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V I I I E n g .

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Lesson 1, 3 and 5 [Textual comprehension from these 3 lessons]

Where the Mind is Without Fear

Can Animals Reason
A night to Forget [NO OBJECTIVES]
All the Worlds a Stage [NO OBJECTIVES]


QUESTIONS Read the passage and answer the following questions.
1. Saturday morning came. All the summer world was bright and fresh and full of life. Tom appeared
in front of the house with paint and a big brush. He looked at the fence, and all joy left him. A deep
sadness settled upon his heart. The fence was long and high. He wet the brush and moved it along the
top board. He did it again, and did it again. He looked at what he had done. The painted part was very,
very small. He sat down. He felt that he could not continue.
Jim, a boy who worked for the family, came through the gate. He was going to get water, and he was
singing happily. Tom said, Jim, I will get the water, if you will paint. Jim said, No. 1 must get the
1. What work was assigned to Tom by Aunt Polly?
A. .1. Tom was assigned to paint the long and high fence outside his house by Aunt Polly.
2. Explain : A deep sadness settled upon his heart .
A. .2. Tom was idle by nature. When Aunt Polly assigned to him a large fence to paint, A deep sadness
settled upon his heart.
3. What request did Tom do to Jim?
A.3. Tom requested Jim to paint the fence. He also offered that he would get water if he painted the
fence in his place.
2. Are you afraid of Aunt Polly? She wont hurt you. She talks about it, but talk never hurts. It never
hurts expect when she weeps, also. You should not be afraid of her Jim; I will give you one of my
playthings. And I will show you my foot. I will show you where I hurt it
Jim was only human. He took the plaything and he put his head down to look at the foot. In another
moment he was running down the street. Tom was painting as fast as possible. And Aunt Polly was
returning to the house.
1. How did Tom try to convince Jim to take up his work?
A. Tom offered him one of his playthings and tried to win his sympathy by showing him his sore foot as
2. Why is it said, Jim was only human.
A..2. When Tom offered Jim one of his playthings, Jim took it and he also looked at Toms sore foot.
Both these things on the part of Jim indicate that he was only human.
3. Aunt Polly was returning to the house. What two consequences took place at that time?
A.3. While Aunt Polly was returning to the house, even after taking one of the playthings from Tom to
paint the fence, Jim ran down the street and Tom started painting the fence as fast as possible.
3. Tom kept working, but soon he began to think of the fun planned for this day He and Huck had
planned to race down to the river and go swimming. His hands moved more slowly. Soon the other

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boys would come and laugh at him for working. From his pocket he took everything that he owned. He
looked at it. There was nothing of real value. It was not enough to buy another boys help.
At this dark moment, a wonderful idea came to him. It was like a great bright light.
He took his brush and went quietly to work.
1. What was the fun planned by Tom and Huck for that day?
A. 1. Tom and Huck had planned to go down to the river and go for swimming.
2. Why did Tom fumble his pocket?
A.2. To avoid the tedious job of painting the fence, Tom wanted to buy help from his friends. For
buying another boys help, he fumbled his pocket if he could find anything of real value that could buy
him the help.
3. Why is it said, at this dark moment?
A. 3. Since Tom could not think of any way to get the fence painted by someone, it was the time
[moment] of great disappoint, i.e., a dark moment for him.
4. Ben Rogers appeared soon. Tom had been especially afraid of Bens Laugh
Ben was eating an apple. Also as he walked, he was making noises like those of a big riverboat. He
would shout loudly . Then he would say Dingdongdong like a bell. Then he would shout, and say
Dingdongdong again, and make other strange noises. He was on the boat, and he was the captain of
the boat, and he was the boat bell.
Turn her! He shouted. Slow her !Stop! He made a slow, careful turn, came close beside Tom,
and stopped.
Tom continued his painting. He did not look at the boat.
Ben said,Hello! You are in trouble. No answer. Tom moved his brush gently, and looked at the
Ben came nearer. Tom wishes for the apple, but he did not turn from his work .
Ben said Hello, you must work, must you?
1. What was Tom especially scared of?
A.1. Tom was especially scared of Ben Rogers laugh.
2. What was Toms reaction when Ben approached near him?
A. 2. When Ben came near him, Tom continued his painting. He did not look at the boat. He didnt
reply him and moved his brush gently and continued his work.
3. What did Tom wish from Ben?
A.3. Tom wished for the apple that Ben was eating.



Read the text carefully and write the answer of the question
Here orders are made to ignore and rules made to forget. Callous disregard for public
inconvenience on the part of the municipal corporation, Jalandhar (MAJ) and indifference on the part
of traffic police is just the beginning of the problem that results in a chaotic traffic situation in the city.
In 2006, the MC passed orders banning the parking of scooters and four-wheelers along the
trijunction in front of his office. But the road leading from PNB Chowk to JyotiChowk is still today
over-crowded with randomly parked vehicles. An official from the MC said, ``we`ve done our part. We
passed the orders properly. It`s not our job to police the streets``.
Even though years have elapsed since the delivery of the MCJ orders, we can see no visible efforts to
correct the problem. It looks as if the orders were passed only to complete the official formalities and
not for implementation.
Q.1. What is the write-up and what is it about?

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A.1. This write up is a newspaper report. It is about traffic problem in Jalandhar city. It is prepared
by Jatin Singh and published in January 19 issue of the Jalandhar news.
Q.2. Who are responsible for the chaotic traffic situation in the city?
A.2. The Municipal and the traffic police are responsible for the chaotic traffic situation in the city.
Q.3.How can you say that answer of the official form the MC was irresponsible?
A.3. Theofficial of the Municipal Corporation of Jalandhar said that they had done their part by
passing the orders properly and it was not their job to police the streets. This reply was just
Q.2. The MC originally built a parking zone for the public by taking over some land from the Nehru
garden area, but the use of the zone is mostly limited to employees of the corporation and a few nearby
When the tribune visited the parking area, there were just 15 cars and around 30 scooters parked,
most of which belonged to these employees. At that same time, there were long queues of vehicles
parked along the sides of roads. Vehicles on the road were parked in a haphazard manner, blocking
the flow of traffic. The only `no parking signs we found were in hidden corners.
The busy area is famous for big chemist shops, bakeries, roadside eateries and shoe-shops.
Rainakbazaar and Dikhusha market with their narrow lanes and heavy vehicular flow have turned
into anightmare for shoppers.
Q.1. How has MC built a parking zone?
A.1. The Municipal Corporation took over some land from the Nehru Garden area and built a parking
zone for the public.
Q.2. What did the journalist of the tribune observe?
A.2. The journalist of the tribune observed that when the tribune visited the parking area, there were
just 15 cars and around 30 scooters parked, most of which belonged to these employees. At that same
time, there were long queues of vehicles parked along the sides of roads. Vehicles on the road were
parked in a haphazard manner, blocking the flow of traffic. The only `no parking signs we found were
in hidden corners.
Q.3. Give the meaning of the phrase-`turn into nightmare and use it in a sentence of your own.
A.3. The meaning of the phrase -`turn into nightmare is converting into a very unpleasant
Sentence: The whole journey was a nightmare - we lost our luggage and we arrived two days late.
Q-1 Read the passage and answer the question.
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could nottravel both
And be one ttaveller,long I stood
And look down one as far as i could
To where it bent in the undergrowth
Then took the other just as fair
And having perhaps the better claim
Because it was grassy and wanted wear;
Though as for that the passing there
Had worn them really about the same,
1)What did the poet feel sorry for?
A.1. The poet was standing at the fork of two roads in a yellow wood. He being one traveller, could not
travel both at the same time. So, he was sorry.

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2)What did the poet observe standing at one place? Where was the poet standing?
A.2. The poet was standing at the fork of two roads. From there, he could see two roads diverging in a
yellow wood. He looked down one road as far as he could see and found the one bending in the
3) What reasons did the poet give for choosing the other road?
A.3. The poet chose the other road because it was equally fair as the first one and it was grassy and
almost untrodden. Hence, according to the poet, perhaps it was having the better claim.
2) And both that morning equally lay
In leaves no step had trodden black.
Oh I kept the first for another day
Yet knowing how way leads on to way,
I doubted if i should ever come back.
I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somewhere ages and ages hence
Two roads diverged in a wood and I
I took the one less travelled by,
And that has made all the difference
1 What does the poet mean by the words ohI kept the first for another day?
A.1. Since the poet could not travel both the roads at the same time, he took up one and postponed
travelling the other thinking that he could come back and travel it another day.
2 What doubt has risen in the poets mind?
A.2. The doubt that had risen in the poets mind was that whether he would be able to come back to
travel along the other road which he had kept for some other day.
3 What, after a long time, will the poet tell with a sigh? Why?
A.3. Far off in future, the poet will tell with a sigh how his decision was final and life-changing. It
made a lot of difference to him.

GUL MOHAR [paper style]


Match the meanings

Choose the correct option
State whether following statements are true or false
Answer in brief
Textual comprehension [lessons: A Night To Forget, Darjeeling, Bodyline]


1. What shows Knzis achievement?
A. He shows mental abilities resembling those of a human child of two-and-a-half years.
B. He knows so much though he is only two - and-a-half years old.
C. He has learnt so much in only two - and-a-half years.
D. He has been learning human behaviour for two-an-a-half years.
2. Three things show that Kanji can learn a language. What are they?
A. He generally gets what he wants, he can understand more than 200 words and he can see symbols
on a console.
B. He understands more than 200 words, he can say words by pointing to symbols.
C. He knows what he wants, he can understand what he is told and he can hear the telephone.

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D. He can understand what he hears, he generally gets what he wants and he can tell the difference
between coffee with and without milk.
3. Intelligence is a complex combination of several abilities. Therefore
A. It is clear that only humans have it.
B. It is unnatural for any of the animals to have it.
C. It is surprising to see some animals possessing some of those abilities.
D. It is unreasonable to expect those abilities in animals.
4. The American scientist who studied chickens showed that ---A. the best diet for chickens is worms, peas and peanuts.
B. The rooster signaled to the hens with clucking sounds when the food was kept.
C. Chickens liked worms and peas much more than peanuts.
4. The rooster signaled in one way for worms and peas and in another way for peanuts.
5. Kanji loves ----A. bananas and coffee

B. worms, peas and peanuts

6. Two dolphins performed a series of acrobatic feats in _____

A. Hawaii
B. Egypt
C. Georgia

C. hard nuts
D. America

7. Vultures of _________________ want to open an ostrich egg.

A. Hawaii

B. Egypt

C. Georgia

D. America

8. In the West African country of Ivory Coast, the abililities of ___________________ are even more
A. Chimpanzee
B. Rooster
C. vulture
D. Kanzi
9. An American Scientist specialized in the study of chickens.
A. American
B. Indian
C. African

D. English

1. ______________________ is like a clear stream.
a. Reason
B. Dead habits
C. Tireless efforts
2. _____________________ are like a dreary desert sand.
a. Reason
B. Dead habits
C. Tireless efforts
3. The mind continuously moves towards ever-widening _________________
A. thought and action
B. thought and reaction
C.a sense of pride in themselves
4. Where the Mind is without Fear is written by
A. R.N.Tagore
B. William Shakespeare
C. Robert Frost
5. The mind continuously moves towards ever-widening thought and action.
A. Heart
B. Mind
C. Lungs
6. The prayer is for all humanity.
A. entire world
B. entire country
C. all humanity

1. The author used a taxi.
a. Train
B. Taxi
2. The author took threehours to reach Darjeeling.

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A. Two
B. three
C. four
The authors decision was to take the train all the way to Darjeeling from Bombay.
B. Calcutta
C. Bombay
The whole mountainside was covered with dark green fir trees.
A. Dark green pine trees
B. dark green fir trees
It began to drizzle when the author reached theGovernment Tourist Lodge.
A. Government Tourist Lodge
B. Private Tourist Lodge
Kanchenjunga appeared in dazzling majesty against the blue sky like a cut-out.
A. Kanchanjunga
B. Nanda Devi
C. K2
Tiger Hill has become a world famous hill.
A. Hill
B. mountain
C. hill station
Darjeeling, an extract from The Distorted Mirror: stories, travelogues and sketches is written
by R.K.Laxman.
A] R.K.Laxman
B] R.K. Narayan
C. Vikram Seth

1. The England-Australia cricket players played a match at the London Cricket Ground called Oval
where England had lost a match in the year ______________
A. 1881-82
B. 1882-83
C. 1880-81
2. The idea of English cricket being dead and burnt to ashes appeared in a newspaper after the test
series that took place in the year _______________________
A. 1881-82
B. 1880-81
C. 1882-83
3. England and Australia started playing a series of five test matchess every two years
B. 1862
C. 1860
4. Cricket matches acquired the definite shape in test matches in the year __________
A. 1877
B. 1878
C. 1879
5. Bodyline bowling became a big issue in the year __________
A. 1933
B. 1934
C. 1935
6. The Board in Australiaproposed that a bodyline ball should be declared a no-ball by the umpire and
punished if further repeated.
A. England
B. Australia
C. India
7. Don Bradman, however, went to play spectacularly in __1934_____ helping his team to win the
series 4-1.
A. 1934
B. 1935
C. 1933


Ostrichs eggs have a thick shell TRUE

Chimpanzees are not categorised as dangerous animals. FALSE
Primate knew the value of granite stones. TRUE
Dolphins cannot communicate with each other. False
A slow cluck of a rooster signifies disappointment. TRUE
Scientists are yet to find another species with the same capacity for logic and reasoning as
human beings. TRUE
7. Humans dont struggle find a complete definition of intelligence. FALSE
8. Kanzi can speak. FALSE

1. Where the mind is without fear is written bySarojini Naidu. FALSE
2. The poem is in the form of petition for Gods help. TRUE

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3. Reason is compared to an arid desert. FALSE

4. Meaningless rituals are compared to arid desert sand where nothing grows. TRUE
5. This poem is a patriotic prayer to the Creator- Father to recreate our country with a true
national spirit. TRUE


In Darjeeling, wherever one went, the ultimate destination would be the Mall. TRUE
It was a fine drive through plains from Darjeeling to Sikkim. FALSE
Going to tiger hill is not a must when you are in Darjeeling. FALSE
This essay Darjeeling reads like a Monologue. FALSE
On his return to Darjeeling, the writer became a familiar figure in Darjeeling. TRUE
A collie knew the correct information- the train to Darjeeling was not running anymore because
of a landslide. TRUE
7. The author was not glad to see Tenzing. He doesnt call him a deserving hero. FALSE
8. Beautiful views of Kanchanjunga and the Himalayas cannot be seen from Darjeeling. FALSE


The Australian Cricket Board won an argument against the MCC. FALSE
Jardines team won the Ashes in the year bodyline bowling was first used.TRUE
Jardinelisted his popularity and future opportunities to play in the Ashes series. TRUE
Bodyline is a word in cricket. TRUE
Bradman won increasing popularity and went on a higher achievement as a batsman. TRUE
Douglas Jardine returned to England triumphantly with the ashes and he had become popular
among cricket lovers. FALSE
The Board in Australia proposed that a bodyline ball should be declared a no-ball by the
umpire and punished if repeated. FALSE
Two years later, it was the English newspapers which referred to the England teams voyage to
Australia as a quest to regain the Ashes. TRUE
W.A.Oldfield, the Australian captain, was hit by a bodyline ball nastily on the left side of the
chest. FALSE

1. Narrow domestic walls: divisions or partitions of different kinds between countries and within
2. Tireless striving stretches its arm: continuous effort is made to achieve perfection
3. Dreary: dull, lifeless

Attained achieved
Primate in Zoology, monkeys, gorillas, chimpanzees and so on belong to the class of primates
Console something like a switchboard
Aggressive likely to attack
Antics strange behavior
Tandem at the same time in the same way
Choreographed carefully planned movements
Acrobatic feats difficult physical acts, as we see in a circus

1. Spindle-legged: with long, thin legs
2. Driftwood: branches of trees thrown up by the sea on the shore; they are usually thin and

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3. Had ripped the tracks away: had torn away the rails
4. Careering: going fast in an uncontrolled way
5. Abruptly: suddenly and without any warning
6. Perched: positioned at a height and on an edge
7. Suppressed delight: tried to control his happiness and excitement
8. Lounging: sitting around idly
9. Prima donna: leading beauty in a show business
10. A wisp of white patch: a little cloud of mist
11. Local citizenry: the people who lived in that area
12. Unspeakably bad: very bad-so bad that it could hardly be described
13. Sheaves of glossy brochures: handfuls of publicity material


Jubilation- feeling of great joy at success or victory.

Satirical- witty and mocking.
Consistency- ability to do something again and again.
Strategy- a set of plans to achieve or counter something.
Distract- disturb (the batmans) concentration.
Intimidatory- threatening.
Likelihood- possibility.
Taken aback- taken by surprise; shock
Menacing- arousing fear and making the batsman nervous.
Beckling- shouting rude and angry remarks.
Utter contempt- total lack of respect.
Deplore- condemn as wrong or immoral.
Deprecate- criticise and hence refuse to accept.
Infringe- break.
Jeopardise- put something in danger; risk harming or destroying.
Strained- weakened the trust and friendship enjoyed by the two countries.


1. Which animal shows the most remarkable memory? How?
The salmon shows a remarkable memory by going back to the same river where it was born,
even though it lives in the sea.
2. Which animal gives evidence of logic? What is the evidence?
The Egyptian Vulture shows the ability of logic, while choosing a stone to crack the egg.
3. Which animal goes beyond logic to show judgement? What does it judge?
The chimpanzee displays judgment while choosing a granite stone to crack open the hard shells
of the nuts it likes to eat. It decides to choose a heavy stone if it needs to be carried a shorter
distance. But over long distances, they choose the lighter stones so that they dont tire
themselves out.
4. Of the three abilities, which is the most advanced?
Of the three abilities, the ability to judge is the most advanced.
5. Why does the text say that the chimpanzees abilities are not that surprising?

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The chimpanzees abilities are not that surprising considering that they are our closest living
relatives in the evolutionary scale.
6. What other animals are similar to Chimpanzees in this respect.
Gorillas and Orangutans are similar to chimpanzee in this respect.
7. The narrator says, From a very young age, these animals learn much faster than human babies.
Why, then, are those animals not better thinkers than human beings?
From a very young age, these animals learn much faster than human babies. Chimpanzees eat
with a spoon, use a screw driver and ride a bicycle. But Chimpanzees, especially the males, tend
to become more aggressive as they become older.
8. Who gets whatever he wants? What does he get? How does he communicate?
Kanzy the pygmy chimpanzee gets whatever he wants. He gets orange juice, bananas and
coffee with milk. He communicates with his human companions by pointing to symbols on a
console, where each symbol stands for a word.
9. Which bird eats other birds eggs and how?
The Egyptian Vulture eats other birds eggs. It picks up a stone in its beak and drops it on the
ostrich egg to crack its thick shell.

Q.1. Whatare the different qualities of the heaven of freedom which the speaker prays for.
A.1. Different qualities of the heaven of freedom which the speaker prays for are:
1. The mind is fearless.
2. People have confidence and a sense of pride in them.
3. Knowledge is available to all, not just to some.
4. There is no division, discrimination or enmity groups and sections of society of nations.
5. There are no lies.
6. Logic and reason motivates action and not blind habit or superstition.
7. People work hard and strive for perfection
8. People think and act while being conscious of God.
Q.2. Consider the contrast made between a clear stream and a dreary desert.
1. What is like a clear stream?
Reason is like a clear stream.
2. What is like a dreary desert?
Dead habits are like dreary desert sand.
3. What happens to a clear stream when it turns into a desert?
When a clear stream turns into a desert it loses its way.
4. What tends to weaken and destroy our reasoning ability?
Following beliefs and ideas mindlessly and superstitiously without thinking destroys our reasoning
Q.5. Is the heaven of freedom a place to rest from effort or is it a place of continuous [tireless] effort?
Effort to achieve what?
A.5. The heaven of freedom is a place of tireless effort to achieve perfection.
Q.6. Does the mind also move in that heaven, continuously in some direction?
The mind continuously moves towards ever-widening thought and action.
Q.7. For whom is the prayer for? What is the speakers idea of the heaven of freedom?

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The prayer is for all humanity. The speaker idea is that it is imperative to every country to wake up to
the heaven of freedom and to realize that the world need not be broken up into fragments.



