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Versine: versin(θ)=1-cos(θ)
Vercosine: vercosin(θ)=1+cos(θ)
Coversine: coversin(θ)=1-sin(θ)
Covercosine: covercosine(θ)=1+sin(θ)
Haversine: haversin(θ)=versin(θ)/2
Havercosine: havercosin(θ)=vercosin(θ)/2
Hacoversine: hacoversin(θ)=coversin(θ)/2
Hacovercosine: hacovercosin(θ)=covercosin(θ)/2
Exsecant: exsec(θ)=sec(θ)-1
Excosecant: excsc(θ)=csc(θ)-1

The secret trig functions, like logarithms, made computations easier. Versine
and haversine were used the most often. Near the angle θ=0, cos(θ) is very
close to 1. If you were doing a computation that had 1-cos(θ) in it, your
computation might be ruined if your cosine table didn't have enough
significant figures. To illustrate, the cosine of 5 degrees is 0.996194698, and
the cosine of 1 degree is 0.999847695. The difference cos(1°)-cos(5°) is
0.003652997. If you had three significant figures in your cosine table, you
would only get 1 significant figure of precision in your answer, due to the

but that is an easy case to deal with.leading zeroes in the difference. (It is not defined for 0 either.k. Likewise. but it could be a problem if the errors built up over the course of a computation. the havercosine is cos2(θ/2). A little bit of trigonometric wizardry (a. And a table with only three significant figures of precision would not be able to distinguish between 0 degree and 1 degree angles. The bonus trig functions also have the advantage that they are never negative. you can use a haversine or havercosine table and not have to square or take square roots.) Another advantage to the versine and haversine is that they can keep you from having to square something. memorization of one of the endless list of trig formulas you learned in high school) shows that 1-cos(θ)=2sin 2(θ/2).a. this wouldn't matter. If you have a computation involving the square of sine or cosine. Versine ranges between 0 and 2. so if you are using log tables to multiply with a versine. you don't have to worry about the fact that the logarithm is not defined for negative numbers. So the haversine is just sin2(θ/2). . In many cases.