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Instrumentation and Control (By Waqas Ali Tunio)

Instrumentation and Control (By Waqas Ali Tunio)

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05/14/2012

Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah

Instrumentation & Control Class Work
SUBMITTED TO DR. ALTAF RAJPER BY WAQAS ALI TUNIO (07ME34) STUDENT OF 3RD YEAR, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

1

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL
In s tr u m en t: A n i ns t r um e nt m a y be de f i ne d a s de v ic e f o r de t e r m in i ng t he v a l ue o r m a g n it u de of qu a n t i t y o r v a r ia b le . In s tr u m en ta t io n : Th e p r oce s s of m e a s ur i ng t h e p hy s i ca l q u a nt it i e s , by m e a ns o f i ns t ru m e nt is ca l le d i ns t r um e nt a t io n. O b j e c t iv es : O bj e ct iv e s of ins t r u m e n t a t i on is t o g e t m e a s u re m e nt o f de s i re q ua l it y a n d q ua nt it y by s a v i ng t he e n e rg y , m a i n p ow e r a s w e l l a s v e s t ig e s a c co r d i ng t o co nt r o l le d m a nn e r . M ea s u r em en t: We a r e m ov i ng i n t h a t s ub j e ct , w h i c h r e a l ly d e a ls w it h m e a s u r e m e nt of p hy s i ca l q ua l it ie s , l ik e t e m p e r a t u re , p re s s u re , f or ce , s pe e d , c u r re nt , po t e nt ia l re s is t a n ce , c a p a c it a n ce a n d m a y m o re .

Types of Instruments T he re a re m a in ly f ou r t y pe s o f ins t r um e nt s . 1. M ec h a n i c a l ly O p er a te d : T he i ns t r um e n t s w h i ch a re op e r a t e d m e c h a n i ca l ly l ik e g e a rs , be lt , c ha i n , r o pe , l e v e rs of d if fe r e nt m a c h i ne s e t c a re m e ch a n ica l ly op e ra t e d ins t r um e n t s . 2. El ec tr ic a l ly O p er a t ed : Th e ins t r um e nt s w h ic h a re o pe ra t e d by m e a ns of e le ct r ic i t y a r e ca l le d a s e le ct r ic a l ly o pe ra t e d i ns t ru m e nt . 3. H y d r a u li c a l ly O p er a ted : Th e s e i ns t r um e nt s a re o pe ra t e d in s u c h a m a n ne r t ha t w a t e r o r hy dr a u l i c p re s s ur e is g i v e n t o ins t r um e nt , t he n t he y w i ll w o r k , l ik e cy l i n de rs o f c ra ne , b re a k s o f v e h i c le s . 4. P n eu m a t ic a l ly O p er a t ed : I ns t r um e nt s a re o pe ra t e d by a i r p re s s ur e s a re ca l le d p ne um a t i ca l ly op e ra t e d ins t r um e nt s . Classification of Instruments C la s s i f ic a t io n of i ns t ru m e nt s fa l ls in f o l l ow ing ca t e g o r ie s . 1. 2. 3. 4. A ct iv e / P a s s iv e Nu l l / D e f l e ct i o n M o n it o r i ng / C o nt ro l A na l og / D ig it a l 2

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST 1. Ac ti v e /P a s s iv e: T h os e ins t r um e n t s w h ic h d e p e n ds up o n ot h e r s o u rc e s a r e ca l le d a ct iv e i ns t r um e nt s . I n a ct iv e t y p e ins t r um e nt s t h e qu a n t it y be i ng m e a s u re d is s im p ly m od u la t e s t h e m a g n it u de of s om e e x t e rn a l p ow e r s ou r ce s . I n a ct iv e i ns t r um e nt s t he e x t e r na l p ow e r is s o ur ce is us ua l ly i n e l e ct r i ca l f or m bu t in s om e ca s e s it c a n be in ot he r f o rm of e ne rg y s u ch a s hy dr a u l i c o ne . A n e x a m p le of a ct iv e ins t r um e nt is a f l oa t t y pe pe t r o l t a nk l e v e l i n d ica t o r a s s ho w n i n f ig u r e po i nt e r S p r ing S ca le

P is t o n - Fluid P iv ot

(P a s s iv e P re s s u re G a ug e ) I n t h e o ut put o f a n i ns t ru m e nt is d ir e ct ly p r o du ce d by t he qu a nt it y be i ng m e a s u re d t he ins t r um e n t is s a i d t o be t he p a s s iv e ins t r um e nt . I n t e r m s o f c os t pa s s iv e i ns t r um e nt s a re n o rm a ll y of a m o re s i m p le c o ns t r uct i o n t ha n a ct iv e o ne s . A n e x a m p l e o f p a s s iv e ins t r um e n t is t he p r e s s u re m e a s ur i ng de v ic e a s s h ow n i n f ig u re .

O ut put s ig na l P iv ot F lo a t

+ -

P ow e r S o u rc e

( P e t r o l Ta nk L e v e l I n d ic a t o r) 3

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST 2. N u l l /D e f e c t io n : N u ll t y pe ins t r um e nt s a re t h os e i n w h ic h q ua nt it y b e ing m e a s ur e d is d e t e rm i ne d by t he w e ig ht s re q u i re d t o m ov e t he pis t o n , a s s h o w n i n f ig u re . We ig ht

P is t o n

(D e a d We ig h t P r e s s u r e G a ug e ) Nu l l t y pe ins t r um e nt s a r e m or e a c c ur a t e t he de fl e ct i o n t y p e s . D e f le ct i on t y pe s ins t r um e nt s a re t h os e in w h ic h q ua nt it y be i ng m e a s u re d i n t e rm s of a m o un t o f m ov e m e nt of a po i nt e r. I t s e x a m p le is s a m e a s i n pa s s iv e t y pe i ns t ru m e nt s . M o n i to r i n g /C o n tr o l: Th e m on i t o r i ng i ns t ru m e nt s on ly g iv e a n i nd i ca t i o n o f t h e m a g n it u de o f t he q ua nt it y , w h i ch a re m e a s ur i ng . T he s e t y pe s o f ins t r um e n t s o n ly g iv e on a u d io o r v is ua l i nd i ca t i o n s uc h a s l i qu i d i n g la s s t h e rm om e t e r. Th e co nt r o l i ns t ru m e nt i ns t e a d o f o nl y m a g n it u de o f q ua nt it y , t he y a ls o p r ov id e a ut om a t ic co nt r o l. T he e x a m p le o f c o nt r o ll i ng ins t r um e nt is a t he rm o c o up le . An a lo g /D ig i ta l: A n a na l og i ns t r um e nt g iv e a n o ut pu t , w h i ch v a r ie s c o nt i nu o us ly a s t he q ua nt it y be i ng m e a s u re d. T he o ut p ut o f s u ch i ns t ru m e nt s ha v e i n fi n it e n um be r of v a l ue s w it h i n s pe c if ie d ra ng e of t he i ns t ru m e nt s . Th e de f le ct i on t y pe of p re s s ur e g a ug e i s t he e x a m p le o f a n a log i ns t ru m e nt s . A d ig it a l i ns t ru m e nt ha s a n o ut p ut w h ic h v a r ie s i n dis c re t e s t e ps a nd s o ca n o n ly ha v e a f i n it e n um be r o f v a l ue s . T he re v -c o un t e r s k e t ch e d i n f ig u re is a n e x a m p le o f d ig i t a l i ns t r um e nt .

S w it c h

C o unt e r

(Re v -C o un t e r) ca m 4

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Ch a r a c ter is t ic s o f In s tr u m en ts : Th e p ro pe rt i e s , w h ic h a r e be i ng e x pe r i e n ce d du r i ng t he w or k i ng o f a ny ins t r u m e nt s a re g iv e n b e lo w . o Ac c u r a c y : Ac cu r a cy is t h e a b i l it y o f t he i ns t ru m e nt t o i n d ic a t e t he t ru e o r e x a ct v a l ue o f m e a s u re d q ua nt it y un de r s p e c i f ie d c on d it i on. o Er r o r : I m pe rf e ct i o n v a lu e s g iv e n by i ns t r um e nt s is ca l le d e r ro r of i ns t ru m e nt . o T o l er a n c e : T his t e rm is c los e l y r e la t e d t o a c cu ra cy , a n d de f i ne d a s m a x i m u m e r r o r w h i ch is t oo e x pe ct e d by t he i ns t r um e nt . o Ra n g e/ S p a n : T he ra ng e o r s pa n o f i ns t ru m e nt de f in e s t he m in i m u m a n d m a x im um v a l ue s o f a qu a nt i t y t h a t t h e i ns t ru m e nt is de s ig ne d t o m e a s ur e . o Lin ea r i ty : I t is n o rm a l ly de s i ra b le t h a t t he o ut put r e a d ing o f a n i ns t ru m e nt is l in e a r ly p r op o rt i on a l t o q ua nt it y be i ng m e a s u re d. L ine a r it y m a y be d e f i ne d a s t he m a x im um d e v ia t i o n o f a ny o f t he o ut p ut r e a d ing s m a rk e d x f ro m t h is s t ra ig ht l in e . o S en s i tiv i ty o f M ea s u r em en t: I t is t he r a t e s o f ou t p ut in c re m e nt t o t he i np ut . F o r e x a m p le a p re s s ur e of 2 ba r p r o d uc e s a d e f l e ct i o n o f 1 0 d e g r e e s in p r e s s u re t ra ns du ce r , t he n s e ns it iv it y of t he ins t r um e nt is 5 de g re e s / ba r. o Z er o D r i f t: Z e r o dr i ft de s c ri be s t h e e f fe c t w he re t he z e ro r e a d ing o f a n i ns t ru m e nt is m od i f ie d by a c ha ng e i n a m b ie nt c on d it i ons . Ty p i ca l u n it s by w h ic h z e r o d ri ft is m e a s ur e d a re v ol t s / 0 C , in ca s e o f v o lt m e t e r e f fe ct by a m b ie nt t e m p e ra t u re c ha ng e s .

S ca le Re a d i ng Ze r o d r i ft S e ns it iv it y D r i ft No r m a l

P re s s u re o H y s t er es is : T he no n -c o i nc i de nc e b e t w e e n t he s e l oa d a n d un l oa d i ng c u rv e s in k n ow n a s Hy s t e r e s is . Tw o qu a nt i t i e s , m i ni m u m in p ut hy s t r e s is a n d m a x im um o ut put hy s t re s is a re d e f i ne d a s s h ow n in f ig u re .

C u rv e B Main input C u rv e A

M a x i m u m i n put hy s t re s is Dead Space 5

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST o D ea d S p a c e: D e a d s pa ce is d e f i ne d a s t he r a ng e of d i f fe re nt i n pu t v a l ue s ov e r w h ic h t he re is n o c ha ng e in ou t p ut v a l u e . O ut p ut re a d i ng

M e a s u r e d v a r ia b le

D e a d S p a ce

o T h r e s h o ld : T o a n i ns t r um e nt is g r a d ua l ly i nc re a s e d f r om z e r o , t he i np ut w il l ha v e t o re a ch a ce rt a i n m i ni m um l e v e l be f o re t he c ha ng e i n t he i ns t ru m e nt ou t p ut re a d i ng is of a la rg e e n o ug h m a g n it u de t o be de t e ct a b le . T his m i n im um le v e l of i np ut is k n ow n a s t h r e s h o l d o f i ns t r um e nt o Re s o l u t io n : I t is de f in e d a s t he s m a l l e s t c ha ng e i n m e a s u re d v a l ue t o w h ic h t he ins t r um e n t s w i l l re s po ns e . o Bia s : I t is t he c o ns t a nt e r r o r ov e r fu l l ra ng e o f i ns t r um e nt . T h is e r ro r is re m ov a b le n or m a l ly by ca l ib r a t io n. o Rep ea ta b i li ty : I t is d e f i ne d a s pr o pe rt y of ins t r um e n t t ha t it ca n be us e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n f o r s a m e co n d it i on. o Ca li b r a ti o n : Be f o re m e a s u r i ng a ny q ua nt it y , if t he m e t e r d o e s n ot s h ow s t he re a d i ng a s z e r o, t o m a k e it z e r o is c a l le d ca l i b ra t i on . o P r ec is io n : I t is t he a cc u ra t e v a l ue o f q u a nt it y , a s a v e r a g e f r om s e v e ra l v a lu e s .

o Rea d a b il i ty : I t is t he p ro pe rt y of t he i n s t r um e nt t ha t t he m e a s u r e m e nt c a n be re a d a b le e a s i ly .

6

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

Mass spring damper
For the mass-spring-damper combination shown in Fig.2.4a, the spring force and damper force oppose, or resist, the motion caused by the applied load F. The summation of the forces acting on the mass is §Fe=F+Mg-Fs-Fd=MD2X F=(MD2 + BD + K)X -Mg This is the equation for the total forces acting on the system. For control work, it is usually more convenient to make measurements with respect to some reference operating point.

F = Fi +
M 1
2

X

K

B

MD BD+K
(b)

The force equation at the reference operating condition is Fi = KXi Mg Subtracting the equation for the forces at the reference position from that for the total forces gives the equation of operation for changes about the reference position. That is, F Fi =(MD2 + BD)X + K(X Xi) The preceding equation of operation form with respect to the reference position may thus be written in the form. f = (MD2 + BD + K)x This result could have been obtained directly by summing the change in forces from the reference operating condition. The block diagram for Eq.(2.17) is shown in Fig. 2.4b.

Rotational Systems
A torsional spring is characterized by the equation Ts = KsU Where Ts = torque tending to twist spring Ks= torsional spring rate U = angular displacement of spring A well-known example of a torsional spring is a shaft as is shown in Fig. 2.5. The right end of the shaft is displaced an angle U with respect to the left end because of the twisting torque Ts. For a straight shaft, the torsional spring rate is Ks = Td4G 32L

 

(a)

igure 2.4 Series mass-spring-damper combination

7

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Ts Ts

igure 2.5 Shaft acting as a torsional spring

L

Where G = modulus of elasticity in shear d = diameter of shaft L = length of shaft The torque Td required to overcome viscous friction of a rotating member is dU Td = Bv[ = Bv = Bv DU dt where Bv = coefficient of viscous friction [ = angular velocity A disk rotating in a viscous medium and supported by a shaft is shown in Fig.2.6.The applied torque tending to rotate the disk is T. The shaft torque and viscous friction oppose the motion ,so that §T = T - Ts Td = JE = JD2U Where § Te is the summation of external torques acting on the disk,J is the mass moment of inertia of the disk, and x is the angular acceleration, The substitutuin of Ts from Eq, (2.18) and Td from Eq. 2.19 into Eq. 2.20 T = (JD2 + Bv D + Ks)U The block-diagram representation for this system is shown in Fig. 2.6b
U

¡

T

8

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

Fixed end (a)

Ts
Td

1 JD2 +Bv D+Ks

T

U

(b)

Figure 2.6 Torsional inertia-spring-damper combination

Electrical components
The resistor, inductor, and capacitor are the three basic components of electric Circuits, The equation for the voltage drop ER across a resistor is ER = RI Where R is the resistance in ohms and I is the current flowing through the resistor In amperes For an inductor, the voltage drop EL is given by the equation dI EL = L = LDI dt Where L is the inductance in henrys. Similarly, the voltage drop Ec across a capacitor is Ec = 1 ´ I dt = 1 I C CD Where C is the capacitance in farads. The diagrammatic representations of Eqs. 2.22 to 2.24 are shown in Fig.2.7 ER
+ +

EL
+

EC 9

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST
R L
C

1/R

1 /LD

ER

I

EL

I

EC

CD I

Figure 2.7 Representation of a resistor, inductor, and capacitor

RLC circuit
For the RLC circuit shown in Fig.2.28a, the total voltage drop E is the sum of that across the inductor EL, that across the resistor ER, and that across the capacitor Ec: E = EL + ER + Ec = ( LD + R + 1 )I CD The charge Q is the time integral of the current, that is, Q =(1/D)I of I=DQ by nothing that LDI =LD2Q, RI =RDQ, and(1/CD)I =(1/C)Q, then Eq, 2.25 becomes E = ( LD2 + RD + 1 )Q C The overall block-diagram representation for this RLC circuit is shown Fig, 2.8b E EL
+

ER
R

EC
C

(a)

I

L

10

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST
1

E

LD2 +RD+1/C

Q

(b)
Figure 2.8 RLC series circuit

Series and Parallel laws
Elements are usually connected in either a series or a parallel arrangements . Arriving at the equation for such system can be greatly simplified by use of the laws for series and the laws for parallel combination .

Series electric circuits
A general series circuit is shown in Fig.2.9a. In a series circuit the total voltage drop E is the sum of the individual voltage drops across each element, and the same current I flows through each element. The equation for the summation of the voltage drops is E =(L1D + L2D + R1 + R2 + 1 + C1 D 1 )I C2 D

The equation relating the voltage E and current I for any electric circuit can be expressed in the form E =Z I

Z = L1D + L2D + R1 + R2 +

1

+ C1 D

1

)I C2 D

The block-diagram representation is shown in Fig,2.9b

E

11

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST + I L1 L2 R1 (a)
1/Z

R2

C1

C2

E

I Figure 2.9 General series circuit

(b)

Parallel Electric Circuits
A general combination of electric elements in parallel is shown in Fig.2.10a.The distinguishing features of a parallel arrangement are that the voltage drop E across each element is the same, and the total current I flowing into the system is the sum of the current flowing through each element.Thus, I= E L1 D or + E E E E + + + + L2D R1 R2 1/C1D 1/C2 D 1 1/L1D + 1/ L2D + 1/R1 + The impedance Z is Z= 1/L1D + 1/ L2D + 1/R1 + 1 1/R2 + C1D + C2 D 1/R2 + C1D + C2 D E

E=

I=ZI

The block-diagram representation is shown in Fig. 2.10b.

12

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST I

+
E L1 L2 R1 R2 C1 C2

(a)

1/Z

E

I

(b)

Figure 2.10 General parallel circuit.

Grounded-Chair Representation
The general procedure for constructing the grounded-chair representation is as follow. 1. Draw coordinates such that the coordinate at which the force acts is at the top and the bottom. 2. Insert each element in its correct orientation with respect to these coordinates. ground is at

x
K1

K

y K2

M1
B

M2 (a)

x x 13

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST K y M1 ( b) k1 y K2 ( c) M2
Figure 2.16 General Mechanical system

B

For the system shown in Fig 2.16a, the coordinates are x, y, and ground Step 1 is carried out by drawing the coordinates as shown in Fig. 2.16b. To do Step 2 we must note that for the spring K1 and mass M1 the coordinates are x and ground, for the spring K and damper B the coordinates are . and y, and finally for the mass M2 and spring K2 the coordinates are y and ground. Inserting these elements between the proper coordinates as shown in Fig. 2.16c completes the grounded-chair representation. The series and parallel combinations are now recognized directly from this grounded-chair representation. The equation for the force is 1 = M 1 D 2 + K1 + 1/( K + BD ) + 1/(K2 + M2 D2 )

[

]x

Analogies
The equation of operation for the series mechanical system of Fig. 2.4a is gives by Eq. (2.17), and the equation for the series electric circuit of Fig. 2.8a is gives by Eq. (2.26). That is, = ( MD2 + BD + K )x 1 E = (LD2 + RD + ) Q C Comparison of corresponding terms in Eqs. (2.17) and (2.26) shows that the differential equation of operation for each system has the same form. The term wich occupy corresponding positions are called analogous quantities. This particular analog is referred to as the direct analog. The analogous quantities for direct analog are shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Analogous quantities in a direct (force-voltage) analog
Translational mechanical system Electrical system Force Velocity Displacement Mass Viscous Spring damping constant coefficient M B K Inductance Resistance Reciprocal of capacitance 14

X = Dx Voltage Current

x Charge

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST E I = DQ Q L R I C

The total force acting on a group of mechanical elements in series is equal the sum of the forces exerted on each element. Similarly, the total voltage drop across a group of electrical elements in series is equal to the sum of the voltage drops across each element. For parallel mechanical elements, the force acting on each element is the same, and for parallel electrical elements the voltage drop across each element is the same. Thus, in a direct analog, parallel mechanical elements should replaced by equivalent electrical elements in parallel. The other type of analog is the inverse analog. To construct an inverse analog. It should first be noted that the total current flowing though a group of electrical element in parallel is the sum of the currents in each element. The analogous quantities for an inverse analog that are shown in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 Analogous quantities in an inverse (force-current) analog
Translational mechanical system Electrical system Force Velocity Spring constant K Reciprocal Of inductance I L Damping coefficient B Reciprocal Of resistnace I R Mass

x Current Voltage

M Capacitance

I

E

C

The equation of operation for the parallel mechanical system.
D X= K + 1 + B MD 1

The operation of the series electric circuit. E = LD + R + 1 I CD Comparison of corresponding terms in Eqs. (2.25) and (2.48) yields the analogous quantities for an inverse analog the are show in Table. 2.2.

15

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

K .

x

y M (a) B

C=1/K

C=M

I

I

L=1/K

L=M

R=B

E

+

E

+
(c)

R = 1/B

(b)

Figure 2.17 Analogs (a) mechanical circuit (b) direct analog (c) inverse analog. The equation or operation for the mechanical system =
1

x=
2

K (MD2 + BD)

x
1

1/K + 1/(MD +BD )

MD + BD + K

2

The equation of operation for the electric circuit.

E = LD +

1

I

CD + 1/R Or I=
1 1 E= + 1/R) L+ 1/[C2 + (1/R)D] E

LD + 1/(CD2

D

(1/L) [CD2 + (1/R)D] E CD2 + (1/R)D + 1/L D 16

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

Scale Factors
Because of the convenience of working with electrical equipment, ordinarily an electrical analog is constructed for some other system. Scale factors ensure that the values of the voltages and currents in the electrical analog will be reasonable. For example, in a direct analog, analogous quantities are force-voltage and velocity-current; hence,

= kE E dx = K1 I dt Thus, if the maximum value of kE = = 10 Ib/V

is 1000 1b and the maximum desired voltage is 100 V, then,

E In this case, 1V corresponds to 10 1b/V

Thermal systems
For small temperature ,the rate of heat transferred into a body is proportional to the temperature difference across the body :

Q = hA (T1 - T ) =

T1

T

RT

Where Q = rate of heat flow h = coefficient of heat transfer of the surface of the body A = surface area T = temperature of the body T1= temperature of the surrounding medium 17

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST And the symbol RT = 1/hA means equivalent thermal resistance and will soon be shown to be analogous to the electrical resistance R.The rate of change of temperature of the body dT/dt is related to the rate of heat transfer into the body by the expression. Q = MC dT dt Where c = average specific heat of the body M = mass CT= Mc is the equivalent thermal capacitance The equation for a resistor and a capacitor may be written in the form 1 1= R E = CT DT

and

1 = CDE

Comparison of Eq. 2.77 with Eq. 2.75 and of Eq. 2.78 with Eq. 2.76 shows the following quantities to be analogous: T~E Q~I RT ~ R CT ~ C This is the direct, or temperature-voltage, analog. The equation of operation for this thermal circuit is T1 Q= RT Solving for T gives T1 T= 1 + (RT CT ) D T = CT DT

The electric circuit which is the direct analog of the thermal circuit is shown in Fig 2.18c The equation of operation for the electric circuit is E1 E I= R 18 = CDE

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Solving for E gives

E1 E= 1 + (RC)D

In the direct analog, series thermal elements are replaced by analogous electrical elements in series. Similarly, parallel thermal element are replaced by analogous electrical elements in parallel. For thermal systems, there are only two elements. The inverse, or temperature-current analog is developed by first writing the equation for a resistor and an inductor in the form E = RI E =LDI Comparison with Eqs. 2.75 and 2.76 reveals the following analogous relationships: T~I 1 RT ~ R CT ~ L Q~E

The equation of operation for the inverse analog Fig 2.18d is E = R (I1 I) = LDI Solving for I gives I1 I= 1 + (L / R)D

For any circuit, there are but two possible analogs: the inverse analog in which the series-parallel arrangement is inverted, and the direct analog in which the series-parallel arrangement is retained.

Fluid systems
In working with fluid systems, it is necessary to distinguish if the fluid is incompressible or compressible. For incompressible fluids, it suffices to work with the volume rate of flow. For compressible fluid, it is necessary to work with the mass rate of flow.

Incompressible Fluids
When the pressure difference across a flow restriction is small, the volume rate of flow Q is proportional to the pressure drop P1 P across the restriction:

19

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST P Q= RF P

Where RF is the equivalent fluid resistance

Compressible Fluids
For small pressure differences, the mass rate of flow M through a restriction is proportional to the pressure difference P1 P: P M= RF Where RF is the equivalent fluid resistance. y(t) Slope = K/X P

K
0.632K y (t) = ( 1 e

t/ X

)K

0

X

2X

3X

t

(b) Figure 3.11 Response of first order system to a unit step function. As shown in Fig. 3.11b, the slope of the tangent line at t = 0 is K/X. The term X is called the time constant and is a measure of the speed of response when X is small, the system approaches its new operating condition very fast and when X is large. More time is required for the change to occur.

Block-diagram algebra
It is often desirable to rearrange the form of a block diagram. In Fig 3.21 is shown a number of rearrangement which are commonly employed. it is to be noticed that in all cases the rearrangement does not affect the overall relationship between the input elements (i.e., elements with arrowheads pointing into the diagram) and the output elements (i.e., elements with arrowheads pointing away from the diagram). There are many possible rearrangements for systems. However, it is usually desirable to make the ultimate form of the block diagram the same as that shown in Fig. 3.22. the reason for this is that the methods to be presented later for evaluating the performance of systems are based on system which are represented tin this general form.

20

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST c (a) a + (a b)+ a- b- c b c a + a-b-c b

(b)

a

G (D)

+ aG (D)-b b

a

b a+ G (D)

G (D)

a G (D) b

1/G (D) b (c) a + b
G (D) G (D)

(a-b) G (D)

a

G (D)

+ (a-b) G (D)

b

(d)

a

G (D)

b =aG (D)

a
G (D)

G (D)

b

b b (e) a a
c = [a c H(D)] G (D) G(D)a
G (D)b

= aG (D)

a

G (D)

b 1/G(D)

a

or c =
1+G (D) H (D)

(f) a

+

G (D)

a

G (D) c 1+G (D) H (D)

H (D)

b=cH (D)

21

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Figure 3.21 Equivalent block diagrams: (a) combining interconnected summing points (b) moving a summing point behind as element, (c) moving a summing point ahead of an element, (d) moving a take-off point behind an element, (e) moving a take-off point ahead of an element, (f) eliminating a minor feedback loop.

u

Disturbance signal Distrubance B function elements d controlled system + c
G2 (D)

Reference input elements Y r A Command signal

control elements + e
G1 (D)

m +

Feedback elements
H (D)

Figure 3.22: General block-diagram representation for a control system.

Laplace transform method
This method of solving differential equations is somewhat analogous to the process of multiplying or dividing using logarithms. In the well-knows transformation of logarithms, numbers are transformed into powers of the base 10 or some other base. This process in effect makes it possible to multiply and divide by using the simpler operations of addition and subtraction. After obtaining the desired answer in logarithms, the transformation back to the real-number system is accomplished by finding antilogarithms. In the method of Laplace transforms, transformation of the terms of the differential equation yields an algebraic equation in another variable s. Thereafter the solution of the differential equation is effected by simple algebraic manipulations in the s domain (the new variable is s rather than time t). to obtain the desired time solution. It is necessary to invert the transform of the solution from the s domain back to the time domain. Actually, for much control work, information obtained in the s domain suffices so that it may be unnecessary to invert back to the time domain. The Laplace transformation F(s) of a function of time (t) is1

F(s) = L [ (t)] =

´

(t)e

st

dt

22

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Step function A graphical representation of a step function is shown in fig 5.2. A step function is designated by the symbol hu(t), where h is the height and u(t) is the symbol for a unit step function whose height is 1. Application of Eq. (5.25)

F(s) = L [ hu(t) ] =

´

he

st

he dt =
S
s (0) )

st

=

h( e s ( ) + e
S

h =

S

f (t) h

0

t Figure 5.2: step function.

Impulse function A special case of a pulse function is an impulse function. If the height is designated as h = k/t , it follows that the area is always equal to k. now, as the width t approaches zero, the height becomes infinite but the area remains equal to k. This limiting case of a pulse function is called an impulse. the symbol ku1 (t) represents an impulse function whose area is k. substitution of h = kt into Eq. (5.27) and taking the limit as t approaches zero gives the following transform for an impulse: F(s) = L [ ku1 (t) ] = lim t
p

[ k (1 - e - ) ] = 0
ts

t

p

0

Application of L hopital rule for evaluating the proceeding indeterminate gives (d/dt ) [k(1 e t s ) ] F(s) = lim tp (d/dt ) (t s) kse t s = lim =k tp s

The transform of an impulse function is thus seen to be equal to the area of the function. The impulse function whose area is unity. u1(t), is called a unit impulse.

Piecewise continuous functions
In fig. 5.16a, for 0< t e t , (t) = at; and for t > t (t) = at . For the first interval 0 < t e t , the input 23 function inclined at the slope a. Such an inclined straight line is called a ramp function.

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST f (t) at0

0

t0 (a)

t

Figure 5.17: Piecewise continuous functions.

ROUTH S STABILITY CRITERION
Routh s criterion states that the number of changes of sign of the coefficients in the first column of the array is equal to the number of roots of the characteristic equation that are located to the right of the imaginary axis. For the preceding example, the signs of the numbers in the first column are seen to go from plus to minus and then back to plus again, so that there are two changes of sign. Thus there are two roots located to the right of the imaginary axis. The number of coefficients in the first column is n + 1m where n is the order of the characteristic equation. If the Routh array is continued past the last row, it is found that only zeros result. The reason that it is necessary to keep track of the number of pertinent rows is that if the coefficient of the last row is zero, then the characteristic equation has a root at the origin. If the coefficients of the last two pertinent rows are zero, then the characteristic equation has a double root at the origin, etc.

The root -locus Method
The root-locus method was developed by W. R. Evans.1.2 This method enables one to determine the roots of the characteristic equation (i.e., the zeros of the characteristic function by) by knowing the factored from of the feed forward and feedback elements of a control system. As is discussed in Chap. 6, the transient behavior of a system is governed primarily by the roots of the characteristic equation for the system. Neither the initial conditions nor the particular excitation affects the basic operation of a system.

Significance of root loci
The characteristic equation for the control system shown in Fig. 7.1a is s(s + 4) + K = s2 + 4s + K = 0 The roots of the characteristic equation depend upon the value of K, which is the static loop sensitivity. As is shown in Fig. 7.1a, the static loop sensitivity K is the product of all the constant terms in the control loop when the coefficient of each s term is unity. Because Eq. 7.1 is a quadratic, the roots are r1,2 =a s jb, in which 2a =4 or a = 2 and b = ˜ K Thus For K > 4: r1,2 = 2sj˜K 4 24 a2 .

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST For K = 4: For K < 4: r1 = r2 = 2 r1,2 = 2 s j ˜ K 4 = 2 + ˜ 4 K

j R(s) +
K

C(s)

4
K = 16

s(s + 4)

3 (a)
K=8

2 1
K=3 K=0

60
K=0 K=3

5

4

3 K=4

1
1

1

Real axis

K=8

2

K = 16

3

4

(b) Figure 7.1 Rout-locus plot for s(s + 4) + K = 0. In this last case, the roots are real and unequal. The heavy lines in Fig. 7.1b are a plot of the roots of this characteristic equation for various values of K. when K = 0, the roots are r1,2 = 0, 4; when K = 3, the roots are 1, 3; when K = 4, the roots are r1 = r2 = 2; when K = 8, the roots are r1,2 = 2 s j2; etc.

25

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

ELECTRICAL PHENOMENON
Cu r r en t: Th e f low o f e l e ct r o ns is ca l le d c u r re nt . I t is c la s s i f ie d i nt o t w o ca t e g o r ie s o ne is ca l le d A . C (A lt e r n a t i ng C u r re nt ) a n d ot he r is c a l l e d D . C ( D i re ct C u rr e n t ). A s f r om n a m e a lt e r na t e m e a ns w h i c h ch a ng e s it s di r e ct i o n f r om v e t o + v e , a nd is de not e d by i. Wh e re a s d i r e ct c ur re nt is re pr e s e nt e d by a s t ra ig h t l i ne , ha v i ng on e d i r e ct i o n on ly . The s p e e d of t he cu r re nt is a bo ut 1 7 60 0 0 k m /s e c. t he r e a re t w o t y pe s of cu r re nt s . o Co n v en t io n a l: I f t he re is f l ow o f a + v e c ha rg e m e a ns of p r ot ons t he n it is ca l le d c onv e n t i o na l c u r re nt . I t is us e d i n r e a c t o rs . o N o n -C o n v en ti o n a l: - It is t h a t c u r re nt i n w h i ch v e c ha rg e d i o ns w e re f low . T he u n it o f cu r re nt is a m p e re de n ot e d by ( A ). F o r t he m e a s ur e m e nt s of cu r re nt A m m e t e rs a r e us e d. P o t en tia l D i f f er e n c e : Th e v f o rc e re q u ir e d t o g iv e f l ow t o e le ct r ons f r om o ne p o i nt t o a n ot h e r po i nt is ca l le d v o lt a g e o r pot e n t ia l d i ff e re nce . I t is de m ot e d by ( V ). I t s u n it is v o lt . Re s i s ta n c e: I t is t h e p r o pe rt y o f t he s ubs t a n ce s t o r e s is t s t h e f l ow o f e le ct r ons is ca l le d re s is t a n ce . Re s is t a nc e is d i re ct ly p r o po rt i o na l t o t he l e ng t h o f c o nd u ct ors a n d u niv e rs i t y t o d ia of t he co n du ct o rs . C ir c u i t: A c l os e d pa t h t h r oug h w h ic h cu r re nt c a n f lo w is ca l le d ci r cu i t . T he re a re t w o t y pe s of c ir c u it s . y S e ri e s C i r cu it y P a r a l le l C i r c ui t s . S er ies C ir c u it s : W he n t he re s is t o rs a r e c on ne ct e d a n d t o e n d t h is ci r c ui t is ca l le d s e r ie s c i rc u it . I n s e r ie s c i r cu it s c u rr e n t i n a l l re s is t ors r e m a i n c o ns t a nt b ut v ol t a g e is d is t ri b ut e d in a l l. R1 R2 R3

+ RT = R 1 + R 2 + R 3

-

P a r a l le l C ir c u i t s: Wh e n t he re s is t o rs a r e c o nn e ct e d in s u c h a m a n ne r t h a t cu r r e nt i n re s is t o rs is d is t r i but e d b ut v o lt a g e r e m a i ns c ons t a nt , t h e n it is ca l le d p a r a l l e l ci r c ui t , a s s h ow n i n f ig u re . 26

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

+ R1 R2 R3

He re

1 RT

=

1 + 1 + R1 R2

1 R3

T RA N S F O RM ER : Tr a ns f o rm e r is a s t a t i c d e v ic e , t h r o ug h w h i c h v o l t a g e c a n be re g u la t e d. Th e re a re t w o t y pe s of t ra ns f o rm e rs , s t e p up a n d s t e p d ow n. S t e p u p t ra ns fo r m e rs a re t hos e w h i ch in c re a s e s v ol t a g e , w he re a s s t e p d ow n t ra ns f o r m e r is t ha t w h ic h re du ce s t he v o lt a g e . S T AB I LI Z ERS : T he fu n ct io n o f t h e s t a b i l iz e rs is t o m a i nt a i n t he s up p ly t o t he e q u ip m e nt . S a y if t h e s u p p ly is g r a t e r t he n t he de s i re d t he n it re du ce s t he s up p ly bu t i f i t is le s s t ha n t h a t o f t h e de s i re d v a l ue t h a n i t i nc r e a s e s t he s u p p ly . C IR CU IT BR E AK E R: I t is t he d e v i ce w h ic h d is c o nn e ct s t h e s u p p ly , w he n t h e r e a re f lu ct ua t i o ns o f e le c t r i c it y p u ls e s , w hi c h c a n da m a g e t he e qu i pm e nt . Co n v er s i o n o f Am m e t er t o V o l tm et er : F o r t h e co n ce s s i on of a m m e t e r t o v o lt m e t e r , w e w i l l a dd a s h u nt re s is t o r h a v i ng t w o re s is t iv e i n s e r i e s t o t he a m m e t e r. T he ne w ly f o rm e d m a de is v o lt m e t e r. Co n v er s i o n o f V o l tm e t er to Am m et er : F o r t he c o nv e rs io n o f v ol t m e t e r t o a m m e t e r w e w i l l a dd a s h unt r e s is t o r h a v i ng lo w re s is t i ng i n p a ra l le l t o t he v o lt m e t e r. Cu r r en t m ea s u r em en t: C u rr e n t ca n be m e a s ur e d by a d d ing a m m e t e r in s e ri e s t o t he re s is t o r a s s h ow n i n f ig u re . F o r t he m e a s ur e m e nt of D . C cu r re nt p r o be s m us t be co n ne ct e d i n p o la r it y . V o l ta g e M ea s u r em en t: V ol t a g e ca n be m e a s u re d by a d d ing v o lt m e t e r i n pa ra l le l t o be re s is t or , a s s h ow n i n f ig ur e . I n v o lt a g e m e a s ur e m e nt t he re is n o n e e d o f p o l a r it y .

+ Vm -

Is Rs

Im Rm

No w a c c or d i ng t o Oh m s la w 27

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST V x I V = IR F r om f ig u re (a ) w e f i nd t ha t Vm = I m Rm A n d Vs = I s Rs A s t he c i r cu it is p a ra l le l s o t ha t I = Is + Im A n d Vm = Vs   I m Rm = I s Rs   I m = I s Rs Rm I = Is + Is Rs Rm

28

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

Problem
C a l c ul a t e t he s h un t re s is t a n ce r e q u i re d t o m a k e a m il l i a m pe a r m e t e r m e a s u re u pt o 1 0m A , w h ic h ba s ic a lly g iv e s m a x im u m de f le ct io n fo r a c u rr e n t o f 15 m A a n d re s is t a n ce of 5 O hm s . D a ta I = 10 A I m = 1 5m A = 1 5x 1 0 - 3 A Rm = 5 ; Rs = ? S o lu t io n A s w e k n ow t ha t s h u nt r e s is t a nc e
Rs ! Im Rm I Im
¢

15 x10 3 x5 Rs ! 10  15 x10 3

Rs 0. 0 07 5 1 A ns w e r P r o b l em How m u c h c u r re nt c a n be m e a s u re d by us i ng a n a m m e t e r w h i ch g iv e s m a x im um de f le c t i o n of h un d re d m i l i a m p e re a s r e s is t a n ce o f 3 o hm , i f a dd e d s h un t r e s i s t a n ce of . 0 5 o hm s . D a ta I=? I m = 1 00 m A = 0. 1A Rm = 3 ; Rs = . 0 5 ; S o lu t io n A s w e k n ow t ha t t ot a l c u r re nt I = I m x Rm /Rs + I m I = . 1x 3\ 0. 0 5+ . 1 I = 6. 1 A A ns w e r

29

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST In d u c ta n c e: I t is t h e p r op e r t y o f t h e c on d uct o r d ue t o w h i ch it op p os e s a ny i n cr e a s e i n cu r re nt . I nd u ct ors a r e us e d t o p r o du ce m a g n e t ic fl ux . Th e u n it of i nd u ct a nc e is He n ry d e n ot e by L. i t s s y m b o l is H e n ry is de f i ne d a s , a co i l is s a i d t o ha v e o ne h e n ry in d uct a nc e i f a cu r re nt of on e a m pe a r f lo w i ng t h ro ug h l i nk a g e a n d p r o du ce s f lux of o ne m ba r. C a pa b i l it y of in d uc t o r de pe nds up o n. 1. Q ua l it y of m a t e r ia l 2. No . o f t u r ns o f w in d i ng 3. S pa ce be t w e e n t u r ns a n d d i a o f w ir e . Ca p a c i ta n c e : I t is t he p r o pe rt y of t he ca pa ci t o r s t o r e e l e ct r i ci t y . T he ca pa c it or k e e ps t h e v o lt a g e co ns t a nt , w h il e f l uct ua t i o ns . I t s un i t is fa r a d a n d de n ot e d by C a nd c a n be d e f i ne d a s , i f on e c o u l om b c ha rg e s t o r e d i n a c a pa c it o r , c re a t e s p ot e nt ia l d if fe r e n ce o f on e v o lt t h e ca pa c it a n ce o f c a p a c it o r is o ne f a ra d ca pa c it o r is de n ot e d by s y m bo l.

D io d e: D i o de is de v i ce ha v i ng t w o e le c t r o de s , one i d c a ll e d a n o de a n d ot he r is ca l le d ca t h od e a s s h ow n i n f ig u re s y m bo l.

= I t is us e d t o c onv e rt A . C c u r re nt t o D . C cu r re nt . Transducer: T ra ns d u ce r is a n i ns t r um e nt w h ic h co nv e rt s phy s i ca l q ua nt it ie s i nt o e l e ct ri ca l qu a n t i t ie s li k e f o r ce , p re s s u re , t o rq ue e t c. Th is do n ot g iv e s a ny los s i n c a pa ci t y . S u ch t y pe of i ns t ru m e nt s c o ns is t s o f f o l l ow ing co m p o ne nt s . 1. I np ut de v ic e s 2. S ig na l c o n di t io n i ng de v i ce s 3. Out p ut d e v i ce s I np ut S ig na l C o nd it i o n ing P ro ce s s i ng O ut p ut D is p la y

A m p l i f ic a t io n

F i lt ra t i o n

M o du l a t i on 30

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST M ec h a n i c a l ly : G e a rs , B e lt P u l le y s , ch a in a nd s p ro ck e t El ec tr ic a l ly : C a pa c it o rs , Re g u la t o rs Th e in p ut d e v i ce s s i nc e t h e q ua nt it y un de r m e a s ur e m e nt a n d c o nv e rt it i nt o a p ro p o rt io na l e le ct r ic a l s ig n a l. Th e qu a nt it y o f t he o ut p ut of a ny de v i ce ca n be n o be t t e r t ha n t he q ua nt it y of t he i np ut . I np ut d e v i ce m us t ha v e a c om p on e n t , w h ic h c onv e r t s a n o n e l e ct r i ca l q ua nt it y i nt o e le ct r ic a l s ig n a l. T h is d e v ice is ca l le d t ra ns du ce r. I np ut de v i ce s m a y a ls o c on t a i n p ri m a ry s e ns o r. S ig n a l C o n d i ti o n in g : Be t w e e n t r a ns d uc e r a nd d is p l a y d e v ice , t he s ig n a l n o rm a lly r e q u i re s s om e f o r m s o f p ro ce s s i ng w h i ch is c a l le d a s s ig na l c on d it i o ni ng . S om e c om m o n f o rm s o f s ig n a l co n d it io n i ng a re g iv e n be l l ow . 1. A m p l i f ic a t io n 2. F i lt r a t io n 3. M o du l a t io n Am p li f i c a ti o n : S ig na l a m p l i f ic a t io n is c a r r ie d ou t w he n t y p i ca l s ig n a l o ut pu t l e v e l of a m e a s ur e m e nt . Tr a ns d uc e r is c o ns i de r e d t o be t oo l ow a m p li f i ca t i on by a n a log m e a ns is c a r r ie d b ut by a n o pe ra t i o na l a m p l i f i e r s m a l l o u t p ut of a m pl i f ie r t he o ut p ut fr om t he a m p li f ie r ha s a n i n cr e a s e d m a g ni t u de w h ic h is t ha n m o re us e f u l f o r re c or d i ng o r d is p la y p ur p os e s . F i lt r a ti o n : Th is p ro ce s s is d o ne t o p u r ify o r t o r e m ov e u nw a nt e d t hi ng s fo r s m o ot h r u n n ing of qu a n t i t ie s . M o d u la t io n: Th is p r oc e s s is us e d w he n t ra ns m i t i o n pa t h is l ong . M o d u la t i on r e d u ce s t he e ff e ct s of n o is e i n t ra ns m it i o n pa t h. I t is us e d t o c o nt ro l s ig n a l m o n it o r ing . T a c h o m e ter : A t a ch o m e t e r is a n i ns t r um e nt w h i ch is us e d f o r m e a s u ri ng d i re ct ly a ng u la r v e l oc it y of a r ot a t i ng s y s t e m (s ha ft ). F o l l ow ing a re t he m a in t y pe s of t a c h om e t e r. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I nd u ct io n P i ck u p Ta c h om e t e r C a pa c it iv e P i ck u p Ta ch om e t e r P h ot o- e le c t r i c C e l l T a c h om e t e r S l i p pi ng C lu t c h T a c h om e t e r V ib r a t io n / Re s o na nce Ta ch o m e t e r E ddy C u rr e n t / M a g ne t i c D r a g T a c h om e t e r 31

