June. City Streets 13. 2004. Port 19. Rural Roads through villages 7.1. Fuel Stations 6. Car Parks 5. Approaches 11. Toll Plaza 9. 2. H-5 Committee was placed before the Executive Conmiittee in its meeting held on 25th May. The Executive Committee considered the Guidelines for being placed before the Council. situations. Footpaths and Side-walks 2. Bus Depots 10.

expansion and contraction. Limitations (i) Concrete block pavements cannot be used for high speed (ii) The riding quality is reasonably good for low-speed traffic. 2. - facilities. and are free from the cracking phenomenon. the need for frequency of compared to bituminous pavement. they are of a very high quality. . Advantages (i) Since the blocks are prepared in the factory. in cities help reduce storm water runoff and decrease the quantum of drainage structures. they reflect light better then the black bituminous pavements. Use of permeable block pavement underground sources of water. in-situ curing and so can be opened to traffic soon after completion of construction. (vi) These pavements are unaffected by the spillage of bus stops. (vii) They from vehicles. bus depots and parking areas. block pavement does not exhibit very deterioratory effect due (xvi) to thermal times over. (ix) Since the concrete blocks are grey in colour. 2. and are are preferred in heavily loaded areas like container depots be very well designed (viii) oil to withstand the ideal for and ports as they can high stresses induced there. (iii) Because of the rough surface. where speeds have to be restricted and cornering stresses are high. thus bringing much lower (x) The (xi) Block pavement does not need cost of maintenance is down the cost of street lighting.IRC:SP:63-2004 2. Also. than a bituminous surface. the laying of concrete block pavements can be achieved at a low cost because of the availability of cheap labour. thus avoiding the difficulties encountered in quality control in the field. (xii) Construction of block pavement is simple and labour-intensive.2. filter and towns can help replenish depleting pollutants before they reach open water sources. and can be done using simple compaction equipment. In India.2. these pavements are (iv) The block pavements are ideal for intersections skid-resistant. Advantages and Limitations of Interlocking Concrete Block Pavements. (xiii) Maintenance of block pavement is simple and easy. (v) The digging and reinstatement of trenches for repairs to utilities is easier in the case of block pavement. maintenance is low as many (xiv) Structurally round blocks can be recycled (xv) Unlike concrete pavements.2. (ii) Concrete block pavements is an advantage in city restrict the streets speed of vehicles to about 60 km per hour. which and intersections. but is inferior to that observed on a machine laid bituminous or concrete pavement.1.2.

Category B: These blocks are dentated on only two sides. 3 into three categories as under: Dentated units are designed to key into each other on plan geometry when keyed all four faces and which.000 to 60. .IRC:SP:63-2004 — (iii) The noise generated (iv) A high. Mean width Thickness : Between 60 to 140 mm Length/Thickness :> 4 would be paving purpose. 2(ii) is shown The in Fig. Present day interlocking blocks have evolved in shape after observing their performance. these blocks can only be laid in stretcher bond. -#"»<•".. as explained in Section Category C: These are not dentated type but depend on dimensional accuracy for interlocking These blocks can be overall dimension of blocks used in various parts of the world ranges as under Top surface area : 5. 2(iv) gives still better interlock and is suitable for fully mechanized paving. The blocks can be TYPES AND SHAPES OF BLOCKS interlocking horizontally and vertically. effect. 2. more number of half blocks would be In addition to regular blocks described above. The dentated blocks Category A: further can be grouped as shown in Fig. 2(i) is the Fig. This helps in increasing the shear strength of the block system and thus the load dispersal The block shown in Fig. three phases in the evolution of the shape of the blocks are The rectangular shape shown stone set blocks. The block shown in Fig. 2(iii) is a further improvement over dentated rectangular block. — <3 length : cm ' „ ' ^ ? . generally capable of being laid in herringbone bond These blocks are pattern (as explained in Section 8). capacity. laid only in a stretcher bond. : ^ : . 4 . supplementary blocks of half size required for generally required than other category of blocks. T< . as shown in Fig 1. 5-8 is dB (A) higher than bituminous surfaces. resist the widening of the joint. by their together. 3. The shape shown in better contact in Fig. very good attention to pavement drainage is needed because the water can seep through the joints. In the case of rectangular blocks. The 8. Generally. Their dimensional accuracy of laying some helps in bringing about the interlock effect on other faces. 28 . shape which was intended for imitating the an improved version with between adjoining blocks thus enhancing the interlocking many effect dentated faces for and friction between them. with : exceptions. .000 mm^ Horizontal dimension not exceeding Mean .

. Some shapes of interlocking blocks 5 . 1. .IRC:SP:63-2004 (i) (ii) SOME TYPICAL SHAPES OF INTERLOCKING BLOCKS SOME TYPICAL SHAPES OF VERTICALLY INTERLOCKING BLOCKS Fig.

RETAINING ESSENTIALLY BRICK DIMENSIONS (ill) NEW SHAPE FOR BETTER PERFORMANCE UNDER TRAFFIC AND PERMITTING MECHANICAL LAYING OF BLOCKS (iv) SHAPED BLOCK FOR BETTER INTERLOCK AND FASTER MECHANISED PAVING 'X' Fig. 2.(i) INITIAL (ii) COST AND SIZE SIMILAR TO PAVING BRICK DENTATED TO PROVIDE KEY WITH ADJOINING UNITS. Basic shapes of blocks .

(2) J (2) K (2) L (2) Q ^ CATEGORY H [X] (2) [X] cn] cca M (2) N (2) 0 (2) P (2) S (2) T (2) U (2) V (2) (2) _ R (2) CATEGORY C (1) NOTES SUITABLE FOR A VARIETY OF BONDS INCLUDING HERRINGBONE BLOCKS KNOWN TO HAVE HAD LOAD (2) SUITABLE ONLY FOR STRETCHER BOND DISTRIBUTION STUDIES OR TRAFFIC TESTS Fig.IRC:SP:63-2004 CATEGORY A A (1) G (2) B (1) c (i. 4. Depending upon the load coming on them.3. driveways. 4. Typical Pavement Composition A few typical compositions normally used are given in Figs. architects have been making use of block pavement extensively. etc. the composition of the pavement differs. COMPOSITION OF BLOCK PAVEMENT General Except for the top wearing part of the pavement. Block Thickness Interlocking concrete blocks surface but at the resisting 5 and 6. same time help come in different thicknesses. These when constructed growing grass as shown in Fig. the base and sub-base layers are similar to the conventional flexible or rigid pavement. For improving aesthetics further. Different catagories of blocks Special Grass Blocks For improving aesthetic looks of paved areas. The numerous paving blocks and their joints mellow down the harshness created by large transverse joints formed in conventional concrete pavement. These are best suited for walkways. in reducing the stresses These blocks serve as wearing imposed on subgrade and also help in pavement deformation and elastic deflections similar to the base course of a flexible pavement. grass blocks in a grid formation allow space in the pavement for have been developed. 4. 3. 4. 4. D (1) E (1) F (i.1.2. Coloured blocks also add to the aesthetic beauty. 7 .

IRC:SP:63-2004 SUBGRADE SOIL Fig. Grass blocks and the construction technique . 4.

(iv) The sand also helps to keep lower part of the joint filled with sand interlocking effect. for is are involved. to a levelled surface will settle In view of this. tolerance limits of 2 to 3 ± 3 such as. 7. cycles. Category 'B' traffic. . traffic. THICKNESS OF SUB-BASE AS PER pavement for heavily trafficked roads in thickness of blocks affects the paved oo blocks of the thickness 100-120 nrmi are used. all C)0 o motor a thickness of 80 movements TABLE-1 cars.IRC:SP:63-2004 60mm BLOCKS or-irc THICK 20-30mm SAND BED A A BASE LAYER OF 200mm WBM/WMM/CRUSHED ' ROCK/SOIL-CEMENT < ^ < " " . 5. 4. (iii) The sand bed acts as a barrier and does not allow propagation of cracks formed in base/ sub-base.4. Sand Bedding and Jointing A layer of sand bedding is provided between block pavement and base/sub-base for the following reasons: (i) (ii) To provide a cushion between the hard base and The base or sub-base will have some permitted the paving blocks surface unevenness. the paved block can be levelled perfectly. as blocks should be of the same thickness. Thick blocks are best suited where high volumes of turning Non-uniformity 0 0^ ^ n o o o THICKNESS OF BASE AS PER TABLE-1 evenness of the surface. mm.. a mm block generally used. A Typical cross section of block pavement used in sidewaiks/foot-paths/car-parks/cycle track 80-100mm BLOCKS 20-30mm SAND BEDDING o o o O O O (~)0 Fig. A block pavement unevenly with the movement of vehicles. etc. 9 and provides added . COMPACTED EARTH Fig. for heavily trafficked roads. 6. By providing a layer of sand bed. medium which is initially shown in Fig. variations in length and width of blocks should be hmited to ± mm for ensuring uniform joint width and avoiding staggering effect. with a maximum allowable Similarly. For Category 'A' thickness of 60 A o o o O Oo ^ ^ o o o Q o o o o o o o o o o o o o oo oo typical cross section of block blocks used for light mm is adequate. pedestrians.

For weak subgrade soil encountered determines the type and thickness of soils like clays. etc. The grading and quality of sand is very important for the block pavement to perform satisfactorily.^^ Joints between blocks are filled by fine sand. bound .5. the remainder space has to be filled with jointing sand brooming it 4. the type of base and sub-base. Normally. The joints are normally 2 to 4 by mm wide. The sand used should be free from plastic clay and should be angular type. Base and Sub-base Layers These layers are the important structural layers of a block pavement. The sub-base can function as drainage layer as well. The sub-bases are generally of granular material. provided proper disposal arrangement for water is made. layers or Besides intensity of loading.g. Effect of thickness variations in paving blocks The sand bed should not be too thick lest it would be difficult to blocks.. The materials used for base construction consist of either bound material like lean concrete or soil-cement or bituminous unbound materials like wet mix macadam or WBM. It should not be of degradable type for e. it is control the surface level of the necessary that the lower layers are profiled proper level and finish and that the bedding sand layer is of uniform thickness. The base course layer is normally provided where heavy vehicular traffic is likely. whereas. For block pavement to perform to SAND BED AFTER SEVERAL YEARS satisfactorily. bases are preferred. -^. A layer thickness of 20 to 40 mm is found to be satisfactory.IRC:SP:63-2004 SAND BED (a) INITIAL UNEVEN SURFACE r (b) Fig. from the top. is likely to get powdered under the loading. 10 where ground water table is shallow. sand produced from lime stone.. the bottom 20 30 to mm of the joint gets filled with bedding sand. Varying thickness of sand bed ultimately results in uneven surface of the pavement. 7.

6. Concrete blocks on trafficked pavements tend to move sideways and forward due to braking and manoeuvring of vehicles.8 possible the edge blocks should have vertical face towards the inside blocks. blocks are also shown in Fig. The tendency to move sideways has to be counteracted at the edges by special edge blocks and kerbs. The edge blocks should be designed such that the rotation or displacement of blocks is resisted.IRC:SP:63-2004 Edge Restraint Blocks and Kerbs 4. 8. Edge 11 restraints wheel A MPa. As few far as typical edge . 8. These have at least a to withstand the traffic members should be manufactured 28 day compressive strength of 30 MPa or constructed in-situ to or flexural strength of 3. Fig. These are to be made of concrete of high strength loading without getting damaged.

