The teacher’s place in society is of vital importance. He acts as a pivot for the transmission of intellectual traditions and technical skills from generation to generation and helps to keep the lamp of civilization burning. The teachers are literally the arbiters of a nation’s destiny. He is being recognized as the most vital factoring any educational system. Upon his training, dedication and efficiency stands the whole structure of education. He is the key of quality education and the foster parent of the child. Child looks to him for knowledge, wisdom, manners morals inspiration, enlightenment and what not. A teacher performs many functions in the classroom for the comprehensive development of the students. Teacher keep the students safe, help instill in the students a deep sense of patriotism and national loyalty toward their country, decide what is important for students to learn, present a rich and organized body of information to the students, protect and improve the students’ self-esteem, provide an environment for the students to explore a variety of experiences, help students use computers and other technology-related tools to accomplish specific tasks, arrange the students’ environment to maximize the probability that they will learn what you want them to learn , make sure students are prepared for the next level of their education, make sure students learn what other people (national, state, and/or district educational professionals; parents) think is important for them to learn, love and nurture the students. According to Sharma, (2002) Teacher is vital important and acts as a leader in the classroom. A teacher demonstrates expertise in their instruction and shares that knowledge with other professionals. They frequently reflect on their work to stay on the cutting edge of what’s best for children. Teacher leaders engage in continuous action
2 research project that examine their effectiveness. Teacher leaders mentor new teachers. They are risk-takers who participate in school decisions. (p.134) According to Sidhu, (2001) institutions are the learning agencies in which teachers and students are much important for each other. Students take their teachers as role model. Student’s performance is dependent on the teacher’s way of instruction. An ideal teacher keeps in view the psyche of student and plan his/ her instruction accordingly. Principals must create the infrastructure to support teacher-leadership roles. They can transform school leadership by creating opportunities for teachers to lead; building professionallearning communities; providing quality, results- driven professional development; and celebrating innovation and teacher expertise. Celebrating innovation and teacher expertise is also important. (p.210) Bass (1990) says the understanding of leadership has figured strongly in the quest for knowledge. Napoleon has described the importance of leadership in such way that he would rather have an army of rabbits led by a lion than an army of lions led by rabbit. The massage coveys the meaning that leaders with courage and vision do make a great difference in their institutes, whereas weak leaders cannot exploit the potential of their talented students and cannot contribute something impressive for the successful teaching learning process. A successful teacher leader motivates his students in such a way that they can put their hundred percent and get the work done for the achievement of the ultimate objectives. There has evolved tremendous need for strong leadership so that it can effectively administer higher educational organizations. The teacher leaders must instill purpose in the faculty and assist in enhancing motivation. When teacher leadership behavior is being studied, it is often linked with student’s class satisfaction and their role clarity. The presence of high levels of students’ satisfaction is frequently accepted as an outcome of leadership behavior. Students feel satisfied when teacher accomplish the needs of the students. Students become active participants of teaching learning process and become
3 clear about their role, which they have to perform. Enhancing the students’ satisfaction and role clarity is a major challenge for the educational leaders. Instructional process is not limited to only one style. A teacher leadership style identifies those factors, which leads to increased class satisfaction. The teacher uses different styles to lead the class. For the comprehensive development of the students, teacher uses different leadership styles. As far the knowledge of the researcher is concerned, no such effort in Pakistan has been made for exploring the relationship among teacher leadership style and students’ class satisfaction and role clarity. This study intends to find out the effect of different leadership styles on the student’s satisfaction and on their role clarity at the University level.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study was intended to find out the effect of teacher leadership style on class satisfaction and also explore the relationship between teacher leadership style and role clarity of students at university level.
1.3 Significance of the Study
It is worth studying topic. It would be fruitful for the teachers as well as for students. This study is significant as the results of this study would be applicable to the advancement of the concept of teacher leadership and effect of different styles on the student’s performance. This study would provide additional information for understanding the teacher leadership. This study has significance for higher education administrative practices. The results obtained from this study would provide information to administrators based on research to assist them in their administrative responsibilities. It is knowledgeable for the teachers, they should learn as much as possible about leadership research so as to determine leadership styles best suited to their own personality, knowledge and situations affecting their roles.
4 The results would provide valuable information to teachers especially they would be able to obtain information about what is leadership and what leadership styles they use in the classroom how each leadership behavior affects students satisfaction and their role clarity. Teachers will understand what are the student’s needs and which leadership style best satisfies their needs Student become clear about their duties in the classroom and how can actively participate in classroom activities.
1.4Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were: 1. To find out the leadership styles of university teachers. 2. To find out the relationship between teacher leadership style and class satisfaction. 3. To find out the relationship between teacher leadership style and students role clarity. 4. To find out the relationship between class satisfaction and role clarity. 5. To find out the effect of gender on students satisfaction and role clarity. 6. To find out the effect of experience and qualification on students satisfaction and role clarity.
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
Following were the hypotheses of the study: Ho1 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and students satisfaction. Ho2 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style and students satisfaction. Ho3 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and students role clarity. Ho4 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style and students role clarity. Ho5 There is no significant difference between male teacher initiating leadership style and female teacher initiating leadership style. Ho6 There is no significant relationship between male teacher considerating leadership style and female considerating leadership style. Ho7 There is no significant relationship between male student satisfaction level and female student satisfaction level. Ho8 There is no significant relationship between male student role clarity and female student role clarity
1.6 Delimitations of Study
This study was delimited to: • University of Sargodha and postgraduate classes only.
1.7 Operational Definitions
Teacher It involves the lecturers, Assistant Professors, Associate Professors and Professors rendering their services in University of Sargodha. Leadership Leadership is a process that takes place in groups in which one member influences and controls the behavior of the other members toward some common goal. Class Satisfaction It is an attitude towards the working conditions, atmosphere of the class, interaction with teacher and students. It is a feeling that how much students are satisfied about their performance in the class and about teachers’ way of teaching. Role Clarity It includes the degree of certainty a student has about his work. Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior. Initiating Leadership Style Leaders can be influential as task-oriented leaders establishing well-defined patterns of organization, channels of communication, and ways of getting tasks accomplished.
7 Considerating Leadership Style It is also called relationship-oriented leader, leads by maintaining personal relationships with students by opening up communication, providing emotional support and using facilitating behaviors.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between teacher leadership style and students role clarity and class satisfaction. In the review of related ligature the concept of leadership, leadership theories and different aspects of teacher leadership would be discussed.
Fullan, (1998) says, “Leadership is an essential element of parish life, which calls forth gifts of visioning, planning, empowering, and evaluating for the service of the community.” Weihrich & koontz (1997) says the ability to lead, including inspiring others in a shared vision. Leaders have clear visions and they communicate these visions to their employees. They foster an environment within their companies that encourages risk taking, recognition and rewards, and empowerment allowing other leaders to emerge. (p.340) A leader is one who conducts, precedes as a guide to others in action or opinion, one who takes the lead in any enterprise or movement, one who is ‘followed’ by disciples or adherents, the most eminent member of a profession, a person of eminent position and influence, the first person in a file, one in the front rank. "Can the blind lead the blind? Shall they not both fall into the ditch?
2.1.1 Concept of Leadership
Clark, (1997) says leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain
9 tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around. Bass' (1990) states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are: • • Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory. • People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers.
2.1.2 Factors of leadership
Clark, (1997) says there are four major factors in leadership: • Follower Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. 9
10 You must know your people. The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must become to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes. • Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader who determines if a leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. • Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you set the example at communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. • Situation All are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective.
2.2 Theories of Leadership
Decker, (2002) says there is eight basic types of leadership theories, which can be distinguished based upon the question they are designed to answer:
2.2.1. Great Man or trait theories of leadership address the specific question
"What is a leader?" These theories answer the question by specifying or identifying traits, characteristics, abilities, behavioral patterns, or skills that leaders have or demonstrate. If a definition is offered by a trait theorist, it normally begins "a leader" and follows with a list of traits (is a servant, is charismatic, is ethical, takes initiative, shows excellence, is goal-oriented, is inspiring, is good at communicating, has positive self-regard, is empowering, etc
2.2.2. Management (Supervision) theories of leadership address the specific
question "How do leaders get people to do what they want them to do?" These theories are concerned primarily with organizational or group performance. This type of theory (transactional leadership, transformational leadership, democratic leadership, path-goal, etc.) tends to dominate leadership thought, and discussions of "different" theories are usually limited to this type. The essential problem for these theories is the problem of exploitation. Marx substantiated that capitalism can only work if workers are paid less than they are worth. If they are paid according to their worth, there is no profit for owners. Management theorists undertake two important missions: (1) to justify the superiority of the leader, and (2) to get people to accept their role in the economy by inspiration, coercion, exchange of valued things, conformance, etc and thereby accept their subsequent exploitation.
2.2.3. Relationship theories answer the question by defining leadership as a
relationship among people with mutual wants and needs who are striving for mutual goals (no one goes to work to make someone else rich).
2.2.4. Process theories answer the question by defining leadership as a process of
dynamic interaction among people with varying ethics who align themselves to solve specific social problems or to generate general evolutionary social change. This process is understood as dissipative and not controllable by the leader. In these theories, the leader is more of a symbol of what everyone wants rather than a producer of outcomes. The fundamental problem for leadership studies is distinguishing leadership from management, supervision, statesmanship, and command. All of these words represent concepts that are different, but often labeled "leadership".
2.2.5 Participative leadership theories recommend leadership styles that involve
other people in the leadership process. These theories do suggest, however, that a leader retains the right to give or deny any subordinate a say in the leadership process.
2.2.6 Situational leadership theories suggest that leadership is specific to the
situation in which it is being exercised. These theories (normative model, action-centered leadership model, leadership continuum, Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership model, path-goal theory, etc.) suggest that there may be different styles of leadership required at different levels in the same organization.
2.2.7 Contingency theories refine the situational viewpoint by focusing on
identifying the situational variables that determine the most appropriate style of leadership to fit the particular circumstances.
2.3 Teacher Leadership
Allah Almighty has sent approximately 124,000 Prophets for the guidance and leadership of the human beings. Holy Prophet (SAW) has displayed the best leadership style, according to the guideline laid by the Creator of this whole system in the Holy Quran, Allah Almighty has paved the way for building leadership; the only criterion is “ Taqwa”. (Arshad, 1999) Principals play a key role in developing teacher leadership. To identify, develop, and support teacher leaders in their schools, principals should define teacher leadership, encourage teachers to become leaders, help teachers develop leadership skills, and provide positive and limited constructive feedback. Schools run by committees of teachers, without an administrator in sight. Wynn (2001) says most of the researchers involved in exploring the concept of teachers as leaders agree that it is distinctly different from administrative or managerial concepts of leadership. Various studies indicate that effective teacher leadership involves a move away from top-down, hierarchical modes of functioning and a move toward shared decision-making, teamwork, and community building. The majority seem to agree that teacher leaders: • • • • • • • Demonstrate expertise in their instruction and share that knowledge with other professionals, Are consistently on a professional learning curve, Frequently reflect on their work to stay on the cutting edge of what's best for children, Engage in continuous action research projects that examine their effectiveness, Collaborate with their peers, parents, and communities, engaging them in dialogues of open inquiry, action, assessment models of change, Become socially conscious and politically involved, Mentor new teachers,
14 • • Become more involved at universities in the preparation of pre-service teachers, and Are risk-takers who participate in school decisions?
In addition, several studies indicate that one of the most significant developmental skills is for teachers to become active researchers in their classrooms and schools. For all of these qualities to be sustained, however, many argue that a shift in governance needs to take hold, embracing the idea of teachers as equal partners in leadership. Researchers insist that teachers are too often left out of the loop of leadership in their schools and if given leadership roles, lack the skills that will make them successful as leaders.
2.3.1 Leadership Roles for Teachers
David, (2001) says there have long been formal leadership roles for teachers as department chairs, team leaders, and a variety of other positions, but titles are less important than actually functioning as effective change-agents. Teachers exhibit leadership by: • • • • • • • • • • Participating in professional teacher organizations, including holding positions of influence. Making student and adult learning the priority. Setting high expectations for performance. Gearing content and instruction to standards. Creating a culture of continuous learning for adults. Using multiple sources of data to assess learning. Activating the community's support for school success. Taking part in school decisions, including working on teams with administrators to plan school improvements. Defining what students need to know and be able to do, including developing standards for curriculum and assessments. Sharing ideas with colleagues, including leading professional development programs for colleagues. 14
15 • • • • • • • Being a mentor to new teachers. Helping to make personnel decisions, including the hiring of new teachers and administrators Improving facilities and technology. Working with parents, including the development of better links between schools and homes. Creating partnerships with colleges and universities to prepare future teachers. Becoming leaders in the community. Leading efforts to make teachers more visible and communicate positive information.
Lipman, (1998) describes the teacher leader in following way:
Speaking out and taking stand is one thing, but keeping an open ear is essential. Don’t assume what students want. Go out and ask all types of students for feedback, not just prominent students of the class.
