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NOTATION

Staff

It is a further development of
the four-line staff which
evolved during the 10th and
11th centuries.
The 11th century staff was one
of four lines, having either C
or F designated an

.

Ledger Line Ledger Line is used to extend the staff to pitches that fall above or below it. .

Bar Line The Staff is divided into measures by bar lines. Clef               Bar Line     Bar Line    Bar Line  .

usually according to natural . Bold double bar line: Used to indicate the conclusion of a movement or an entire composition.Double bar line: Used to separate two sections of music. Dotted bar line: Subdivides long measures of complex meter into shorter segments for ease of reading.

The letter names of the lines are E. It's easily remembered by the Every    Good   Boy   Does   Fine sentence: E             G              B             D              F . B. F. D. G.

F              A               C              E .The letter names of the spaces from the bottom up spell FACE.

. wo Kinds of Clefs: G Clef F Clef When these two clefs combined together these make a GRAND STAFF.Clefs Clefs are written at the beginning of the staff.

Note Parts of a NOTE: .

Whole Note-Rest 4 Beats Half Note-Rest 2 Beats Quarter Note-Rest 1 Beat Eighth Note-Rest ½ Beat .

Sixteenth Note-Rest ¼ Beat Thirty-Second Note-Rest 1/8 Beat Sixty-Fourth Note-Rest 1/32 Beat .

Flat-Lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone.Accidentals Accidentals modify the pitch of the notes that follow them on the same staff position within a measure. . unless cancelled by an additional accidental. Double Flat-Lowers the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.

Natural-Cancels a previous accidental. Sharp-Raises the pitch of a note by one semitone. Double Sharp. or modifies the pitch of a sharp or flat as defined by the prevailing key signature. .Raises the pitch of a note by two chromatic semitones.

thus defining the prevailing major or minor key. Sharp key signature: Raises by a semitone the pitch of notes on the corresponding line or space. . and all octaves thereof. thus avoiding the use of accidentals for Flat key signature: many notes. Lowers by a semitone the pitch of notes on the corresponding line or space.Key Signature Key signatures define the prevailing key of the music that follows. and all octaves thereof. thus defining the prevailing major or minor key.

divides measure into 2 beats. 3/4 time . .Time Signature Indicate how the measure will be divided into beats. the top number is how many beats are in the measure and the bottom number is what kind of note gets a beat.divides measure into 4 beats. 2/4 time . 4/4 time .divides measure into 3 beats.

Pianississimo Extremely soft. Usually the most often used indication . Pianissimo Very soft.Dynamics Dynamics are indicators of the relative intensity or volume of a musical line. Piano Soft. though softer dynamics are often specified with additional ps. Usually the softest indication in a piece of music. Very infrequently does one see softer dynamics than this. which are specified with additional ps.

half as loud as forte. Mezzo forte Similarly. If no dynamic appears. Forte Loud. Used as often as piano to indicate contrast. . mezzo-forte is assumed to be the prevailing dynamic level. half as soft as piano.Mezzo piano Literally.

denotes an abrupt. Very infrequently does one see louder dynamics than this.Fortissimo Very loud. it applies to the sequence of sounds or chords under or over which it is placed . fierce accent on a single sound or chord. When written out in full. Sforzando Literally "forced". Usually the loudest indication in a piece. Fortississimo Extremely loud. though louder dynamics are often specified with additional fs. which are specified with additional fs.

then immediately softly (piano). Can be extended in the same manner as crescendo. Diminuendo Also decrescendo A gradual decrease in volume.Crescendo A gradual increase in volume. Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily increases during the passage. . Forte-piano A section of music in which the music should initially be played loudly (forte).

The End !! .