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ATHARVA INAMDAR Candidate no# 0088
AYELSBURY GRAMMAR SCHOOL AYLESBURY Centre no# 52103

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

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Summary:
The aim of this project is to make a Digital stop watch to count in Seconds and Minutes. This should be done using only non-programmable components. The stopwatch should also count accurately. There should be a start/stop facility. The stopwatch is intended to count from 00:00 to 99:99 and then it will reset back to 00:00. After making the stopwatch and testing it, my project successfully matched my specifications. The stopwatch counts accurately to the nearest second. The display also works fine showing all the numbers correctly, this also shows that my counter and decoder works. Although I had a few minor problems, my Digital Stop watch was a success.

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

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BRIEF:
IN today‟s world time is crucial. Some people like to time how long the chess game lasted or how long it took them to beat an opponent in a board game such as Risk. I am going to build a stopwatch accurate to the nearest second. This stopwatch will also have a use in schools in science labs, where the time for the experiment to finish is crucial. It will display minutes and seconds. The stopwatch will have an ON/OFF function. It will have a Start/Stop switch and a Reset switch.

Specifications:
ON/OFF function Start/Stop functions Display minutes(max. 60) and seconds on bright 7 segment LEDs The resolution will be 1 second

Block Diagram:

Start Function

Pulse Generator

Counter

Reset Logic

Display Driver

Display

Specifications:
POWER SUPPLY: I will be using a +5V DC power supply to power all my ICs and LEDs. The +5V power supply will be used for digital circuit. INPUTS: I will be using 1 SPST switches. One SPST switch will be used as a START/STOP switch. OUTPUTS: I will be using four 7-segment LEDs. Two 7segment LEDs will display the seconds and the other two 7-segment LEDs will display minutes. EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE: Breadboard Set of multi coloured wires Multimeter Digital PC oscilloscope Side cutters, Wire strippers WIRES: Black: Zero Voltage Red: +6 positive voltage Orange: Outputs from ICs Brown: Clock output from 40106B to counters Yellow: Connections from resistor array to 7 segment LEDs Blue: Inputs to NAND gate IC

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

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Subsystems:
Pulse Generator: Specifications: This subsystem is designed to generate a signal with a frequency of 1Hz. This pulse will be generated by a relaxation oscillator. Circuit Diagram:

Component Values: The relaxation oscillator uses a non-polarised capacitor and a feedback resistor. The Capacitor to be used will be 10 micro Farads while the feedback resistor is 220 Kilo Ohms. How it Works: When the input voltage is at +9V, the current in the feedback resistor charges the capacitor. Raising the voltage at the input to 2.8V. At this point the output drops to 0V. The voltage at input starts dropping to 2.2V. When it reaches 2.2V the output switches back to +9V. Testing: This component was tested using a digital PC oscilloscope. The trace is shown in the Evaluation section at the end of this report. Evaluation: To improve the accuracy of the oscillator I will need to use 44k variable resistor along with 10 F capacitor to achieve an average output frequency of 1Hz. Problems: The relaxation oscillator is not very accurate. Using 200k resistor did not achieve an accurate frequency. I used a Variable resistor(adjusted to 14k ) and an oscilloscope to accurately achieve a frequency of 1.058Hz.

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

5 Photograph: Variable resistor 40106B Hex Schmitt Inverter Pin 1 100 F Electrolytic Capacitor

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

6 Counter: Specification: I will be using four binary counters for seconds and minutes. Each counter will count one digit. Two counters will count from 0 to 9, however the other two counters will count from 0 to 6. Circuit Diagram:

Component Values: The counters I will be using will be two 4518B dual binary counters. The output will be 4 bit binary output from each counter. How It Works: I am using two 4518B counters, which contain 4 counters. On the first IC, I will be counting the seconds. For the units digit the counter‟s reset is held low while the Enable is held high. For the tens digit, I have connected the clock output form the 40106B to the input of the second counter of the same 4518B. The reset is connected to the reset logic from the first counter. The same setup was carried out for the second dual counter. Except this time the clock inputs were connected to the reset logics of each Testing: The function of these counters were tested along with the 7 segment LED drivers (4511B) and the 7 segment LED display. The counting was checked for the correct order and if the counters were carrying forward the count after 9 or 6. Evaluation: This subsystem function as desired and caused no problems at all. Problems: No problems were encountered designing, building or testing this subsystem. Photograph: Counter 2

Pin 1 Counter 1

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

7 Display, Decoder and Driver: Specifications: This driver (4511B) will be used for driving the 7 segment LEDs from the binary output of the counters. Each display will be used to display each digit of seconds and minutes elapsed. Circuit Diagram:

How it works: A binary input is converted to logic signals for each segment of the display. The outputs are labelled as “a, b, c, d, e, f, g” for the 7 segment display. It also provides higher current than a counter. An output from a decoder and driver illuminated certain segments to display a number between 0 and 9 inclusive. The display is grounded, and thus the segments have a common cathode. This means that the segments will illuminate when provided with a high signal from the driver (4511B). Testing: To test the 4511B IC, I plugged the binary inputs to positive rail as desired and tested if the correct number was shown on the 7-segment display. Carrying out this test also tested the 7-segment displays. Display testing(further): At first the decimal point segment and the ground pins were connected to 0V. Then individually the segments were connected to the positive rail. This tested if the segments were all functioning normally. Evaluation: The results of the test showed that the 4511B driver was functioning normally. However, one 7-segment display failed the test. Its „a‟ segment was very dim and did not light up sometimes. Problems: One 7-segment LED display had to be replaced due to faulty segment. Other than this there were no other problems.

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

8 Photograph:

7-Segment LED Display

220 8 resistor Array

4511B Display driver and Decoder

Pin 1

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

9 Reset Logic: Specification: I will be using a AND gate in order to reset counters and carry counts to other counters. Circuit Diagram:

Component values: I will be using 4581B IC, which is a quad AND gate IC. How it works: To carry a count to the next digit in time, I will be connecting the inputs of a AND gate to the 1 and 8 binary inputs form the first counter (of the first dual counter chip) and the output to the reset of the next counter. For the tens counter, I will connect the inputs to the 2 and 4 binary outputs from the counter and the output from the AND gate to the clock of the next counter and the reset of the same counter. This ensures that the units digit count from 0 to 9 and the tens digits count from 0 to 5 and reset at 6 when the units count is 0. Testing: Testing the function of the AND gate was very simple. I had connected an LED and a resistor to the output and used the power supply rails as inputs. Changing the input from positive to zero and vice versa I checked if the function followed the truth table given below: A B Q Where A: first input 0 0 0 B: second input Q: output 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1

Evaluation: This subsystem was functioning as desired. Problems: There were no problems using this subsystem Photograph:

4081B Quad AND Gate

Pin 1

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

10

Full Circuit Diagram
Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

11

PHOTOGRAPH OF COMPLETED BREADBOARD
Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

12

Evaluation: To check that my digital stopwatch actually performed its function, I used several pieces of equipment and procedures. To ensure the success of my project I built and tested each subsystem at a time. Firstly, to check the frequency of my relaxation oscillator, I used a PC oscilloscope. As I was using a relaxation oscillator, the component values needed we approximate, due to the approximate formula. Instead of using a fixed resistor, I used a variable resistor to find out the exact resistance. This oscilloscope was also able to give a numerical readout of the frequency of the clock. The trace from the PC oscilloscope is shown below:

To check other components such as 7 segment LED displays, I used a multimeter to check the voltage to see if I could increase its brightness. However, I found that they were already at max brightness as the voltage across them was 2.1V, which is just under the maximum forward voltage (2.5V).

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

13

Bibliography: o CMOS Cook Book (2nd Edition) by Don Lancaster – for pin outs of various ICs.

Acknowledgements: o Mr. M Harvey

Atharva Inamdar

Candidate no# 0088

Centre no# 52103

Course no.# 2528

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