8. available. durability and dimensional tolerances. Lightly Trafficked Pavements 5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF CONCRETE BLOCK PAVEMENT 5. the ad-hoc design catalogues based given in Table 1 are suggested for adoption. the pavement can consist of blocks 60 and a base course 200 mm thick laid over a sand bedding 20-30 mm mm thick.1. For block pavements for industrial applications 5. - Block Pavements Subjected to Commercial Traffic 5.2. In heavier section. or mechanistic principles. The base course can be in WBMAVMM/crushed stone/soil-cement. given subsequently may be it is from the recommended lightly trafficked to the that the catalogue of designs used. car parks and malls are lightly trafficked. 6.3. 5. 12 etc.IRC:SP:63-2004 The road kerbs provided on shown the edge of the road also serve the purpose of edge blocks as in Fig. roads and warehouses the following thickness is recommended. - City streets and highway sections subjected to commercial traffic (trucks and buses) require a Though design methods based on empirical approach and mechanistic behaviour are enough work has not been done in India to evolve the country's own design procedure. Suggested Design Procedure 5. A typical cross-section This design can be adopted for the range of subgrade soils met with in India. on international experience as A design life of 20 years can be considered for determining the repetitions of standard axles. They cover a variety of roads ranging heavily trafficked. Pedestrian side-walks. footpaths. the : 300 mm MATERIALS General quality of materials. cycle tracks. the absence of such knowledge. These aspects and the .4.1. Design procedures have been developed by agencies abroad based on successful performance. are of great importance for the satisfactory performance of block pavements. based on Block : Sand Bedding : Hydraulically bound base like container • yard and port wharf and international experience: mm 30-50 mm 300 mm 100 ' : Granular sub-base (out of which the bottom 150 mm is a drainage layer) 6. In such situations. cement concrete strength. In the absence of research in India. In case the kerbs are not provided. it has to be replaced by edge strips. is given in Fig.

If the 1 .a IRC:SP:63-2004 TABLE 1 : DESIGN CATALOGUE FOR PAVEMENT THICKNESS Subgrade and Traffic CBR(%) Road Type 60 20-30 60 20-30 zUU zUO Blocks 60-80 60-80 Sand Bed 20-40 20-40 250 200 250 250 Blocks 80-100 80-100 Sand Bed 20-40 20-40 250 200 250 250 80-100 80-100 20-40 20-40 250 250 150 150 75 75 200 250 Blocks Sand Bed rcucsiridn Fooipduis Base • Commercial Traffic /\Aie i^udu rvcpeiiiiuus Ipqc than 10 tn c WBMAVMM Base • IveslUCIllldl vJllCCLa Granular Sub-base • Commercial traffic Axle Load Repetitions msa 10-20 WBMAVMM Base • ^^ouecioi oLieeia. has a CBR msa denotes * 5. are broadly outlined in the subsequent paragraphs. repetitions in million standard axles in case of roads is 6. 13 . ^frppfQ RiiQ Tnrlii<. A typical cross-section is 4. it drainable. the base course and sub-base materials are also described. of less than stabilisation technique to bring the 5. mm layer at the bottom which having inadequate drainage or heavy - rainfall areas (above 1500 mm per annum) block manufgicturing process itself. subgrade soil at least given in Fig. should be improved by suitable CBR value to 5. 2 Granular sub-base should have 150 3. The desired engineering properties of bedding/jointing sand layer beneath the block. which immensely influences the quality of paving blocks.trial dllU 1 Granular Sub-base UCJv X dlJVlliy. I A r\lt"PQ Cdsc • Commercial traffic Axle Load Repetitions Blocks Sand Bed zO-5U msa WBM/WMM Base or WBMAVMM Base • Arterial Streets and DLC over it* Granular Sub-base Notes : Thickness of layers given above are in mm.

construction stresses and effects of traffic. in the form of powder or slurry. Aggregate/cement ratio Aggregates : : 3:1 to 6:1 honeycombed pieces. Pigments should be finer than cement (fineness value between 2 and 15 m'/gm).IRC:SP:63-2004 6. Saturation of colour takes place with a pigment volume of around 5 to 9 per cent of cement content. In general terms. The desired characteristics of the mix are as under: Water/cement ratio Water content of the mix Quantity of cement in mix : 0. replacing Ordinary Portland Cement The above values to are for general guidance only. mostly metal oxides.38 : 5 to : 7% of total units mix Generally not less than 380 kg/m^ depending on the equipment being used for block making. appropriate type and amount of pigments are added ' ^' during mixing. addition of pigments 14 .34 to 0. However. For the same slump. The proportion of coarse aggregate in the mix is typically 40 per cent and the fine aggregate (sand) 60 per cent. The actual mix design has to be made to suit each individual requirement. Salient Mix Design Aspects The commonly used processes for the manufacture of pre-cast cement concrete paving require dry. considered a though the strength as such vital factor in the satisfactory of a block pavement.2. an extent of 35 per cent. the former are adversely affected by the alkaline environment of concrete and do deteriorate with time. Although organic pigments render brighter colours than inorganic pigments. the paving block Strength must have adequate strength to withstand handling. minimum compressive it is is not performance suggested that the strength of a single block should be above 30 MPa. The size of coarse aggregate should lie between Should be sound and 6 mm and 12 mm free from soft or and the gradation should be recommended range for in the cement concrete mixes in general. Inorganic pigments. low-slump mixes. are more durable and hence preferred for consistency and purity. Addition of Pigments : To provide the desired colour to paving blocks. Upper cement shall not limit of be more than 425 kg/m\ Fly ash also can be used in the mix.

In the "facing" of the block. it is to be emphasized that hand-casted concrete blocks are unacceptable for use and that an appropriate plant should be used which would make it possible to apply high pressure together with controlled vibration. also fitted with vibrators for a high level of mould by forcing down the tamper heads. At the very outset. Blocks are extruded from table is disengaged from the multiple layers for curing. depending on the plant used being single layer or multi-layer. super-plasticizers at around 0. Air entraining agents. - etc. a block can be made of two kinds of concrete having "backing" and "facing" surfaces. all durability of which reflect on the ultimate performance of the block pavement during service. and level of finish dimensional tolerance.4. In the first effected by running the vibrators attached to the vibratory table. Water repellant admixtures of calcium stearate are sometimes used to reduce water absorption. Essentially. Manufacture of Paving Blocks The method of manufacture of paving blocks has an important bearing on the quality. Under special circumstances. though feasible. The blocks thus prepared are stacked either in a single layer or surface finish. the frequency generally being in the range of 50 to 100 Hz. mm has greater amounts of cement and sand to and extra pigment is make added for the coloured face vis-a-vis the stage of compaction.4 per cent of cement by weight may be added for high early strength. The sides of the block should be perpendicular 15 . suitable adjustments in mix proportions may become necessary. the length of a paving block should ordinarily be not greater than twice the mean exceeding 280 width. when added to the mix.IRC:SP:63-2004 requires increase in mixing water. the manufacturing process involves compacting concrete. Adaptation of production facilities designed for high quality hollow masonry blocks. may which in some cases lead to lowering of flexural and compressive strength of concrete. therefore. the thickness mm. Dimensional and other Requirements of Paving Blocks For normal paving work. after the vibrating mould.3. these also control "efflorescence" (surface deposition of salts as a result of water movement upwards). the top 5 resistant. pre-vibration is it rest more durable and skid- of the block. 6. 6. besides reducing cost. by hydraulic pressure. cause some reduction in the needed amount of cement. compression pressure is applied to the tamper heads. In the second stage of compaction. Concrete is fed into the mould from a hopper by a drawer - if a second hopper is added. 75 to 140 maximum length generally not mm with a maximum chamfer of 10 the mm (preferably chamfer should be in the range 3-5 mm). therefore. is a the width generally is minimum of 60 in the range mm. Further reduction is achieved by substituting part of the cement Other Additives with blast-furnace slag or pozzolanas like fly ash. in a steel mould clamped to a vibrating table. as efficient as the use of is not as economical and purpose designed machinery for paving block manufacture.

18 mm 100 95-100 80-100 . the block should be puipose-cut It is at site. around manholes. In the interest of maintaining a good surface profile.5. . Bedding and Joint 6. and if the : It is Filling Sand well established that if thickens of the bedding sand layer proper attention is not paid to the quality not uniform enough.52 amount of fines or in service gap graded sands or sands with excessive fines should not be used. " mm 3 mm 2 the average water absorption in a block should not exceed 5 per cent. the use of sharp sands should be preferred for the more The bedding sand should be 16 free of deleterious materials.1. since the sharp sands possess higher strength and resist the migration of sand from under the block to less frequently trafficked areas. Annexure give suggested technical specifications for laying block pavements. serious irregularities in surface profile can result. where parts of blocks are to be used e. the block thickness should be controlled carefully. 7 on an exaggerated scale. excessive differential deformation life is and rutting can occur early of the block pavement.. The blocks should have the following dimensional tolerances: Plan dimensions ± Thickness ± To ensure durability. Bedding sand of bedding sand. and for cold regions in a standard freeze-thaw durability test. the weight loss should not exceed 1 per cent. which reduces the variation in block thickness. In situations. 50-95 600 micron 25-60 300 micron 10-30 150 micron 0-15 75 micron 0-10 Care should be taken plastic : Percent Passing 9.IRC:SP:63-2004 to the top and bottom faces except that the top may be edge chamfered. as shown in Fig. sands.75 mm 2. Eventhough sharp sands are relatively more difficult to compact than rounded heavily trafficked pavements.36 mm 1. The shape of sand particles should preferably be to see that single-sized or sharp rather than rounded. to be recognized that variations in the thickness of blocks used for a paving job can be a major cause for the loss of surface profile. 6.5. The desired gradation of bedding sand should be as under IS Sieve Size mm 4. this can be done to advantage by adopting multi-layer method of manufacture of paving blocks.g..

IRC:SP:63-2004 Joint filling sand 6. The joint filling sand should be as dry as possible. cement bound crushed rock/ granular materials. The climatic and environmental factors also need to be considered during the choice of a base material. should be preferred while for high strength subgrades. wherever the subgrade is weak (having CBR a value below 5) use of bound granular materials. filling of joints will be difficult. the joint filling sand should be 6. In broad terms. it difficult to flexibility characteristics otherwise complete bedding sand. requiring a relatively thinner base. the materials considered suitable for base courses are unbound crushed rock. have an important bearing on the performance of a block pavement. Block pavement with joints filled DRAINAGE with sand is not a waterproof layer and hence care has to be taken to drain out the surface water seeping through the joints in 17 initial stage of the construction.2.36 It is between two paving blocks relatively finer than the IS Sieve Size . and lean cement concrete. Although. The quality of sub- and includes natural gravels. like.5. Similarly. To overcome the problem surface of paving block layer. 7. local availability and economics generally dictate the choice of base material at the commonly used design stage. The desired gradation for the 100 600 micron make it is and/or clay) to 10 per cent. Generally. in washed to of efflorescence on the remove soluble salts. since excessive fines (silt make not advisable to use cement in the joint filling sand which completely fill the joints but would also adversely affect the desired of the paving block layer. The quality of sub-base materials should be in conformance withIRC:37-2001. wide) need to be filled joint filling sand is by sand^ The gaps : 90-100 60-90 300 micron 30-60 150 micron 15-30 . which include load spreading properties to reduce stresses on the subgrade and desired drainage characteristics. cement treated gravels and sands and stabilized subgrade materials. water-bound macadam.18 mm will not only (typically about 3 as under: 2. ^ Base Material The engineering properties of base materials.7. cement treated crushed rock. 6. unbound crushed rock can be used. mm Per cent Passing mm 1. 0-10 75 micron necessary to restrict the fines joint filling very difficult. wet mix macadam. This . a sub-base base materials ' Sub-base Material is is warranted where commercial inferior to the base materials traffic is expected.6.

water can find base. of subsurface drains surrounded by filter material or a same time prevent the escape of bedding/ jointing arrangement used in block pavement is shown in Figs. collected is is 1 1 to sand. Surface drainage in a block 18 pavement . 9. Typical subsurface drainage . through and at the Shawn The water in Fig. which would allow the water to pass draining. 9 and 10. Surface drainage in a block pavement GRADED AGGRAGATE FILTER DFIAIN OR GEOTEXTILE FIN DRAIN OR NO-FINES CONCRETE BLOCK WITH GEOTEXTILE CROSS-FALL 3% SURROUNDING THE BLOCK SAND BED PERFORATED PIPE Fig. mm diameter perforated pipe. appropriate drainage aiTangement has to be provided. CROSS-FALL 3% V/ if DRAIN -SAND BED NO-FINES CONCRETE BLOCK GEOTEXTILE SURROUNDING THE BLOCK Fig. a drainage system with no fines concrete provided be taken through 80 below the sand bed. Unless these layers are free The drainage provided generally consists geotextile. sub-base and siibgrade layers.IRC:SP:63-2004 way to sand bed below. 10.

^ CONSTRUCTION General 8. should be compacted in layers of 150 or 100 its 8. Like in conventional mm below the subgrade. The prepared subgrade surface evenness should be graded and trimmed to a tolerance of ± 20 mm of the design levels.1. bedding sand and finally the laying of blocks. IRC:63-1976. However. The block pavement should be 8. IRC:37-2001. and should have a tolerance of within 15 mm under a 3 m straight edge. for efficient construction work. IRC:50-1973. The block paving can be done entirely by manual labour. 11. This done by mechanical means. sub-base and base course layers. IRC:51-1993. at least 5 mm above the manholes.IRC:SP:63-2004 SLOTTED Fig. is the foundation layer on pavements the water table should be which the block pavement at a minimum depth of 600 is constructed. in Base and Sub-base Course Base and sub-base courses are constructed in accordance with standard procedures contained the relevant IRC Specifications.3. etc. the work force has to be properly trained for this specialised job. Heavy trafficked concrete block pavement structure with a base course of no-fines concrete for drainage A crossfall of 2 per cent slope is generally sufficient to drain the surface run-off but it is desirable to provide 3 per cent crossfall in the case of heavily trafficked roads to avoid formation of water puddles. like. Subgrade mm thickness as per 1RC:36-1970. side drains. 19 . Paving can also be Preparation of Subgrade 8. The construction of block pavement involves preparation of subgrade.2.

which Bedding sand should not be used to in the preferable to restrict the compacted thickness to 20-25 It is level. which must be allowed for. 13. Asphalt paver can be employed in large projects. Constructing the layers to proper level and grade is very essential to maintain the level and surface regularity of the block pavement. Hence. 20 . Local correction can be done either by removing or adding extra sand followed by levelling and compacting the There will be some settlement of sand layer. The effect of undulating surface of base or sub-base on the profile of block pavement is explained in Fig. The sand is subsequently compacted with plate vibrators weighing 0. Influence of alignment of edge restraints on achieving and maintaining laying bond. Level checks shall be carried out on a grid pattern to establish that the desired level is achieved. Placing and Screeding of Bedding Sand 8. as per When cement bound base are proposed it may be constructed using rolled lean concrete IRC:SP-49. 12. 8. after the blocks are placed and while fixing the level of sand bed. would affect the final block surface depressions on the surface of a base or sub- advance before placing sand. base. The depressions should be repaired to fill-up local in mm. start down hill be considered: from the lowest poiht and proceed uphill on a continuous creep in incomplete areas.6 tonnes or more. the laying done at two fronts will create problem for matching joints in the middle. The quality control specified in IRC:SP-1 1 shall apply. The blocks will settle after trafficking in such a manner that the surface profile becomes parallel to base/sub-base profile.IRC:SP:63-2004 IRC: 19-1977. along the entire width of the area to be paved. be used should be uniformly content. the screed can be dragged on edge strips kept on both sides as guide. Sand compaction should be is that in loose condition when sand is 8 per cent. laying should When commence from the edge strip and proceed towards the inner side. shown it is better to start from straight in Fig. The length of nail should take into account the surcharge to be provided in the uncompacted thickness. string line as basis.5. While locating the - On to ' .4. laying should proceed in one direction only. Sand bed assumes uniform thickness under moving loads. The thickness of the sand bed in the loose form it can be 25 to 50 mm to reduce the risk of any after mm. as far as possible. Normally. the following should a sloping avoid site. Requirement of sand for a day's and should have a uniform moisture neither too wet nor too dry and have a value of 6 to work should be prepared and stored in advance and covered with tarpaulin or polythene sheets. Alternatively. Laying of Blocks Blocks can be laid generally by manual labour but mechanical aids like hand-pushed trolleys can expedite the work. In case of irregular shaped edge restraints or strip. Best moisture content range of 20-40 localized precompaction. The screed boards are provided with nails at 2-3 m apart which when dragged gives the desired thickness. whereas. dentated blocks are used. compacted. - starting line. The processed sand is spread with the help of screed boards to the required thickness.

BASE COURSE SURFACE IS OUT OF LEVEL TOLERANCE AFTER COMPACTION OF BEDDING SAND. BLOCK SURFACE WILL BE OUT OF SHAPE (b) I : Fig. 12.IRC:SP:63-2004 (a) BEFORE COMPACTION OF BEDDING SAND. Effect of base-course surface SAND BED shape on bedding sand and block surface shape STRING LINE Fig. Starting at irregular 21 shaped edge restraint . 13.

laying pattern and joint widths can be maintained by the use of chalked string lines. The laying patterns and face should be established (Fig. m intervals. are used. Under no circumstances should the bedding sand hydraulic or mechanical block cutters. only subsequently. A pavior. 15) to permit fast and easy laying without the necessity of forcing a block between previously positioned blocks. Methods of Construction of Block Pavement Manual methods : In the traditional manual method. the sand is roughly screeded and embeds the block using a hammer.1. a skilled worker (called a pavior) levels the sand and then An alternative to the the completed surface. Establishing the Laying Pattern 8. full blocks should be used. where it should be ensured that the block alignment is correct. ^ In relation to the starting line. use premixed concrete or a sand-cement mortar instead.7. a row. above method. the joint width specification (2 to 4 mm) should be checked in the few square metres. as these are traffic. 8. start with. the blocks should chamfered be for easy handling and their weight should preferably be less than 4 kg. it is advantageous to select an easy fitting block shape. The control over alignment. The blocks can be placed to different bonds or patterns depending upon requirement. in addition. at about 5 Different 8.6. Cut units difficult to cut accurately less than 50 mm minimum and can be dislodged under not permit use of a larger segment.of paving per day. 14. along with an assistant. For optimum output. cutting and in-filling blocks be forced or hammered into the at Where space does at this power saws dimension should not be used.IRC:SP:63-2004 Bonds or Patterns of Laying Blocks 8. size being that 22 .8. If the rows away to position the first restraints. edge restraint is straight and suitably oriented. With the help of gauges. with the desirable which can be easily accommodated in the worker's hand. he works backwards so as to have a continuous view of the completed pavement in order to obtain a good finish. the blocks should be placed at the correct angle to achieve the final orientation as required the first by the laying row of blocks can abut it. For cutting paving blocks. can lay 50 to 75 m. in Fig. or To stage of laying. edges be permitted. For iiTcgular-shaped and unfavourably oriented edge stringline should be established a few' first pattern. Some popular bonds commonly adopted for block paving are: bond (i) Stretcher or running (ii) HeiTingbone bond (iii) Basket weave or parquet bond The typical layout of these - bonds are given \.8. the block layers (generally unskilled labourers) work on moving forward.

Typical bond or laying pattern of bond 23 .(a). 14. STRETCHER BOND OR RUNNING BOND (c). BASKET WEAVE OR PARQUET BOND Fig.

15. Establishing laying face for blocks in 24 herringbone bond .IRC:SP:63-2004 AXIS OF UNITS NOT PARALLEL TO EDGE RESTRAINTS -ONLY ONE OPERATOR CAN WORK ON THE LAYING FACE (A) AXIS OF UNITS PARALLEL TO EDGE RESTRAINTS -MORE THAN. ONE OPERATOR MAY WORK ON THE LAYING FACE (B) Fig.

16). say 40 blocks apart. hardened steel mandrel which is forced into joints at a series of randomly selected locations. laying of the paving blocks to achieve uniformity of compaction and retention of the pattern of laying. 25 1 m from the laying face. or it can be done by measuring joint widths joint width can be directly. using a calibrated. hand-operated equipment. over mm can be maintained when if. which may cause spalling or cracking of blocks. The size of paving block cluster suitable for usually 0.3. to see that paving blocks are not tightly butted against each other. there exists the possibility of damage between adjacent clusters may be clusters run uninterrupted throughout the pavement. Joint held lightly against the face of an adjacent laid unit and allowed to vertically slide into position. are minimal. except after completion . hand large projects employing a number of laying site for preferable. otherwise there could be non-uniformity in the laying patterns and the blocks widths of 2 to 4 a high of 120 m-/man-day. it is desirable to rotate also periodically interchange the personnel laying and transporting blocks. wide range it is important to manual paving. resulting in the widening of joints and comer contact of blocks. spacing ribs may be cast on the sides of blocks to preserve the required joint spacings. in some cases.5 m- in area for the cluster surface area can be upto about of about 3 . 17). at least laid over it. Mechanised laying must be coordinated with the manufacturer. as some blocks may move under construction traffic. the higher outputs being for industrial hard standings maintain an adequate supply of paving blocks to the laying pushed workmen. arranged so that the joints are periodically staggered both along and across the cluster axis or link blocks are installed by hand across these joints (Fig. so that the blocks are delivered stacked on pallets in the required pattern. 8.2 m-. Ordinarily. There should be minimal delay in compaction after are needed. To keep up trolleys are adequate for the purpose. however. compaction should not proceed closer than of the pavement. use of powered trolleys Care must be taken is the speed of work. is : Mechanised laying requires the use of specialised equipment?- and placing clusters of paving blocks. Mechanised methods for transporting paving. To overcome this if joints problem. Compaction For compaction of the bedding sand and the blocks : plate compactors are used over the laid paving units. by determining statistically the representative values of average length and breadth of blocks at the project site and then obtaining average distance between joints. It is not good practice to leave compaction till end of the day.3 to 0. Since the blocks are placed in separate clusters. The average measured and checked.8.IRC:SP:63-2004 The output of finished pavement from a low of 20 where intrusion to a like varies widely with training of manholes. may it is spall or even crack. and slightly different joint widths. 1 . Since each workman may produce workmen along the workface. to obtain a statistically representative figure. when clamped together (Fig. laying a paving unit. These clusters are designed to maintain a joint space mm between blocks. for fully mechanised equipment. but for teams. vibratory two passes of the vibratory plate compactor Such vibratory compaction should be continued till the top of each paving block is level with its adjacent blocks. etc.2. 8.8.

IRC:SP:63-2004 .

Staggered installation of block clusters During vibratory compaction of the way into the joints between them.5-0.6 m.3 m. Where the bedding sand has been pre-compacted and for heavily 27 .and apply a centrifugal force of 30-65 kN. 17. and the force applied by the block compactor.and apply a centrifugal force of about 15 kN. have a plate area of about 0. the extent the degree of pre-compaction of sand may have some amount of bedding sand will work its of sand getting worked up into the joints will depend on laid blocks. Standard compactors a weight of about 90 kg. plate area of about 0. while heavy duty compactors may weigh 300-600 kg.IRC:SP:63-2004 HAND-LAID AREAS Fig.

leading to loose blocks. Joint filling : mm) static will further help in filling. as shown in Fig. the joints should be completely The joint the desired specifications. (A) some bedding sand has at suitable process should in any . possibly spalling the edges and a locally disturbing bedding sand layer. Unfilled or partially filled joints allow blocks to deflect.4.6 compaction of bedding sand and joint 8. plate compactors.- IRC:SP:63-2004 trafficked block pavements. The importance of complete joint filling cannot be over-emphasised. locations for convenience. After the compaction of the bedding sand has been completed (and been forced up in the joints between blocks). 18. some 2 heavy duty compactors should be used. minimum filing delay in joint filling. After compaction by vibratory 6 passes of a vibratory roller (with rubber coated drums or those of to weight less than 4 tonnes and nominal amplitude of not more than 0. There should be case. 18. SAND-FILLED JOINT SPREADS WHEEL LOAD UNFILLED JOINT ALLOWS BLOCK TO DEFLECT LEADING TO LOOSE BLOCKS WITH POSSIBLE CREAKS Need for complete filling of joints 28 filled with sand meeting sand should be stockpiled be completed by the end of the day's work. the :-BEDDING LAYER (B) Fig. as given in Section 6.8.

8. Dry sand and dry blocks top of the joints. filling sand on the a far passes of heavy The sand should be broomed or spread over the surface with a small surcharge. Opening to traffic : Until all the joints are completely filled. fill this. as the blocks is damp sand tends wet and the sand dry. -15 mm +10 mm. In this case. In case of lime or cement treated layers that these are given at least 14 and 7 days respectively pavement should be inspected frequently. Nominal joint width 3 29 mm along 10 m line .IRC:SP:63-2004 The operation of joint filling comprises of spreading a thin layer of the joint block surface and working the sand into each joint by brooming. the sand the blocks or sand are wet. also. in the no traffic should be permitted Laying and Surface Tolerances While : the laying. water-sprinkling and plate compaction will be necessary to completely fill the joints. -0 mm m line 10 m line from any 3 from any Vertical deviation m line at kerbs from 3 intrusions. channels.8.5. Hence. If the weather does not allow sand and blocks to be dry. the surface tolerances. Following plate compactor are applied to facilitate fine sand to the joints.6. one may to stick at the very will again stick at the joint top. it must be ensured to cure. Base Course Plan deviation mm (maximum) 20 mm (maximum) +3 mm. if either if are best for the filling of joint. several cycles of application of sand. Such frequent inspection should be continued The block exposed by till dust and from the roadway tightens the surface of the joints. Maximum 10 edge restraints elsewhere difference in surface level between adjacent paving + \0 mm. -25 Select subgrade/Sub-base -1-0. before traffic is permitted. may be filled.-1-10 mm of nominated level 10 mm deviation from a 3 m straight edge Subgrade +0. get a false impression of the joints being full. over the block pavement. 8. -15 mm units Deviation of finished surface level from designated level mm to 4 mm Joint width range 2 Percentage of joints outside range 10% max.8. but the next rain will reveal that they are actually hollow. given below observed: Layer/Item Tolerance mm of nominated level -20 mm of nominated level -0. any incompletely to ensure that filled joints. the joint filling sand should be washed in by light sprinkling of water. traffic and/or weather are promptly detritus pavement.

there are three important aspects in detailing. can be installed in herringbone bond and yet the pavement can revert to stretcher bond on the approaches.8. These are Detailing block pavements : Essentially. and (iii) Changes 8. : (i) Curves (ii) Treatment of intrusions. as shown in Fig. 19.IRC:SP:63-2004 8. Fig.7. necessary to cut the paving units to fit the edge restraints. 19. . To avoid weak construction joints. Curve in lierringbone bond and approaclies 30 in stretcher bond . Curves in : alignment It is .8.7.1. the curve itself unsightly and potentially preferable to change the laying pattern at the curve. Rectangular blocks of a similar or contrasting colour as an edging have been used to minimise the visual effects of small errors in block cutting. . it is often For example.

8. 20. 8. the paving can proceed without the need for construction units in if streets. in alignment : requirements or shape of the paving unit dictate the use of stretcher bond. etc. Changes Fig. drainage gulleys. is this is it is intrusion to return to the original -laying face (Fig. At intersections. like. 20) to avoid accumulation of closing en-or. manholes. An is alternative to this is to install a shoulder (support) course of rectangular paving between the mail] roadway and the side the two roadways. then only a 90° shape change in alignment can be achieved without cutting the blocks (Fig. Fig.3. : like in city streets. herringbone bond laying pattern joints (Fig.IRC:SP:63-2004 Pavement intrusions On some pavements. 31 . desirable. If Laying block paving around a manhole Changes in alignment of a road pavement can some times be achieved by the use of special blocks. oQ z I^ < -1 % CI U\YING FACE U\YING FACE i MANHOLE If . there could be several where mating these intrusions with the pavement should be done around a manhole. intrusions.8. 20 shows how Around so that closure good practice to lay along both sides of the intrusion simultaneously made away from the starting workface. However.2.9. 8. a adopted. Where aesthetic 8. this permits different laying patterns to be used SpeciHcations Annexure-1 gives the specifications for laying. 21). 22).7. it is generally easier to choose a block that can be installed in herringbone bond and simply cut the blocks to fit the edge restraints.7. rather than carrying the pavement around the intrusions. Blocks for Paving (under publication) may be The BIS Specifications for Precast Concrete followed for the manufacture and testing of blocks.