1. When Albert looked at himself in the mirror, what thoughts arose in his mind? When the second
act began how did Albert get prepared?
As the second Act began,Albert found himself alone in the dressing room. He looked at
himself in the mirror and squared a helmet on his head.He thought that he certainly
looked the part of a policeman. He thought it would be amusing to scare someone on the
street as a policeman and arrest him. He narrowed his eyes, looked fiercely at himself,
and spoke his opening line in a guttural undertone.
2. Did the early parts of the play go well? What did the players and audience enjoy?What supports
your answer?
A. Yes, the early part of the play went well. The players reveled reveling in a hobby they
loved and gave entertainment to all those people. The audience was thrilled and they
enjoyed every twist and climax of the plot and laughed at every witty phrases and
humorous exchange. One could hear the audience laughing along with the play. The
audience was responsive and appreciative.
3. He could not do it.[para 3] Who could not do what? Why?
A. Albert felt that he could not go on the stage and play his part. He was suddenly seized by
an appalling attack of stage fright. His stomach was empty, a hollow void of fear. He put
his head in his hands. He felt that hecould not do it. He could not face all those people.
His mouth was dry and when he tried to bring his lines to memory, he found nothing but
a blank. He was overcome by the stage fright.
4. Mrs. Bostock says that the prompter, Shirley, hasnt had a thing to do far/ What does this indicate?
A. Mrs. Bostock said that the prompter, Shirley, hasnt had a thing to do far as the actors
had said their lines perfectly and no one had forgotten anything.
5. How did Albert react to the knock on the door?
A. A.6. When Albert heard the knock on the door, he felt panic gripping in him. He was
worried if he had missed his entrance. He worried if he had ruined the performance for
everybody by cringing with fear like a frightened child.
6. He realised to his own surprise that he was. [para 11] That he was what? Why did that surprise
A. He realised that he was all right and was no longer feeling afraid. Up until that moment
he was panicking and he had not been aware of the moment when the stage fright had
7. How much of the story of the play can we make out from this text? State briefly what can be made
A. The play involves two brothers who do not get along. The older brother is disgusted with
his younger brother who has knocked a man down.
8. Did Albert go on the stage that night? How can you tell?
A. No Albert did not go on the stage that night because by mistake the two actors on the
stage skipped three pages ahead which meant that they skipped the policemans part
completely.So he could not go on stage at all.



Q.1. How did the Department of Tourism and the travel agent respond to the authors decision to go to
Darjeeling by train? Can you guess why?
A.1. The Department of Tourism and the travel agent applauded the authors decision. It seems that
there were very few tourists willing to go to Darjeeling during the rains.

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Q.2. The author says his fellow passengers on the train to Jalpaiguri seemed to be frequent travellers on
that trai What may have given him that impression?
A.2. The travelers argued about the time the author would be left with to change from one train to
another. Since they seemed confident about the timings the author thought that they must be frequent
travelers on that line.
Q.3. What was a mystery to the author?
A.3. It was a mystery to the author as to why the vital information that a disastrous landslide had
eaten away the tracks was withheld from him by everyone concerned with his travel plans.
Q.4. Who actually knew the truth about the mountain train? What was the truth?
A..4. A collie knew the correct information- the train to Darjeeling was not running anymore because
of a landslide.
Q.5. Why did the author comment on the drivers vision?
A.5. The author could see nothing because of the mist, but the driver seemed to depend upon some
sense other than vision to keep the car from flying off the cliff off the cliff or colliding with vehicles
careering madly down the road. The road, which seemed to have been built for only one car, somehow
would miraculously expand a wee bit to let another coming from the opposite side pass. This driving
skill made the author comment on his vision.
Q.6. What was like a blessed vision? What made it look like that?
A.6.On the way, a sudden view of Darjeeling appeared amidst the misty veil. It was like a blessed
vision as it appeared and disappeared so suddenly.
Q7. Do you think the author was happy to see Tenzing? What makes you say so?
A.7. The author was glad to see Tenzing. He calls him a deserving hero.
Q.8. Describe Tenzings house.
A.8. Tenzingshouse was perched at a height, on the mountain; its lawns and flower-beds sloping down
to the road. The author lived in wonderful surroundings for a deserving hero of the mountain was the
authors opinion.
Q.9. What is a good reason for visiting Tiger Hill? What looks like a good reason againstit?
A.9. Tiger Hill is a word-famous for its view of beautiful mountains that are lit pink at dawn. But to
see this one must take a dangerous drive at three in the morning, in the freezing cold.
Q.10. What surprise was discovered by the morning by the tourists?
A. 10. The surprise that was discovered next morning was that there was no trace of rain or mist.
Kanchanjunga appeared in dazzling majesty against the blue sky like a cut-out. The tourists started a
battery of cameras aim at the snow peaks as they were afraid the mist would again cover it.
Q.11. What is the attraction of going to Darjeeling? What is the risk?
A.11. Beautiful views of Kanchanjunga and the Himalayas can be seen from Darjeeling. However,
mist and clouds could ruin it and one may not get to see anything at all.

Answer the following questions.

Whose defeat in a match led to talk about how the series came to be called the death of English
cricket, cremation and Ashes? What was the satirical note put up by the British newspaper?
Englands defeat in one of a series of matches played in England 1881-81 led to talk about the death of
English cricket and ashes. The remark put up by the British newspaper was that English cricket is
dead.. The body will be cremated and the ashes will be taken to Australia .
What happened in the Oval? What was special about that defeat?
In the series played in England in 1881-81, England was defeated in a match played at the London
cricket ground called The Oval. The special about the defeat was that it was for the first time that
England lost a match in England.
3. Who referred to it again two years later and in what form?
Two years later, it was the English newspapers which referred to the England teams voyage to
Australia as a quest to regain the Ashes.

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4. What is bodyline? Who coined it?

Bodyline is a word in cricket. It was coined nearly a century ago to refer to a particular type of
bowling. This happened during a controversial series of matches between England and Australia.
Who won the series ?How did Bradman perform?
Australia presumably won the series and Bradman performed brilliantly, with two centuries and halfcenturies apiece.
6. Who won the next series two years later? How is Bradmans performance in it described in the text?
Australia won the series two years later. Bradmans talent was impressive.
7. Where was the next series played? What happened during the series?
The next series was played in Australia. England used bodyline tactics to get batsmen out.
H.M.Woodfull, the Australian captain, was hit by a bodyline ball nastily on the left side of the chest.
Jardine brought the leg side field still closer and the captain was soon bowled while attempting to
defend himself. Then W.A.Oldfield was hit on the right side of his head and had to retire hurt. These
events made the crowd and the Australian Board of Control for Cricket mad with anger
8. Who decided to use fast, rising balls pitched on the leg stump, repeatedly, with close-in fielders around
the leg stump? What prompted such a decision? What strategy did he plan?
It was the England captain, Douglas R Jardine, and the decision was born out of the need to counter
Australias batting strength, especially due to Donald Bradmans prowess.
The strategy that he planned was to bowl repeated fast bouncers on the batsmans leg stump, with
several close-in fielders on the leg side. If the ball hit the batsmans body, it would upset and distract
the batsman, and cause a batting error. The close-in fielderswould worry and distract the batsman.
9. Was such bowling within the rules of cricket? In what way was its present use different?
It was intimidatory and unethical, but not against the laws of the cricket. Until then, such tactics had
been in occasional use to surprise a batsman and disturb his concentration.
10. Was such bowling used in the years that followed? Is it used/ accepted today?
Over the next few years no new rule was made about bodyline bowling. Today, a ball rising along the
body of the batsman on his leg stump is described as a well-directed bouncer.
11.. Who created the first Ashes trophy and who received it? How was it made?
It is unknown who created the Ashes trophy, but it was presented to the England team when they won
that series in Australia. The trophy was made of baked clay in the shape of an urn and was believed to
contain the ashes of a bail.



Q.1. The title of the poem is a comparison. How is that comparison explained in the firstfive lines?
Answer 1. The title compares the world and the life of man to a play enacted on the stage. The people
of the world are like actors who play roles; their births and deaths are compared to the entrances and
exits of the characters on and off the stage. Every age that a man passes through is compared to an act
in the play.
Q.2. Why does the schoolboy whine and creep like a snail? What shows, nevertheless, that he is a healthy
little chap?
Answer 2. The schoolboy whines and creeps like a snail because he does not want to go to school. His
face, nevertheless, shines, showing he is healthy.
Q.3. Do you think the speaker praises the young lover, or does he gently make fun of him? Which words
make you think that?
Answer 3. The speaker gently mocks the lover for his longing and intensely emotional songs for
something as trivial as his mistress eyebrow. The mocking is evident in the words, sighing like a
Q.4. Do you think the soldier is described seriously,or in a somewhat mocking tone? What supports your
Answer 4. The soldier, the speaker says, is full of strange oaths and quick to quarrel. The speaker
seems to be puzzled and amused by this, as it seems quite pointless.

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Q.5. What kind of man is judge? Prosperous or poor?Dignified or easy-going?A serious thinker or a slow
talker? What leads you to that view?
Answer 5. The judges round belly indicates that he is prosperous. His formal appearance shows he is
dignified. The stern eyes and wise sayings tell us that he is a man of few words, serious and thoughtful.
Q.6. The speaker seems to be quietly laughing when he talks pf the lover, the soldier and the judge. Does
he do the same in talking about old age and the approach to the oblivion? If not, what attitude does he
now show? Sympathy?Sadness?Contempt? What feeling do you see especially in the last two lines?
Answer 6. When the speaker talks about old age, he shows sympathy for mans lost faculties of
hearing, seeing and speaking and the loss of his dignity through his return to a childlike state. The last
two lines show deep sympathy and compassion.