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Chapter 14 Outline

Section 1: The Great War Begins
There have been relative peace in the 19th century. Some predicted there to be much peace in
the future while others, especially Bismarck, predicted the Great War.
Alliances Draw Lines
Distrust of one another pushed for alliance, which pushed for war later on rather than stifling it.
I. The Triple Alliance
A. Existed during Bismarck
B. To repel French from attacking, Germany formed alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy
1. Became the central power
II. The Triple Entente
A. Rival bloc formed between France, Britain, and Russia
B. Germany drew close to Ottoman
C. Britain drew close to Japan
Rivalries and Nationalism Increase Tension
Austria-Hungary and Turkey struggled to keep power. Nations tried to maintain their power.
I. Competition
A. Competition between Germany and Russia
1. Germany was a major industrial power
2. Feared that Russia’s modernization would threaten Germany’s dominance and beat
B. Tension in colonies
1. Peace was maintained in the Morocco crisis, where Germany and France nearly had
conflicts over Morocco
2. Britain and France strengthen their alliance
C. Arms race
1. Britain had powerful navy
2. Germany built powerful navy for newly acquired colonies
3. Britain and Germany increased military spending
D. Militarism
1. The glorification of military
2. Young men wanted to go to war
II. Nationalism
A. Pro
B. Nationalism in Germany grew
C. Nationalism in France grew to avenge for the lost border in Franco-Prussian War
D. Russia had Pan-Slovia
1. Nationalism of Slovic people and united slavic state
2. Supported Serbia, a young Slovic state
E. Austria-Hungary and Turkey feared nationalism
1. Austria Hungary worried that growing nationalism could stage rebellion
2. Turkey worried that nationalism in Serbia could cause it to loose land
3. Balkan state later fought against Ottoman and took away strips of land from Turkey
4. Balkan state was referred to as the powder keg
The Powder Keg Ignites

The Great War begun in the East, at Austria-Hungrary.
I. Assassination in Sarajevo
A. Francis Ferdinand, the nephew and heir of the Austrian-Hungarian Emperor, visited
B. Sarajevo was home to much Serbians
C. Anti-Austrian terrorist groups vowed to take action
D. When Francis Ferdinand listed Sarajevo despite security warning, he was assassinated
II. Austria Strikes Back
A. Austria took the opportunity to crush Serbia
B. Kaiser of Germany urged Austria-Hungrary to take a strong stand
1. He Gave Austria unconditional support (blank check)
C. Austria gave Serbia an Ultimatum, or a set of agreements in response the war
D. The Ultimatum was not fully agreed to by Serbia
E. Austria declared war on Serbia
Alliances Kick In
Alliances made the war between Austria and Serbia much more sever compared to the
“summer wars” that took place before.
I. Russia and France Back Serbia
A. Serbia asked Russia for Support

Countries in red are the central powers while countries in yellow are the allies power.
B. Russia asked the Kaiser to urge Austria to not respond so extremely
C. Kaiser refused; when Russia mobilized (prepared for war), Germany declared war on
D. Russia appealed to France, who wanted to avenge the Franco-Prussian War
1. France gave Russia a blank check
2. Germany urge France to stay out of conflict, but France refused
E. Germany declared war on France
II. Germany Invades Belgium
A. Indecision
1. Italy remained neutral
2. Britain originally remained neutral, but joined the Allies later on
B. Schlieffen Plan
1. Germany’s location could cause a two front war to take place

2. To avoid such event, an army officer developed the Schlieffen Plan
a) Fight against France first because Russia mobilizes longer
b) Then fight against Russia
C. Schlieffen plan required Germany to invade Belgium
1. German forces were planned encircle French forces by marching down Belgium to
France’s back
2. The Allied had promised Belgium neutrality
3. German invasion caused Britain to plunge into war
Reaction to the War
I. Problems were resolved
A. Britain
1. The Question of Ireland
2. Civil and workers’ unrest
B. Russia
1. Revolution were resolved
II. Nationalism and Patriotism grew
A. Men enlist for war
B. Cheered on by elders
Section 2: A New Kind of War
I. The Great War was the largest War in history
II. Millions were mobilized, and 1/4 soldiers died
A. Others were injured badly
Stalemate on the Western Front
I. Germany faced strong resistance from Belgium, but prevailed
II. The Schliefen plan failed
A. Russian mobilized quickly
B. France and Britain fought Germany successfully
1. Battle of Marne
C. Trenches were begun to be dug
D. Long stalemate would be fought
Technology of Modern Warfare
Modern weapons prove to be quite destructive. Machine guns and shells killed men. Machine
guns mowed down men while shells could be fired from far away, killing even more people.
I. Poison Gas
A. Poison gas was scary
B. People could choke or be blinded
C. Poison gas could harm the people who launched them
1. Wind can blow gas back
II. Tanks, Airplanes, and Submarines
A. Tanks
1. Armed with machine guns
2. Broke down easily
B. Airplanes
1. Armed with machine guns
2. Dog fight in the air

3. Had little impact on the war on the ground
C. Submarines
1. Uboat damaged Allies significantly
2. Sink supply ships
3. Allies travel in armed conveys
Battle on Other European Fronts
Lines moved back and forth with the casualties soaring high.
I. Russian Losses on the Eastern Front
A. Send troops to East Germany
1. Suffered defeat
B. Unindustrialized
1. Lack rifles
2. Suffered badly
3. Commanders continued to send soldiers
II. New Combatants in the Balkans and Southern Europe
A. Bulgaria defeated Serbia
B. Romania defeated by Central powers
C. Italy
1. Fought Austria to gain lands in Austria inhabited by Italians
2. Central powers united and fought Italy ferociously
3. Italy suffered massive loss
4. Allied help stop Central powers from getting into Italy
War Around the World
Not just in Europe. Japan used the war as an excuse to seize German outposts in China and
Pacific islands.
I. The Ottoman Empire Joins the Central Powers
A. Ottoman held key position to block Russia
1. Blocked supply lines to Russia
2. Allies with New Zealand, Australian, Indian, and British troops attacked to seize the
strait to Russia
3. Suffered setback from Turks and withdrawn troops
B. Turkish mountains and the Armenians
1. Turkish Armenian helped Russia fight Ottomans
2. Ottoman deported Armenians to Syria
a) Killed many Armenians while many fled to the United States
C. Arab Revolt
1. Arabian peninsula revolted against Ottoman Empire
2. US general helped Arab nationalist launch guerrilla warfare against Ottoman
a) Arab gain independence
II. War and the Colonies
A. Colonies drawn into war
1. States turned to colonies for supplies and help
2. German colonies overran by Allies’ colonies
3. New Zealand, Australia, and India entered war
B. Mixed feelings
1. Reluctant to serve
2. Others wanted to serve

a) Believe serving can help grant them independence

British colonies also involved in the war, like the Canadian soldiers fighting
trench warfare above.
Section 3: Winning the War
There was a stalemate for the war as casualties rose and supply drains. When a country left but
another joined, this situation would be turned.
Waging Total War
The modern warfare forces nations to plunge in total war, where all the resources have to be
dedicated for a war.
I. Economies Committed to War Production
A. Supplies
B. Universal conscription
C. Forced civilian labor
D. Banning labor strikes
E. Set mandatory prices
II. Economic Warfare
A. Blockades
1. Contraband
a) Prevent military equipments and raw materials that produce them from being
transported to Germany
b) British blockade prevented food and supplies from being transported to Germany
B. Retaliation
1. German Uboats sink all ships carrying anything to Germany
2. US threatened to intervene when a passenger ship was sunk carrying Americans
3. Restricted submarine warfare begun, where Uboats will float to surface before
sinking ship to allow neutral personnels to escape from lifeboats
III. Propaganda War
A. Total war involved propaganda war
1. Censored press, prevent public from learning casualty figure, to controlled public
B. Examples in the war

1. Support mobilization using propaganda
2. Exaggerations of enemy made atrocity
IV. Women Join the War Effort
A. Replace mens jobs
1. Grow food
2. Work in war industries
a) Produce weapons
B. Join the army
C. Nurse for soldiers
D. Impact
1. Challenge the argument that women are unable to hold mens jobs
2. Fought for their suffrage rights
Morale Collapses
Propaganda did not complete prevent morale from falling. Germany sent 15 year old recruits,
while Britain went near bankrupt.
I. War Fatigue
A. Generals did not win the promised victories, with high casualties and economic loss
B. Poets wrote poems against the war
C. Desertion in Italy
1. Italian soldiers deserted their troops
D. Russian soldiers left Russian army to join the Russian revolution
II. Revolution in Russia
A. Tsar overthrown
1. Bread revolution
B. Allies were glad
1. Believe that democratic government may give more support to the Allies
C. Russia withdraws from the war
1. After V. I. Lenin overthrow the government, a communist regime was established
2. Promised to withdraw from war, which it did
3. Germany can now focus war on the Western Front
The United States Declares War
The United States’ declaration of War on Germany changed everything.
I. Why Join the Allies?
A. Join which side
1. Support the Allies
a) Similar culture with Britain
b) Can feel closer with France as another democracy
2. Support the Central alliance
a) Irish American
b) Jewish Russian
c) German American
B. Resuming unrestricted Uboats attack
1. Germany resumed unrestricted Uboat attack, which was criticized by Woodrow
C. German Mexican alliance
1. Germany asked Mexico to support it to fight against the United States in return for
giving it Texas, Arizona, and other parts the US conquered from it

II. Declaring War
A. Declaration
1. Declare war to protect democracies around the world and to Kendall wars
B. Arrival
1. Boosted allies morale
2. Supported with troops and financial aid
III. The Fourteen Points
A. Woodrow Wilson wish to make peace
B. Fourteen Points as the resolution
1. Free seas, free seas, reduction of arm, end secret treaties
2. Self determination in Eastern Europe
a) Choose their form of their government
Victory at Last
I. Large Offensive
A. German launch offensive, pushing trench 40 miles back
B. Exhausted their men
II. American Arrival
A. American arrival help pushed battle front backwards against Germany
III. Sought for peace
A. German emperor stepped down
B. Austria-Hungary breaking apart
1. Nationalists on the street
C. Bulgaria and Ottoman also sought peace
D. Armistice signed on 11AM 11/11/1918

A newspaper headline about the armistice that
ended WWI being signed, in which Germany

Section 4: Making the Peace

President Woodrow Wilson head to France to attend peace meeting, but it did not solve the
problem in Europe.
The Costs of War
Millions died from the war along with the spread of influenza.
I. The Financial Toll
A. Places were shelled
B. Economy had to be rebuilt while war debts need to be repaid from an already shattered
C. Allies blamed losers and want them to pay the debt
D. Central powers see the armistice as a ceasefire not surrender agreement
II. Political Turmoil
A. Governments Collapsed
1. Russian, Ottoman, German, and Austrian-Hungarian collapsed
2. Radicals try to take power, especially the Bolsheviks (communists)
B. Colonists see that the imperialists are not as invincible as they seemed
The Paris Peace Conference
Peace was discussed at the Paris Peace conference, and the situation of past colonies and the
Ottoman Empire. Central powers and Russia were not allowed to attend.
I. Conflicting Goals
A. Woodrow Wilson proposes the Fourteen points
B. Britain wants to make a hero chart
C. France wants to make Germany weak
II. Problems With the Peace
A. Secret agreement
1. Italy wants the land promised to be taken from Austro-Hungary under secret treaty
2. This violates self determination
B. Self Determination
1. Self determination crosses over with the self interest of states
2. Minorities often were again bound in states not of their own
C. League of Nations
1. Woodrow Wilson wanted to create this that can fix any problems made by the Paris
Peace Conference
The Treaty of Versailles
I. German delegates of the new German Republic were asked to sign the new treaty
A. Were horrified by it
II. Demands
A. High payment of reparations and pensions for allied soldiers
B. Loose overseas colonies
C. Limit the size of German Army
D. All foreign personnels have to return home
III. Will allow Nazism to grow later on
Outcome of the Peace Settlements
Allies made different peace settlements with other central powers. This makes them dissatisfied.
I. Self-Determination in Eastern Europe
A. New States emerged

To the left is an image of the signing of the
treaty of Versailles, the agreement that settled
WWI in Paris.

1. Baltic
a) Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Latvia
2. Hapsburg
a) Czech
b) Hungary
c) Austria
3. Balkan
a) Yugoslavia
II. The Mandate System
A. Promise
1. The promise for self determination gave colonists hope
B. Betrayal
1. Self Determination only existed in Europe
2. Other colonies were divided up under the mandate system
3. Pacific Islands given to Japan and Australia
4. German colonies in Africa were given to Britain and France
5. Mandate system: give people power once they are able to stand alone
a) Reality: became colonies
III. The League of nations Offers Hope
A. Forty members joined
1. At first seemed promising
B. United States left behind
1. Senates want US to not be obliged to join future wars
2. Woodrow Wilson rejected compromise
3. Senate prevent US from joining League of Nations
C. Something new
1. Although
a) US did not join
b) No power outside of the nations
2. New form of collective security wishing to build things for the interest of the people
Section 5: Revolution and Civil War in Russia
Three century Romanov ruling came with celebrations, which deceived the Tzar that people
loved them. Radical change will develop after the revolutions.

The March Revolution Ends Tsarism
Russia expands from coast to coast, but did not industrialize as Western Europe did. Autocratic
rules and landowners controlled the government. A new middle working class developed as
industrialization begun.
I. Unrest Deepens
A. People did not get power in government
B. Elected Duma, or lower house, has no power
C. Nicholas did not allow people to restrict his power as conservative press for
constitutional change
1. Nicholas used secret police
D. Marxists call for a revolution of the proletariate
II. Impact of World War I
A. Russia had strained resources
1. Factory could not meet demand
2. Little materials transported to front
3. Soldiers had little guns and ammunitions
B. Nicholas decided to lead his army to fight
1. Incompetent fighter
2. Left Tzarina at home
C. Tsarina relied on an illiterate pesant, Rasputin, who saved her son, to rule
D. Rasputin killed
III. The Tsar Steps Down
A. Protest
1. Workers protested and marched on the street
2. Soldiers refused to fire on the demonstrators
3. Tsar abdicates
B. Transition Government Established
1. Moderate prepare for a constitution
2. Were democratic
C. Revolutionaries
1. Revolutionaries establish Soviets in other parts of Russia
2. At first work democratically
3. Later became dictatorial as it got led by the Bolshevik leader, V. I. Lenin
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
Vladimir Ilyrich Ulyanov had a happy family. But became a revolutionary and adopted the name
Lenin after his brother got brother hanged for plotting against the Tsar. Lenin hated the

To the left is an image of V. I. Lenin, the leader of
the communist movement in Russia who founded
the Soviet Union.

A Brilliant Revolutionary
A. Spread Marxist ideas among workers
B. Arrested by government and sent into exile in Siberia
1. Married with wife
C. Returned and went to Switzerland to work to spread Marxism
II. Lenin’s View of Marx
A. Adaptation of view
1. Did not have large urban proletariate
2. Called for an elite group to lead the fight
3. Named his group Bosheviks, or majority, even though his group is minority
B. Difference with other socialists
1. Did not believe in gradual, democratic socialism
2. Thought only revolution could lead to socialist ideas
C. Germany helped Lenin
1. Helped Lenin return home for him to produce revolution in Russia to weaken it

The November Revolution Brings the Bolsheviks to Power
Further the revolution with the help of Leon Trotsky. Called for peace, land, and bread to hungry
and war-weary people.
I. The Provisional Government’s Mistakes
A. Government made a mistake when furthering the efforts of war
B. People hated war already
C. Major offensive against Germany aggravated the situation
1. Soldiers mutinied
2. Peasant seized land from the landowners
II. The Bolshevik Takeover
A. Red guards joined the sailors of the Russian fleet to overthrow provisional government
B. Establish itself in Moscow after fighting, with Kremlin being its headquarters
C. Eradicated private ownership and gave the peasants land as they wanted
D. Will only become their new masters
Russian Plunges Into Civil War
Lenin made peace with Germany by giving it territory and population. He knew that he had to
focus his effort to suppress the dissent first.
I. Opposing Forces
A. People united against the Reds (the communist) as the Whites
1. Composition
a) Nationalists, democrats, Mensheviks (democratic socialists), Imperials
2. Nationalist
a) Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania broke free
b) Ukraine, central Asia nationalist did not
3. Foreign assistance from the Allies
a) US, France, Britain sent force to help the Whites
B. Red appealed to nationalism to drive out the foreigners, won
1. Communists later distrust the Allies
C. Cruelty
1. Communists captured by whites were tortured and killed
2. Tried to assassinate Lenin

3. The Tsar, Tsarina, and their five offsprings were shot to prevent them from being a
rallying symbol for the Whites
II. War Under Communism
A. Authoritarian Control of War Communism
1. Communists took over banks, railroad, and others
2. Peasant had to deliver all their crops
3. Forced labour camps were established
B. Secret police
1. Organized like the Tsar’s to execute people speaking against the revolution
C. Army
1. Effective fighting force was established
2. Tsar generals used under commissars who teaches communist principles and make
sure the Tsar generals were loyal
3. Passionate speech made soldiers fight passionately along with fear of being shot if
have bad performance
D. Victory
1. Located in the center of Russia while Whites were unable to cooperate, the Reds
Building the Communist Soviet Union
Great problems in Russia due to starvation of people and war death.
I. New Government, Same Problems
A. Established a seemingly democratic and socialist constitution for Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics
B. Made a legislature of Supreme Soviets and gave men the right to vote
C. People were said to be all equal
D. Same old problems
1. Secret police
2. Russia dominate other republics
3. Communist party is supreme
II. Lenin’s New Economic Policy
A. Withdraw from War Communism
1. Factory stopped production
2. Peasant stopped farming because all yields would be taken
3. Collapsed economy
B. New Economic Policy implemented
1. Private ownership of business allowed private profit
2. Tiny plots of land were allowed for peasants to keep their own yields
3. Banks, foreign trade, and other large industries still under government control
4. Economy in 1928 returned to prewar standards
C. The Return
1. This was only a temporary step for Lenin
2. Stalin will reimposed pure communism
III. Stalin Takes Over
A. Stalin vs. Trotsky
1. Stalin is a great political operator
a) Want to build communism at home first
2. Trotsky is a great thinker and public speaker
a) Want a global movement to overthrow capitalism

B. In the end…
1. Stalin isolated Trotsky successfully
2. Trotsky later murdered
C. Stalin overused authoritarian power