Engineering Project Report.



DECLARATION We, hereby declare that we carried out the work reported in this report in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Maharishi Dayanand University, under the supervision of Engr. Sonia Batra. We solemnly declare that to the best of our knowledge, no part of this report has been submitted here or elsewhere in a previous application for award of a degree. All sources of knowledge used have been duly acknowledged.

……………………………………. VARUN GUPTA 06/EL/1339

…………………………………….. KHUSHBOO GUPTA 06/EL/1351

APPROVAL This is to certify that the project titled ” PC to PC Communication using Laser” carried out by Varun Gupta and Khushboo Gupta, has been read and approved for meeting part of the requirements and regulations governing the award of the Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics and Communication) degree of Maharishi Dayanand University, Sonepat, Haryana.

......................................................... ENGR, SONIA BATRA (PROJECT SUPERVISOR)

……………….. DATE


………………… DATE

…………………………………….. (EXTERNAL EXAMINER)

…………………. DATE



The project is based on the concept of free space optical communication. In this project, a communication between PC to PC using LASER light is established. The project uses MAXIM Corporation’s IC MAX 232, which needs only a single power supply of 5V (for TTL to RS-232 and vice-versa) level conversion. The comm. over the short distance of 2-3 m is possible using IR diodes. The range could be increased up to hundred meters, using the laser diode module in place of IR LEDs. The laser module used is easily available as laser pointer (having about 5 mW power output). It is to be used with its three battery cells removed and positive supply terminal soldered to the casing and 0V point to the contact inside the laser module. Assemble the two prototypes on PCBs and connect them to COM Ports of each PC. Point the laser beam of one module to fall on the photodiode of the module connected to the other PC and vice-versa. Load serial communication software and set the port parameters to 9600 n 8 1 (here, 9600 represents baud rate, n stands for parity none, 8 represents bits per character and 1 indicates no. of stop bits) to establish the comm. The software program for the purpose is written in C language. File transferring and chatting is also possible with this ‘C’ coded software.


LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1:Block Diagram of PC to PC Laser Communication Figure 2: Internal Block Diagram of MAX232 IC Figure 3: Circuit Diagram of Receiver and Transmitter Section of PC to PC Laser Communication Figure 4: Production of LASER Figure 5: Demonstration of Population Inversion Figure 6: Coherence Figure 7: Monochromatic Figure 8: Collimation Figure 9: Photodiode Figure 10: Frequency Response of Photodiode Figure 11: Pin Diagram of DB-9 Connector

LIST OF TABLES Pin Description of 25 Pin Connector Pin Description of 9 Pin Connector Description of 9 to 25 Pin Adapters





Free Space Optics (FSO) is a telecommunication technology that uses light propagating in free space to transmit data between two points.

Free space optical communications is a line-of-sight (LOS) technology that transmits a modulated beam of visible or infrared light through the atmosphere for broadband communications. Free space optics uses a light emitting diode (LED) or laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) point source for data transmission. However, in free space optics, an energy beam is collimated and transmitted through space rather than being guided through an optical cable. • • • Free Space Optics is used to communicate between space-craft, since outside of the The optical links usually use infrared laser light, although low-data-rate Distances up to the order of 10 km are possible, but the distance and data rate of

atmosphere there is little to distort the signal. communication over short distances is possible using LEDs. connection is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions. Applications:
• •

LAN-to-LAN connections on campuses at Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet speeds. LAN-to-LAN connections in a city. example, Metropolitan area network. To cross a public road or other barriers which the sender and receiver do not own. Temporary network installation (for events or other purposes). Reestablish high-speed connection quickly (disaster recovery). As an alternative or upgrade add-on to existing wireless technologies. As a safety add-on for important fiber connections (redundancy).

• •

• •

For communications between spacecraft, including elements of a satellite


Advantages: • Quick link setup • • • •

High transmission security High bit rate Low bit error rate Low snow and rain impact Full duplex transmission Protocol transparency No interference Lower dispersion (compared to microwave link). In some devices, the beam can be visible, facilitating aiming and detection of

• • • •



ABOUT LASER 1. 2.1 General information

The 'laser' - or - (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) was perfected in 1960, by research scientist Theodore Maiman at the Hughes Laboratory in Malibu California. Physicists Charles H. Townes and his brother-in-law Arthur Schawlow were the first to actually apply for a patent on the laser and they were the first to publish their findings in scientific journals. The He-Ne laser (red beam) was in commercial use, by 1968. Today many different types of lasers exist, for a wide range of applications. Lasers are used for surgery, for cutting metal, for determining distance, for projecting 3-dimensional holographic images, for computer printing and for entertainment lighting applications. Laser light differs from ordinary light in four ways. Briefly it is much more intense, directional, monochromatic and coherent. Most lasers consist of a column of active material with a partly reflecting mirror at

one end and a fully reflecting mirror at the other. The active material can be solid (ruby crystal), liquid or gas (HeNe, CO2 etc.). 1.2.2 Why use a laser? A laser as a communications medium has some unique properties compared to other forms of media. A line-of-sight laser beam is useful where wires cannot be physically connected to a remote location. A laser beam, unlike wires, also does not require special shielding over longer distances. Lasers offer at least an order of magnitude longer distances compared to infrared LEDs. Although RF transmitters may offer longer distances than line-of-sight lasers, they are subject to interference from other transmitters. Since the laser medium is line-ofsight and the beam being only several millimeters in diameter it is very difficult for the data stream to be tapped. This offers secure communication since any attempts to intercept the laser beam would be detected at the receiver as a loss in data.


The word Laser is an acronym of Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The Laser makes use of processes that increase or amplify light signals after those signals have been generated by other means. These processes include:(1) Stimulated emission, a natural effect that was deduced by consideration relating to thermodynamics equilibrium. (2) Optical feedback (present in most lasers) that is usually provided by mirrors. Thus, in its simplest form, a laser consists of gain or amplifying medium (where stimulated emission occurs) and a set of mirrors to feed the light back into the amplifier for continued growth of the developing beam. The stimulated emission of light is the crucial quantum process necessary for the operation of a laser.

Figure 4. Production of Laser

Lasers have some very unique properties. Lasers generally have a narrower frequency distribution, much higher intensity, a greater degree of collimation or much shorter pulse duration than available from more common types of light sources. Therefore we use them in compact displayers, in super markets checkout scanners, in surviving instruments and in medical applications as a surgical knifes or for welding detached retinas. We also use them in communication systems and in radar and military targeting applications as well as many other areas. 2.1.1 POPULATION INVERSION

Figure 5. Demonstration of Population Inversion

• • •

The achievement of a significant population inversion in atomic or molecular energy Electrons will normally reside in the lowest available energy state. They can be elevated to excited states by absorption, but no significant collection of

states is a precondition for laser action.

electrons can be accumulated by absorption alone since both spontaneous emission and stimulated emission will bring them back down.


2.1..2.1 Coherent:

Figure 6. Coherence

Different parts of the laser beam are related to each other in phase. These phase relationships are maintained over long enough time so that interference effects may be seen or recorded photographically. This coherence property is what makes holograms possible. Monochromatic:

Figure 7. Monochromatic

Laser light consists of essentially one wavelength, having its origin in stimulated emission from one set of atomic energy levels. So the laser light has a single spectral color and is almost the purest monochromatic light available.  Collimated:

Figure 8. Collimation Because of bouncing back between mirrored ends of a laser cavity, those paths which sustain amplification must pass between the mirrors many times and be very nearly perpendicular to the mirrors. As a result, laser beams are very narrow and do not spread very much.


Figure 11. Pin Diagram of DB-9 Connector A parallel port sends and receives data eight bits at a time over 8 separate wires. This allows data to be transferred very quickly; however, the cable required is more bulky because of the number of individual wires it must contain. Parallel ports are typically used to connect a PC

to a printer and are rarely used for much else. A serial port sends and receives data one bit at a time over one wire. While it takes eight times as long to transfer each byte of data this way, only a few wires are required. In fact, two-way (full duplex) communications is possible with only three separate wires - one to send, one to receive, and a common signal ground wire. The serial port on the PC is a full-duplex device meaning that it can send and receive data at the same time. In order to be able to do this, it uses separate lines for transmitting and receiving data. Some types of serial devices support only one-way communications and therefore use only two wires in the cable - the transmit line and the signal ground. Once the start bit has been sent, the transmitter sends the actual data bits. There may either be 5, 6, 7, or 8 data bits, depending on the number we have selected. Both receiver and the transmitter must agree on the number of data bits, as well as the baud rate. Almost all devices transmit data using either 7 or 8 data bits.

After the data has been transmitted, a stop bit is sent. A stop bit has a value of 1 - or a mark state - and it can be detected correctly even if the previous data bit also had a value of 1. This is accomplished by the stop bit's duration. Stop bits can be 1, 1.5, or 2 bit periods in length.

The Parity Bit Besides the synchronization provided by the use of start and stop bits, an additional bit called a parity bit may optionally be transmitted along with the data. A parity bit affords a small amount of error checking, to help detect data corruption that might occur during transmission. We can choose either even parity, odd parity, mark parity, space parity or none at all. When even or odd parity is being used, the number of marks (logical 1 bits) in each data byte are counted, and a single bit is transmitted following the data bits to indicate whether the number of 1 bits just sent is even or odd.

When even parity is chosen, the parity bit is transmitted with a value of 0 if the number of preceding marks is an even number. For the binary value of 0110 0011 the parity bit would be 0. If even parity was in effect and the binary number 1101 0110 was sent, then the parity

bit would be 1. Odd parity is just the opposite, and the parity bit is 0 when the number of mark bits in the preceding word is an odd number. Parity error checking is very rudimentary. It tells us if there is a single bit error in the character, it doesn't show which bit was received in error. Also, if even number of bits are in error then the parity bit would not reflect any error at all.

Mark parity means that the parity bit is always set to the mark signal condition and likewise space parity always sends the parity bit in the space signal condition. Since these two parity options serve no useful purpose whatsoever, they are almost never used. DCE and DTE Devices

DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, and DCE stands for Data Communications Equipment. These terms are used to indicate the pin-out for the connectors on a device and the direction of the signals on the pins. Our computer is a DTE device, while most other devices are usually DCE devices. The RS-232 standard states that DTE devices use a 25-pin male connector, and DCE devices use a 25-pin female connector. We can therefore connect a DTE device to a DCE using a straight pin-for-pin connection. However, to connect two like devices, we must instead use a null modem cable. Null modem cables cross the transmit and receive lines in the cable. The listing below shows the connections and signal directions for both 25 and 9-pin connectors.

25 Pin Connector on a DTE device (PC connection) Male RS232 DB25 Pin Number 1 2 Direction of signal: Protective Ground Transmitted Data (TD) Outgoing Data (from a DTE to a DCE)

3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22

Received Data (RD) Incoming Data (from a DCE to a DTE) Request To Send (RTS) Outgoing flow control signal controlled by DTE Clear To Send (CTS) Incoming flow control signal controlled by DCE Data Set Ready (DSR) Incoming handshaking signal controlled by DCE Signal Ground Common reference voltage Carrier Detect (CD) Incoming signal from a modem Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Outgoing handshaking signal controlled by DTE Ring Indicator (RI) Incoming signal from a modem Table 1. Description of 25- Pin Connector

9 Pin Connector on a DTE device (PC connection) Male RS232 DB9 Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Direction of signal: Carrier Detect (CD) (from DCE) Incoming signal from a modem Received Data (RD) Incoming Data from a DCE Transmitted Data (TD) Outgoing Data to a DCE Data Terminal Ready (DTR) Outgoing handshaking signal Signal Ground Common reference voltage Data Set Ready (DSR) Incoming handshaking signal Request To Send (RTS) Outgoing flow control signal Clear To Send (CTS) Incoming flow control signal Ring Indicator (RI) (from DCE) Incoming signal from a modem Table 2. Description of 9- Pin Connector

The TD (transmit data) wire is the one through which data from a DTE device is transmitted to a DCE device. This name can be deceiving, because this wire is used by a DCE device to receive its data. The TD line is kept in a mark condition by the DTE device when it is idle.

The RD (receive data) wire is the one on which data is received by a DTE device, and the DCE device keeps this line in a mark condition when idle.

RTS stands for Request To Send. This line and the CTS(Clear To Send) line are used when "hardware flow control" is enabled in both the DTE and DCE devices. The DTE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the remote device that it is ready and able to receive data. If the DTE device is not able to receive data (typically because its receive buffer is almost full), it will put this line in the space condition as a signal to the DCE to stop sending data. When the DTE device is ready to receive more data (i.e. after data has been removed from its receive buffer), it will place this line back in the mark condition. The complement of the RTS wire is CTS, which stands for Clear To Send. The DCE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the DTE device that it is ready to receive the data. Likewise, if the DCE device is unable to receive data, it will place this line in the space condition. Together, these two lines make up what is called RTS/CTS or "hardware" flow control. The Software Wedge supports this type of flow control, as well as Xon/XOff or "software" flow control. Software flow control uses special control characters transmitted from one device to another to tell the other device to stop or start sending data. With software flow control the RTS and CTS lines are not used.

DTR stands for Data Terminal Ready. Its intended function is very similar to the RTS line. DSR (Data Set Ready) is the companion to DTR in the same way that CTS is to RTS. Some serial devices use DTR and DSR as signals to simply confirm that a device is connected and is turned on. The Software Wedge sets DTR to the mark state when the serial port is opened and leaves it in that state until the port is closed. The DTR and DSR lines were originally designed to provide an alternate method of hardware handshaking. It would be pointless to use both RTS/CTS and DTR/DSR for flow control signals at the same time. Because of this, DTR and DSR are rarely used for flow control.

CD stands for Carrier Detect. Carrier Detect is used by a modem to signal that it has a made a connection with another modem, or has detected a carrier tone. The last remaining line is RI or Ring Indicator. A modem toggles the state of this line when an incoming call rings your phone.

The Carrier Detect (CD) and the Ring Indicator (RI) lines are only available in connections to a modem. Because most modems transmit status information to a PC when either a carrier signal is detected (i.e. when a connection is made to another modem) or when the line is ringing, these two lines are rarely used.

9 to 25 Pin Adapters The following table shows the connections inside a standard 9 pin to 25 pin adapter.

9-Pin Connector Pin 1 DCD Pin 2 RD Pin 3 TD Pin 4 DTR Pin 5 GND Pin 6 DSR Pin 7 RTS Pin 8 CTS Pin 9 RI

25 Pin Connector Pin 8 DCD Pin 3 RD Pin 2 TD Pin 20 DTR Pin 7 GND Pin 6 DSR Pin 4 RTS Pin 5 CTS Pin 22 RI

Table 3. description of 9 to 25 pin adapters

Baud vs. Bits per Second The baud unit is named after Jean Maurice Emile Baudot, who was an officer in the French Telegraph Service. He is credited with devising the first uniform-length 5-bit code for characters of the alphabet in the late 19th century. Baud refers to the modulation rate or the number of times per second that a line changes state. This is not always the same as bits per second (BPS). If we connect two serial devices together using direct cables then baud and BPS are in fact the same. Thus, if we are running

at 19200 BPS, then the line is also changing states 19200 times per second. Because modems transfer signals over a telephone line, the baud rate is actually limited to a maximum of 2400 baud. This is a physical restriction of the lines provided by the phone company. The increased data throughput achieved with 9600 or higher baud modems is accomplished by using sophisticated phase modulation, and data compression techniques. MAX232 Applicability This module is primary of interest for people building their own electronics with an RS-232 interface. Off-the-shelf computers with RS-232 interfaces already contain the necessary electronics, and there is no need to add the circuitry as described here. [edit]Introduction [edit]Logic Signal Voltage Serial RS-232 (V.24) communication works with voltages (between -15V ... -3V are used to transmit a binary '1' and +3V ... +15V to transmit a binary '0') which are not compatible with today's computer logic voltages. On the other hand, classic TTL computer logic operates between 0V ... +5V (roughly 0V ... +0.8V referred to as low for binary '0', +2V ... +5V for high binary '1' ). Modern low-power logic operates in the range of 0V ... +3.3V or even lower. So, the maximum RS-232 signal levels are far too high for today's computer logic electronics, and the negative RS-232 voltage can't be grokked at all by the computer logic. Therefore, to receive serial data from an RS-232 interface the voltage has to be reduced, and the 0 and 1 voltage levels inverted. In the other direction (sending data from some logic over RS-232) the low logic voltage has to be "bumped up", and a negative voltage has to be generated, too. RS-232 TTL Logic <-> 1

-----------------------------------------------15V ... -3V <-> +2V ... +5V +3V ... +15V <-> 0V ... +0.8V <-> 0

All this can be done with conventional analog electronics, e.g. a particular power supply and a couple of transistors or the once popular 1488 (transmitter) and 1489 (receiver) ICs. However, since more than a decade it has become standard in amateur electronics to do the necessary signal level conversion with an integrated circuit (IC) from the MAX232 family (typically a MAX232A or some clone). In fact, it is hard to find some RS-232 circuitry in amateur electronics without a MAX232A or some clone. [edit]The MAX232 & MAX232A

A MAX232 integrated circuit The MAX232 from Maxim was the first IC which in one package contains the necessary drivers (two) and receivers (also two), to adapt the RS-232 signal voltage levels to TTL logic. It became popular, because it just needs one voltage (+5V) and generates the necessary RS232 voltage levels (approx. -10V and +10V) internally. This greatly simplified the design of circuitry. Circuitry designers no longer need to design and build a power supply with three voltages (e.g. -12V, +5V, and +12V), but could just provide one +5V power supply, e.g. with the help of a simple 78x05 voltage converter. The MAX232 has a successor, the MAX232A. The ICs are almost identical, however, the MAX232A is much more often used (and easier to get) than the original MAX232, and the MAX232A only needs external capacitors 1/10th the capacity of what the original MAX232 needs. It should be noted that the MAX232(A) is just a driver/receiver. It does not generate the necessary RS-232 sequence of marks and spaces with the right timing, it does not decode the RS-232 signal, it does not provide a serial/parallel conversion. All it does is to convert signal voltage levels. Generating serial data with the right timing and decoding serial data

has to be done by additional circuitry, e.g. by a 16550 UART or one of these small micro controllers (e.g. Atmel AVR, Microchip PIC) getting more and more popular. The MAX232 and MAX232A were once rather expensive ICs, but today they are cheap. It has also helped that many companies now produce clones (ie. Sipex). These clones sometimes need different external circuitry, e.g. the capacities of the external capacitors vary. It is recommended to check the data sheet of the particular manufacturer of an IC instead of relying on Maxim's original data sheet. The original manufacturer (and now some clone manufacturers, too) offers a large series of similar ICs, with different numbers of receivers and drivers, voltages, built-in or external capacitors, etc. E.g. The MAX232 and MAX232A need external capacitors for the internal voltage pump, while the MAX233 has these capacitors built-in. The MAX233 is also between three and ten times more expensive in electronic shops than the MAX232A because of its internal capacitors. It is also more difficult to get the MAX233 than the garden variety MAX232A. A similar IC, the MAX3232 is nowadays available for low-power 3V logic. MAX232(A) DIP Package +---v---+ C1+ -|1 V+ -|2 C1- -|3 C2+ -|4 C2- -|5 V- -|6 T2out -|7 R2in -|8 16|- Vcc 15|- GND 14|- T1out 13|- R1in 12|- R1out 11|- T1in 10|- T2in 9|- R2out


MAX232(A) DIP Package Pin Layout Nbr Name Purpose Signal Voltage Capacitor Capacitor Value

Value MAX232 MAX232A + connector for capacitor C1 capacitor should stand at least 16V +10V, capacitor should stand at least 1µF to VCC 16V capacitor should stand at least 16V capacitor should stand at least 16V capacitor should stand at least 16V -10V, capacitor should stand at least 1µF to GND 16V RS-232 RS-232 100nF to GND 100nF to VCC







output of voltage pump



- connector for capacitor C1 + connector for capacitor C2 - connector for capacitor C2













output of voltage pump / inverter

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

T2out Driver 2 output R2in Receiver 2 input

R2out Receiver 2 output TTL T2in T1in Driver 2 input Driver 1 input TTL TTL

R1out Receiver 1 output TTL R1in Receiver 1 input RS-232 RS-232

T1out Driver 1 output

15 16


Ground Power supply

0V +5V

1µF to VCC see above

100nF to VCC see above

V+(2) is also connected to VCC via a capacitor (C3). V-(6) is connected to GND via a capacitor (C4). And GND(16) and VCC(15) are also connected by a capacitor (C5), as close as possible to the pins.

PHOTODIODE A photodiode is a type of photodetector capable of converting light into either current orvoltage, depending upon the mode of operation.[1] Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiberconnection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Many diodes designed for use specifically as a photodiode will also use a PIN junction rather than the typical PN junction.

Principle of operation A photodiode is a PN junction or PIN structure. When a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it excites an electron, thereby creating a mobile electron and a positively charged electron hole. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in field of the depletion region. Thus holes move toward the anode, and electrons toward the cathode, and a photocurrent is produced.


Response of a silicon photo diode vs wavelength of the incident light Critical performance parameters of a photodiode include: responsivity The ratio of generated photocurrent to incident light power, typically expressed in A/Wwhen used in photoconductive mode. The responsivity may also be expressed as aquantum efficiency, or the ratio of the number of photogenerated carriers to incident photons and thus a unitless quantity. dark current The current through the photodiode in the absence of light, when it is operated in photoconductive mode. The dark current includes photocurrent generated by background radiation and the saturation current of the semiconductor junction. Dark current must be accounted for by calibration if a photodiode is used to make an accurate optical power measurement, and it is also a source of noise when a photodiode is used in an optical communication system. noise-equivalent power (NEP) The minimum input optical power to generate photocurrent, equal to the rms noise current in a 1 hertz bandwidth. The related characteristic detectivity (D) is the inverse of NEP, 1/NEP; and the specific detectivity ( to the area (A) of the photodetector, minimum detectable input power of a photodiode. ) is the detectivity normalized

. The NEP is roughly the

When a photodiode is used in an optical communication system, these parameters contribute to the sensitivity of the optical receiver, which is the minimum input power required for the

receiver to achieve a specified bit error ratio.

LED A light-emitting diode (LED) (pronounced /ˌɛl.iːˈdiː/[1]) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962,[2] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on),electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form ofphotons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.[3] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources inautomotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. Airbus has used LED lighting in their A320 Enhanced since 2007, and Boeing plans its use in the 787. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology Technology

Parts of an LED

Like a normal diode, the LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carriers— electrons and holes—flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releasesenergy in the form of a photon. The wavelength of the light emitted, and therefore its color, depends on the band gapenergy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet light. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. Advances in materials science have made possible the production of devices with evershorter wavelengths, producing light in a variety of colors. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the p-type layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate. Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface. Therefore Light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development. Capacitor The capacitor plays a crucial role in electronics -- it stores electrons for when they're needed most. Capacitors consist of two conducting plates placed near each other. Inside the capacitor, the terminals connect to two metal plates separated by a dielectric. The dielectric can be air, paper, plastic or anything else that does not conduct electricity and keeps the plates from touching each other.

fig 3.5 ceramic capacitor

They can store electric charge for later discharge. Direct current through a capacitor will charge the capacitor for a short time, and then stop flowing. Alternating current, because of the changing electric fields it generates, can “flow” across a capacitor. 3.4 Digital Multimeter (DMM) The DMM is an instrument that is able to measure voltage, current, and resistance in a circuit, or across circuit components and displays its measurements on a digital display.

3.5 Battery(9 VOLT):

If you look at any battery, you'll notice that it has two terminals.

One terminal is marked (+), or positive, while the other is marked (-), or negative. In an normal flashlight batteries, the ends of the battery are the terminals. In a large car battery, there are two heavy lead posts that act as the terminals. Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery. If you connect a wire between the negative and positive terminals, the electrons will flow from the negative to the positive terminal as fast as they can (and wear out the battery very quickly -- this also tends to be dangerous, especially with large batteries, so it is not something you want to be doing). Normally, you connect some type of load to the battery using the wire.

Fig 3.6 : 9V Battery Inside the battery itself

Electrons flow from the battery into a wire, and must travel from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical reaction to take place. That is why a battery can sit on a shelf for a year and still have plenty of power unless electrons are flowing from the negative to the positive terminal, the chemical reaction does not take place. Once you connect a wire, the reaction starts. 3.6 Laser torch For this project we have removed the laser assembly from a small laser pointer. The power supply circuit is the green board attached to the brass laser head. We carry similar laser pointers in our catalog that are easily disassembled for this project. The power supply circuit came conveniently marked with a plus and a minus next to two holes in the board. We solder the black negative lead from the battery clip to the hole marked minus. We solder one of the coil leads to the hole marked plus. We solder the red positive lead of the battery clip to the other lead from the coil.

fig 3.7:Laser torch TRANSISTOR(SK 100)


Figure 3. Circuit Diagram of Receiver and Transmitter Section of PC to PC Communication using LASER

There are two sections in our project. One is the transmitter section and the other being the receiver section. • TRANSMITTER SECTION:

Data signals transmitted through Pin 3 of ‘9’ pin ‘D’ connector of RS-232 COM port are sent to Pin 8 of MAX232 IC and it converts these EIA (Electronics Industry Association) RS232C compatible levels of +/- 9V to 0/5V TTL levels. The output pin line of MAX232 IC drives the PNP transistor SK100 and powers the IR LED. The output Pin 9 also drives an LED indicator during the positive output at its Pin 9. At logic’0’ output at Pin 9, LED2 goes ‘off’, but drives the PNP transistor through a bias resistor of 1 kilo-ohm, to switch ‘on’ IRLED1 and IRLED2 and also a visible LED3. Since very low drive current is used, use of high- efficiency visible LEDs, which light up at 1mA, are needed. The electrical pulses sent by the COM port are now converted into corresponding modulated pulses of IR light. • RECEIVER SECTION:

The IR signals are detected by a photodiode (D1). The detected TTL level (0/5 V) signals are coupled to pin 10 of MAX232 IC. These TTL levels are converted to +/- 9V levels internally and output at Pin 7. A visible LED1 at Pin 7 of MAX232 IC indicates that the signals are being received. Pin 7 is also connected to Pin 2 of ‘9’ pin ‘D’ connector used for serial port in the PC, so that the data

may be read. The optical signals received by the photodiodes are converted to electrical pulses and both PC think that there is a null modem cable connected between them. In some PCs, the serial port is terminated into ‘9’ Pin ‘D’ connector and in some others into a ‘25’ pin ‘D’ connector. 3.2 SOFTWARE #include<stdio.h> #include<dos.h> #include<conio.h> #include<graphics.h> #include<stdlib.h> #define DEL 25 #define COM 0x03f8 char gra= 'Y'; int flag = 0; union REGS inregs,outregs; FILE *fp; int status; char temp='\n',t2; int t1=10; void main(void) { char ch,chr,chs; clrscr(); if(flag==0) flag++; textcolor(4);gotoxy(26,6); cprintf("INFRARED/LASER COMMUNICATION"); gotoxy(34,9); textcolor(10); cprintf("R"); textcolor(7); cprintf("receive mode"); textcolor(14); gotoxy(35,12); cprintf("S"); textcolor(7); cprintf("end mode"); textcolor(6); gotoxy(37,15);

cprintf("E"); textcolor(7); cprintf("exit"); ch= getch(); switch(toupper(ch)) { case 'R': R:clrscr(); textcolor(4);gotoxy(26,6); cprintf("INFRARED/LASER COMMUNICATION"); textcolor(138); gotoxy(33,9); cprintf("RECEIVE MODE"); textcolor(9); gotoxy(33,12); cprintf("A"); textcolor(7);cprintf("align device"); textcolor(11); gotoxy(33,15); cprintf("F");textcolor(7); cprintf("file receive"); textcolor(6); gotoxy(36,18); cprintf("Q"); textcolor(7); cprintf("quit"); chr= getch(); switch(toupper(chr)) { case'A': ralgn(); break; case'F': f_rcv(); break; case'Q': main(); default: clrscr(); printf("wrong key pressed"); goto R; } break; case'S': S:clrscr(); textcolor(4);gotoxy(26,6); cprintf("INFRARED/LASER COMMUNICATION"); textcolor(142); gotoxy(36,9); cprintf("SEND MODE"); textcolor(9);gotoxy(34,12);

cprintf("A");textcolor(7);cprintf("align device"); textcolor(11);gotoxy(34,15); cprintf("T");textcolor(7);cprintf("transfer file"); textcolor(6);gotoxy(38,18); cprintf("Q");textcolor(7);cprintf("quit"); chs=getch(); switch(toupper(chs)) { case'A': salgn(); break; case'T': f_snd(); break; case'Q': main(); default: clrscr(); printf("wrong key pressed"); goto S; } break; case'E': clrscr(); textcolor(143);gotoxy(35,13); cprintf("GOOD BYE"); exit(1); default: clrscr(); printf("wrong key pressed"); main(); return; } } ralgn(void) { char st= ''; clrscr(); gotoxy(30,2); textcolor(10);

cprintf("RECEIVE MODE"); textcolor(9);cprintf("ALIGN DEVICE"); printf("\n"); initial(); loop: if(!kbhit()) { if(st==0x04) { clrscr(); textcolor(140); gotoxy(30,12); cprintf("ALIGNED PROPERLY"); gotoxy(48,24; printf("press any key to quit"); getch(); main(); } status= inp(0x3fd); if((status & 0x01)==0x00) goto loop; else if(!kbhit()) { st= inp(COM); printf("%c",st); goto loop; } else main(); } return; } f_rcv() { int flag=0,bytecount=0,count;

float ot=0.00, nt=0.00; char ch,st[55000],fnm[30]; clrscr(); initial(); ot=clock()/18.2; gotoxy(2,2); printf("FILE NAME? :"); fp=fopen(gets(fnm),"wb"); gotoxy(26,10); printf("(ready for)RECEIVING DATA"); gotoxy(50,24); textcolor(138); cprintf("don't key in may loss data"); loop: nt=clock()/18.2; status=inp(0x3fd); if((status & 0x01)==0x00) { if((bytecount>0)&&(nt-ot)>5.0) { clrscr(); for(count=0;count<flag;count++) { gotoxy(26,10); textcolor(11); cprintf("saving data in"); gotoxy(43,10); textcolor(12); cprintf("%s",fnm); } fclose(fp); gotoxy(26,13); textcolor(11); cprintf("file %s of %d bytes created",fnm,count); gotoxy(50,24);

textcolor(7); cprintf("press any key to quit"); getch(); main(); } goto loop; } else if(!kbhit()) { st[flag]=inp(COM); flag++; bytecount++; ot= clock()/18.2; goto loop; } else { clrscr(); for(count=0;count<flag;count++) { gotoxy(26,3); textcolor(140); cprintf("TERMINATED ABNORMALLY"); gotoxy(26,10); textcolor(11); cprintf("SAVING DATA IN"); textcolor(12); cprintf("%s",fnm); fprintf(fp,"%c",st[count]); } fclose(fp); gtoxy(26,13); textcolor(11); cprintf("File %s of %d bytes created",fnm,count);

sleep(5); main(); } return; } salgn(void) { int flag=0; char st[127]; clrscr(); initial(); textcolor(14); cprintf("type the sentence(<127 chars)"); puts("\n"); gets(st); loop: status=inp(0x3fd); if((status & 0x20)==0x00) goto loop; else do { if(!kbhit()) { outport(COM,0x0d); outport(COM,0x0a); if(flag==strlen(st)) { printf("\n"); flag=0; outport(COM,0X0d); outport(COM,0x0a); delay(5); } else

{ outport(COM,st[flag]); printf("%c",st[flag]); flag++; delay(DEL); } } if(kbhit()) { delay(1); outport(COM,0x04); main(); } } while(!kbhit()); } f_snd() { int flag=0, count=0, fl; char ch,st[55000],fnm[20]; clrscr(); initial(); gotoxy(2,2); printf("FILE NAME?:"); fp=fopen(gets(fnm),"rb"); if(fp==NULL) { clrscr(); gotoxy(35,13); printf("FILE NOT FOUND"); delay(1000); main(); } else

{ fl=filelength(5); gotoxy(23,20); printf("File being transferred has %u bytes",fl); do { ch=fgetc(fp); st[count]=ch; count++; } while(count<=fl); } fclose(fp); loop: status=inp(0x3fd); if((status & 0x20)==0x00) goto loop; else do { if(flag==fl) { gotoxy(50,24); pintf("press any key to quit"); getch(); main(); } else { outport(COM,st[flag]); printf("\t %004x",st[flag]); flag++; delay(DEL); } }

while(!kbhit()); } initial() { inregs.h.ah=0; inregs.h.al=0x63; inregs.x.dx=0; int86(0x14,&inregs,&outregs); }

CHAPTER-4 PCB DESIGNING A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). PCBs are rugged, inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point constructed circuits, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production. Method Used Under the print and etching technique two methods are used: (a) Manual Method (b) Screen Printing Due to certain difficulties the screen-printing method is not used and the printing is done manually. The following steps are followed to get final PCB: 1. Printing

2. Painting 3. Scrapping 4. Etching 5. Washing 6. Drilling 7. Masking

These steps are explained bellow in details:

Printing: First of all the circuit is traced out on the blank PCB plate using a paper carefully avoiding crossing of lines. Painting: Paint is now applied carefully on the various numbers in the circuit and plate kept aside for drying. Scrapping: After allowing the plate to dry, the lines are checked for continuity. In the case of intersection, if any, the unwanted paint is removed with the help of a scrapper. Etching: Now the plate is immersed into the solution of ferric chloride for about two hours. During this time period the copper from the unwanted is etched away by the ferric chloride solution leaving behind the copper under the painted area. Washing: The plate is taken out and washes thoroughly and cleans the plate of ferric solution. It is now allowed to dry for some time. After drying the reaming paint is removed using a thinner. Drilling: carbon

The position of all the holes required in the PCB is marked carefully .A proper drill bit is selected and holed drilled in the PCB.The PCB now is ready for masking. :

Masking Now coasting of protective chemicals are masking the PCB moisture proof and electrically insulated. The PCB is now ready for component mounting.

STEPS FOR DESIGNING PCB • • • • • • • • • • • • • First of all, circuit was designed using PCB designing software. The print out was taken out on transparent sheet of the designed circuit. The transparent sheet was placed with Lithium-ion sheet inside the LITHOGRAPHIC FILM MAKER MACHINE for 5 seconds. The circuit was printed on Lithium sheet. Now, the developed sheet was placed into AB solution for 2.5 minutes so that the circuit gets fixed to some extent with continuous shaking. The sheet is then placed into water for 2.5 minutes to remove extra Lithographic exposure. Finally the sheet is placed into a fixer, consisting of sulphur exactly for 2.5 minutes to fix the circuit onto the sheet. Now, the lithium film is ready to use. A sheet was taken which is coated with copper on one side and Bakelite on the other. The copper sheet was gently rubbed with the help of steel wire. The copper sheet was dipped into the photo resist machine to have a layer of photo resist on it from both the ends. The copper sheet was then kept into an oven for 15 minutes to make it dry. After having the layer of photo resist, it was placed in the UV-Light machine for 1.5 minutes. The Lithium film was placed in an opposite direction on the copper sheet and allows the machine for masking to be done on the copper sheet.

• • • • • • • • •

After masking, the circuit was printed on the copper sheet. The copper sheet was then, placed into developer machine for 2.5 minutes and again kept into an oven to make it dry for 15 minutes. The copper sheet was then placed into dye solution for 2.5 minutes. After removing from the solution, sheet was gently washed under the high pressure of water. The dye gets removed from the PCB. Keep it under the sunlight for sometime. The PCB was rubbed with the help of steel wire around the printed circuit. Test the continuity of the PCB with the help of multimeter. If some connections were found to be missing, path was made with the help of permanent marker. Finally we placed the PCB inside the etching machine so that remaining dye gets removed which were present between the circuitry connections and cannot be removed with the help of steel wire.

• • • • • •

When etching was completed, again wash the circuit. The PCB was ready for connections. Test the continuity of the PCB. Drilling was done. Components were mounted on the PCB and soldering was done. Finally, PCB was ready to work.


Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. Soft soldering is characterized by the melting point of the filler metal, which is below 400 °C (752 °F). The filler metal used in the process is called solder. Soldering is distinguished from brazing by use of a lower melting-temperature filler metal; it is distinguished from welding by the base metals not being melted during the joining process.

In a soldering process, heat is applied to the parts to be joined, causing the solder to melt and be drawn into the joint by capillary action and to bond to the materials to be joined by wetting action. After the metal cools, the resulting joints are not as strong as the base metal, but have adequate strength, electrical conductivity, and water-tightness for many uses.

CHAPTER-5TESTING 5.1 BREADBOARD TESTING Initially the circuit was designed on breadboard. Breadboard is used to make up temporary circuits for testing. No soldering is required hence it is easy to change connections and for replacement of components. Here, parts will not be damaged and thus can be used afterwards. BUILDING THE CIRCUIT: Begin by carefully insertion of IC MAX232 in the centre with its notch to the left. Then deal with each pin of IC. • • • • • • • Breadboard output: The output voltage at pin 2 and pin 6 of MAX232 IC was checked first which came out to be +/- 9V. At laser, the output voltage was 5V. Connections were made according to the given circuit. +5V dc supply was applied to the input of the IC. Check all the connections carefully. Check that parts are correct way round (capacitors). Check that no two leads are touching each other.(unless they are connected to the same block) Connect the breadboard to the supply and switch on the supply to test the circuit.

When we switch on the supply, laser and LED 2 glows up which is our requirement.

5.2 PCB TESTING • Assemble two transceiver modules and connect each of them. Using 3-core cables, to Com-1 ports of the two PC’s. Place them 15 to 20 cm apart so that the IR LEDs of each module face the photodiode detector of the other. • Power ‘on’ both the circuits to operate at stabilized 5V DC. You may alternatively use a 7805 regulator IC with a 9V DC source to obtain regulated %v supply. • Check if the MAX232 IC is working properly by testing pin 2 for 9 to 10V positive supply and pin 6 for -9V supply. MAX232 uses 1µF, 25V capacitors C1 – C5 as a charge pump to internally generate +/-9V from 5V supply. Generally, defective MAX232 ICs will not show a voltage generation of +9V and -9V at pins 2 & 6 respectively. Replace ICs, if required. Although1uF, 25V capacitors are recommended in the datasheet, the circuit works well even with 10uF, 25V capacitors, which are easily available. • With both the PCs and supply to the transceiver modules ‘on’, throw some light with the torch on photodiode. LED1 should flicker at the burst frequency rate of the transmitter. This proves that the IR signals are being detected by photodiodes and converted into RS232-compatible levels by MAX232 and output at pin 7 of MAX232 ICs is available for the PC to read the pulses. • To test the transmitter side, disconnect the module from COM-1 (or COM-2) port of the PC, and with the device powered ‘on’, use a short jumper wire from +5V and touch it at pin 8 of MAX232 IC to simulate a positive pulse. LED2 should turn ‘off’ and IRLEDs and LED3 should turn ‘on’ if the wiring is correct. IRLEDs would also be glowing. Remove the link wire from +5V to pin 8 of MAX232 IC and connect back the “D” connector to PC’s COM-1 (or COM-2) port. • Run simple communication software like PROCOM or TELIX. Set the baud rate, parity, bits per character, and stop bits to 9600, n, 8, 1 respectively, and send a few

characters from the keyboard through COM-1 port. You should be able to see LED3 flickering for a few seconds indicating data transmission. • Connect both PCs to the circuits and set the software to chat more. You should be able to transfer the data between the PCs as if a cable was connected.


1. The values of the components required must be checked properly before assembling the components onto the PCB because any change in the components values may affect the working of the receiver circuit. 2. The IC’s must be carefully handled otherwise IC’s may get spoilt and due to which again the working of the receiver circuit may get affected. 3. It should also be taken care that the IC’s are properly inserted in the IC holder otherwise the receiver may not work properly. 4. Extreme care must be taken while working with lasers as it may be dangerous for the eyes. 5. Care must also be taken while using the soldering iron for soldering the components onto the PCB. It is very hot and can burn the hands of the user. 6. Soldering must be done with utmost care otherwise it may form localized circuits on the PCB which affect the working of the receiver circuit.
7. Flux must be used while soldering because the primary purpose of flux is to

prevent oxidation of the base and filler materials. Tin-lead solder, for example, attaches very well to copper, but poorly to the various oxides of copper, which form quickly at soldering temperatures, flux also acts as a wetting agent in the soldering process, reducing the surface tension of the molten solder and causing it to better wet out the parts to be joined. 8. Prior to the testing of circuit it all the connections on the PCB should be checked properly that whether any part of the circuit is getting short circiuted or any component is not making a good connection to the PCB. 9. While testing the circuit it should be made sure that that the supply wich is being given to the reciever circuit is propely gounded.

10. It should be made sure that the proper signal is bieng provided by the signal generator to the circuit. 11. The flux which is used to solder the componenets onto the PCB is removed from surface of the PCB using acetone which may also act as short circuit on the PCB thus interfering the proper working of the circuit.




SK100 OP505a Max232cpe

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful