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A set is a well-defined collection of distinct objects.

An element of a set is any object in the set.

- belongs to or is an element of

The cardinality of a set S, denoted by |S|, is the number of elements in S.

Example. Some commonly-used sets in our number system:

N

- the set of natural numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

Z

- the set of integers (whole numbers) . . . , 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

Q - the set of rational numbers (fractions) . . . , 1, 0, 1, 2, 12 , 3, 13 , 32 , . . .

R

- the set of real numbers, which includes all rational

numbers

as well as irrational numbers such as , e, and 2

C

- the set of complex numbers, which includes all real numbers

Example. We can specify a set by listing its elements between curly brackets,

separated by commas:

S = {a, b, c} .

The elements of S are a, b, and c. Thus |S| = 3.

We can write a S, b S, c S, and d

/ S, for instance.

Example. We can specify a set by some property that all elements must have:

S = {x Z | 2 x 1}

(or S = {x Z : 2 x 1} ) .

The elements of S are 2, 1, 0, and 1. Thus |S| = 4.

We can write 2 S, 1 S, 0 S, 1 S, and 2

/ S, for instance.

Exercise. Let A = {a, {a}}. What are the elements of A? What is |A|?

(i) every element of S is also an element of T , and

(ii) every element of T is also an element of S .

i.e., when they have precisely the same elements.

The empty set, denoted by , is a set which has no elements.

Exercise. Are any of the following sets equal?

A = {2, 3, 4, 5},

C = {2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5},

B = {5, 4, 3, 2},

D = {x N | 2 x 5}.

Exercise. What is the difference between the sets , {}, and {, {}}?

- is a subset of

6 - is not a subset of

A set S is a subset of a set T if each element of S is also an element of T.

S = T if and only if S T and T S.

is a proper subset of any non-empty set.

Any non-empty set is an improper subset of itself.

The power set P (S) of a set S is the set of all subsets of S.

For any set S, we have S and S S.

For any set S, we have P (S) and S P (S).

The number of subsets of S is |P (S)| = 2|S| .

Example. N Z Q R C

(Why? )

, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a, b, c}.

S has 8 subsets. We can write S, {b} S, {a, c} S, {a, b, c} S, etc.

The power set of S is

P (S) = {, {a}, {b}, {c}, {a, b}, {a, c}, {b, c}, {a, b, c}}.

and |P (S)| = 23 = 8.

We can write P (S), {b} P (S), {a, c} P (S), {a, b, c} P (S), etc.

Exercise. Let A = {0, 1, {0, 1}}. What are the elements of A?

What are the subsets of A? Find P (A) and |P (A)|.

Exercise. For A = {0, 1, {0, 1}}, are the following statements true or false?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

A

A

P (A)

P (A)

0A

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

0A

{0, 1} A

{0, 1} P (A)

{{0, 1}} A

{{0, 1}} A

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

B

B

{} B

{} P (B)

{0} P (B)

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

{{0}} P (B)

1B

{1} B

{1} P (B)

{{1}} P (B)

which is assumed to contain everything that is relevant.

Venn diagrams are visualizations of sets as regions in the plane.

For instance, here is a Venn diagram of a universal set U containing a set A:

U

A

A B = A \ B = {x U | x A and x 6 B}

complement (c ,

) - not

Ac = A = U \ A = {x U | x

/ A}

union () - or

A B = {x U | x A or x B}

intersection () - and

A B = {x U | x A and x B}

Two sets A and B are disjoint if A B = .

Example. Set U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, A = {1, 3, 5}, and B = {1, 2}.

Then

Ac = {2, 4, 6}

A B = {1}

A B = {1, 2, 3, 5}

A B = {3, 5} .

A = {x U | x is odd}

B = {x U | x is even}

C = {x U | x is a multiple of 3}

D = {x U | x is prime}

AC

BD

BD

Dc

(A C) D

A B = {a, c}, B A = {b, f, g}, and A B = {d, e}.

the following information was obtained:

17 can program in C++ , Java, and Visual Basic.

22 can program in C++ and Java, but not Visual Basic.

9 can program in C++ and Visual Basic, but not Java.

2 can program in Java and Visual Basic, but not C++ .

19 can program in C++ , but not Visual Basic or Java.

21 can program in Visual Basic, but not C++ or Java.

Also, all of the 100 students can program in at least one of these three languages.

How many students can program in Java, but not C++ or Visual Basic?

100

0

9

21

VB

C++

19

22

17

Java

x = 100 (17 + 22 + 9 + 2 + 19 + 21 + 0) = 10

5

apples (A), bananas (B), and cherries (C), the following data was obtained:

|A| = 112,

|A B| = 32,

|A B C| = 20.

|B| = 89,

|A C| = 26,

|C| = 71,

|B C| = 43,

b) How many people like none of these fruit?

c) How many people do not like cherries?

To prove that S T , we can assume that x S and show that x T .

To prove that S = T , we can show that S T and T S.

Proof. Let A C and B C and suppose that x A B.

Then either x A or x B (maybe both).

If x A, then x C, because A C.

Likewise, if x B, then x C, since B C.

In both cases, we have x C, which proves that A B C.

Exercise. Prove that if A B and A C, then A B C.

Provide a proof if it is true or give a counter example if it is false.

Provide a proof if it is true or give a counter example if it is false.

Commutative laws

Associative laws

Distributive laws

Absorption laws

Identity laws

Idempotent laws

Double complement law

Difference law

AB =BA

AB =BA

A (B C) = (A B) C

A (B C) = (A B) C

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

A (B C) = (A B) (A C)

A (A B) = A

A (A B) = A

AU =U A=A

A=A=A

AA=A

AA=A

(Ac )c = A

A B = A Bc

De Morgans Laws

(A B)c = Ac B c

U

A=A=

AU =U A=U

A Ac = Ac A =

A Ac = Ac A = U

(A B)c = Ac B c

U

For a set expression involving only unions, intersections and complements, its

dual is obtained by replacing with , with , with U , and U with .

The laws of set algebra mostly come in dual pairs.

Example. Proof of De Morgans law (A B)c = Ac B c :

(i) Suppose that x (A B)c . Then we have x

/ A B, so x

/ A and x

/ B.

c

c

c

c

Thus, x A and x B , so x A B .

This proves that (A B)c Ac B c .

(ii) Suppose now that x AcB c . Then x Ac and x B c , so x

/ A and x

/ B.

c

Thus, x

/ A B, so x (A B) .

This proves that Ac B c (A B)c .

Combining (i) and (ii), we conclude that (A B)c = Ac B c .

8

Example. We can use the laws of set algebra to simplify (Ac B)c B:

(Ac B)c B =

=

=

=

=

((Ac )c B c ) B

(A B c ) B

A (B c B)

AU

U

De Morgans law

Double complement law

Associative law

Union with complement

Domination

[A (A B c )] [(A B) (B Ac )]

n

[

i=1

Ai = A1 A2 An

and

n

\

i=1

Ai = A1 A2 An

3

[

k=1

3

\

k=1

Ak = A1 A2 A3 = {1, 2} {2, 3} {3, 4} =

4

[

Ak

k=2

6

\

Ak

k=3

10

This raises the possibility that a set may contain itself as an element.

Problem: Try to let S be the set of all sets that are not elements of themselves,

i.e.,

S = {A | A is a set and A

/ A}.

Is S an element of itself?

i) If S S, then the definition of S implies that S

/ S, a contradiction.

ii) If S

/ S, then the definition of S implies that S S, also a contradiction.

Hence neither S S nor S

/ S. This is Russells paradox.

Why does this paradox occur?

Example. (The Barber Puzzle) In a certain town there is a barber who

shaves all those men, and only those, who do not shave themselves.

Does the barber shave himself?

S = {A | A U and A

/ A}.

(i) If S S, then the definition of S implies that S U and S

/ S, which

is a contradiction.

(ii) If S

/ S, then the definition of S implies that either S 6 U or S S.

To avoid a contradiction with S

/ S, we must have S 6 U .

Hence, we conclude that S

/ S and S 6 U .

Thus, the paradox does not occur as long as we have S

/ U.

