Music lessons by Kevin Matozo

Music lessons:`
fast & slow • MELODY – Move hand up and down with
notes • TONE – Sounds of different instruments, identify by sound only • DYNAMICS – Soft,
loud • HARMONY – Identify notes that don’t sound right
Understanding scales:































A scale is a selection of certain notes within an octave. The first scale that we will discuss
is the major scale.
The major scale is constructed with this formula. W's represent whole steps and h's
represent half steps.
Let's build a C Major Scale. Our starting note will be C.
From the C, we will take a whole step to D.
From the D, we will take another whole step to E.
Next, we will go up a half step to F.
From F, the whole step will take us to G.
Next is another whole step to A.
The last whole step takes us to B.
Finally, the half step returns us to C.
C major is: C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C.
Next, we will build the Eb Major Scale. Our starting note will be Eb.
The first whole step takes us to F.
The second whole step takes us to G.
Notice that the half step from G takes us to Ab, not A.
The whole step from Ab takes us to Bb.
The next whole step takes us to C.
The next whole step takes us to D.
Finally, the half step from D returns us to Eb.
Eb major is: Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C, D, Eb.
Notice that Eb Major has three flats (Both Eb's only count once).
For our final scale, we will build the D Major Scale.
The first whole step takes us to E.
From the E, the second whole step takes us to F#.
The half step takes us to G.
The whole step takes us to A.
From A, the whole step takes us to B.
From the B, the whole step takes us to C#.
Finally, the half step returns us to D.
D major is: D, E, F#, G, A, B, C#, D.
Notice that D Major has two sharps.
It is possible to build any major scale - just start on the first note and follow the formula.

Music lessons by Kevin Matozo
Minor scale:




































While there is only one major scale, three different variations of the minor scale exist.
The first minor scale that will we discuss is natural minor. It is constructed with this
formula.
Let's build an A Natural Minor Scale. Our starting note will be A.
From A, we take a whole step to B.
Next, we take a half step to C.
From C, a whole step takes us to D.
Another whole step takes us to E.
From E, we go up a half step to F.
From F, a whole step takes us to G.
Finally, the last whole step returns us to A.
A Natural Minor is: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A.
Notice that the A Natural Minor Scale has no notes with accidentals.
Let's build an G# Natural Minor Scale. Our starting note will be G#.
From G#, we take a whole step to A#.
Next, we take a half step to B.
From B, a whole step takes us to C#.
Another whole step takes us to D#.
From D#, we go up a half step to E.
From E, a whole step takes us to F#.
Finally, the last whole step returns us to G#.
G# Natural Minor is: G#, A#, B, C#, D#, E, F#, G#.
Notice that the G# Natural Minor Scale has five sharps.
Next, we will construct the C Natural Minor Scale. Our starting note will be C.
The whole step takes us to D.
From D, a half step takes us to Eb.
The following whole step takes us to F.
From F, a whole step takes us to G.
The half step from G takes us to Ab.
From Ab, we take a whole step to Bb.
The final whole step returns us to C.
C natural minor is: C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb.
Notice that the C Natural Minor Scale has three flats.
Next, we will discuss harmonic minor.
To convert any natural minor scale into harmonic minor, raise the seventh note by a half
step.
Let's convert C Natural Minor into C Harmonic Minor.
Simply raise the seventh note (Bb) by a half step, resulting in B.
C harmonic minor is: C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, B.

Music lessons by Kevin Matozo





Finally, we will discuss melodic minor.
To convert a natural minor scale into melodic minor, raise both the sixth and seventh
notes by a half step.
For example, to convert C Natural Minor into C Melodic Minor, simply raise
the Ab and Bb a half step to A and B.
C melodic minor is: C, D, Eb, F, G, A, B.
Usually, melodic minor is used only when ascending.
When descending, composers prefer to use the natural minor scale.

Understanding cords:
























A chord is a combination of three or more notes.
Chords are built off of a single note, called the root.
In this lesson, we will discuss triads. They are created with a root, third, and fifth.
A major triad (or major chord) is built with a major third and a perfect fifth from the
root.
Let's write a C major triad. First, write the root (C) on the staff.
Next, write the generic third and generic fifth from the root.
We now need to determine the specific intervals on the keyboard.
Since we need a major third, let's count up four half steps from the root.
For the perfect fifth, go back to the root and count up seven half steps.
Since the chord contains no black keys, we do not need to write any accidentals on the
staff.
A C major triad is C—E—G.
Next, let's try an Eb major triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Now, switch to the keyboard. Start at the Eb and count up four half steps for the major
third.
Go back to the root and count up seven half steps for the perfect fifth.
Finally, write any needed accidentals. In addition to the already-written Eb, we need a flat
next to the B.
An Eb major triad is Eb—G—Bb.
Next, let's try a B major triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Count the major third (4 half steps) and perfect fifth (7 half steps).
Finally, write the needed accidentals on the staff. We need two sharps: one for the D and
one for the F.
A B major triad is B—D#—F#.
Next, we will discuss the minor triad. It is created with a minor third and a perfect fifth
from the root.
Let's build a C minor triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.

Music lessons by Kevin Matozo



































Now, switch to the keyboard. Start at the C and count up three half steps for the minor
third.
Go back to the root and count up seven half steps for the perfect fifth.
Finally, write any needed accidentals.
A C minor triad is C—Eb—G.
Let's build an Eb minor triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Next, count the minor third (3 half steps) and perfect fifth (7 half steps).
Finally, write any needed accidentals.
An Eb minor triad is Eb—Gb—Bb.
Let's build a B minor triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Next, count the minor third (3 half steps) and perfect fifth (7 half steps).
Finally, write any needed accidentals.
A B minor triad is B—D—F#.
The augmented triad is built with a major third and an augmented fifth.
Let's build a C augmented triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Now, switch to the keyboard. Start at the C and count up four half steps for the major
third.
Go back to the root and count up eight half steps for the augmented fifth.
Finally, write any needed accidentals.
A C augmented triad is C—E—G#.
Let's build an Eb augmented triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Next, count the major third (4 half steps) and augmented fifth (8 half steps).
Finally, write any needed accidentals. In this example, no additional accidentals are
needed.
An Eb augmented triad is Eb—G—B.
Let's build an B augmented triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Next, count the major third (4 half steps) and augmented fifth (8 half steps).
Finally, write any needed accidentals.
A B augmented triad is B—D#—Fx.
The last triad that we will discuss is the diminished triad. It is built with a minor third
and a diminished fifth.
Let's build a C diminished triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Now, switch to the keyboard. Start at the C and count up three half steps for the minor
third.
Go back to the root and count up six half steps for the diminished fifth.

Music lessons by Kevin Matozo












Finally, write any needed accidentals.
A C diminished triad is C—Eb—Gb.
Let's build an Eb diminished triad.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Next, count the minor third (3 half steps) and diminished fifth (6 half steps).
Finally, write any needed accidentals.
An Eb diminished triad is Eb—Gb—Bbb.
Next, let's build a B diminished triad. Write down the root and generic intervals.
Write the generic third and fifth on the staff.
Next, count the minor third (3 half steps) and diminished fifth (6 half steps).
Finally, write any needed accidentals. No accidentals are needed.
A B diminished triad is B—D—F.
Use this chart to reference the four types of triads.