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EGYPT: STRENGTHENING PROTECTED AREA

FINANCING AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
(Project ID 00071131: 3668)
Terms of Reference for Experts to prepare an analytical study that
"Identify candidates for elimination, phase out or reform of incentives, including
subsides, harmful for biodiversity, and identify opportunities to promote the design
and implementation of positives incentive measures".
Project Description:
Strengthening Protected Area Financing and Management Systems Project (EPASP)
aims to establish a sustainable protected area (PA) financing system, with the
associated management structures, systems and capacities needed to ensure the
effective use of generated revenues for priority biodiversity conservation needs, as
well as remove or significantly reduce a wide range of barriers of sustainable
financing. The project will provide Nature Conservation Sector (NCS) with a
powerful set of arguments for continuing long-term investment, financing and
expansion of Egypt’s PA system, mainly through self-generated revenues and the
successful realization of the following outcomes: 1) Legal, policy, regulatory and
institutional frameworks that facilitate revenue generation, revenue retention and
other aspects of sustainable PA financing and management are established and
functional; 2) Levels of financial resource mobilization are adequate to ensure
effective conservation-oriented management of Egypt’s PA system; 3) Business
planning and cost-effective management systems are ensuring the effective allocation
and management of mobilized resources.

This consultancy will address the following outcomes, objectives and activities within
the project 2016 project work plan:
Outcome 3: Business planning and cost-effective management systems are ensuring
the effective allocation and management of mobilized resources
Output 3.3 – Systems for monitoring and reporting n financial and management
performance developed and implemented
Activity 3.3.3 - Prepare an analytical study that identify candidates for elimination,
phase out or reform of incentives, including subsides, harmful for biodiversity, and
identify opportunities to promote the design and implementation of positives incentive
measures.

Background
Egypt has a unique geographic location midway between Africa and Asia; Egypt is
home to a wide variety of ecosystems and terrestrial and aquatic life. Many plant and
animal species in Egypt represent tropical and Mediterranean environments, some of
which go back millions of years. Egypt has unique biodiversity that offers direct and
indirect returns to the national economy of about $15 billion/year which is increasable
(for tourism, agriculture, fishing, petroleum, minerals, quarries, cattle and small
enterprises).
In August 31, 1994 Egypt ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
which entered into force in December 29, 1993 with three main objectives:
1. The conservation of biological diversity.
2. The sustainable use of the components of biological diversity.
3. The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of
genetic resources.
In October 2010, the parties of the convention agreed on the Aichi targets, which are a
set of twenty, time-bound, measureable targets. Achievement of the targets will
contribute to reducing, and eventually halting, the loss of biodiversity at a global level
by the middle of the twenty-first century.
The Aichi targets number three states:" By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including
subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to
minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and
sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony
with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account
national socio economic conditions"
Incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity generally emanate from
policies or programs that induce unsustainable behavior harmful to biodiversity, often
as unanticipated and unintended side effects of policies or programs designed to
achieve other objectives.
Types of possibly harmful incentives include, but not limited to, incentives
encouraging destruction or deterioration of natural habitats, incentives encouraging
the overexploitation of renewable natural resources, incentives encouraging pollution
and incentives encouraging the introduction and spread of invasive exotic species.

OBJECTIVES:
The objective of this consultancy is to undertake an analytical study to "identify
candidates for elimination, phase out or reform of incentives, including subsides,
harmful for biodiversity, and identify opportunities to promote the design and
implementation of positives incentive measures".

The study is a response to decision XII3 adopted by the conference of parties at its
twelve meeting in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea, 6-17 October 2014, in which
milestones and timelines were assigned for the achieving of Aichi targets number
three as the table below:
Timeline
2015

2016

2016

2018

Milestone
National target reflecting Aichi Biodiversity Target 3 and associated action
items included in revised national biodiversity strategy and action plan
(NBSAP).
Policy or legislative action is being developed on incentives, including
subsidies, already known to have harmful effects and already identified as
candidates for elimination, phase-out or reform, in form of their elimination or
initiation of their phase-out or their reform.
Finalization of national analytical studies that identify candidates for
elimination, phase-out or reform of incentives, including subsidies, harmful for
biodiversity, and that identify opportunities to promote the design and
implementation of positive incentive.
Finalization of policy plans that (i) identify those harmful incentives that are
candidates for elimination, phase-out, or reform; (ii) provide for a prioritized
list of measures leading to their eventual elimination, phase-out, or reform; (iii)
provide for a prioritized list of measures leading to the introduction, or
strengthening, of positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity; (iv) provide for associated timelines and milestones.

METHODOLOGY:
The experts will work under the overall supervision and guidance of Egypt CBD
national focal point. The study must be a participative collaboration between the
experts and focal point; interaction and feedback is fundamental for the developing of
the study.
DELIVERABLES
The experts must deliver the study which should answer the following questions:
1. What subsidies harmful to biodiversity exist in the country? How are the
subsides affecting biodiversity? Which are particularly harmful? What is the
cost of these subsidies?
2. What other harmful incentives exist in the country? How do they affect
biodiversity? Are there opportunities for enhancing effectiveness while
reducing environmental damage? Are there opportunities to mitigate the
harmful impacts by reforming the incentive?
3. What are the opportunities and constraints to removing, reforming or phasing
out harmful incentives? What are the potential ecological, economic, and
social costs and benefits of addressing harmful subsidies?
4. What biodiversity related problems could be addressed with the help of
biodiversity friendly incentives? How could incentives be used to address the
main threats to biodiversity? How could incentives encourage actions in
support of biodiversity?

5. Who are the stakeholders that may be affected? How can they be involved and
their needs addressed? What are the tradeoffs to consider? Are there
stakeholders who could also act as champions for the removal, phase out, or
reform of harmful incentives?
6. What additional resources (financial, human and technical) will be required to
reach the national target that is set? How can additional resources be raised?
What are the possible sources for these resources?
The experts must deliver an English and Arabic hardcopy of the study, as well as a
digital copy in Word and PDF format, and supporting Excel sheets, graphs, maps and
spreadsheets used in the study in open source format.
QUALIFICATIONS
The experts should have experience in providing consultancy in similar fields. The
team should be made up of experts in the following fields:
 Economic
 Trade Union rules and regulations
 Business
 Environment
 Government of Egypt related laws, rules and regulations

IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS
The experts shall maintain continues contact with the CBD national focal point for the
duration of the consultancy.
Any supporting documentation or data readily available by the experts and required
must be provided. Meetings with the experts may be required at any time, and the
experts is required to cooperate as much as possible.
Time frame
The time frame of the contract of this consultancy will be three months.
Work Plan and Milestones
Activities

Weeks
2

Submission of work plan
Submission of draft study
Submission of final study

8

12

Resources and Logistical Support
The project is responsible for the provision of office accommodation for the required
interviews and meetings during the consultancy period, if needed.

Copyright
All materials produced in the scope of this assignment (including images, photos, text, etc.)
are copyright of the project/EEAA. No part may be reproduced, copied, transmitted in any
form or by any means (electronic, mechanical or graphic) without the prior written
permission of the project/EEAA

TERMS OF PAYMENT


20 % of the total contract value to be paid upon submission of the work plan.
30 % of the total contract value to be paid upon submission of the draft study.
50% of the total contract value to be paid upon submission of the final study.

Application Process
To apply, please send an email entitled "Aichi 3" with attached C.V. of all team members ,
price offer and a cover letter to: infofspa@gmail.com; drfoudamos@gmail.com and CC to
abdelmaksoud76@gmail.com no later than February 29, 2016.