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST In d u c ti o n P i c ku p T a c h o m e ter : A t y p ic a l s y s t e m us ing in d uct i o n p ic k up is s h ow n i n f ig u re . Ea ch t oo t h of w he e l p ro d uc e s m a g n e t ic f l ux a s it p a s s e s . T hus w e g o t e x p i n t h e fo r m o f pu ls e s . N ow t he s e p uls e s a re f e e d t o d ig it a l c o u nt e r , w hi c h c ou nt s t he nu m b e r o f p u ls e s f o r s a m e t im e int e rv a l. Th e f u nct i o n of t he s ig na l m o d if i e r is t o s ha pe d ig it a l s ig na l s a n d us e a b le a m p l it u de . D is p la y T oot he d W he e l Signal Modify

Ca p a c i t iv e P ic ku p T a c h o m et er : C a pa c it iv e t a c h om e t e r h a s v a ns , w hi c h a re a t t a c he d t o t he m ov i ng s h a ft . A s t h e v a n r ot a t e s be t w e e n f ix ca pa ci t o r p l a t e s c ha ng e i n ca pa c it a n ce t o e a rt h r a t i o is p ro d uc e d. N ow t h is ca pa c it a nc e is fe e d t o s ig na l m o d i fi e r , w h i ch re s ha pe t he pu ls e s a n d d ig it a l ly c o u nt t h e m , a s s h ow n in fi g ur e .

D is p la y Va n C a pa c it iv e P la t e s P h o t o - E le c t r i c C e ll T a c h o m e ter : Th is i ns t ru m e nt c ons is t s of a p hot o -e l e ct r ic ce l l, w h ic h is a ct iv a t e d by l ig ht pu ls e s re f le ct e d f r om a ro t a t i ng m a ch i ne s ha ft . Signal Modify

Ro t a t i ng s ha ft F o cus i ng M ir r o r D is p la y Photo Electric Cell Lig ht R a y s Th e s ha ft ha s a n int e rm e d ia t e re fl e ct i n g s u rf a c e a n d w he n a be a m o f l ig h t is f oc us e d on t he s ha ft , t he n n um be r o f p u ls e s o f l ig ht a r e o bt a i ne d. Th e f re q ue ncy o f l ig ht pu ls e s is p r o p or t i o na l t o t h e s p e e d o f s ha ft . A g a in p u ls e s a r e s h a p e d t o p r ov ide s u it a b le i n p ut f o r d ig it a l c o u nt e r a s s h ow n i n f ig u re . D ig i t a l m e a s u r i ng s y s t e m m a y be us e d f o r s pe e d upt o 3 0x 1 0 6 r p m a n d a c cu r a cy is l im it e d b y t he a cc u r a cy o f co u nt ing de v i ce . 32

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST S li p p in g Cl u t c h T a c h o m e t er :

S l i pp i ng C lut c h F r i ct io n m a t e r ia l A s f r om f ig u re it is v is i b le t ha t s l i p p ing cl ut c h t a ch om e t e r c o ns is t s o f a c lu t c h , w h ic h is p r ov id e d w it h f r i ct i on m a t e r ia l a nd m o un t e d o n a s h a ft . Be s i de s t h is cl ut c h t h e r e is s p i ra l s pr i ng a nd o n t he e n d o f s h a f t t he re is p o i nt e r a nd s ca le m e c ha n is m . I t is w or k ing i n s u ch a w a y w he n s ha ft is r ot a t i ng , w e a r e put t i ng t w o c l ut ch p la t e s i n c o nt a ct a n d a s t he re is s p r i ng , w h i c h a bs or bs r ot a t i o na l e ne rg y a n d g iv e s m ot i o n t o t he p o i nt e r. V ib r a t io n / R es o n a n c e T a c h o m e t er : Th e v ib r a t io n t a c h om e t e r c o ns is t s o f s e a t of t h i n c a n t il e v e r m e m be rs e a c h m e m b e r ha v i ng a d i ff e r e n t na t u ra l fr e q ue n cy o f v i br a t i on , a s s ho w n in f ig u r e . S ca le (A z )
1500 1600 1700 1800

W he n t he f ra m e o f t a c h om e t e r is b r o ug ht in c o nt a ct w i t h rot a t i ng m a c h in e , t h e re a ds o f t a c h om e t e r w it h na t u ra l f re qu e n cy , c l os e t o f re q ue ncy o f m a c h i ne v i b ra t i o n is i n d ic a t e d a g a i ns t a c a l i b ra t e d s ca le a s s h ow n in f ig u re . Th e a dv a nt a g e o f t h is ins t r um e nt is t ha t t he m e t e r ne e d o nl y be i n c ont a c t w it h n o nm ov i ng pa rt o f m a ch i ne . Ed d y Cu r r en t / M a g n et ic D r a g T a c h o m e te r : Th is i ns t r um e nt ha s a p e rm a ne nt m a g n e t w h i ch is d r iv e n by m a c h in e s h a ft . W he n i t is c o nn e ct e d w it h t he s h a f t e d dy c u r re nt is i n du ce d in a l um i n um d r a g c u p a nd p ro d uc e t h e t o rq ue w h i ch r ot a t e s t he cu p a g a ins t t h e t or q ue p r od uc e d by a s p ir a l s pr i ng . No w t h e p o i nt e r a t t a ch e d t o t he c u p in d ic a t e s , r ot a t i o na l s pe e d on ca l ib r a t e d s ca l e a s s h ow n i n f ig u re .

33

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Th is is no r m a l ly us e d i n a n a ut om ob i le w he n t he S ca le is c a l ib ra t e d i n l in e a r v e l o ci t y (m i le /h o r k m /h ) S tr o b o s c o p ic T a c h o m et er :

m a rk a pp e a r Stroboscope Re v o lv ing Ra y s wheel Th is i ns t ru m e nt o pe ra t e s o n t h e p r i nc i p le t h a t i f a re pe a t i ng e v e nt is o n ly v i e w e d w he n a t on e pa rt i cu l a r p o int i n it s cy c le it a pp e a rs t o be s t a t i o na ry . I f w e a re p ut t ing l ig ht o n t he w he e l , w h ic h is m a rk e d a t a p o i nt a nd a ls o w e a r e a dj us t i ng f re qu e n cy o f l ig ht a n d it s t im e int e rv a l t he n t im e c om e s w he n m a rk w i l l be s t a t io na ry . Th e n w e a re a bl e t o s a y t h is m uc h re v o lut i o ns a re t h e re . C om m e rc ia l ly a v a i la b le s t r o bos c op i c us ua l ly i n c o rp o ra t e a ne o n t u be , a n d a ls o ha v e a c o nt r ol w it h t o r e a d a ng ul a r v e l o ci t y b/ w 60 0 a nd u pt o 2 0 00 rps m a y b e m o r e t ha n t ha t .

P ie z o -E l ec tr ic A c c el er o m e te r : P ie z o - E le ct r ic A c ce le r om e t e r is v i b ra t i o n m e a s u re m e nt t ra ns d u ce r , g e ne ra l ly u s e d t o m e a s ur e e a rt h -q u ic k . I t co ns is t s o f a b ox i n w h i ch t he re i s s m a l l bl o ck , w h i ch is f i l le d w it h da m p i ng ce ra m i c m a t e r ia l , p ot e nt ia l , w he n m a t e r ia l pa r t i c le s ca l le d w it h e a c h ot he r. I t a ls o co ns is t s a m a s s (w e ig ht ) o n t h e c ry s t a l ic b lo ck w h ic h is a t t a c he d t o t he s pr i ng o f h ig h s t i f fn e s s . W he n s e ns o r s e ns e s t he v i br a t i on , t he n it g iv e m ot i o n t o t he s pr i ng a n d m a s s . A s m ov e m e nt of m a s s a pp l ie s s om e fo r ce o n t he c ry s t a l i c m a t e r ia l , w h ic h g iv e s p ot e n t i a l. Th e s e a re a ls o us e d t o m e a s u re im pa ct l oa ds . S e ns o r H ig h S t i ff S p ri ng

O ut put V o lt a g e

34

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST In d u c tiv e A c c el er o m e te r : Th r o ug h i nd u ct io n a cc e l e ro m e t e r , w e c a n f i n d t h e v e l o c it y o f a cc e l e ra t i ng m a s s . I t c o ns is t s of a t w o in d uct i o n co i ls , be t w e e n w h ic h a c ce le ra t i ng m a s s is pu t t o m e a s ur e v e lo c it y . Air gap

I nd u ct io n co i ls A cc e le ra t i o n mass Er r o r s : A n e rr o r o f m e a s u re m e nt is t h e d is cr e p a n cy d i ff e re n ce b e t w e e n t he re s u lt o f m e a s ur e m e nt a n d t he a bs o l ut e v a l ue o f qu a n t i t y m e a s u r e d. T he re a r e m a ny t y pe s of e r r o rs , b ut f o l lo w i ng a re im p o rt a nt f r o m s ub j e ct p o i nt o f v i e w . 1. G r o s s Er r o r : I t is h um a n ca us e d e r ro r , d u r i ng ca l cu l a t io n o r m e a s u r ing a ny qu a n t i t y . OR by us i ng w ro ng o pe r a t io n. 2. S y s t em a ti c Er r o r : T he s e e rr o rs c a us e d by us ua l ly s y s t e m s , l ik e d ue t o ca l ib r a t io ns o r d ue t o a t m os p he r ic c on d it i o ns l ik e p re s s u re , t e m pe ra t u re , hu m id it y e t c. 3. Lim i ti n g Er r o r : Th e p e rm a ne nt e r r o rs i ns id e t h e ins t r um e n t s is ca l l e d l im it i ng e r r o rs . T o le ra n ce is be s t e x a m p le o f l im it i ng e r r o r. 4. Ra n d o m E r r o r : Ra n do m e r r or us ua l ly a r is e s , w he n a na l og re a d i ng m e t e r is us e d. I t ca n b e s a id t ha t it is m e a n e r r o r. E le ct r ic a l n o is e c a n a ls o be a s o u rc e of ra n d om e r ro r.