The paradox occurred because our first definition of S referred to itself.

Example. (The Barber Puzzle continued)

Define

U = {all men in town except the barber}

S = {A U | A does not shave himself}

= {A U | A is shaved by the barber}

Then there is no more contradiction.

11

We use round brackets to denote ordered pairs; e.g., (a, b) is an ordered pair.

Note that (a, b) and (b, a) are different ordered pairs,

whereas {a, b} and {b, a} are the same set.

An ordered n-tuple is a collection of n objects in a specified order;

e.g., (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) is an ordered n-tuple.

Two ordered n-tuples (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) and (b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ) are equal

if and only if ai = bi for all i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

The Cartesian product of two sets A and B, denoted by A B,

is the set of all ordered pairs from A to B:

A B = {(a, b) | a A and b B}

If |A| = m and |B| = n, then we have |A B| = mn.

ordered n-tuples (a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) such that ai Ai for all i = 1, 2, . . . , n:

A1 A2 An = {(a1 , a2 , . . . , an ) | ai Ai for all i = 1, 2, . . . , n}

Example. Let A = {a, b} and B = {1, 2, 3}. Then

A B = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (a, 3), (b, 1), (b, 2), (b, 3)} .

When X and Y are small finite sets, we can use an arrow diagram to represent

a subset S of X Y : we list the elements of X and the elements of Y , and

then we draw an arrow from x to y for each pair (x, y) S.

Example. Let X = {a, b, c}, Y = {1, 2, 3, 4}, and S = {(a, 2), (a, 3), (c, 1)}.

The arrow diagram for S is

1

2

3

4

a

b

c

12

for every x X there is exactly one y Y for which (x, y) belongs to f .

We write f : X Y and say that f is a function from X to Y .

X is the domain of f .

Y is the codomain of f .

For any x X, there is a unique y Y for which (x, y) belongs to f .

We write f (x) = y or f : x 7 y.

We call y the image of x under f or the value of f at x.

{y Y | y = f (x) for some x X}.

This definition of function corresponds to what is normally thought of as the

graph of a function, with an x-axis and a y-axis.

Example. Adam, Ben, Cate, Diane, and Eve were each given a mark out of 4.

Their marks define a function f : X Y as follows:

domain X = {Adam, Ben, Cate, Diane, and Eve}

codomain Y = {1, 2, 3, 4},

f = {(Adam, 3), (Ben, 2), (Cate, 4), (Diane, 2), (Eve, 3)}.

The arrow diagram for this function is

Adam

Ben

Cate

Diane

Eve

f

1

2

3

4

It does not matter that multiple people share the same mark,

and it does not matter that the mark 1 is not used.

The range of this function is {2, 3, 4}.

13

Determine whether or not each of the following is a function from X to Y .

If it is, then write down its range.

f = {(a, 2), (a, 4), (b, 3), (c, 5)},

g = {(b, 1), (c, 3)},

h = {(a, 5), (b, 2), (c, 2)}.

{(x, y) R R | y = x2 }.

f (x) = x2

or

f : x 7 x2 .

{y R | y = x2 for some x R} = {y R | y 0} = R+ {0}.

The floor function: (rounds down)

for any x R, we denote by x the largest integer less than or equal to x.

for any x R, we denote by x the smallest integer greater than or equal to x.

Exercise. Evaluate the following:

3.7 =

3.7 =

3.7 =

3.7 =

3 =

3 =

3 =

3 =

Exercise. What are the ranges of the floor and ceiling functions?

Plot the graphs of the floor and the ceiling functions.

14

corresponds to a function. If it does, then write down its range.

f : R R, f (x) = x

g : R R, g(x) =

1

x

h : R R, h(x) = x2 2x 1 .

f 1 (B) = {x X | f (x) B}.

a

b

c

d

e

1

2

3

4

The image of the set {a, b, e} under f is f ({a, b, e}) = {2, 3}.

The inverse image of the set {1, 2, 4} under f is f 1 ({1, 2, 4}) = {b, c, d}.

Exercise. Let f : R R be given by f (x) = x2 . Find

(b) The inverse image of the set {9, 9, } under f

(c) The inverse image of the set {2, 9} under f .

15

for every x X, there is exactly one y Y such that f (x) = y.

We say that a function f : X Y is injective or one-to-one if

for every y Y , there is at most one x X such that f (x) = y.

for all x1 , x2 X, if f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) then x1 = x2 .

We say that a function f : X Y is surjective or onto if

for every y Y , there is at least one x X such that f (x) = y.

the range of f is the same as the codomain of f .

We say that a function f : X Y is bijective if

f is both injective and surjective (one-to-one and onto).

for every y Y , there is exactly one x X such that f (x) = y.

function

injective

one-to-one

surjective

onto

bijective

for each element of Y

has at least one incoming arrow

for each element of Y

has exactly one incoming arrow

for each element of Y

in at most one point

intersects each horizontal line

in at least one point

intersects each horizontal line

in exactly one point

for each element of X

in exactly one point

16

corresponds to a function. If it does, then determine whether or not it is

injective, surjective, or bijective.

a

b

c

a

b

c

a

b

c

f1

1

2

3

4

a

b

c

f4

1

2

3

4

a

b

c

1

2

f7

f1

a

b

c

f2

f2

f5

a

b

c

1

2

3

a

b

c

a

b

c

1

2

f8

f3

1

2

3

4

f4

f5

function

injective

surjective

bijective

17

a

b

c

1

2

f9

f6

f7

f3

1

2

3

4

f6

1

2

3

4

1

f10

f8

f9

f10

Which of the functions are injective? surjective? bijective?

f1 : R R,

f1 (x) = 2x + 5

f2 (x) = x2

f2 : R R,

f3 : R (R+ {0}), f3 (x) = x2

f4 : R+ R+ ,

f4 (x) = x2

f5 : (R {0}) R,

f5 (x) = x1

f6 : R R,

f6 (x) = x2 2x 2.

f7 : R R,

f7 (x) = x

f8 (x) = x

f8 : R Z,

f9 : R R,

f9 (x) = x

f10 : R R,

f10 (x) = x2 + 1

f1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

f7

f8

f9

function

injective

surjective

bijective

Plot the graph in each case and give reasons for your answers.

18

f10

19

function g f : X Z defined by (g f )(x) = g(f (x)) for all x X.

The composite function g f exists whenever

the range of f is a subset of the domain of g.

In general, g f and f g are not the same composite functions.

Associativity of composition (assuming they exist): h (g f ) = (h g) f .

Example. Let f and g be functions defined by

f : N N, f (x) = x + 3

and

g : Z Z, g(y) = 2y .

(g f )(x) = g(f (x)) = g(x + 3) = 2(x + 3) = 2x + 6 .

The range of g f is {2x + 6 | x N}, i.e., all even integers 6, 8, 10, . . . .

The range of g is {2y | y Z}, the set of all even integers, but this is not a

subset of N, the domain of f , so the composition f g does not exist.

then f g : Z Z exists and is given by

Exercise. Let f and g be functions defined by

f : R R, f (x) =

x+1

2

and

g : R R, g(y) =

20

y 2 + 1.

For any function f : X Y , we have f iX = f = iY f .

A function g : Y X is an inverse of f : X Y if

g(f (x)) = x for all x X

and f (g(y)) = y for all y Y,

or equivalently, g f = iX and f g = iY .

THEOREM: A function can have at most one inverse.

If f : X Y has an inverse, then we say that f is invertible, and we denote

the inverse of f by f 1 . Thus, f 1 f = iX and f f 1 = iY .

If g is the inverse of f , then f is the inverse of g. Thus, (f 1 )1 = f .

THEOREM: A function is invertible if and only if it is bijective.

THEOREM: If f : X Y and g : Y Z are invertible,

then so is g f : X Z, and the inverse of g f is f 1 g 1 .

Example. Let f : R R be defined by f (x) = 2x 5.

To find the inverse f 1 , solve the equation y = f (x) with respect to x:

y = 2x 5

x=

y+5

2

y+5

.

2

Exercise. For each of the following functions, find its inverse if it is invertible.

f : R Z,

g : (R {1}) (R {0}),

f (x) = x

g(x) = x32+1

21

22

then so is g f : X Z, and the inverse of g f is f 1 g 1 .

a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , ak , . . . ,

where each object ak is called a term, and the subscript k is called an index

(typically starting from 0 or 1). We denote the sequence by {ak }.

Example.

The terms of the sequence {ak } defined by ak = k 2 for all k N are

0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, . . . .

An arithmetic progression is a sequence {bk } where bk = a + kd for all k N

for some fixed numbers a R and d R. Its terms are

a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, . . . .

A geometric progression is a sequence {ck } defined by ck = ark for all k N

for some fixed numbers a R and r R. Its terms are

a, ar, ar2 , ar3 , . . . .

23

n

X

k=m

ak = am + am+1 + am+2 + + an .

Properties of summation:

n

X

(ak + bk ) =

k=m

but

n

X

k=m

n

X

k=m

ak +

n

X

bk

n

X

and

k=m

ak bk 6=

( ak ) =

k=m

n

X

k=m

ak

n

X

k=m

bk

n

X

ak ,

k=m

Example. The sum of the first n+1 terms of the arithmetic progression {a+kd}

is

n

X

(2a+nd)(n+1)

(a+kd) = a + (a+d) + (a+2d) + + (a+nd) =

.

2

k=0

Why?

by setting a = 0 and d = 1:

n

X

n(n + 1)

1 + 2 + + n = 0 + 1 + 2 + + n =

k =

.

2

k=0

Example. The sum of the first n + 1 terms of the geometric progression {ark }

is

n

X

a(rn+1 1)

k

2

n

.

ar = a + ar + ar + + ar =

r

1

k=0

Why?

24

n

X

n(n + 1)

k =

2

k=1

and

n

X

k=1

k2 =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

,

6

evaluate

10

X

(k 3)(k + 2)

k=1

40

X

(3k + 2)2

k=11

25

The sum

5

X

1

k=1

k+2

Lower limit:

when k = 1, we have j = 1 + 2 = 3.

Upper limit:

when k = 5, we have j = 5 + 2 = 7.

1

1

= .

General term: we have

k+2

j

Thus, we obtain

5

7

X

X

1

1

=

.

k

+

2

j

j=3

k=1

We could now replace the variable j by the variable k (if this is preferred):

5

X

k=1

7

X

1

1

=

.

k+2

k

k=3

More generally, for any sequence {ak } and any integer d we have

n

X

n+d

X

ak =

k=m

akd .

k=m+d

For example,

a1 + a2 + a3 =

3

X

k=1

ak =

4

X

k=2

Exercise. Simplify

n+1

X

k=2

k2

n1

X

k=1

x +

n1

X

xk+1

k=0

26

ak1 =

2

X

k=0

ak+1 = .

1

1

3

=

for k 1, we can write

Using the identity

k(k + 3)

k k+3

n

n

X

X

1

1

3

=

k(k

+

3)

k

k+3

k=1

k=1

1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1

1

= 1

+

+ +

.

4

2 5

3 6

4 7

n n+3

X

This is an example of a telescoping sum:

ak , where ak = bk bk+d .

By changing the summation index, we see that

n

X

k=1

n

n

n

n+3

X

X

3

1 X 1

1 X1

=

k(k + 3)

k

k

+

3

k

k

k=1

k=1

k=1

k=4

3

X

1

k=1

= 1+

Exercise. Use the identity

k=1

k=4

n

X

1

k=4

n+3

X

1

+

k k=n+1 k

1 1

1

1

1

+

.

2 3 n+1 n+2 n+3

2

1

2

1

=

+

for k 1

k(k + 1)(k + 2)

k

k+1 k+2

to simplify

n

X

n

X

1

2

k(k + 1)(k + 2)

27

n

Y

k=m

Properties of product:

!

n

n

Y

Y

ak bk =

ak

k=m

k=m

ak = am am+1 am+2 an .

n

Y

k=m

bk

but

n

Y

(ak + bk ) 6=

k=m

Exercise. Simplify

n

Y

k

k+3

k=1

28

n

Y

k=m

ak +

n

Y

k=m

bk .

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