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Patho Wk 7: Endocrine

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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
CH. 21-22
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Network of ductless glands

Secretes hormones directly into the blood stream

Hormones affect the function of a target organ

FUNCTIONS:
o Response to stress or injury
o Growth and development
o Reproduction
o Fluid and electrolyte balance

HORMONES

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:
o Specific rates and rhythms of secretion
o Operate within feedback systems
o Affect only cells with appropriate receptors for that hormone
o Renal excretion

REGULATION OF RELEASE:
o Hormones are released 

In response to an alteration in the cellular environment

To maintain a regulated level of certain substances or other hormones
o Hormones are regulated by chemical, hormonal, or neural factors
o Negative feedback loop

Hormone Regulation Example = thyroid gland

Negative Feedback!

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is secreted by
hypothalamus
o Secretion s in response to low T4 (thyroid hormone)

TRH then stimulates  anterior pituitary to release TSH

TSH then stimulates  thyroid gland to release T3 & T4 into
bloodstream

INCd blood levels of T3 & T4 then cause  hypothalamus to DEC
TRH release, thus DECing TSH release, thus DECing T3 & T4
secretion

HORMONES cont.

Mechanism of Action  Target cell (where it works)

Hormone effects: (what is its job?)
o Direct effects
o Permissive effects
Hormone receptors – Located in or on the plasma membrane or in the intracellular compartment of target cell

Up-regulation = Low concentrations of hormone INC the # of receptors per cell

Down-regulation = High concentrations of hormone DEC the # of receptors per cell
Water-soluble hormones
o Circulate in free, unbound forms
o High molecular weight
o Cannot diffuse across the plasma membrane

Ex. Peptides, glycoproteins, polypeptides, amines
Lipid-soluble hormones

Patho Wk 7: Endocrine

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Circulate bound to a carrier
Easily diffuse across the plasma membrane

Ex. Thyroxine, steroids, leukotrienes, prostacyclins
Endocrine System: Need to Know !!!!
-Location of the endocrine glands
-What hormone is produced by each endocrine glands
-The hormones’ target cell/organ
-Hormone action (physiologic effects)

NEUROENDOCRINE GLANDS

HYPOTHALAMUS
o TRH (Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone) – stimulates production of the thyroid hormone, which in turn
controls the cardiovascular system, brain development, muscle control, digestive health and metabolism
o GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone) – stimulates the release of hormones connected to reproductive
function, puberty and sexual maturation
o Somatostatin – inhibits GH and TSH
o GHRH (Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone) – controls growth and physical development in children as
well as metabolism in adults
o CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone) – controls the body's response to physical and emotional stress,
and is responsible for suppressing the appetite and stimulating anxiety
o Substance P
o PIF (Prolactin-inhibiting factor)

PITUITARY GLAND
o Anterior pituitary

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Growth hormone

Prolactin

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Luteinizing hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone

β-lipotropin

β-endorphins
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Posterior pituitary

ADH (Antidiuretic hormone) – Controls plasma osmolality & BP

Oxytocin – Uterine contractions and milk ejection in lactating women

NOTE: both of these hormones are synthesized in hypothalamus and secreted by post.pituitary

PINEAL GLAND
o Melatonin – sleep, immune fxn, aging

Patho Wk 7: Endocrine

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

THYROID GLAND (3 hormones: calcitonin, T3 , and T4)
o Calcitonin - s serum calcium (puts it back in bone)
o TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone)

90% T4 and 10% T3

PARATHYROID GLAND  Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
o Regulates Ca+
o Calcitonin antagonist

ENDOCRINE PANCREAS

Pancreas = both endocrine (producing hormones glucagon, insulin) & exocrine gland (producing digestive enzymes)

Houses the islets of Langerhans
o Secretion of glucagon and insulin
o Cells:

Alpha—glucagon

Beta—insulin

Delta—somatostatin and gastrin

F cells—pancreatic polypeptide

INSULIN
o Regulated by chemical, hormonal, neural mechanisms; negative feedback loop
o Synthesized from proinsulin
o Secreted in response to INCd blood glucose levels
o FXN: Facilitates rate of glucose uptake into body’s cells
o INSULIN RESISTANCE = Sensitivity of the insulin receptor is a key component in maintaining normal
cellular function
o Facilitates the intracellular transport of K+
o Anabolic hormone

Synthesis of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids

Glucagon = Insulin antagonist
o Secreted in response to DECd blood glucose levels

Somatostatin
o Produced by delta cells of the pancreas
o Essential for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism
o Hypothalmic and Pancreatic

Gastrin – stomach and digestion

Grehlin
o Stimulates GH secretion
o Controls appetite
o Regulation of insulin sensitivity

Pancreatic polypeptide
o Released by F cells in response to hypoglycemia and protein-rich foods
o Signals satiety!
o Inhibits gallbladder contraction and exocrine pancreas secretion
o s gastric acid secretion

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Patho Wk 7: Endocrine

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Frequently INCd in pancreatic tumors and in diabetes

ADRENAL GLAND – sits on top of kidneys (one on each side)

Components: Capsule, Cortex, Medulla

Secretes: epinephrine, aldosterone, cortisol

ADRENAL CORTEX
o Stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH – secreted by anterior pituitary gland)
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 Glucocorticoid hormones (Cortisol)

Direct effects on carbohydrate metabolism

Anti-inflammatory, growth-suppressing effects

Influence awareness and sleep habits

Most potent naturally occurring glucocorticoid is cortisol

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 Mineralocorticoid hormones (Aldosterone)

Affect ion transport by epithelial cells

INC activity of the sodium pump of the epithelial cells

Causes sodium retention and potassium and hydrogen loss

Most potent naturally occurring mineralocorticoid is aldosterone

Regulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; negative feedback

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 Adrenal estrogens and androgens

Estrogen secretion by the adrenal cortex is minimal

The adrenal cortex secretes weak androgens

Androgens converted by peripheral tissues to stronger androgens such as testosterone

ADRENAL MEDULLA  Catecholamines: Epi/Norepi – stress, fight-or-flight
o Innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
o Pheochromocytes  Secrete the catecholamines: epinephrine (majority) and norepinephrine
o Release of catecholamines = “fight or flight” response (short-term stress response)
o Catecholamines promote HYPERglycemia (in addition to cortisol)

Neuroendocrine Response System to Stress

The endocrine system reacts with the nervous system to respond to stressors

The stress response also ALWAYS involves the immune system

Hormones released from the hypothalamus to stimulate the response
Aging and the Endocrine System

Thyroid gland
o Glandular atrophy, fibrosis, nodularity, and INCd inflammatory infiltrates

Parathyroid glands
o R/t alterations in calcium balance

Inadequate intake, malabsorption, or renal changes

Adrenal glands
o DECd clearance of cortisol

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