35

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Wh ea t S to n e Br id g e : A s i m p l e s t f ro m of w h e a t s t o ne b r i d g e c i rc u it c ons is t s o f a g a lv a n om e t e r , f ou r re s is t o rs a nd o ne ba t t e ry , a s s h ow n i n f ig u re . F ro m t he s e f ou r re s is t o rs t h re e a re be a m a n d on e is unk n ow n , w h i ch ca n b e f in d o ut by b a l a n c i ng t he ci r c ui t . I t is us e d t o m e a s u re re s is t a n ce a nd s t r a i n. W he a t s t o ne b r i dg e m a y be c l a s s if ie d in t w o t y p e s : 1. Nu l l Ty p e 2. D e f le ct i on Ty pe N u l l T y p e : Th is t y pe is us e d t o m e a s u re l ow a nd m e d iu m r e s is t a nc e s a nd a s o p e ra t e d on D . C s u pp ly . D ef l ec t io n T y p e : T his t y p e is us e d t o m e a s ur e h ig h re s is t a n ce s a n d is o pe ra t e d o n A . C s up p ly .

B R1 A R2 + C R3 D R 1 = U nk no w n re s is t o r R 2 = A dj us t a b le re s is t o r R 3 a nd R 4 = c o ns t a nt re s is t or F r om f ig u re w e ha v e g e t e q ua t io n
R R1 ! 3 R 2 R4

R4

or R1 R2 R3 R4 = = = = R3/R4 R1/R3 R1/R2 R3/R1 x x x x R2 R4 R4 R2

36

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST P r o b l em : A w h e a t s t o ne b r i dg e ha s a re s is t a n c e r a t i o of 1 / 1 00 f o r R 2 /R 4 a nd R 3 = 1 3 ; is a dj us t e d t o g iv e z e ro s u pp ly t ha t oc c urs w it h R 3 = 10 0 0. 3 ; f i nd R 1 . D a ta R2 = 1 R4 10 0 R 3 = 1 0 0 0. 3 (w he re z e r o c om e s ) S o lu t io n : A s w e k n ow t ha t
R1 R 2 ! R3 R 4

 

R1 !

R2 xR3 R4 1 x1000 .3 100

 

R1 !

 

R1 ! 10.003; A ns

P r o b l em : A w he a t s t o ne b r idg e ha s a r e s is t a nce ra t i o o f 1 / 10 0 f o r R 2 / R 4 a n d R 3 is a d j us t e d t o g iv e z e r o s u p p ly t h a t o cc u rs a t 1 0 00. 3 2 ; . The n R 1 c ha ng e s a s a re s u lt of t e m p e ra t u re c ha ng e a nd z e r o s u pp ly is obt a i ne d w h e n R 3 = 1 00 1. 1 ; . Now f i nd t he ch a ng e i n R 1 . D a ta R2 R4 = 1 10 0

;.

S o lu t io n : A s w e k n ow t ha t

37

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST
R1 ! R2 xR3 R4

 

R1 !

1 x1000 .32 100
£

 

R1 ! 10.0032

No w t a k i ng R 3 = 1 0 01. 1 ; .
R1 ! 1 x1001 .1 100

we get

R1 ! 10.011; N ow ch a ng e i n r e s is t o r R1 du e t o t e m p: c ha ng e = 1 0. 0 1 1 - 1 0. 0 0 32 = 0. 00 7 8 ; A ns w e r

P r o b l em : A w he a t s t o ne b r i dg e us e d in n u l l c on d it i o n a s d ir e ct i ns t ru m e nt ca l cu l a t e t he re s is t a n ce re qu i re d t o g iv e n ul l re a d i ng a s u n de r :

; (i ) (i i ) (i i i ) (iv )

R1 ? 1 00 50 ?

R2 60 30 1 00 2 00

R3 50 40 ? 4 00

R4 9 00 ? 1 00 2 00

S o lu t io n : A s w e k n ow t ha t (i )
R1 ! R3 x R2 60 ! 50 x R4 100

R1 ! 3.33;

A ns

38

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST (i i )
R4 ! R2 x R3 40 ! 30 x R1 100

R4 ! 12; (i i i )
R3 ! R1 x

A ns

R4 100 ! 50 x R2 100

R3 ! 50; (iv )
R1 ! R3 x

A ns

R2 200 ! 400 x R4 200

R1 ! 400;

A ns

39

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

40

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

DISPLAY DEVICES
T he de v ic e s w h i ch a r e us e d t o s h ow t h e re s u lt s o f a ny v a r ia b le , w h il e m e a s u r i ng i n a ny f o rm f r om a re c a l le d d is p l a y de v i c e s . Th e r e a re m a ny t y pe s o f dis p la y d e v i ce s bu t fe w a r e g iv e n b e l low . 1. S i ng le D is pl a y D e v ic e s 2. M u lt i D is p la y D e v ice s . 3. I l lu m in a t ing D is p la y D e v i ce s S in g le D is p la y D ev ic e s : Th e d is p la y de v ic e s , w h i ch s h ow s re a d ing s o f o n l y on e v a r ia b le a t a t im e , a re c a ll e d s i ng le dis p la y de v i ce s l ik e O hm m e t e r , a m m e t e r , v o lt m e t e r , A V O m e t e r , b ur de n s t ub e p r e s s u re g a ug e e t c. M u l ti D is p la y D ev i c es : T he d is p la y de v ic e s w h i ch s ho w s re a d i ng s o f m o re t h a n o ne v a r ia b le a t t he s a m e t im e , a re ca l le d m u lt i d is p l a y de v ic e s l ik e os ci l l os co pe , w h i ch s ho w s v o lt a g e a n d fr e q ue n cy a t s a m e t i m e , s t a b i l iz e r e t c. Il lu m in a t in g D ev ic es : T he s e a re d is p l a y de v i ce s , w h ic h ha v e a bi l it y , t h a t t he y ca n s ho w t h e re s u lt of v a r i a b l e a g l ow ing o r il l um i na t i ng f ro m l ik e de v ic e s w h ic h h a v e s e v e n s e g m e n t a l d is p la y . F o r m s o f D is p la y : T he re a re m a in ly t w o fo r m s o f d is p la y 1. D ig it a l 2. A na l og D ig i ta l: I n t h is f or m re a d i ng s a re s h ow n i n d ig it ( nu m b e rs ) c om m o n ly o n s e v e n s e g m e nt a l d is p la y s y s t e m is us e d. E it h e r L ED (L ig ht Em it t i ng D io de ) is us e d o r LC D (L i qu i d C r y s t a l D is p l a y ) is us e d. An a lo g : I n t h is fo r m re a d i ng s a re s h ow n o n t h e ca l i b ra t e d s c a le by m e a ns o f m ov i ng po i nt e r. C la s s if ic a t io n o f D is p la y D is p la y m a y be c l a s s if ie d a s f o l l ow s 1. M ov i ng P o i nt e r. 2. M ov i ng S ca l e . 3. G ra p h. M o v in g P o i n t er : I n t h is t y p e o f dis p la y po i nt e r w i l l m ov e d on f ix e d c a li b ra t e d s ca le . Th e s ca le m a y be in s im p le c urv e o r i n ci r c ul a r s ha pe . I n t h is t y pe of d is p la y p o in t e r m ov e s du e t o s om e p he no m e no n. M o v in g S c a l e D i s p l a y D ev ic e s : I n t h is t y pe o f d is p la y de v ic e s , s ca le is m ov i ng , w it h re s pe ct s t o f ix e d p o in t s f i le is p r oj e ct p r of i le m a c h i ne . 41

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST G r a p h D i s p la y D ev ic es : T he s e a re t ho s e de ic e s , w h i ch s ho w s re a d i ng s o f t w o o r m o re v a r ia b le a t a t im e o n a g ra ph p a pe r i n t he f o rm o f l i ne o r d ot s l ik e d e v i ce s us e d i n u n iv e rs a l t e s t i ng m a c h in e s o r r e ci p r oc a t ing co m p r e s s o r.

ILLUMINATING DISPLAY DEVICES
I l lu m in a t ing d is p l a y de v i ce s a re t h os e de v ic e s w h i c h a r e us e d t o d is p l a y r e a di ng s o f v a r ia b le s i n i l lu m i n a t ing f o rm . C a t h o d e Ra y os c il l o s co pe is o ne of t h e il l um i na t i ng de v ic e , w h ic h is us e d t o m e a s u r e v o lt a g e a n d f re que n cy a t t he s a m e t im e i n t he s ha pe o f w a v e s . I t s s im p le s t f or m c o ns i s t s of fo l l ow i ng pa rt s . C R t u be C a t h o de He a t e rF i la m e n t El e ct r o n g u n

H or iz o nt a l p la t e

P la t in um

a cc e le ra t i ng a no de

V e r t i ca l p la t e

Screen Hz (1) (7) (5) (6) V P la t e s f o cus i ng S w it ch e s G ri d C a t h o de

On/Off

V

Hz

W he n t he c u r re nt pa s s i ng t h r o ug h t he he a t e r t he n f i la m e nt w i l l be he a t e d , w h ic h g iv e s he a t t o t h e c a t ho de a s t h e re s u lt o f w h ic h e le c t r o ns m ov e s t o t he e l e ct r on g un , w h ic h s h o rt s e le c t r o n o n a c ce l e ra t ing a n od e , a n d t he n f i na l ly by p a s s i ng t h ro ug h t h e p la t e s o ut c a m e is d is p la ce d o n t h e s c re e n Th is os c i l l os c o pe w o rk s o n 6. 3 v ol t s . C oa t i ng o n ca t h o de is p r ov i de d d ue t o p rot e ct i o n. 42

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

RE CO RD ERS Re c o r de rs a re de v i ce s , w hi c h a re us e d t o s t o re s om e da t a o r re s u lt s , in s u ch a w a y t ha t t h os e c a n be us e d a t t he t i m e w h e n ne e d a r is e s . Re c o r de rs

G ra p hi ca l R e c o r de rs

M a g ne t i c Ta pe Re c o rd e rs

P e n & I nk Re c o r de rs

I m p a ct T he rm a l P r i nt i ng W r it ing R e c o rd e rs Re c o r de rs

O pt ic a l XY Re c or de rs R e a de rs

UV R e c o r de r

G r a p h ic a l R ec o r d e r s Th e s e t y pe s o f re c o r de rs p r ov id e s r e la t i v e ly che a p a n d e a s y w a y o f r e c o r di ng d a t a o r re s u lt p e r m a ne nt ly i n g ra ph i ca l f o rm . P en a n d In k R ec o r d e r s : Th e s e t y pe s o f r e c o r de rs h a v e i nk p e ns , a n d re c o r d i ng is ob t a i ne d by m ov ing o f pa pe r , e it he r v e r t i ca l ly o r ho r iz o nt a l ly . Im p a c t P r in t in g Re c o r d er s : I n t he s e t y pe of r e c o r de rs a p oi nt e r is us e d , by a pp ly i ng p re s s u r e on it , on t he ca r bo n pa pe r. Re co r ds a r e t a k e n, l ik e is ca s e of re c i p r oc a t i ng a re c om pr e s s o r g ra p h o f cy cl e is t a k e n i n a b ov e s t a t e d w a y . T h er m a l Wr i ti n g R ec o r d er s : I n t he s e t y pe s o f re c o r de rs , t he rm a l p a p e rs a re us e d , w h ic h c ha rg e s t he i r c o l or by t h e a pp l i ca t i o n o f he a t . O p t ic a l R ec o r d er s : T he s e t y pe s o f re co r de rs a s c pp f i be r o pt i ca l de v i ce s , w h ic h d ir e ct ly f o cus lig ht o n s e ns it iv e pa pe rs . T he s e d e v ice s a re s i m i la r t o t h e os c i l l o s co pe w it h s m a l l m o di f i ca t i on . X Y Re c o r d er s : Th e s e a re re c o r de rs , w h ic h r e c o rds re a d i ng s i f t w o v a r ia b le on a g ra p h pa pe r. O ne qu a n t it y w i l l be d r a w n o n x - a x is a n d ot h e r is on y -a x is .

43

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST U V Re c o r d er s : I n t he s e r e c o rd e rs ul t r a v i o le t r a y s a re t h r ow n t o t h e s pe c i a l p a pe rs , w h ic h a re c oa t e d by s om e c he m i ca l by pa s s i ng t h r o ug h t he b o dy ( o bj e ct ). A s re s u lt of w h ic h im p re s s i ons a re t a k e s on pa pe r. M a g n e t ic R ec o r d e r s I n t he s e t y pe s o f r e c o r de rs , d a t a is s t o re d in e l e ct r o -m a g ne t i c t a p e s , w h i c h a re co a t e d w it h m a g n e t ic m a t e r ia l l ik e fl o p p ie s , a u d i o ca s s e t t e s .

Temperature and Heat
T em p er a tu r e Th e d e g r e e of h ot ne s s o f bo dy is c a l le d t e m p e ra t u re . Te m pe ra t u re is t he m e a s u re o f v i br a t i on of m o le c u le s o f s u bs t a n ce . H ea t I t is t h e f o rm o f e ne rg y c a us e d du e t o t e m p e r a t u re d i ff e re nce . H ea t U n i ts J o u le Calori 4. 2J = 1 ca l o ri T em p er a tu r e U n i t s C F 0 R 0 K 0 K 0 R 0 C 0 F
0 0

= = = =

273 0C 4 6 0+ F 5 /9 (F - 32 ) 9 / 5 c + 32

F o r m s o f H ea t F l o w Th e re a re t h re e f o rm s o f he a t f l ow . 1. C o nd uc t io n 2. C o nv e c t i o n 3. Ra di a t i on Co n d u c t io n : I n t h is t y pe he a t f l ow s fr o m c on d uct o r t o a n ot he r c o n du ct o r, w h e n t he y bo t h b ro ug ht i n c o nt a ct on e t h i ng n ot e t ha t co n du ct o rs a re in s o l id fo r m o f m a t t e r. Co n v ec t io n : W he n l i q u ids o r g a s e s a r e us e d t o t ra ns fe r h e a t , t he n t he p ro ce s s is ca l le d c onv e ct i o n e . g i n s t e a m t u r b i ne bo i l e r w a t e r t u be s a n d g a s t u be s a r e us e d. 44

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Ra d ia t io n : I n t h is f o rm he a t is t r a ns fe r re d i n t he f o rm o f r a y s t h ro ug h v a c uu m li k e t he s un ra y . La t en t H ea t : I t is a m o u nt o f he a t r e q u i re d t o m e lt u n it m a s s o f s u bs t a nc e o r t o c ha ng e li q u i d i nt o s o l id. A n ot he r w o r ds , he a t w hi c h is a bs o rb e d by s o l i d d u ri ng m e l t i ng or g iv e n ou t by l iq u i d o n s o l i d if i ca t i o n is ca l le d l a t e nt h e a t . Im p o r ta n c e o f T em p er a tu r e I m p o rt a nc e o f t e m pe r a t u r e ca n b e s t a t e d i n f o l l ow ing p oi nt s . y y y y Te m pe r a t u r e is m a j o r fa ct , b e h i n d t he t h re e ph a s e o f m a t t e r. A s t e m pe ra t u re is p r op e r t y o f m a t t e r , h ig hly us e d i n c he m ica l re a ct i o ns . I n a l l he a t t r e a t m e nt p r oc e s s e s o f m e t a l , t e m pe ra t u re p la y s m a j o r r o le . Te m pe r a t u r e ha s d ir e ct e f fe ct o n a t m os ph e r e .

Ca lo r if ic V a lu e I t is a m o u nt of he a t , p os s e s s e s by a s ou r ce l ik e , co a l , o i l , b io m a s s e t c. I t s un it is k ca l /k g .

45

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

46

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

Temperature Measurement
Temperature Measurement Devices

No n - E le c t r i c Th e rm a l Ex p a ns i o n B a s e d

E le c t r i c E. M . F . Ba s e d

L iq u i d G l a s s T he rm om e t e r ( - 20 0t o 15 0 0) T he rm o C ou p le B im e t a l l ic Th e rm om e t e r( - 5t o1 5 0 0) Th e r m o P i l e s P re s s u r e /M e t a l Th e r m om e t e r ( -4 0 t o 5 6 0) Th e r m is t or R e s is t a nc e T he rm om e t e r Liq u i d G la s s T h er m o m e te r Th is t y pe o f t he rm om e t e r ha s t h in c a p a ci t y t u be w h ic h is f i l le d w i t h li q u id. Wh e n w e pu t t he t he r m o m e t e r i n c on t a ct t o t he qu a nt it y , w h os e t e m p is t o m e a s u re d , t he n s e ns o r g iv e s he a t t o t h e l iq u i d, a s t he re s u lt of w h i ch li q u id r a is e s in t h e t ub e , a n d t h ro ug h ca l i b ra t e d s c a le m e a s u r e m e nt ca n t a k e n. Li q u ids us e d i n t h is t y p e o f t he r m o m e t e r m a y be m e r cu ry o r a l c oh o l o r s p r it . I n ra ng e ca v it y m e t a l is s t o re d , t ha t w i l l be ra is e d w h e n h e a t is g iv e n t o t he s e ns o r. A n d t h e f un ct i o n o f t h e e x pa ns i o n c a v it y is t o p r ot e ct t he t he rm om e t e r , w he n t e m p e ra t u re in c re a s e s t o it s m a x i m u m de s ig n e d l im it . Bim e ta l l ic T h er m o m e te r Th e p ri n c ip le o f b im e t a l l ic is c om m on ly k n ow n i n c o n ne ct i on w it h it s us e i n t he rm os t a t s . I t is ba s e on t h e f a c t t ha t i f t w o s t r i ps of d i ff e re nt m e t a ls a r e b on de d t og e t he r , a ny t e m pe ra t u re ch a ng e w i l l ca us e t he s t r ip t o b e n d , a s t h is is t h e on ly w a y in w hi c h t he d i ff e r i ng ra t e s o f c h a ng e o f le ng t h o f e a c h m e t a l i n t he b on de d s t r i p c a n be a c c om m o da t e d. I n t he b im e t a l li c t he rm os t a t , t h is is us e d a s a s w i t ch i n co nt r o l a p p l ic a t i ons . P r es s u r e T h er m o m e t er Th e p re s s u re t he rm o m e t e r m e a s ur e s t he v a r ia t i o n in p re s s ur e o f a g a s , w h ic h is f il l e d i ns i de a bu l b o f fi x e d v ol u m e , a s t he t e m pe ra t u re c ha ng e s . T h is t y pe o f t he rm om e t e r w o rk s on B oy le s g a s la w , i. e P V = C . T he ch a ng e in p re s s ur e o f t he g a s is m e a s u re d by a B o u rd o n t ub e . T h is t ra ns du ce r is l o ca t e d re m ot e ly f r om t h e bu l b a n d c on ne ct e d t o i t by c a p i l la ry t ub e , a s s h ow n in f ig u re . M ea s u r em en t o f Ra d i u s o f G y r a t io n / C u r v a t u r e o f Bi m e ta ll ic T h er m o m e t er 47

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST W he n t h e b im e t a l l ic t he rm o m e t e r g e t s he a t , t he n it w i l l be n d i n s ha pe of cu rv e . I t s ra d ius o f c urv a t ur e ca n b e f o un d by re l a t i o n. r

_(1  m) 3 r !t 

(1  mn)( m 2  1 / mn) 6(E 2  E 1 )(T  T0 )(t  m 2 )

2

a

W he re T = t 1 + t 2 = s um of t h ic k n e s s o f t w o s t r i ps m = t 1 /t 2 = ra t i o of t h ic k n e s s o f p la t e s n = E 1 / E 2 = ra t i o of m o d ul e s o f e la s t i c it y E 1 = L a w c oe f f ic ie nt of e x pa ns i on E 2 = Hig h c oe f f ic ie nt of e x p a ns i o n T o = I n it ia l t e m p e ra t u re T = F i na l t e m p e ra t u re Note: 1 f o r l ow c oe f f ic ie nt of e x p a n s i on a n d r e la t e d q ua l it i e s .

Ex a m p l e: A bi m e t a l l i c s t r i ps c ons is t e d of y e l l ow b ra s s ha v i n g E = 9 6. 5G N / m 2 a n d E = 2. 0 2x 1 0 5 , w he r e a s ot he r m a t e r ia l i nv o lv e h a v i ng E = 14 7 G N /m 2 a n d E = 1. 7x 1 0 - 6 , b e n de d t og e t he r a t 3 5 0 C , e a ch ha v ing t h ick ne s s 0. 2m m . Ca l c ul a t e ra d ius of c u rv a t u re w he n s t r i p is s u b j e c t e d t o 15 0 0 C . D a ta : E 2 = 96. 5G N /m 2 E 2 = 2. 02x 1 0 - 5 E 1 = 14 7 G N/ m 2 E 1 = 1. 7x 1 0 - 6 To = 35 0C t 1 = t 2 = 0. 2 m m t = t 1 + t 2 = 0. 2 + 0. 2 = 0. 4 m m T = 150 0C r = ? S o lu t io n : He re m !
t1 0.0 ! !1 t 2 0.2

48

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST And n !
E1 147 ! ! 1.523 E 2 96.5 A s w e k n ow t ha t ra d ius of g y ra t i o n 3(1  m) 2  (1  mn)( m 2  1 / mn) r !t 6(E 2  E 1 )(T  T0 )(t  m 2 )

_

a a

r ! 0.4 r = 

(1  1x1.523)(1  1 / 1.523x1) 6(2.02 x10  5 )(1.7 x10  6 )(150  35)(1  1) m m A ns w e r.