IRC:SP:63-2004 .

With time the joints receive fine dust and detritus thus making them waterproof. The maintenance soon after its laying. The* maintenance requirement of block pavement is minimal. Annual inspection. MAINTENANCE - General 9. IRC:SP:63-2004 Fig. For the purpose of reinstating damaged blocks it is necessary to stockpile a small percentage of blocks from the lots used in the construction. This type of inspection should continue for two to three months till the sand level is stabilized and topping up is no more required. if any. During rains these joints may allow weeds to grow but these normally should get eliminated with the traffic. After about a Maintenance week of laying the blocks there is a need to inspect the surface^to check for any Wherever sand level has dropped down it should be reinstated. normal blocks from 1 per cent to 3 per cent initial supply for subsequent use.2. Like any other road work.. the maintenance is in the form of replacing any damaged block/blocks or raising the settled section. In case it does not get eliminated these may have to be controlled by spraying herbicide or by manual removal. loss of sand at joints. The block pavement requires initial week or two for checking sand in the joints. however. Subsequently. For important projects. 33 it is be difficult to to stockpil .3. block pavement also should be maintained to give long service. Storage of Blocks 9. 22. Adaptation of herringbone bond to changes in alignment 9.1. Repair especially after laying a cable duct is much simpler in the case of block pavements. Initial 9. say after a cut area can be reinstated without any blemish. will be required. The size and colour of the blocks may obtain at a later date matching with the original blocks.

reducing absorptive nature of the blocks and for improving surface toughness. acetic and phosphoric acids etc. compressors or even by manual means. part of preventive maintenance. oxalic. like. Cleaning of block pavement can be done by mechanical brooms.4. life of 1 to 3 years The most durable of these chemicals and also minimize chemical effects of spillage is and hence they have to be solvent-borne acrylics which even at 60°C. For removing certain stains. blocks can be sealed using and silica flourides for enhancing the colour. As acrylics compounds.IRC:SP:63-2004 Coating and Cleaning 9. Sometimes it may be expedient to replace the blocks where stains have penetrated to a greater depth. are used. chemicals. These coating have repeated as per the requirement. / 34 . are abrasion resistant like. silicone.

52 95-100 80-100 50-95 25-60 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron 75 micron 10-30 0-15 0-10 Single sized. shall be 20 to 40 mm.1.1.1. Compaction shall be done with vibratory shall match the design profile of the concrete roller. 1. Bedding Sand Layer 1.2.2. The sand should be slightly moist.1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR LAYING CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS 1. and the moisture content by weight.18 mm 100 2. IS Sieve Size Per cent Passing mm 4.35 recommended: Sieve Size Per cent Passing mm 1. The following grading 30-60 15-30 0-10 in the joint-filling sand is not likely to crack into recommended as a general practice as the segments which are easily dislodged.2. In restricted areas where normal rollers cannot operate. The joint-filling sand should pass a 2.36 The use of cement is is 90-100 60-90 600 micron 300 micron 150 micron 75 micron cemented sand mm sieve and be well graded. Base ' The Finished surface of the concrete base blocks within ±10 mm. hand-held or plate vibrators should be employed. The bedding sand layer shall be from either a single source or blended to achieve the following grading. The sand particles should preferably be angular type.IRC:SP:63-2004 Annexure 1. Average thickness of this laying course 1. 1.75 mm 2.18 mm 100 9.1. 1.2. 35 shall be about 4 per cent . gap-graded sands or those containing an excessive amount of fines will not be used.36 mm 1.2.2. 1.3.

precisely to the gulley chambers Around gulley chambers and inspection is shall not be permitted.3.3.3. way 1 .2. 1. and thereafter shall be done with a vibrating plate compactor on a clean surface. The tolerance for base course shall be in the range of 0 to surface tolerance for sub-base shall be within 0 to (b) work The mm from at his -20 mm of nominated level. compaction maximum mm. Walking or driving on the finished surface of the bedding layer 1. The blocks joint width shall be limited to 1. field/laboratory tests may be conducted technical institution as directed in by the Engineer. Surface tolerance for finished surface shall be ± 10 The surface nominated level and 10 1. The blocks shall be laid to the pattern directed by the Engineer or the pattern recommended by the designer. 1 .4.4. 1 .4. 2. (a) mm from the design level. Surface Tolerances 1. Before placing the bedding layers.2.2. maximum "block 4 shall is length of a purpose broken block 1. The salts or silt and the materials contaminates. and profile and in a have a level of 5 mm at the indicated level assured. The not allowed except along connections or edges.7.1. Concrete Paving Blocks 1.4.2. the surface of concrete should be cleared by sweeping. shall It should contain not more than 3 per cent by weight of clay and be free from deleterious 1. again fine angular sand shall be brushed into the joints.3.IRC:SP:63-2004 1.4. match exactly the design finished surface of the bedding layer shall profile as indicated on the drawings. Laying of the blocks that a good surface draining 1. The Breaking of the blocks shall be done with a mechanical saw. 1 .2.5. Laying of broken blocks splitter" or a be laid as tight as possible to each other.4. After compaction. own tests shall be carried out by the contractor while executing cost.5.3. pits the pavement shall higher than the above mentioned elements. FIELD/LABORATORY TESTS Necessary field/laboratory the +10 mm deviation from a 3 m straight edge. 36 an Engineering College/ approved .6.3.3. shall be done.3. Fine angular sand as per specification shall be brushed into the joints. is 100 mm. 1.2.