By Ryan Brogan

 Fps ( frames per second ) is the number of frames (images) shown in a second. In film and

animation there is usually at least around 24 fps to display seeing motion.

 This is the phi phenomenon which is where you see a series of still images (frames) that are

shown multiple times per second to trick the brain into seeing motion. This was defend in 1912
by max Wertheimer.

 In stop motion this phenomenon is used by slightly moving a object between each image.

 Joseph Plateau, William Horner and Charles-Emile Reynaud each designed similar “viewers”

from 1801 to 1877. these devises consisted of a spinning series of images and slits that split
off the images creating the impression that the images are moving. These where called the
Phenakitoscope,  Zoetrope and the Praxinoscope.

 Edward Muybridge and Thomas Edison a device called the Kinetoscope. The Kinetoscope was a

box that had a peephole in the top and a knob on the side which when turned would make the
film go past the peephole at 40 fps.

 The Lumiere brothers who are conceded the first film makers where born in the late 19 th

century. They made 10 short films around 45 seconds long. The films where hand cracked and
where 17 meters long film. There films where about everyday activates.

 Willis Obrien is known as “the father of stop motion” was a Hollywood's special effect

innovator famous for his works in king Kong. He started using stop motion with miniature
models in the lost world in 1925.

 Ray Harryhausen was a visual effects creator, writer and producer who created dynamatoin

(stop motion animation). He worked on well known productions like Jason and the Argonauts
which featured a famous sword fight with multiple skeleton warriors.

 Jan Svankmajer is another stop motion animator who is known for his disturbing animations

from a child's perspective. He was almost unknown in the west until the early 1980s.

 The Brothers Quay are identical twins that are influential stop motion animators that also have

made slightly creepy stop motion animations. they teamed up with another Royal College
student, Keith Griffiths and  In 1980 the trio formed koninck studios.

 Tim Burton is yet another creepy animator who is responsible for making the nightmare before

Christmas. He has worked with people like Johnny Depp and Danny Elfman to produce well
known films

 Aardman Animations also known as Aardman studios are famous stop motion animators known

for works like Wallace and Gromit, Shaun the sheep and chicken run. There animations are
much more light and concentrated on humour.

 Animation is sometimes used in advertising like national accident help line

and PG tips. This could be to attract a certain audience or to get a well
known mascot stuck in peoples heads.

 Animation is also used in music videos such as the gorillaz. This could be

because the artists don’t want to revile there identity's or because the idea
that had for the video can only be achieved by animation.

 In video games animation usually always has to be used from playing the

game to the cut scenes.