If teachers are passionate about the job issues, the enthusiasm will radiate to the students. A positive attitude and optimism will also go a long way to make the task both fun and effective.
Goals are important, but providing a comprehensive plan of action that explains how to reach those goals is even more so. Be creative and take risks in order to find new ways of accomplishing those goals.
Students should be able to trust a teacher leader to operate ethically and with their best interests at heart. Fulfilling campaign promises and goals in vital in maintaining student loyalty and confidence.
Teacher should have a good understanding of the dynamics of student, how the university operates and as much about different student organizations as possible. A teacher leader should also lead by example in the classroom. If you are too busy with student and neglected your studies, how can you be a representative of the students, who are here to work toward a degree?
The motivation to hold office should not be for an impressive resume or to satisfy the urge for attention, it should be about getting something positive done. There are true teacher leaders, and then there are people who grab a leadership position as a stepping stone in a their career.
2.5 Teacher Leadership Attributes
Clark, (1997) says if you are a teacher leader who can be trusted, then those around you will grow to respect you. To be such a teacher leader, there is a Leadership framework to guide you. A teacher should have the attributes of be, know and do. A leader be a professional. (e.g. be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, and take personal responsibility) be a professional who possess good character traits. (e.g. honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination). A leader should know the four factors of leadership (follower, leader, communication, and situation) know you. (e.g. strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills) know human nature.(e.g. human needs, emotions, and how students respond to
17 stress) know your job.(e.g. be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks) know your institution. (e.g. where to go for help, its climate and culture) A leader to do provide direction. (e.g. goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning) do implement. (e.g. communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating) do motivate. (e.g. develop moral and spirit in the institution, train, coach, and counsel.) Good and Brophy (1995) have identified some general attributes of teachers that contribute to their success in socializing students. These attributes include: Social attractiveness, based on a cheerful disposition, friendliness, emotional maturity, sincerity, and other qualities that indicate good mental health and personal adjustment. Ego strength, exhibited in self-confidence that allows teachers to be calm in a crisis, listen actively without being defensive, avoid win-lose conflicts, and maintain a problemsolving orientation. Realistic perception of self and students, without letting perceptions become clouded by romanticism, guilt, hostility, or anxiety. Enjoyment of students, while maintaining their identity as an adult, a teacher, and an authority figure; being friendly but not overly familiar; and being comfortable with the group without becoming a group member. Clarity about teacher’s role and comfort in playing them, which enables teachers to explain coherently to students what they expect. Patience and determination in working with students who persist in testing limits. Acceptance of individual, though not necessarily of all of his or her behavior, and making this attitude clear to students and The ability to state and act on firm but flexible limits. Based on clear expectations, keeping rules to a minimum and liberalizing them as students become more independent and responsible over time.
18 Developing these personal qualities and using research-based principles for managing the classroom will set the stage for student socialization and will go a long way toward minimizing the need for disciplinary interventions.
2.6 Teacher Leaders and Positive Learning Climate
Larry, (1998) says that learning climate is a concept that is easy to recognize but difficult to define. Some definitions emphasize "setting high expectations" while others highlight "friendliness" or "organizational personality." All seem to agree, however, that the principal is the key. Discussions of climate have often focused on individual administrator initiatives: minimizing outside intrusions into classroom time, roaming the hallways to greet students personally, dispensing rewards for achievement. The move toward collaboration reveals a much more complex process. Sergiovanni, whose concept of "community" encompasses most of the dimensions of climate, identifies relationships as the linchpin. In a true school community, relationships are based on shared values rather than bureaucratic roles, resulting in "individuals who care, listen, understand, respect others and are honest, open and sensitive." He concedes that principals may need to begin by using bureaucratic authority but must ultimately build relationships based on professional and moral authority.
2.7 Leadership Styles in Teaching Learning Process
According to John,. & Davis, (1993) teacher leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Principals and other teacher leaders employ a wide variety of leadership styles in their work, e.g., autocratic, democratic, participatory, laissez-faire (hands off), etc. Each technique has its own set of good and not-so-good characteristics, and each uses leadership in a different way. Although good leaders use all styles, with one of them normally dominate, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. It is also context and situation that determines which style or combination of styles might be appropriate at any given time.
Autocrat Democrat Laissez-Faire
2.7.1 The Autocrat
The autocratic instructional leader dominates members, using unilateralism to achieve a singular objective. The autocrat has little confidence in his subordinates and distrusts them. He makes most of the decisions and passes them down the line. He makes threats where necessary to ensure that his orders are obeyed. This approach to leadership generally results in passive resistance from team-members and requires continual pressure and direction from the leader in order to get things done. Generally, an authoritarian approach is not a good way to get the best performance from students. There are, however, some instances where an autocratic style of leadership may not be inappropriate. Some situations may call for urgent action, and in these cases an autocratic style of leadership may be best. In addition, most people are familiar with autocratic leadership and therefore have less trouble adopting that style.
22.214.171.124 The benevolent autocrat
The benevolent autocrat sees himself as a superior father figure who makes all the important decisions and then convinces his subordinates to go along with them. He may allow some decisions to be made by some subordinates within a framework set by him. Rewards as well as punishments may be used to 'motivate' people.
2.7.2 The Democrat
This type of style involves the teacher leader including one or more students in on the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness; rather it is a sign of strength that your students will respect. This is normally used when teacher have part of the information, and his students have other parts. Note that a teacher leader is not expected to know everything; this is why teacher takes his students knowledgeable and skillful. Using this style is of mutual benefit it allows them to become part of the team and allows teacher to make better decisions.
126.96.36.199 The consultative democrat
The consultative democrat has confidence and trusts in most people and communicates and consults widely with his students. Before making decisions he will seek the views of his pupil, but he or she will have the final say.
188.8.131.52 The participatory democrat
The participatory democrat has complete confidence and trust in his pupil. When a major problem arises or decision has to be made, all the relevant actors are called together to discuss the issues and the majority view is taken as the final decision.
2.7.3 The Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
The Laissez-Faire teacher leader exercises little control over his group, leaving them to sort out their roles and tackle their work, without participating in this process himself. In general, this approach leaves the students floundering with little direction or motivation. There are situations where the Laissez-Faire approach can be effective. The Laissez-Faire technique is usually only appropriate when leading highly motivated and skilled students, who have produced excellent work in the past. Once a teacher leader has established that his students are confident, capable and motivated, it is often best to step back and let them get on with the task, since interfering can generate resentment and detract from their effectiveness. By handing over ownership, a teacher leader can empower his students to achieve their goals.
2.7.4 Initiating Leadership Style or Directive Behavior (Task orientation)
Initiating structure is defined, as the degree to which a leader defines and organizes his role and the roles of students, is oriented toward goal attainment, and establishes welldefined patterns and channels of communication.
22 Leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce. This reflects how much a leader is concerned with the actual task at hand and ensuring that those following him complete it. (Schriesheim, 1982) Some behaviors of leaders who are strong in initiating structure style include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Letting students know what is expected of them Encouraging the use of uniform procedures Trying out ideas in the class Making his/her attitudes clear to the class members Deciding what shall be done and how it shall be done Assigning particular tasks to class members Scheduling the work to be done Maintaining definite standards of performance
9. Asking that class members follow standard rules and regulations 2.7.5
Considerating Leadership Style or Supportive Behavior. (Students orientation) Consideration is defined as the degree to which a teacher leader
shows concern and respect for students, looks out for their welfare, and expresses appreciation and support. Leaders are concerned about the human needs of their students. They build teamwork, help students with their problems, and provide psychological support. This reflects how much a leader is concerned for the people around him, providing support and encouragement for them. (Schriesheim, , 1982)
Some behaviors of teacher leaders who are strong in consideration style include:
23 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Being friendly and approachable Putting suggestions made by the students into operation Treating all students as his/her equal Giving advanced notice of changes Making him/herself accessible to students Looking out for the personal welfare of students Willingness to make changes Explaining actions Consulting the pupil when making changes
There is evidence that teachers who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job (Schriesheim, 1982). Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on opposite ends of a continuum. For example, a teacher leader who becomes more considerate does not necessarily mean that she has become less structured.
2.8 Teacher Leaders and Student Academic Performances
According to Wynne, (2001) the ultimate measure of the contributions of teacher leaders, proponents suggest is the impact of teacher leaders on student academic performance. Many scholars assume that the one causes the other (Lieberman, 1992). Nevertheless, a study by Leithwood and Jantzi in 1999 indicates that while a multitude of qualitative studies suggest the efficacy of teachers as leaders, few quantitative studies have tested this notion. The studies that have tested it found no conclusive evidence to support any positive correlation between student achievement and teacher leadership. Leithwood's
24 study, involving a sample of 1,762 teachers and 9,941 students in a large Canadian School district, not only found no impact of teacher leadership on raising student achievement, but also hypothesized that by trying to combine leadership with teaching, teaching is devalued. Other research suggests that the bureaucracy of schools and systems, as well as the attitudes of educational policy makers, stifle the possibilities for teacher leaders to be effective as change agents. Barriers such as too little time during the work day for reflection, rigid school schedules, unrelated instructional tasks, jealousies and/or lack of support from peer teachers and administrators, and overemphasis on state mandated highstakes testing hamper the effectiveness of many teachers who, while teaching, step beyond their classrooms to lead. All of these barriers leave too many teachers feeling powerless. However, despite these impediments, most school reform studies continue to advocate for teacher empowerment, shared governance, collegial collaboration, professional development, and more time for reflection. They see TL qualities as necessary elements for redesigning schools for success.
2.9 Teacher Leadership and Students Motivation
According to Katzenmeyer, (1996) here is a few other steps school leaders can take to improve student motivation at the school level: Analyze the ways that motivation operates in your own life and develop a clear way of communicating it to teachers and students. Seek ways to demonstrate how motivation plays an important role in no educational settings, such as in sports and in the workplace. Show students that success is important. Recognize the variety of ways that students can succeed. Reward success in all its forms. Develop or participate in in-service programs that focus on motivation.
25 Involve parents in discussing the issue of motivation and give them guidance in fostering it in their children. Demonstrate through your own actions that learning is a lifelong process that can be pleasurable for its own sake. (p.31)
2.10 Leadership Development
According to David, (2001) there have been a variety of formal approaches to cultivating leadership among teachers and no one approach has emerged as the most effective in all situations. Examples of teacher leaders were found to span the spectrum from classroom teachers who demonstrate and model new techniques within their own classrooms to highly proactive "change agents" who challenge, inspire, and motivate colleagues to initiate school wide change. In their study of 354 teacher leaders participating in 15 two-year professional development programs, Nesbit, DiBiase, Miller, and Wallace (2001) analyzed evaluation reports and conducted interviews. They found three broad categories of factors to be most influential in supporting the development of leadership roles: 1. Factors related to knowledge of content and pedagogy, including learning in-depth content through hands-on activities, learning instructional strategies, and learning about curriculum resources. 2. Factors related to the modes of professional development, from receiving curriculum materials to observing teaching and leadership techniques, receiving ongoing support from a professional development staff, and analyzing a school's strengths and weaknesses. 3. Factors related to the development of leadership skills, both through learning about leadership skills (i.e. presentation skills, team-building skills) and concepts (i.e. the change process, adult development), and through planning and practicing leadership
26 skills. This could include working with other teacher leaders on instruction, resolving leadership challenges, becoming familiar with school improvement plans, or role playing. The authors noted that the first two broad categories are typically addressed in professional development programs, and their importance is well supported by the literature in the field. The unique contribution of this study is the clear identification of explicit development of leadership skills as being a key component in cultivating teacher leader. There is little research identifying the essential elements of this component, however, and it is often neglected in teacher leader development programs. In stating some of the core expectations of teacher leaders, there are some dimensions for leadership skill development. Teacher leaders are expected to: • • • • • • Demonstrate exemplary classroom instruction and knowledge of effective strategies for teaching and learning. Understand theories of adult development. Demonstrate knowledge of clinical supervision models and procedures that promote effective classroom practices. Cultivate desired dispositions among teachers. Guide colleagues through reflective and inquiry-oriented techniques. Possess research-based knowledge about teaching and learning.
Teacher leaders must develop expertise in organization design, change theory, adult learning, management skills, decision-making, public relations, and handholding.
2.10.1 Components of Teacher Leadership Development
Linda, (2000) says a comprehensive teacher leadership development program can be developed around the following components: Knowledge: historical study of leaders, qualities of leaders, teacher leadership styles.
27 Skills: organization and delegation, problem solving, shared leadership, communication, futuristic thinking, decision-making, conflict resolution, goal setting, group dynamics, divergent thinking, and time management Attitudes: self-confidence as a leader, flexibility, social and moral responsibility, sensitivity to others, enthusiasm, sense of commitment Profiles of individual student strengths and weaknesses in these areas can help the teacher in refining the focus of the intervention program. Leadership training typically occurs in a group context, but gifted and talented students benefit from setting and developing individual goals related to leadership knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
It is evident that the student’s satisfaction plays important role in the teaching learning process. Satisfaction is an important factor, which can spur the teachers and students to work better, and more productive Thomson, (n.d) says the meanings of satisfaction are the contentment you feel when you have done something right, state of being gratified; great satisfaction, compensation for a wrong, act of fulfilling a desire or need or appetite. You feel satisfied when you do something successfully, or when something good happens to you. It can also be defined as following: a. Giving or feeling comfort, content. b. The fulfillment or gratification of a desire, need, or appetite. c. Pleasure or contentment derived from such gratification. d. A source or means of gratification. e. Compensation for injury or loss; reparation. f. Assurance beyond doubt or question; complete conviction. According to Oxford Dictionary, “satisfaction is the state of being content”. It is a feeling of adequacy that the students experienced through their interaction with school environment. Thus, satisfaction can be defined as the willingness to continue the learning
28 process because the personal needs and expectations are filled in school climate. Satisfied students are likely to get along better with other students, will be more committed to achieve the desired goals and in generally will be more productive. Satisfaction is the state felt by a person who has experienced a performance (or outcome) that has fulfilled his or her expectations. Satisfaction is thus a function of relative levels of expectation and perceived performance. Expectations are formed on the basis of past experiences with the same or similar situations, statements made by friends and other associates, and statements made by the supplying organization. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction is more than a reaction to the actual performance. It is influenced by prior expectations. Satisfaction has been thought of variously as a state of mind, a mental attitude, and an emotional attitude. One source defines satisfaction as the feeling a student has about his work or assignments based on how the students perceives himself and the extent to which the instructor meets the student’s needs and expectations. When a healthy school environment exists and student’s satisfaction is high, students feel good about each other and, at the same time, feel a sense of accomplishment from their jobs.
2.11.1 Factors Affect on Students Satisfaction
According to Lumsden, (1998) as noted above, a healthy school environment and high student’s satisfaction tend to be related. A teacher’s ability to create a positive school climate and culture can affect student’s satisfaction. As Adams (1992) states, "Teachers, who control many of the contingencies in the work environment and are the source of much reinforcement for teaching behavior, are the keys to improving the satisfaction and self-esteem of students." A recent report on class satisfaction among American students identified "more administrative support and leadership, good student behavior, a positive school atmosphere, and students autonomy" as working conditions associated with higher students satisfaction. Favorable workplace conditions were positively related to student’s satisfaction regardless of whether a public or private school student, an elementary or 28
29 secondary school student, and regardless of students’ background characteristics or school demographics. The study also found that students in any school setting who receive a great deal of parental support are more satisfied than students who do not. Teachers' attitudes and the pedagogical skills also affect on student’s satisfaction. In the teaching learning process it is clearly identified teachers are the primary and central factor that has an impact on the student’s enthusiasm and discouragement and satisfaction. Stress also affects on students. It can result in emotional and physical fatigue and a reduction in work motivation, involvement, and satisfaction. Feeling overly stressed can result in erosion of one's idealism, sense of purpose, and enthusiasm.
2.11.2 Importance of Student’s Satisfaction
Miller (1981) notes that student’s satisfaction "can have a positive effect on pupil attitudes and learning. Raising satisfaction level is not only making teaching more pleasant for both teachers and students. This creates an environment that is more conducive to learning." Satisfaction and achievement are both inter related, where satisfaction is high, schools shows an increase in student achievement. Conversely, low levels of satisfaction and morale can lead to decreased productivity which is associated with a loss of concern for and detachment from the people with whom one works, decreased quality of teaching, depression, greater use of sick leave, efforts to leave the profession, and a cynical and dehumanized perception of students In short, the satisfaction can have far-reaching implications for student learning, the health of the institution, and the health of the teacher
2.11.3 Teacher Influence on student’s satisfaction
Students who feel empowered tend to have higher level of satisfaction. As Maehr, Midgley, and Urdan (1993) state, "People are more personally invested in their work with
30 an organization when (1) they have a voice in what happens to them; and (2) their work has meaning and significance in contributing to a higher purpose or goal." By treating students in ways that empower them, such as involving them in class decisions & policies and practices and acknowledging their expertise, teachers can help sustain student’s satisfaction. Teachers can also strengthen student by actively standing behind them. Competent teachers serve as guardians of students' instructional time, "assist them with discipline matters. Although teachers can take steps individually to preserve class satisfaction and morale, students must also be nurtured, supported, and valued by the broader school community. When students are provided with what they need to remain inspired and enthusiastic in the classroom, they will be the beneficiaries.
2.12 Role Clarity
Thomson, (n.d) says a role is a characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual and role clarity can be defined as the condition of being clear and free of contaminants and also free from obscurity and easy to understand; the comprehensibility of clear expression.
According to Keller, (1995) A “role” can be defined as a set of norms or expectations applied to the incumbent of a particular position by the role incumbent and the various other role players with whom the incumbent must deal to fulfill the obligations of their position, A student would be clear about his role if he or she knows: • • • What the expectations of the role set are (e.g., the rights, duties, and responsibilities)? What activities will fulfill the role responsibilities? What the consequences of role performance are to self, others? (p.57)
31 For clarifying the roles tell students what you expect them to do, both in class and outside of class. Although some expectations may seem self-evident, you are more likely to have students meet your expectations when you state them explicitly. Students have a better chance of being successful when they know precisely what teacher expect. Role clarity refers to the degree of certainty a student has about the work role. It is certainty about duties, authority, allocation of time, relationships with others, the clarity or existence of guides, directives, policies, and the ability to predict sanctions as outcomes of behavior. Role clarity has been defined by Khan, Wolfe, & Quinn, (1965) as “a function of the discrepancy between the information available to a position occupant and that which is necessary for the adequate performance of his role” Role clarity is associated with clarity regarding a students rights, responsibilities, methods, goals, status, or accountability. Although in some ways a teacher’s role is defined quite explicitly (“teach your children well”), but in other ways (notably in regard to discipline and accountability) vagueness and conflicting opinions abound. Many students ask themselves, “How much do I have to accomplish, before I can be considered effective and successful?” Answers to such questions do not come easily to those who are thoughtful. Every position in a formal structure should have a specified set of tasks or position responsibilities. Such specification of duties, or formal definition of role requirements, is intended to allow management to hold subordinates accountable for specific performance and to provide guidance and direction for students. If a student does mot know what he has the authority to decide, what he is expected to accomplish, and how he will be judged, he will hesitate to make decisions and will have to rely on a trial and error
32 approach in meeting the expectations of his superior. Clarity increase the probability that a person will be satisfied with his role, will experience no anxiety, , and will thus perform effectively. Yukl (1981) says that it is clear that role clarity is important intervening variables that mediate the effects of various leadership style on individual. The practices which tend to be associated with lower role clarity are emphasis on personal development, formalization, adequacy of communication, planning, horizontal communication, top management receptiveness to ideas, coordination of work flow, adaptability to change, and adequacy of authority. Consideration leadership behavior reduces role ambiguity and will increase subordinate satisfaction with the work and with the teacher leader. When there is role clarity, (students know what to do and how to do it), then directive leader behavior will have no effect on subordinate expectancies. Satisfaction is likely to be lowered, especially when students perceive close, direct supervision to be an unnecessary imposition of leader control (Yukl, 1981).
CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURE
The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between the teacher leadership styles and students satisfaction and role clarity at University level. The relationship between teacher leadership styles (considerating and initiating) and student’s satisfaction and role clarity were examined in the study. In the second step researcher find out which leadership style teacher used whether considerating or initiating and was he or she high or low according to the demographic variables, that were age, gender, qualification, experience and designation assessed.
3.1 Conceptual Framework of Variables under Study Variables
Leadership Styles Consideration and Initiating
3.2 Null Hypotheses
Based on the research question the following null hypotheses were formulated which were subjected to statistical treatment at 0.05 level of confidence for their acceptance or rejected.
Ho1 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and
Ho2 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style
and students satisfaction.
Ho3 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and
students role clarity.
Ho4 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style
and students role clarity.
Ho5 There is no significant difference between male teacher initiating leadership style
and female teacher initiating leadership style.
Ho6 There is no significant relationship between male teacher considerating leadership
style and female considerating leadership style.
Ho7 There is no significant relationship between male student satisfaction level and
female student satisfaction level.
Ho8 There is no significant relationship between male student role clarity and female
student role clarity
3.3 Populations and Sample 3.3.1 Population
The population of the study consisted of all students of University of Sargodha
3.3.2 Target Population
The target population of this study was all post graduate departments of University of Sargodha. The total number of departments were seventeen, out of which six science and technology, eight arts and social sciences, one business studies, two Islamic and oriental leaning.
3.3.3 Accessible Population
36 Accessible population of the study was ten randomly selected departments of University of Sargodha.
3.3.4 Sample Size
A sample of 100 students both male and female was selected from 10 departments using systematic sampling and random sampling techniques. Students, teachers and departments were selected by random sampling.
3.3.5 Reasons for selecting University students for population of study.
Students of University are assumed as much mature and qualified as compare to school level. They can better understand the concepts used in the research instrument such as teachers expectations, students satisfaction and role clarity. Target population and selected sample from the population should be manageable for the researcher to conduct an in depth study so the under graduate students were not selected for the study.
3.4 Questionnaire Development and Description
The questionnaire of the study consisted of three parts. Questionnaire was taken from Kreitner & kinicki, A (2001) modified and made it comprehensive according to need of the study. Teacher leadership style was taken as independent variable and class satisfaction and role clarity as dependent variables. There were twenty-five questions; ten questions were about teacher leadership styles (considerating and initiating), five items about class satisfaction level and ten about role clarity of the students.
3.4.1 Try Out of Measuring Instrument
After initial construction of research tool pilot study was conducted. The respondents for pilot study were similar and comparable with the population but were not included in the
37 sample of study. The purpose of the pilot study was to assess the reliability of the questions. The results as analyzed on SPSS was summarized following: Questions: Teacher Leadership Styles (considerating and initiating) Class satisfaction Role Clarity Reliability .87 .92 .89
3.4.2 Scoring Key
Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5
3.5 Data Collection
First of all researcher approached the teachers (lecturer, professors’ e.t.c) of the University of Sargodha with a permission letter and explained the purpose of the study. After that sample of the study was contacted. With the consent of teachers the 37
38 questionnaire was delivered to the respondents by the researcher. All the persons who were respondents given detailed information about the purpose of research and questionnaire. There were also given additional information in case of any complication regarding the understanding of questionnaire. It took four days to complete data collection phase. The response was 79%. Different department show very good and also poor response.
3.6 Research Design
The study was co relational in nature as it sought to establish relationship among various variables of the study. The statistical analysis was conducted with the help of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).
3.7 Analysis of Data
All computations were made by utilizing SPSS-10 software package. Pearson-product moment correlation coefficient was used to test hypotheses. The alpha was used at 0.05 level of significance in all tests of hypotheses.
CHAPTER- IV DATA ANALYSIS
This chapter has two parts. The first part presents the demographic data and explains the students and teacher’s gender, age, qualification, experience designation and department. The second part deals with testing of null hypothesis and includes the data to ascertain the direction (correlation coefficient), strength (R-square) and percentage of common variance of relationship, at 0.5 significance level between teacher leadership style and class satisfaction and their role clarity.
DESCRIPTION OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
Table No 1. Descriptive Statistics
Variables N. Teacher Leadership 79 Style (considerating) Teacher Leadership 79 Style (Initiating) Students satisfaction 79 Role Clarity 79 Minimum 4.00 10.00 5.00 19.00 Maximum 15.00 35.00 20.00 55.00 Mean 11.3038 27.9114 15.1519 40.0127 S. Deviation 2.51332 5.35458 3.12184 6.09223
Table No 2. Age wise Teacher Leadership Styles
Sr. No Age No. of Teachers 1 2 3 4 28-33 34-39 40-45 46+ 8 6 2 4 20 Leadership Styles Considerating Low High 2 6 2 4 2 4 4 16 Initiating Structure Low High 2 6 1 5 2 4 3 17
This table shows that most of the teachers have high considerating and initiating leadership, style only two fall in low category, from age (28-39). All teachers use both
40 leadership styles according to the situation. This table also shows that teacher above from 40 are highly considerating and highly initiating in their leadership styles.
Table No 3. Gender Wise Teacher Leadership Styles
Sr. No Gender No. of Teachers 1 2 Male Female 14 6 20 Leadership Styles Considerating Initiating Structure Low High Low High 4 10 4 10 6 6 4 16 4 16
This table reveals that female is more considerating and initiating than male teachers. All females have high considerating and initiating leadership style but two male have a low considerating and initiating leadership style.
Table No. 4 Qualification Wise Teacher Leadership Styles
Sr. No Qualification No. of Teachers 1 2 3 4 M.A M.Sc M.Phil Ph.D 7 7 6 20 Leadership Styles Considerating Initiating Structure Low High Low High 1 6 3 4 1 6 2 5 6 6 2 18 5 15
The results in this table shows that Ph.D teachers are more considerating and initiating than M.A and M.Sc teachers.
Table No.5 Experience wise Teacher Leadership Styles
41 Sr. No Experience No. of Teachers 1 2 3 4 1-3y 4-6y 7-9y More 5 4 4 7 20 Leadership Styles Considerating Initiating Structure Low High Low High 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 4 3 7 7 4 16 6 14
This tale shows that teachers who have a more experienced are high considerating and initiating than less experienced teachers.
Table No 6. Designation wise Teacher Leadership Styles
Sr.No Designation No. Of Teachers 1 2 3 Lecturer Assistant Professor Associate Professor 20 4 16 6 14 This table shows that all teachers are highly considerating and initiating but assistant and associate professors are higher than lecturers. 12 5 3 Leadership Styles Considerating Initiating Structure Low High Low High 2 10 4 8 2 3 2 3 3 3
Table No 7. Age wise Student’s Satisfaction
Sr.No Age Number Students of Students Satisfaction Level Low Moderate
42 1 2 3 20-22 23-25 More 56 20 03 79 5 5 1 1 2 50 19 03 72
This Table shows that most of the students are satisfied with their teacher leadership styles and they showed high satisfaction but few also falls in low and moderate level of satisfaction.
Table No 8. Gender Wise Students Satisfaction
Sr. No 1 2 Status Male Female Number Students 23 56 79 of Students satisfaction Level Low Moderate 1 2 3 2 2
High 22 54 76
This table shows that male students are more satisfied than female students and also most students fall in high level of satisfaction category.
Table No 9. Age Wise Students Role Clarity
Sr.No 1 2 3 Age 20-22 23-25 More Number Students 56 20 03 79 of Students Role Clarity Low Moderate 3 3 2 2
High 51 20 03 74
This table shows that most of the student’s high role clarity but the older students are clearer about their roles than young ones. 42
Table No. 10 Gender Wise Student’s Role Clarity
Sr. No 1 2 Status Male Female Number Students 23 56 79 of Low 1 2 3 Students Role Clarity Moderate High 2 2 22 52 76
This table shows that male students are clearer than female students and also most students fall in high-level category.
Testing of Null Hypothesis
In order to explore the relationship between Teacher leadership style and students satisfaction and Role clarity, the null hypothesis were formulated. The variables of this study were analyzed by applying parametric technique the Pearson-Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.
Table No. 11
Ho1 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and students satisfaction. Pearson r, Critical Value, R-Square and Percent of Common Variance of Teacher initiating Leadership Style and Students Satisfaction Leadership and satisfaction This table shows positive correlation coefficient between initiating teacher leadership style and students satisfaction. The calculated correlation coefficient for initiating leadership style and satisfaction is (.673). There is significant relationship between these two variables. Initiating leadership affects the students’ satisfaction. So the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypotheses is that initiating leadership style have a strong relation with student’s satisfaction. Style N (initiating Structure) 79 Class Correlation .673 sig .2319 R-Square 0.452929 %vco 45.29
Table No. 12
Ho2 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style and students satisfaction. Pearson r, Critical Value, R-Square and Percent of Common Variance of Teacher Consideration Leadership Style and Students Satisfaction Leadership Style N 79 (considerating) Class satisfaction This table shows positive correlation coefficient between considerating teacher leadership style and students satisfaction. The calculated correlation coefficient for considerating leadership style and satisfaction is (.421). There is significant relationship between these two variables. Considerating leadership affects the students’ satisfaction. So the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is that there is a positive relationship between these two variables. Correlation .421 Sig .2319 R-Square 177241 %vco 17.73
Table No. 13
Ho3 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and students role clarity. Pearson r, Critical Value, R-Square and Percent of Common Variance of Teacher Initiating Leadership Style and Students Role Clarity Teacher N Leadership 79 Style (initiating) and Students Role Clarity Correlation .614 Sig .2319 R-Square 0.3776 %vco 37.76
This table demonstrates that there is positive relationship between initiating leadership style and students role clarity. The calculated correlation coefficient for teacher initiating leadership style and role clarity is (.614). There is significant relationship so the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is that initiating style has affect on role clarity.
Ho 4 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style and students role clarity. Pearson r, Critical Value, R-Square and Percent of Common Variance of Teacher Considerating Leadership Style and Students Role Clarity Teacher N Leadership Style 79 (considerating) Students Role Clarity This table shows positive correlation between considerating leadership style and the student’s role clarity. The calculated value of these variables is (.354). There is significant relationship so the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is that considerating style has affected on role clarity. Correlation .354 Sig .2319 R-Square .1254 %vco 12.54
T-Test Group Statistics Considerating N Mean 11.6905 10.8649 Std.Deviation 2.2359 2.7605 Std.Error Mean .3450 .4538
Leadership Style Male 42 Female 37
Ho5 There is no significant difference between male teacher initiating leadership style and female teacher initiating leadership style. N, Mean, Std Deviation,t, df, sig (2-tailed) and Mean Difference of male teacher initiating leadership style and female teacher initiating leadership style. Considerating Leadership Style t 1.468 df 77 Sig. (2-tailed) Mean .146 Difference .8256
This table describes that there is no significant difference between male teacher initiating leadership style and female teachers initiating leadership style. The t value of this table is (1.468). It shoes the difference between these two variables.
Ho6 There is no significant relationship between male teacher considerating leadership style and female considerating leadership style. N, Mean, Std Deviation, t, df, sig (2-tailed) and Mean Difference male teacher considerating leadership style and female considerating leadership style. Initiating N Mean 28.4286 27.3247 df 77 Std.Deviation 4.2721 6.3773 Std.Error Mean .6592 1.0484 Sig. (2-tailed) Mean .364 Difference 1.1042
Leadership Style Male 42 Female 37 Considerating Leadership Style t .914
This table describes that there is no significant difference between male teacher considerating leadership style and female teacher’s considerating leadership style. The t value of this table is (.914). It shoes the difference between these two variables.
50 Ho7 There is no significant relationship between male student satisfaction level and female student satisfaction level. N, Mean, Std Deviation,t, df, sig (2-tailed) and Mean Difference of male student satisfaction level and female student satisfaction level. Students Satisfaction Male Female Students Satisfaction N 23 56 t 1.910 Mean 14.1739 15.5536 df 77 Std. Deviation Std. 3.5117 2.8852 Mean .7322 .3856 Sig (2-tailed) .051 Mean Difference .7621 Error
This table describes that there is significant difference between male student satisfaction level and female student satisfaction level. The t value of the table is (-1.810). That is greater than table value.
51 Ho8 There is no significant relationship between male student role clarity and female student role clarity. N, Mean, Std Deviation, Sd Error Mean, t, df, sig (2-tailed) and Mean Difference of male student role clarity and female student role clarity. Students Role N Clarity Male Female Students Clarity 23 56 Role t -1.029 Mean 38.09130 40.4643 df 77 Std. Deviation Std. 7.7043 5.3085 Mean 1.6065 0.7094 Sig (2-tailed) .307 Mean Difference -1.5512 Error
This table describes that there is no significant difference between male student role clarity and female role clarity. The t value of the table is (-1.029). That shows difference between these two variables.
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION, DISSCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between teacher leadership style and students satisfaction and their role clarity at university level. Independent variable teacher leadership style and dependent variables students’ satisfaction and their role clarity were included in this study. The relationship between these variables was examined in this study. It was assumed that there was no significant relationship between teacher leadership styles &students satisfaction and students role clarity but this null hypotheses was rejected and the alternative hypotheses was teacher leadership styles (considerating and initiating) have a positive impact on the student’s satisfaction and their role clarity. To examine the variables of study the data was collected from the ten randomly selected departments of University of Sargodha. There was a warm response by the subjects under study. Based on the research questions eight hypotheses were formulated. Pearson product moment Correlation Coefficient and t test were used to test these null hypotheses. The alpha at .05 level of significance was used in all tests of hypotheses.
5.2 Findings of the Study
53 The findings of the study were as following: 1. The total response rate was 79% from randomly selected ten departments. 2. The sample size includes 30 % female teachers, 70% male teachers and 70.8% female students and 29.2% male students. 3. Majority of the students were below the age of 23years comprised the percentage of 63%.and the teacher below the below the age of 33 years comprised the percentage of 57%. 4. 70% of total teachers were M.A, M.S and 30% are PhDs. 5. 35% teachers had more than 10 years experience. 65% teachers had less than 10 experiences. Finding of the study regarding statistical data.
Ho1 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and
students satisfaction. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive relationship between these two variables.
Ho2 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style
and students satisfaction. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive relationship between these two variables.
Ho3 There is no significant relationship between teacher initiating leadership style and
students role clarity. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive relationship between these two variables.
Ho4 There is no significant relationship between teacher considerating leadership style
and students role clarity. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive relationship between these two variables.
Ho5 There is no significant difference between male teacher initiating leadership style
and female teacher initiating leadership style. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive difference between these two variables.
Ho6 There is no significant relationship between male teacher considerating leadership
style and female considerating leadership style. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive difference between these two variables.
Ho7 There is no significant relationship between male student satisfaction level and
female student satisfaction level. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive difference between these two variables.
Ho8 There is no significant relationship between male student role clarity and female
student role clarity. The null hypothesis was rejected because there was significant positive difference between these two variables.
55 On the bases of findings of the study following conclusion was drawn: The independent variable (teacher leadership style) had a significant effect on the dependent variable (student’s satisfaction, role clarity).The demographic variables had also significant impact on teacher’s leadership style, as for as the age is concerned older teachers are more considerating and initiating than youngsters. After analyzing demographic data it was concluded that all the demographics have a significant affect on the leadership styles and students satisfaction. There was a minor difference between less experienced teachers and experienced teachers and also according to age, qualification, gender and designation. The statistical data describes that al most all teacher use both initiating and considerating leadership style according to the situation for motivating the students and most of the student s are also highly satisfied and clear about their roles. Teacher leadership style has a positive effect on the student’s satisfaction and role clarity. So the null hypothesis was rejected the alternative hypotheses is that there is strong relationship between these variables.
56 The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between the teacher leadership style and the student’s satisfaction the role clarity. Many previous studies were supporting the study. It will contribute the existing knowledge. The results of the study have certainly contributed to the knowledge for practicing in teaching learning process. It would be beneficial both for the teachers and the students and also for the administration. It addresses how teacher leads the whole teaching learning process and what were the effects of leadership styles, which he or she used. Several studies had been done in the area of student’s satisfaction but the study was especially proposed to find out the relationship between teacher leadership styles and student’s satisfaction so that teachers could better know the requirement that satisfies the students needs. It would contribute the knowledge of those variables that had been ignored in the previous researches. These objectives had been achieved by choosing those variables as the focus of this study. Findings of the study concluded that the independent variable (teacher leadership styles considerating and initiating) had a significant effect on the dependent variable (student’s satisfaction and role clarity. Independent variable positively related to dependent variable. It means that there is a strong bond between teachers and students. If teachers keep in view the students needs and requirements they become much satisfied and if teachers help students in their work they become confident and clear about roles. They actively participate in classroom activities. Teacher sets some goals for teaching learning process. As students and teachers are essential elements of this process so its success depends upon their healthy relationship. Teacher’s pedagogical skills effects on student’s performance. A competent teacher knows how to use different pedagogical skills according to the requirements of the situation. Teacher acts as a leader in classroom, a good teacher leader is he who make sound and timely decision, technically proficient, keep students informed, develop a sense of responsibility in students, set examples, know the psyche of the students and look for the well- being and what not. Bass (1990) says that the leaders who are high in their considerating and initiating leadership style, effective teachers, as were the results of this study, the teacher who were
57 high in their considerating and initiating leadership styles ,their students had also high satisfaction level and role clarity.
5.5 Recommendations 5.5.1 Recommendations for the Future Research
1. There appears to be the definite need for further research in the field of higher education leadership and its relation to student’s satisfaction and their roe clarity. 2. The researchers of this study recommended to new researchers for further research. Researcher recommended that due to the limited resources the researcher has included only three variables, the new researcher would try their best to include the other dimensions also. 3. It is recommended that select a large sample for effective generalizability. 4. The research should be conducted in other universities of the country to get the comprehensive data about leadership style and student’s satisfaction and role clarity because enhancing class satisfaction of students is very important for improving their performance. 5. Due to some reasons it was limited to University level it is suggested that at secondary level it would be much beneficial. 6. This study was co relational in nature it was suggested in future experimental type of research should conducted.
5.5.2 Recommendation for Practitioners
1. On the bases of this research study it was suggested that the teacher should use the different leadership styles which best suits the situation. 2. Teachers should also provide recognition to the students in decision making and establishing different policies in side and out side the classroom. 3. Teacher should tell the students what is expected of them for improving positive learning climate.
58 4. Teacher should keep in view the individual differences while satisfying the needs of students. 5. Teacher should take feed back timely so that he or she can improve the situation. 6. Teacher should be a facilitator, guide, role model and good decision maker.
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