3 _(1  1)

2

E.M.F Based Temperature Transducers:
T h er m o c o u p l es Th e rm oe le ct r ic e ffe ct i ns t r um e nt s r e ly on t he p hy s ica l p r i nc i p le s t h a t , w he n a ny t w o d if fe re nt m e t a ls a r e c o nne ct e d t og e t he r a n e . m . f is a fu n ct i on o f t h e t e m pe r a t u re , is g e ne ra t e d a t t h e j u n ct io n be t w e e n t he m e t a ls . W he n t he d i ff e r e n t m e t a ls w e re c on ne ct e d e n d t o e nd , t h e n it is ca l le d t he rm o co u p le . T he rm o co u p le s a r e v e ry im p o rt a nt c la s s o f de v ic e a s t h e y pr ov i de t he m os t c om m o n ly us e d m e t h o d of m e a s ur i ng t e m pe ra t u re s in in d us t ry . T he y a re m a n u fa ct ur e d f r om t he c o m b i na t i o n o f di f fe re nt m e t a ls l ik e co p pe r / ir o n , c h r om e l / co ns t a nt a n p l a t in um a nd un d ul a t i on e t c. I t s t e m pe ra t u re ra ng e is 6 0 0 0C t o 2 3 00 0C a n d t h i ck ne s s o f w i re s v a ry f r om 0. 4 t o 2m m d ia .

S e ns o r

Ty pe Ty pe Ty pe Ty pe Ty pe

E J K N T

C h ro m e l - c ons t a nt a n I r on co ns t a nt a n C h ro m e l a l um e l N ic r os i l N is t i l C o pp e r co ns t a nt a n 49

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

T h er m o p i l e Th e rm op i le is a de v ic e w h ic h c o ns is t s of s e v e r a l t he rm o co u p le s c on ne ct e d t o g e t he r i n s e r ie s , s o t h a t a re r e f e r e n ce j u nct i o ns a r e a t t h e s a m e co l d t e m pe ra t u re a nd a l l ho t j u n ct io ns a re e x p os e d t o t he t e m pe ra t u re be ing m e a s u re d, a s s h ow n i n f ig u re .

Th e m e t a ls w i re of t he r m o p i le a r e 0. 2 t o 0. 3 5m m t h i ck . By c on ne ct i ng n t he rm o co u p le t og e t he r , s e ns it iv it y o f i ns t ru m e nt is in c re a s e d. A t y p ica l t he r m o p i le m a n u fa ct ur e d by c o nn e ct i ng t og e t h e r 2 5 c h ro m e l c o ns t a nt a n t he rm oc o u pl e s g iv e s a m e a s u re m e nt re s o l ut io n of 0. 0 0 1 0 C T h er m is to r s Th e rm is t o rs a r e m a n u fa ct ur e d fr o m be a ds o f s e m i co n du ct o r m a t e r ia l pr e p a re d f ro m ox id e s o f t he ir o n g r o up of m e t a ls s u c h a s ch r om i um , c o ba lt , i r o n, m a ng a n e s e a n d n ick e l. T his i ns t ru m e nt e x hi b it s a l a rg e ne g a t iv e t e m pe ra t u re i. e . re s is t a n ce de cr e a s e s a s t he t e m p e r a t ur e i nc re a s e s , a n d it is t he d i ff e re n ce b e t w e e n r e s i s t a n ce t he rm om e t e r , w h i c h s h ow s p os it iv e t e m pe ra t u re .

Th e m a j o r a dv a nt a g e s o f T he rm is t o rs a re t h e ir r e la t iv e ly l ow c os t a nd t h e ir s m a l l s iz e . T he i r t e m pe ra t u re ra ng e is a b o ut 1 00 0 0 ; t o 4 5 00 0 ; Re s i s ta n c e T h er m o m et er Re s is t a nc e t he r m o m e t e rs re ly o n t he p r in c i pl e t ha t t he re s is t a nc e o f a m e t a l v a r ie s w it h t e m pe r a t u r e . M e a ns o ne is i n c re a s i ng t he n ot h e r is a ls o i n c re a s i ng .

50

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Re s is t a nc e t he rm om e t e rs a r e m a d e g e n e ra l ly f r om p lat i n um , w h ic h is e x p e ns iv e . I t s a lt e rn a t iv e s a re n ic k e d a n d co p pe r , w h ic h h a v e le s s a c cu ra cy t ha n p l a t in u m , b ut t he y a re ch e a pe r t h a n p la t i nu m .

Th e w o rk i ng r a ng e is g iv e n b e l ow : P la t in um C o pp e r N ick e l Tu ng s t e n 270 200 200 270 t o 1 00 0 to 260 to 430 t o 1 10 0 C C o C o C
o o

O p t ic a l P y r o m e te r : Th e o pt i ca l py r om e t e r is a de v i ce , w h ic h is us e d t o m e a s u re t e m p e r a t u re o f ra d ia t i o ns e m it t e d f r om s un o r a ny ot he r s ou r ce . I n o pt i ca l py r o m e t e r , ra d i a t i o ns e nt e r by pa s s ing t h r o ug h t he la n ce a n d s t r ik e s o n t h e f i la m e nt , w h ic h c ha ng e s co l o r a n d t h r o ug h e y e p ie ce o ne ca n de t e c t t he c o l o r o f f i la m e nt F i la m e n t e y e p ie ce

Ra di a t i ons

+ V a ry i ng C u r re nt Th e t e m pe ra t u re ra ng e o f o pt ic a l py ro m e t e r is 80 0 t o 13 0 0 0 C a nd 10 0 0 t o 16 0 0 0 C . Th e c ur r e nt i n t he f il a m e nt is i n cr e a s e d u nt i l it s c o l o r is t he s a m e a s t he ho t bo dy un de r t he s e c o nd it i o ns t he f i l a m e nt a p pa re nt ly is a p pe a rs w h e n v e i ne d a g a in s t t h e ba ck g ro u nd o f t he ho t b o dy . Te m pe ra t u re m e a s u r e m e nt is t he re f o re obt a in e d t e r m s of t he cu r re nt f l ow i ng i n t he f i la m e nt . Th is i ns t r um e nt c a n n ot be us e d i n a u t om a t ic t e m pe r a t u r e c o nt r ol , b e c a us e e y e of hu m a n o pe ra t o r is e s s e nt ia l p a rt o f t he m e a s ur e m e nt s y s t e m . Ra d ia t io n P y r o m et er s 51

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST Ra di a t i on py ro m e t e r ha s a n o pt i ca l s y s t e m w h i ch is s im i la r t o t h a t o f t he o pt ic a l py ro m e t e r. I n t h is ins t r um e n t r a d i a t i o ns a re f o cus e d o n a p o in t , w he re t he rm o co u p le is f ix e d by t h e a p p l ic a t i on o f c on ca v e l a n ce . Th e s e ra d ia t i o n s a re e m it t e d by t he b la ck bo dy . A ls o in r a d i a t i o n py r om e t e r e y e p ie ce is t he re , w h ic h is us e d t o v ie w t he c o l o r o f t h e rm oc o up l e . A bs o rb i ng F i lt e r F i l a m e nt R e d F i lt e r S o u rc e e y e p i e ce

F o cus i ng l a nce Rh e os t a t G a lv a n o m e t e r I n a ra d ia t i on py r om e t e r t he r e is ra d ia t i on de t e ct o r , w h ic h m e a s u re s t he t e m p e ra t u re ra is e d i n a b l a ck b ody a t t he fo ca l po i nt of t he opt i ca l s y s t e m . Th e s e de t e ct o rs a re e it he r t h e r m o de t e ct o r s or ph ot o n de t e ct o rs , d e p e n d i ng up on t he a p p l ica t i o ns . 8 00 0 C 1 30 0 0 C 1 00 0 0 C 1 60 0 0 C Bla c k Bo d y He a t is n o rm a lly t ra ns f e rr e d by a co m b i na t i o n of c o nd u ct io n c onv e ct i o n a n d ra d ia t i o n. A b o dy w h i ch is a b le t o a bs or b a l l r a d i a t io n fa l l i n g up o n it , re f l e ct i ng a n d t ra ns m it t i ng n on e is ca l le d a b l a ck b o d y a n d t he a b il it y d e p e n ds o n co n d it io n o f it s s ur f a ce . A b la ck bo dy w i l l a bs o r b a nd l os e he a t m o re ra p i d ly t ha n a n o n- b la ck b ody un de r s im i la r c o n di t i o ns . T ra ns f e r by c o nd u ct io n re q u ir e a m a t e ri a l a lo ng w h i ch he a t ca n f lo w . B ut t r a ns f e r by co nv e ct i on re qu i re s t h e d is p l a ce m e nt of a he a t e d m a t e r i a l . A n d ra d ia t i o n re qu i re s no m e di um f or he a t t r a ns fe r.

52

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST

Bo l tz m a n La w A cc o r d ing t o S t . Bo lt z m a n , h e a t e ne rg y ra d ia t e d f ro m B la ck b o dy is

)E k
4

4

)W ( k 2  k1 )

4

W he re E = e ne rg y W = Bo lt z m a n c o ns t a nt = 5. 7x 1 0 - 8 w /k 4 m 2 k 2 = A bs o l ut e t e m pe r a t ur e o f b o dy k 1 = t e m pe ra t u re of s u rr o u nd i ng s But i n ca s e o f e m is s t iv it y
q ! Wf (k 2  k1 )
4 4

W he re q = k a t f l ow f = e m is t iv it y I n ot he r c a s e 4 4 q ! WA(T2  T1 ) W he re A = A re a o f B la ck B o dy . Ex a m p l e A s t e e l m a k i ng f u rn a c e is he a t e d t o a t e m pe ra t u re of 16 0 0 0 C , c a l c u la t e r a t e o f ra d ia l he a t l os s , t o s u r r o un d i ng t e m p e ra t u re 2 3 0 C , w he n c ha rg i ng do o r 1. 5m w ide a n d 1. 2m h ig h is o pe ne d. A s s um e fu r na ce b e h a v e s a s B la ck B o dy . D a ta : T2 T1 b h q = = = = = 16 0 0 0 C = 1 6 0 0+ 2 73 = 1 87 3 0 K 23 0 C = 2 3+ 2 73 = 2 96 0 K 1. 5m 1. 2m ? 53

Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST S o lu t io n : A s a r e a o f f u r na ce o r Bl a ck B ody . A = bx h A = 1. 5x 1. 2 A = 1. 8m 2 No w a s w e k n ow t ha t . q q q q = = = = 6A (T24 T14 ) 5. 7x 1 0 - 8 x 1. 8 x (( 1 87 3 ) 4 1 2 61 9 0 7 W 1. 2 62 M W A ns

      S tr a in

( 2 9 6) 4 )

E le ct ri ca l S t r a in

)e !

(R R )m ! (L L

R = Re s is t a n ce in w i re

M e c ha n ic a l S t ra in

L = Le ng t h o f w i re

G a ug e F a ct o r A s a c co r d ing Ho ok s la w W x ) W = E

k!

)e (RL ! )m R(L

w he re E = m od u l us o f e la s t i ci t y =
LexL A

W P/ A ! E (L / c

R!

Le = l ow re s is t a n ce v a l ue = 1 0 - 7 W 1 0 - 5

54

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