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1.

EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF COMPUTER HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE IN AN
INFORMATION SYSTEM. HOW ARE THEY SIMILAR/ DIFFERENT?
Hardware within a Computer system, describes the physical properties of a computer, such as the
CPU and Hard Drive, whereas software, describes the programs and other operating systems found
within, or used by a computer. They are similar, as they both aid the smooth functioning of the
operating systems.
2. CONTRAST THE THREE TYPES OF PRIMARY STORAGE: ROM, RAM, AND CACHE
MEMORY- INCLUDE A DEFINITION OF ‘VOLATILITY’.
- ROM= Random Access Memory. Short- term memory, and is volatile
- Cache Memory= Predicts your action by saving frequently- used websites, etc
- Volatile= Loses contents when power is turned off
- Non- volatile= Doesn’t lose contents when power is turned off. (ie- saved on hard drive)
3. WHAT DOES USB STAND FOR AND WHAT DOES ‘BUS’ MEAN IN RESPECT TO
COMPUTING?
- BUS= Deals with data transfer form location a to b. Universal Serial Bus, transmits devices to a
computer.
4. DRAW UP A TABLE TO SHOW THE EQUIVALENCY OF THE FOLLOWING: BITS,
BYTES, KILOBYTES, MEGABYTES, GIGABYTES, TERABYTE

BITS

- Binary Digits
- 1 character=
-

BYTES

- Composed
using ASCII
1 byte
System (7bits=
Off= 0, on= 1 character) or
8 bits= 1 byte EBCDIC (8
1 byte= 1/8th BITS= 1
of a byte
character)

KILOBYTES

MEGABYTES

GIGABYTES

1 000 Bytes

1 000 000 bytes 1 000 000 000
bytes

TERABYTE
1 000 GB

5.
WHAT IS FRAGMENTATION? HOW CAN THIS BE A PROBLEM ON HARD DISK,
AND HOW IS IT FIXED?
= Fragmentation, is when the storage space on the Computer’s Hard drive is used inefficiently,
reducing capacity and performance. Files are divided into pieces and scattered across the disk. This
is a problem, as the data on the hard drive becomes volatile and is not secure. Files will become
unable to locate, causing the CPU to slow down, and process instructions at a much slower rate.
Fragmentation can be fixed through the use of a defragmenting tool or program. Alternatively, you
can back up the hard drive, and wipe it / purchase a new hard drive.
6. YOUR NEIGHBOUR SAYS HER MOUSE IS NOT WORKING ON HER COMPUTER, AND
ASKS YOU TO COME OVER TO FIX THE PROBLEM. NAME 3 WAYS IN WHICH YOU CAN
TROUBLESHOOT THIS ISSUE TO FIND OUT WHETHER IT IS DEFINITELY THE MOUSE
THAT NEEDS TO BE REPLACED:
1. Disconnect the mouse and re- connect into another computer. If mouse works on another
computer, then the problem is most likely with the computer and its hardware, instead of the
peripheral device itself

2. Change ports in which the Mouse is being plugged into. If the mouse works after changing
ports, then the problem is within the underlying circuits and hardware in which the port
transmits data from the device, to the CPU.
3. Check the computer’s open program’s, and look for any graphic heavy programs, which may
be taking up the RAM. If so, the Control Unit in the CPU, will be triaging, and running the
graphic heavy program as priority. After closing these program’s down, and the mouse works,
then it will become clear that the Computer was dealing with too many tasks at once.
7. NEIGHBOUR DECIDES IT IS TIME TO REPLACE HER ENTIRE COMPUTER. SHE ASKS
YOU TO LOCATE 3 POSSIBLE REPLACEMENTS FROM ONLINE CATALOGUES, AND
RECOMMEND THE BEST ONE. SHE USES THE COMPUTER FOR SKYPE, EMAIL,
PLAYING FACEBOOK GAMES, AND WORD PROCESSING. HER DAUGHTER USES IT TO
PLAY GRAPHICS-HEAVY GAMES, CREATE AND PUBLISH ANIMATIONS AND UPLOAD
YOUTUBE VIDEOS. BUDGET $2000.
= Requirements will consist of:
- High storage RAM and Hard Drive for gaming
- Graphics card for gaming
- Fast processor
= suggestions:

- HP PAVILION 17-G192AX 17.3` LAPTOP.
2TB hard drive
16GB RAM
Processor of 2.20GHz
AMD gaming card (removable)

= Lenovo Y700 Series Gaming Desktop:
Intel Core i5 6400 2.70GHz Processor
16GB RAM
2TB hard drive
2GB Graphics Card Memory

= Lenovo Yoga 3 Pro 13.3" 2-in-1 Laptop - Orange
Intel Core M 5Y71 1.20GHz - max turbo speed of 2.6GHz
8GB RAM
256GB Hard Drive
Multi Touch screen

FINAL SUGGESTION= Keeping in mind the graphic- heavy games, publish animations, and
upload YouTube Videos, the Computer will have to be able to have a high processing speed of
Gigahertz, and a large / decent amount of RAM storage space. For volatile memory storage to save
videos, etc, a large hard drive would be appropriate. A decent gaming card or gaming manufacturer
is also necessary, to handle and run the graphic- heavy games. Therefore, I would have to suggest
the Lenovo Y700 Series Gaming Desktop, as it has the largest RAM out of all the others, complies
to the factors previously mentioned, and will be sufficient to handle other minor programs such as
running facebook games and emails. In the future, this desktop has the capacity to be upgraded,
through replacing certain sections of the hardware.

8. EXPLAIN THE 4 STEPS OF THE FETCH EXECUTE CYCLE. DEFINE ALL HARDWARE
COMPONENTS INVOLVED AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY WORK TOGETHER: