# 7.P.2.

1
Mechanical energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion or its stored energy of
position. Mechanical energy can be either kinetic (energy of motion) or potential (energy of
position). An object that possesses mechanical energy is able to do work. Mechanical energy is
the form involved in the operation of simple machines.

7.P.2.2
Objects that have potential energy do not use their energy until they move. That is why it is
called “potential” energy. Potential means that something is capable of becoming active. Any
object that can move to a lower place has the potential to do work on the way down, such as a
marble rolling down a driveway. Objects also store energy in motion. A moving mass can
certainly exert forces, as you would quickly observe if someone ran into you during a basketball
game. Energy of motion is called kinetic energy. Energy appears in different forms, such as
motion and heat. Energy can travel in different forms, such as light, sound, or electricity. The
workings of the universe plus all of present day technology can be viewed from the perspective
of energy flowing from one place to another and changing back and forth from one form to
another.

7.P.2.3
Energy can be transferred from one system to another (or from a system to its environment) in
different ways:
1. Thermally, when a warmer object is in contact with a cooler one
2. Mechanically, when two objects push or pull on each other over a distance
3. Electrically, when an electrical source such as a battery or generator is connected in a
complete circuit to an electrical device
4. By electromagnetic waves
Energy is one of the fundamental building blocks of our universe. Energy can change from one
form to another, although in the process some energy is always converted to heat. Some
systems transform energy with less loss of heat than others. Electrical energy can be produced
from a variety of energy sources and can be transformed into almost any other form of energy.
Batteries store energy and transfer energy to components in a circuit. In the battery the energy
comes from chemical reactions. Electricity is important because we can use it to make so many
things work (electrical energy). For example, a bulb converts electrical energy into light energy
and a speaker converts it into sound energy. The electrical energy generated by windmills,
waterfalls and power plants is actually a secondary source of energy. To produce electricity, a
heat source is needed to create the conditions in which electrical currents form. In effect, the
primary source of electrical energy is the heat generated by burning fossil fuels, water power,
and wind power. A natural form of electrical energy can be seen in the lightning that appears
during storms. Solar energy, water, and wind power are sources of green energy – meaning they
do not pollute the environment.

Unpacking Standards Rubric
In order to receive full credit on this assignment, you must fully meet the following requirements:
4
-Highlighted
more than 10
vocabulary
words for article
-Definitions are
on topic
-10 or more
sentences using
words in context

3
-Highlighted 5-9
vocabulary
words for article
-Definitions are
on topic
-5-9 sentences
using words in
context

2
-Highlighted 2-4
vocabulary
words for article
-Definitions are
mostly on topic
-2-4 sentences
using words in
context

-Main ideas
have been
annotated from
paragraphs
-Main ideas are
stated and
elaborated upon
on a separate
sheet of paper
-Connections to
real world have
been established
Summarizing the -Text has been
text
summarized
-Summary is
concise but
explicit as to the
point of article
Creation of quiz -10 or more
questions
questions have
been created
based on the text
-Questions are
varied in nature,
with emphasis
on higher level
skills (analysis,
synthesis,
create)
question have
been provided

-Main ideas
have been
annotated from
paragraphs
-Main ideas are
stated on a
separate sheet of
paper

-Main ideas
have generally
been annotated
for paragraphs
-Main ideas are
generally stated
on a separate
sheet of paper

-Text has been
summarized
-Summary is
more concise,
but may be
vague
-5-9 questions
have been
created based on
the text
-Questions begin
to use higher
level skills
(analysis,
synthesis,
create)
questions have
been provided

-Text is
generally
summarized
-Summary is
lengthy, beyond
5 sentences
-2-4 questions
have been
created based on
the text
-Questions tend
to be knowledge
driven, rather
than using
higher level
skills
questions are
mostly provided

Vocabulary,
definitions, and
sentences

Identifying main
ideas

1
-Highlighted 0-1
vocabulary
words for article
-Definitions, if
included, are
unrelated to
topic
-0-1 sentences
using word in
context
-No main ideas
have been
annotated for
paragraphs
-No description
of main ideas

-No summary of
text is included

-0-1 question
has been created
based on the text