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Talpur’s Outline Series 1 POETRY - XII

William Shakespeare (1564 — 1616)

Lines 1- 5 .

All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages.

stage  theatre exit  way out, outlet part  character
merely  only, simply entrance  way in, entry, act  perform, do something
players  group of actors, dramatists

REFERENCE:- These lines have been taken from
‘The Seven Ages of Man’. This is a speech from William Shakespeare's well-
known comedy ‘As You like It’.

CONTEXT :- In this speech William Shakespeare compares our world
with the stage. All men and women perform different roles on the stage of this
world. The poet gives seven roles to a person during his life span. Each role or
stage differs from the other. Man’s birth is entrance on the stage and death is
departure from the stage.

EXPLANATION :- William Shakespeare calls this world a stage. He
says that we people are the actors of this stage. The poet observes a lot of
resemblance between our world and the stage. Our birth in this world is like the
entrance of an actor on the stage, and our death is like the departure of an actor
from the stage. The poet tells that a man performs seven different roles. Each
role or act possesses various features.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 2 POETRY - XII

Lines 6- 7 .
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arm.
infant  newborn, baby puking  vomiting nurse  look after, foster
mewling cry with sharp Sound
EXPLANATION :- William Shakespeare compares the world with
stage with men and women as its actors. He says that one man in his life
performs seven different roles. The very first role is that of our birth. At this is
stage one is infant. He remains crying and vomiting. He is looked after by his
nurse.

Lines 7- 9 .

Then, the whining schoolboy, with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school;
whining humming, buzzing creeping move silently, crawl unwillingly against your
will
satchel school bag snail  small animal of water

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Shakespeare describes the second
stage of a man in the world. This role begins when one starts going to school with
school bag on his shoulders. The schoolboy's face shines because his parents
have washed him well. And he does not want to go to school.

Lines 9-11 .

And then the lover,
Sighing like furnace, with the woeful ballad
Made to his mistress's eyebrow.
sighing  breathe out noisily woeful  unhappy ballad  poem, song
furnace  heater, boiler

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Shakespeare describes the third
stage of man's life. This age begins when one happens to know all about love and
beauty. Being away from his beloved, are having been failed in his love-affair, he
sighs heavily and composes poetry in remembrance of his beloved.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 3 POETRY - XII

Lines 11-15 .

Then a soldier,
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like pard,
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Event in the canon's mouth;
strange  odd, extraordinary oaths  promise, pledge bearded  shave
pard  tiger, cheetah. jealous  envious, resentful honour  respect, admiration
sudden  rapid, abrupt quarrel  disagree, fight seeking  search for sth.
reputation  status, name canon  a large gun
EXPLANATION :- In these lines William Shakespeare describes the
fourth role of a man on the stage of the world. The fourth the stage produces a
man as soldier. The soldier is very much emotional. He is desirous for fame, not
knowing that worldly reputation is temporary. He is ready to face all dangers and
troubles of life. It takes all risks boldly in order to gain fame and gain.

Lines 16-18.

And then, the justice,
In fair round belly with good lin’d.
With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances.
justice  judge, nobleman belly  abdomen, tummy lin’d  lined, filled
severe  strict, harsh formal  proper, official wise  intelligent, clever
saw  saying, proverb instance  example
EXPLANATION :- In these lines, William Shakespeare describes the
fifth stage or role performed by a man or woman on the stage of the world. It is
the role of the justice or an official. He bears hard temperament and has beard of
formal cut. He is fond of eating and drinking. He knows much about tradition and
modern sciences. He is expert in his field.

Lines 19-23 .
The sixth stage shifts
Into the lean and slippered pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side,
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 4 POETRY - XII

His youthful hose, well saved, the world too wide
For his shrunk shrank;

shifts  change, move lean  bend, tilt slippered  loose, free
pantaloon  pant spectacles  eyeglasses pouch  small bag
hose  man’s garment wide  broad, large shrunk  get small, minimize
EXPLANATION :- In these lines W. Shakespeare describes the sixth
role of an individual (player), on the stage of the world. This age shifts into old
age. Once come before the audience as very weak, thin and ill. This is a tragic
role which all human beings have to perform on this wide stage of the world.
One's body turns to weak and thin that his youthful hose does not fit his body
properly. His eye-sight being poor, he has spectacles. He always keeps the same
all bags with him.

Lines 23-25 .

And his manly voice,
Turning again towards childish treble, pipes,
And whistles in his sound;
manly  masculine male turning  changing treble  sharp sound
pipes  whispering sound voice  tone accent whistles  whistling sound
EXPLANATION: - Describing the sixth stage of man from “The Seven
Ages of Man”, W. Shakespeare makes fun of man's vocal condition at this age.
These vocal organs give up their proper function due to old age and illness.
Therefore, the poet observes resemblance between the voices of a child an old
man. The old man speaks as if a child.

Lines 25-28 .

Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
In the second childishness, and mere of oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sense taste, sans everything.
scene  picture, sight ends  finish, closing stages strange  extraordinary, odd
eventful  exciting, lively history  the past, times past mere  only, simple
oblivion  forgetfulness, unconsciousness sans without
EXPLANATION :- In these lines William Shakespeare describes the
last role that we human beings have to play at any rate. None can avoid this
stage but dying young. This is the extreme old age. The poet terms it as the last
scene of the drama. After this scene the curtain drops. Our poet says that it is
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 5 POETRY - XII

second childishness. Because there are many things in common between a small
baby and an utter old person; for example, forgetfulness, absence of teeth, weak
eye-sight and poor sense of taste. A person is deprived of all charms of life. He
depends on others.

Thomas Campion (I567—1620)

Stanza  1

The man of life upright,
Whose guiltless heart is free
From all dishonest deeds,
Or thought of vanity.
upright  honest, straight guiltless  innocent dishonest  unfair, insincere
deed  action, act thought  thinking, idea vanity  pride, egotism
REFERENCE :- These lines belong to Thomas Campion's religious
poem, ‘The Man of Life Upright’.

CONTEXT :- In this poem Thomas Campion describes various virtues
and qualities of an honest and pious man. This man, Campion says, lives a moral,
careful and peaceful life. He believes in Divine rules. He is indifferent to material
gain and fame. He fears none but God.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion describes certain
virtues of the man of life upright. This type of man is free from guilt and crimes so
his heart is pure and safe. His actions and thoughts are based on the principles of
honesty. His conscience does not allow him to commit dishonest deeds. He does
not like pride and arrogance.

Stanza  2

The man whose silent days
In harmless joys are spent.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 6 POETRY - XII

Whom hopes can not delude,
Nor sorrow discontent;
silent  quiet noiseless harmless safe, not dangerous joy  pleasure, delight
spent  passed, exhausted hope  wish, expect delude  cheat deceive
sorrow  unhappiness sadness discontent  restlessness displeasure

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us how the
man of life upright lives his life. An upright man passes his life very silently. He
finds peace and happiness in those activities which do not trouble and hurt his
fellow beings. Hopes can not deceive him because he is not an ambitious man.
He does not run blindly after hopes. Sorrows and problems of life cannot make
him gloomy and disappointed.

Stanza 3

That man needs neither Tower
Nor armour for defence,
Nor secret vaults to fly
From thunder’s violence.
tower  big building armour  shield vault  cellar
fly  to run away thunder noise violence  cruelty, cruelty

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us that an
honest, upright and pious person fears none but God. His deeds are based on
Divine rules. So he does not do anything unreligious and unlawful. Therefore he
needs neither armour to protect himself against his enemy's blows, nor any
underground cell to hide him when he feels some danger.

Stanza 4

He only can behold
With unaffrighted eyes
The horrors of the deep
And terrors of the skies.
behold  watch, see unaffrighted  fearless horror  fear, terror
deep  ocean, bottomless terror  fear, horror
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us that an
upright and God-fearing man does not fear natural and man-made troubles of life.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 7 POETRY - XII

Those people who run after worldly gain and fame fears simple problems of life.
But an upright man is always ready to welcome unexpected troubles in his life.
Even he is not disheartened by roaring waves of oceans and terrible stormy rains.
The poet means to say that only an upright man can face the horrors and terrors
of the world.

Stanza 5

Thus, scorning all the cares
That fate or fortune brings
He makes the heaven his book
His wisdom heavenly things.
scorning hating, contempt cares  worry, mind fate chance, destiny
fortune kismet, luck heaven  nature, paradise
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us a very
important quality of his upright man. An upright man is one who does not care
about worldly gains or loss. He is quite indifferent to worldly joys and sorrows that
may come in his way by bad or good fortune. He thinks the heaven as his teacher
and guide. His wisdom and knowledge is about natural objects.

Stanza 6.

Good thoughts his only friends,
His wealth is well-spent age,
The earth his sober inn
And quite pilgrimage.
sober  nice, good inn  hotel quite  fairly, pretty
pilgrimage  a journey to a sacred place
EXPLANATION :- In these lines we are told by Thomas Campion that
a pious and God-fearing man keeps his mind pure and clean from immoral and
harmful thoughts, like a devoted friend, moral and fruitful thoughts revolve in his
mind. The time he has spent purely and piously is his precious wealth. He takes
this world as a temporarily place and lives as a pilgrim or traveller. Taking this
world as an inn, he never uses his wisdom and knowledge for worldly gains. He
does not pay much attention to this materialistic world. He does not care for
spiritual world.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 8 POETRY - XII

John Milton (1608 – 1676)
Lines  16

He patient, but undaunted, where they led him
Came to the place; and what was set before him,
Which without help of eye might be assayed,
To heave, to pull, draw or break, he is still performed
All with incredible stupendous force,
None daring to appear antagonist.

patient  tolerant, enduring undaunted  fearless led  directed, guided
set  put, place assayed  examined heave  pull, drag
draw  drag pull incredible  unbelievable stupendous  surprising
daring  brave, bold antagonist  enemy, rival

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from John Milton's
autobiographical poem ‘ Samson Agonistes’.

CONTEXT :- In this poet the drama John Milton describes the death
of its hero, Samson. He was a man of great strength. His enemies, Philistines,
made him captive through the treaty of his wife. We are told that how Samson
sacrificed his life for the freedom of his people. He amused his captors very
much, but when he got a chance he brought the roof of a great temple upon them.
Thus he died along with them.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 9 POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Milton describes the way Samson
performed various feats of immense strength. He remained calm and cold through
out his performance. He obliged the orders of his captors very patiently and
boldly. He performed all deeds without any difficulty. He dragged, lifted, drew and
broke different items with his eyes closed. All he did with unbelievable force.
Nobody, present on the occasion, dared to compete with him.

Lines  712

At length for intermission sake they led him
Between the pillars; he his guide requested,
(For so from such as nearer stood we heard),
As over-tired, to let him lean and a while
With both his arms on those too massy pillars
That to the arched roof gave the main support.
intermission  break interval over-tired  very tired lean  bow, bend over
massy  heavy arched  curved, bent main  chief, major
support hold, back up
EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that after
Samson had performed many unbelievable feats, he was given an interval l to
take some rest. His guide took him between two pillars. Their Samson requested
him to allow him to lean on the pillars. He desired to put his both arms on the
main huge pillars which supported the roof of the temple. He was over-tired so he
wished in some way to support his body by leaning on the pillars.

Lines  13 16

He unsuspicious led him; which when Samson
Felt in his arms, with head a while inclined,
And eyes fast fixed, he stood, as one who prayed,
Or some great mater in his mind revolved:
unsuspicious  innocent, above suspicion inclined  tending, leaning
mater  big problem prayed  beg, ask revolved  rotate

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet describes that Samson
request was granted and his guide let him lean on the pillars. The guide did not
suspect Samson's horrible plan. Samson put his arms round the pillars and held
his head down. His eyes were fixed at the same place. Then he is stood as if he

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 10 POETRY - XII

was performing some religious duty or he was thinking about some important
mater. However none could suspect Samson's plan.

Lines  17  20

At last with head erect thus cried aloud
Hitherto, lords, what your commands imposed
I have performed, as reason was obeying,
Not without wonder or delight beheld;
erect  straight vertical hitherto  till now commands  orders
imposed  forced obey  follow, observe wonder  surprise
delight  pleasure beheld  be felt
EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that after leaning
a while on the pillars Samson raised his head and told the authorities about his
forthcoming feat of strength. He told them that, being under their custody, he
obeyed commands. Whatever his captors asked him to do; he did it with his eyes
shut. He told them that nobody could help showing wonder and delight at his
impressive feats.

Lines  21  23

Now of my own accord, such other trial
I mean to show you of my strength, yet greater;
As with amaze shall strike all who behold.
own  personal accord  deal trial  experiment
amaze  surprise strike  hit
EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that Samson said
to the Philistian nobility that he had performed whatever they demanded. But then
he told them that he would show an other trial of his own accord. He said that that
act of his immense strength would hold the captors spellbound. Of course, the
action or trial he performed afterwards was amazing as well as horrible. Those
who survived could never forget it.

Lines  24  30

Thus uttered, stretching all his nerves, he bowed,
As with the force of winds and waters pent
When mountains tremble, those two massy pillars
With horrible; convulsion to and fro
He tugged, he shook, till down they came, and drew
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 11 POETRY - XII

Whole roof after them with burst of thunder
Upon the heads of all who sat beneath.

uttered  spoken expressed stretching  making bigger nerves  muscles
bowed  bent pent  closely confined tremble  shake
massy  heavy, big horrible  awful convulsion  fit, tremor
to and fro  back and forth tugged  pulled shook  moved up and down
drew  pulled burst  explode thunder  big noise
beneath  under, below
EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us how the great
hero demolished the roof upon the Philistian nobility, his deadly enemies. Samson
collected all his energy and then tried as hard as he could to shake the pillars from
their roots. He shook the main pillars just as mountains do against the great force
of winds and waters. He went on shaking the pillars till the roof collapsed with a
thundering noise. All those who were present were pressed under the huge roof.
Thus he destroyed the enemies of his race.

Lines  31  34

Lords, Ladies, captains, counsellors or priests,
Their choice nobility and flower, not only
Of this, but each Philistian city round,
Met from all parts to solemnise feast.
priests  religious persons choice  selected great person nobility  noble persons
flower  decent persons solemnise  celebrate feast  very great festival
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Milton tells us that the Philistian
nobility destroyed by Samson included Lords, ladies, captains, advisers, priests
and even their children. These people had come there from all parts of the
country to observe the great occasion. And thus Samson did not lose the
opportunity. He availed the chance properly not caring about his own life.

Lines  35  36

Samson, with these inmixed, inevitably
Pulled down the same destruction on himself.
inmixed  among them inevitably  without doubt pulled down  fall upon
destruction  damage, ruin
EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that when the
roof came down, all the people at that time were killed. But at the same time the
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 12 POETRY - XII

man who caused the roof fall down, could not escape from death. Samson killed
himself too along with his enemies. He destroyed the enemies of his race by
giving his own life. He did so because the freedom of his race was more important
to him than his life.

Thomas Gray

Stanza 1
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd wind slowly over the lea,
The plowman home ward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

curfew  bell tolls  rings slowly knell  bell announces death
parting  departing, lowing  making a low noise herd  group of cattle
wind move in circular course lea  grassland plowman  farmer
plods  walk heavily, as when weary, or through mud weary  tired

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem,
“ An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard ”, written by Thomas Gray.

CONTEXT :- This poem is written in a remote country Churchyard
with true sentiments and ideas. While sitting in the churchyard the poet felt and
considered the fate of those who lied under the graves. He counts their simple

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 13 POETRY - XII

joys, errors, achievements, etc. It leads the poet to think that how he himself will
be remembered. The poet presents general & universal truths about life & death.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray sets before our eyes
the atmosphere of the Churchyard at sun setting. The bells are ringing that the
day is coming to its end. The flocks of sheep, goats and cows are coming back
from the meadows. The farmers who worked hard all the day long are returning to
their homes. They seem very tired. Everything is going away. There is left only
poet with darkness all around in the Churchyard.

Stanza 2

Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight
And all the air a solemn stillness holds,
Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,
And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.
fades  become lighter glimmering  sparking landscape  scenery
sight  view solemn  serious stillness 
silence/tranquillity
holds  catch grasp save  except beetle insect
wheels  swings droning  boring drowsy sleepy dozy
tinklings  sound of a small bell lull  soothe or send to sleep distant  far-away
fold  a place to keep animals in control
EXPLANATION :- The poet says that now darkness spreads
everywhere but, he can still see the dim sight of the surrounding places. The
atmosphere is calm and quite except few voices. Sometimes the sounds of the
flight of the beetle break the dead silence of the graveyard. Sometimes, he hears
the low sound of a bell fastened round the neck of a sheep from some distant
folds. Thus there are little breaks in the dead silence of the graveyard.

Stanza 3
Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower;
The mopping owl does to the moon complain,
Of such as, wandering near her secret bower,
Molest her ancient solitary reign.
yonder  distant but within sight ivy  vine with evergreen leaves
mantled  covered mopping  wiping complain  protest
wandering  travelling secret  undisclosed bower  living place
molest  mistreat ancient  very old solitary  lonely
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 14 POETRY - XII

reign  supremacy, government

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that there is no
sound in the are trees of elms and yews which are commonly planted in English
Country graveyards. There he sees and leaves of earth……………………………
………………. this village. These graves are not in sound condition because they
are very old. Under these graves are sleeping the forefathers of the village. They
are sleeping an endless sleep.

Stanza 4

The breezy call of incense breathing Morn,
The Swallow twittering from the straw built shed,
The cocks’ shrill clarion or the echoing horn,
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.

breezy  windy incense  enrage breathing  living
swallow  small bird twittering  chirping straw  dried soft
branches of plants
shed  hut shrill harsh clarion  clear rousing sound
echoing  loud horn  loud noise rouse awaken
lowly humble
EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Sir Thomas Gray says that the
forefathers of the hamlet are sleeping endless sleep in their secret rooms (graves).
The sweet smelling breeze of mourning can not impress them. The sweet music
of swallows, the wakening sound of mourning cocks and other sounds are useless
to awake them.

Stanza 5

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
Or busy housewife ply her evening care;
No children run to lisp their sire’s return,
Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share.
blazing burning hearth fireplace,grate ply  work
care worry lisp  A defected speech sire  elder of a family
envied jealousy

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 15 POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that
forefathers of the hamlet are dead and hence nobody cares for them. No wife
waits and prepares food for them. They are completely forgotten now, because
they died long ago. No children stand on their door steps to greet their father and
then to tell others about his return. No children wished to be kissed by them. The
poet means to say that death ends all.

Stanza 6

Or did the harvest to their sickle yield,
Their furrow off the stubborn glebe has broke;
How jocund did they drive their team afield!
How bow’d the woods beneath their sturdy stroke.
harvest crop sickle  curved blade and a short handle device to cut crop
yield  An amount of a product furrow line stubborn immovable
glebe  land jocund  gay bow’d curved
woods forest sturdy strong,powerful stroke hit,blow
EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray says that the people
lying in the graves might have been hard-working farmers of their times. It may be
that these farmers used to cut their crops with sickle. They used to plough hard
and tough earth. They felt very happy when they drove their horses and oxen.
May be, they were strong and healthy farmers of their time. They might have
felled many trees with they are powerful strokes.

Stanza 7
Let not Ambition mock their useful toil.
Their homely joys, and destiny obscure,
Not Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile
The short & simple annals of the poor.
ambition  ambitious/desirous people mock  laugh at
toil  hard work destiny  fate obscure  unclear
grandeur  greatness disdainful  scornful annals  records, history

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that ambitious
and successful people should not mock at the simple but useful achievements that
these simple villagers did. The poet advises them not to laugh at the simple
playful and joyful activities of the villagers whose life is unknown. No doubt the
simple villagers who lied buried in the graveyard were great people. They were

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 16 POETRY - XII

respectable in spite of their simplicity. Although we know little about their
achievements, we should not laugh at them.

Stanza 8
The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
And all that beauty all that wealth was gave,
Awaits alike the inevitable hour,
The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

boast  show off heraldry  family pomp  display
inevitable  expected hour  moment paths course
glory splendour, magnificence
EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray tells us that the
ambitious and great people of today should not boast of their achievements &
victories. It is foolish to be proud of our high social status, beauty & wealth. All
these things are temporary, they have to die or disappear one day. All those who
are powerful, wealthy, respectable, glorious and great should not boast about their
achievements & greatness. Because death comes to all, and all become equal
after their death.

Stanza 9
Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault,
If Memory over their tomb no trophies raise,
Where through the long drawn aisle & fretted vault
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.
impute  accuse fault  mistake aisle  passageway
fretted  troubled vault  tomb pealing  ringing
anthem  song of praise swells enlarges
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that what
should be our behaviour towards the simple villagers who lied buried in this
graveyard. Those who are proud should not criticise and find faults with the
simple joys and activities of the rude forefathers of this hamlet. If there are no
tomb stones on their graves to tell their achievements, it is not a big matter. At the
same time, if the Church does not respect and honour them by ringing Church
bells and singing songs, we can not blame our forefathers for that. In spite of off…
………………………………………………………………

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 17 POETRY - XII

Stanza 10
Can storied urn or animated bust,
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?
Can Honour's Voice provoke the silent dust?
Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?
urn  pot, pitcher animated  lively bust  not working
mansion house fleeting  short-lived provoke  irritate
flattery  sweet talk soothe  calm dull boring, dry
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that death is
an unavoidable hour. He we have to meet our Maker. A man, once died can
never be made alive. We cannot bring the dead man to life by decorating an urn
in his honour, or by building a fine statue in his memory. Just as simple words of
praise can not bring a man to life again, soft and sweet words can not save us
from death. He says that it is useless to decorate or to make statues in their
honour after their death because death is eternal.

Stanza 11
Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
Some heart once pregnant celestial fire;
Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.
neglected  ignored spot  mark laid  placed
pregnant  charged, loaded celestial divine ecstasy joy, happiness
lyre  musical instrument

EXPLANATION :- In this stanza, Thomas Gray tells us that the
graveyard of this hamlet is ancient and we do not know much about the lives and
achievements of the villagers who are lying buried under their graves. May be
there are buried great and victorious people who have done great and achieved a
lot. There may be buried some pious and righteous man whose soul had a divine
light. Perhaps some of the people buried here were Kings and Princes and held
power. May be some great poets and artists are lying buried in their country
Churchyard.

Stanza 12
But knowledge to their eyes her ample page

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 18 POETRY - XII

Rich with the spoils of time did never unroll
Chill penury repressed their noble rage,
And froze the genial current of the soul.
ample  plenty, sufficient spoils  destroy, ruin unroll  open, use
chill  cool, freeze penury  poverty repressed  withdrawn
rage  anger, fury

EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that the
simple forefathers of the village who lied buried in this graveyard could not be
prominent & well-known. The reason was that they had no opportunities and
sources to get knowledge. They could not know that how much the world
progressed in this world. Though they had qualities and talents but due to their
poverty they could not use their internal energies. Had they got a chance to
receive knowledge, they could have got prominent position in the world.

Stanza 13
Full many a gem of purest ray serene
The dark unfathom’d caves of oceans bear:
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
And waste its sweetness on the desert air.
gem  jewel serene  tranquil, calm unfathomed  great depth
blush  go red waste  misuse

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray’s poetic spirit and
thought run very high. These are the better than the best lines of this poem. Here
we read a great universal truth. He says that beautiful, pure and precious gem
and jewels remain hidden in the bottom of the ocean. They get no chance to be
valued and judged by jewellers. Similarly many charming and sweet-smelling
flowers blossom in deserts and die away unseen. Similarly many wise and brilliant
men are born in this world, but they die without being known & recognised,
because they get no chance to show their brilliancy and wisdom.

