III.

TEXTBOOK DISCUSSION
a. Definition
An incomplete abortion is the termination of pregnancy in which the products of conception are
not entirely expelled or removed. It also involves the expulsion of the fetus with retention of
placenta. It often causes hemorrhage that may require surgical evacuation by curettage,
oxytocics, and blood replacement. Infection is also a frequent complication of incomplete
abortion.
b. Manifestations
Signs and symptoms
S/S Found in the Book
Manifested by the Patient
Vaginal Bleeding
+
Cramps
+
Fever
Continued bleeding after three weeks
Decrease in the usual signs of early
+
pregnancy, such as nausea and breast
tenderness

C. Pathophysiology

Precipitating Factors


Predisposing Factors


Works 2 days in a week
Work-related stressor
Environment

Abdominal contraction

Abdominal pain

Cervical dilation

Intermittent
vaginal bleeding

Age: 25 years old
Gender: Female
Previous incomplete
abortion

Passing of small pieces
of pregnancy tissue

Dilatation and Curettage
D. Management
1. Medical management
With missed, incomplete, or inevitable abortion present before 13 weeks' gestation, the standard
therapy has been suction D&C. However, at least 2 randomized controlled trials show that
misoprostol is an effective alternative medical therapy. In one study of incomplete abortion, the
patients were randomized between oral misoprostol (600 mcg) or suction D&C, with success
rates at 96.3% and 91.5%, respectively. The complication rate is low (0.9% for misoprostol).
The other study was a randomized controlled trial with a 3:1 randomization to medical therapy
versus D&C. It included subjects with the following diagnoses: missed abortion (with or without
a fetal pole; no fetal heart motion when the fetal pole was present), incomplete abortion, or
inevitable abortion. In this study, the initial dose of misoprostol was 800 mcg (4 tab 200 mcg
placed vaginally), and the subject was reevaluated on day 3. If the expulsion had not occurred,
then a second dose of 800 mcg of misoprostol was placed vaginally. The study showed that 71%
had completed abortion after the first dose by day 3, and 84% had success with misoprostol by
day 8 (95% confidence interval, 81-87%).

2. Surgical management
Suction dilation and curettage (D&C). Dilation and curettage (D&C) is a procedure to
remove tissue from inside your uterus. Doctors perform dilation and curettage to diagnose and
treat certain uterine conditions — such as heavy bleeding — or to clear the uterine lining after a
miscarriage or abortion.
In a dilation and curettage — sometimes spelled "dilatation" and curettage — your doctor
uses small instruments or a medication to open (dilate) your cervix — the lower, narrow part of
your uterus. Your doctor then uses a surgical instrument called a curette to remove uterine tissue.
Curettes used in a D&C can be sharp or use suction.

3. Nursing management






Check patient’s name, type of surgery, history
Monitor vital signs, blood test, bleeding and vaginal secretion (character, color and
volume)
Strict aseptic technique
Strengthen the perineum care and maintain the vulva cleanliness
Psychological care: sympathizing, understanding and caring
To check or trace ultrasound result
Empty the bladder




Comfort the patient
Bed rest for 48 hours
Antibiotic cover
Avoid sexual intercourse

E. Discharge planning and health teaching
Medication

Instruct client to follow and take medication prescribed by the physician
R: Treatment regimen is important to have faster recovery.

Explain to the client the nature of the drugs so as the prescription.
R: Knowledge about the medication will make the client aware of what she is taking
and may increase her cooperation.
Treatment:
Cefuroxime 500 mg twice a day for 5 days
Mefenamic Acid 500 mg/tab 3 times a day
Ferrous sulfate once a day for 1 month

References:
Brunner and Suddarth., Textbook in Medical-Surgical Nursing 10th Edition.
Lowdermilk, Deitra Leonard, and Perry, Shannon E. Maternity and Women’s Health Care Eighth
Edition. Mosby, Inc: Singapore
_____ (n.d.) Retrieved from website medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary last February 7, 2016
_____ (n.d.) Retrieved from website 2womenshealth.com last February 8, 2016
Gaufberg, Slava V., (n.d.) Retrieved from website medscape.com last February 8, 2016
Puscheck, Elizabeth E., (n.d) Retrieved from website medscape.com last February 8, 2016
_____ (n.d.) Retrieved from website womenonwaves.org last February 8, 2016
_____ (n.d.) Retrieved from website nursingslideshare.net last February 8, 2016
_____ (n.d.) Retrieved from website mayoclinic.org last February 8, 2016