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Main Causes :
-Franco-Prussian War:
France received a humiliating lost, losing Alsace and Lorraine and was forced to pay
a huge indemnity to Prussia. Also it resulted in the formation of the German Empire.
Wilhelm II came in control over the German Empire , dismissing Otto Von Bismarck
and refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia that maintained the peace
between Russia and Austria-Hungary and kept France isolated. This lead to an
alliance between France and Russia(1892) which will later be the basis of the Triple

-Balkan Wars:
In 1912 , Serbia – Greece – Montenegro –Bulgaria formed the Balkan League, a
military alliance against the Ottoman Empire. Within a few months, the Balkan allies
stripped the Ottoman Empire of its possessions in the Balkans and divided the
territory among themselves. In June, Bulgaria turned against its allies of Serbia and
Greece due to a dispute over partition of Macedonia. But the Bulgarians were
defeated within a month and forced to give up their claims in Macedonia.

-The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdiand of Austria :
June 28 1914 , a group of conspirators from the revolutionary movement called
Mlada Bosna (‘Young Bosnia’) carried out the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian
heir presumptive, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife while they were visiting
Sarajevo. Since the assassin, Gavrilo Princip and his 5 accomplices were Bosnian
Serbs, the Dual Monarchy accused Serbia to stand behind the assassination. The
event triggered the course of events that directly led to the outbreak of World War I
but it did not cause it. Austria-Hungary was determined to eliminate the ‘Serbian
threat’ before the assassination of its heir presumptive and it only needed an
excuse to declare war on its Balkan neighbor

Vienna. however. intentionally imposed impossible demands to Serbia in order to be able to declare war on its neighbor for ‘orchestrating’ the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Other Causes : - Colonial Problems Nationalism Balkan crisis External tensions Main Battles : -The Battle of Verdun 1916 A major military engagement of World War I. Austria-Hungary presented an ultimatum to Serbia. the Battle of Verdun was a ten month long ordeal between the French and German armies.000 German casualties and no strategic advantages were gained for either side. The Battle of Verdun is considered to be one of the most brutal events of World War I. 1914. A few days later." The Battle of Marne 1914 1918 On September 4. and the site itself is remembered as the "battlefield with the highest density of dead per square yard.000 French and 430.-July Ultimatum: On July 23. the Austro-Hungarian troops invaded Serbia and started the devastating World War I. The battle was part of an unsuccessful German campaign to take the offensive on the western front. Combined with the BEF (British Expeditionary Force) the Germans were eventually halted and the War settled into the familiar defensive series of entrenchment's. . the rapid advances of the German army through Belgium and northern France caused panic in the French army and troops were rushed from Paris in taxis to halt the advance. Both the French and German armies suffered incredibly with an estimated 540.

Ironically. One of the central objectives. lent its name to the whole conflict. The horrors of the battle. total losses on the British and Imperial side numbered 419. and misguided persistence by Haig led to horrific losses. After the first day. Despite this. By the time the offensive was called off total casualties for both sides had been approximately 250.000 and 680. literally. the Germans had again reached the Marne after the enormous successes of Ludendorff's offensives of that year. The second.000. 1916. with a gain of only 1. was notable for the first use of poison gas by the Germans. the British had suffered 57. 1917. by the end of May. When the offensive was eventually called off the British were still 3 miles short of Bapaume and Serre. With the French Army being hard-pressed to the south at Verdun the British intended to breakthrough the German defences in a matter of hours. For the meagre achievements. Here.470 casualties.000. However.654 with German casualties between 450. in 1914 was an attempt by the BEF to halt the rapid advances made by the Germans. it is the long-planned offensive of July 31. Haig pressed on with the attack until November 19th of the same year. exactly where they had started. a combination of over-ambitious aims. -The Battle of Ypres 1914 1915 1917 There were in fact three battles fought around the Ypres salient during the War. after a weeklong artillery bombardment launched the now infamous "Big Push" attack across the river Somme. The intervening four years had cost hundreds of thousands of lives and the armies were still. the village of Passchendale (eventually taken on November 6 by the Canadians). 1918. -The Battle of Somme 1916 At 0730 hours on the 1st July. . that holds the most significance. in which men drowned in liquid mud has become synonymous with the images of the War. appalling weather conditions.5km. part of their first-day objectives. The first. in 1915.

and the following cavalry failed to take advantage. from Arras to Laffaux. built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front. -Russian Revolution 1917 Rasputin killed by Aristocrats Started as a worker strike Russia withdraw from war Bolshevik Revolution 13 March – The Tsjar leaves the throne moved to Ekatenburg and executed Kerensky – Minister of War Lenin flees to Finland Kerensky flees later on Lenin returns and takes over – 2 Dec. near Soissons on the Aisne) . packed tightly for a mass attack moved against the German lines. However. the tank (so-called because when the first shipment came from England they were described as water tanks to maintain secrecy). could be used to break the trench deadlock. breaching the almost impregnable Hindenberg line to depths of 4-5 miles in some places. 1917 – Armistice Important plans during the war : Schlieffen plan (Through Belgium and attack France) Hindenburg line (was a German defensive position of World War I. combining tanks en masse with surprise.-The Battle of Cambrai 1917 On November 20. 1917. A surprise artillery barrage started the offensive and 476 tanks. Nevertheless. Cambrai demonstrated how a well-thought out attack. these gains seemed to surprise British High Command equally as much as the Germans. Supported by infantry the gains were dramatic. the British launched the first full-scale offensive that was designed exclusively to accommodate the British secret weapon.

Fronts : West Front (Germany vs France and UK) South Front (Balkan) South Front(Austria-Hungary vs Italy) East Front (Germany vs Russia) Personalities : German Manfred von Richthofen – The Red Baron ( died on 1918) Sir Douglas Haig – British Erich Ludendorff – German Ferdiand Foch – French Oskar Von Hutier – German Hermann Goring – German Important references : Christmas Truce of 1914 Great Berta Chocolate soldiers Spanish Flu killed 50 mil. people .

A. U.Aftermath : - The number of men mobilized by both sides during the was totaled over 65 million Historians estimate that up to 10 million men died on the battlefield and around 20 million were wounded The Armistice was signed 11 of November of 1818 Everybody felt that the First World War should be the “end to all wars” The political map of Europe would be redrawn (The Ottoman Empire and Habsburg Empire disappeared) European countries suffered a difficult economic situation. Some countries had been devastated People felt that Germany should be blamed and pay for the war The Paris Peace Conference 1919-1920: Took place in Versailles 32 nations were represented but no the defeated countries took all the decisions. . and France) important The Big Three : George Clemenceau from France said that Germany should be harshly punished Woodrow Wilson from USA believed In peaceful cooperation among nations . The “Big Three”(Great Britain .S.

Germany was not allowed until a peace-loving country” Germany fell behind on its reparation payments in 1922 The Ruhr region was occupied by France and Belgium weakening the German’s economy To pay the workers the German government printed more money which caused hyperinflation Germans blamed the Treaty of their problems France thought the Treaty was not harsh enough Great Britain feared that it would bring a new war USA refused to be a member of the League of Nations and ratify the Treaty . Peace Treaties of the First World War : Treaty of Saint Germain – 1919 – Austria Treaty of Neuilly – 1919 – Bulgaria Treaty of Trianon – 1919 – Hungary Treaty of Sevres – 1920 – Turkey Treaty of Lausanne – 1923 – Turkey Treaty of Versailles – 1919 – Germany -Treaty of Versailles – 1919 – Germany had to accept : War Guilt Reparations Limited Army – 100. prevent a new war.David Lloyd George from UK said that Germany should be punished but not harshly to .League of Nations – Organization to keep peace and prevent war demonstrating “it .000 soldiers Germany lost all its colonies .

000 civilians had lost their lives) .) The Habsburg Empire was divided different states Populations from other nat. Other consequences of the Treaties : New states appeared : Czechoslovakia .. Irak and Britain. nationalist leader over Lausanne recognized the Turkish rights Smyrna and most of Anatolia to France Trasjordan to Great Turkey had to cede Lebanon and Syria and Palestine. As Germany was dependent on imports. Poland and Yugoslavia Influenza epidemic Blockade of Germany (Through the period from the armistice on 11 November 1918 until the signing of the peace treaty with Germany on 28 June 1919. Yugoslavia. remained in Austria -Treaty of Serves and Lausanne (1920 & 1923) – Turkey: Ataturk. the Allies maintained the naval blockade of Germany that had begun during the war.-Treaty of Saint Germain – 1919 – Austria had to accept : Disarmament and Repatations into (Austria . Hungary Czechoslovakia . it is estimated that 523.