Stanza 14
Some village Hampden that with dauntless breast

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 19 POETRY - XII

The little tyrant of his fields withstood,
Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest,
Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country’s blood.
Hampden  a great parliamentarian who fearlessly defied King Charles I
dauntless  fearless tyrant  dictator mute silent
inglorious  dishonourable Milton  English Poet
Cromwell  leader of parliamentarian force who over threw King Charles I
guiltless  innocent

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray mentions some
famous personalities of English history and says that such great men may lie
buried in this graveyard. May be, there lies buried man like Hampden who fought
against King Charles very boldly. May be, there lies buried man-like Milton who in
spite of his great genius could not be recognised in his life-time. May be, there
lies buried some Cromwell who was not responsible for the bloodshed that took
place during struggle against King Charles.

Stanza 15
Th’ applause of listening senates to command,
The threat of pain and ruin to despise,
To scatter plenty over a smiling land,
And read their history in a nation’s eyes.
applause  clapping,praise senates  governing body despise  hate
scatter spread, distribute plenty  a lot, ample

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us some features
of the ill-fate of his forefathers. They were very simple and could not get any
chance to become members of their parliament, such as the Senate. They could
never use their energies for the welfare and well-being of their country-men. They
could not relieve the sufferings of their people. Had they got some chance to
reach their parliament and worked for the welfare of their people, they would have
made their mark in history. But, alas! they could not do so, and lied buried
unknown, unsung & unwritten.

Stanza 16
Their lot forbade; not circumscribed alone
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 20 POETRY - XII

Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined;
Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne,
And shut the gates of mercy on mankind.

forbade  prevent circumscribed bounded virtues qualities merits
confined limited slaughter  killing, massacre

EXPLANATION :- In their previous stanzas, Thomas Gray feels sorry
that the forefathers of the hamlet could not get any chance to be famous in the
history. But in these lines he says that it was good for them that they could not
display their virtues and energies. In this way they did not commit serious crimes.
They were not involved in bloodshed for achieving a throne or in other inhuman
activities. Though they could not get fame and fortune by serving their people,
their wicked nature too remained checked and suppressed.

Stanza 17

The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide,
To quench the blushes of ingenious shame,
Or heap the shrine of Luxury & Pride
With incense kindled at Muse’s flame.
pangs shooting pain conscious aware hide conceal, cover
quench satisfy blushes feel ashamed ingenious clever, original
heap pile, bundle shrine holy place luxury comfort
incense anger kindle  start burning
Muse goddess in Greek religion who supported poetry, music and dancing
flame fire

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray wants to say that
these simple villagers could not get any chance to be popular politicians of their
time. Thus they did not need to conceal political realities. Their conscience never
suffered from moral torture. Thus they were saved from the blush of the real
shame which comes when a politician or statesman is compelled to contradict
himself knowing all facts. Their ignorance of poetry saved them of writing
flattering poetry. Thus, their ignorance, simplicity & innocence saved them from
many evils.

Stanza 18

Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife
Their sober wishes never learned to stray;
Along the cool sequestered vale of life,
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 21 POETRY - XII

They kept the noiseless tenor of their way.
madding  of mad behaviour ignoble  dishonourable
strife fighting sober clear-headed stray lose way, wander
away
sequestered appropriate vale valley tenor mood, tone

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray means to say that the
people who lie buried in this village graveyard are simple, innocent, honest and
lived quite happily. They were content with their fate. Their wishes and aims were
quite simple and harmless. They did not, like mad, and unhappy people run after
wild and selfish ends. They passed their lives very calmly & gracefully.

William Wordsworth
Lines  1  4
Behold her, single in the field,
You solitary Highland Lass!
Reaping and singing by herself,
Stop here, or gently pass!
behold  see, observe solitary  lonely highland  upland
lass  girl reaping  cutting, harvest gently  quietly

REFERENCE :- These lines belonged to William Wordsworth’s poem
‘ The Solitary Reaper ’.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 22 POETRY - XII

CONTEXT :- W. Wordsworth was pre-eminently a poet of nature.
Once, while passing through a valley in Scotland he saw a lonely girl reaping in
the field. She was also singing a sweet song. The poet could not understand the
meaning of her song. But he was very much touched by the song. It went on
echoing in the valley of his mind after it was heard no more.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth describes to us that
once he, along with his companion, was passing across the mountainous area of
Scotland. He chanced to see a mountainous girl of the area. The girl was reaping
some crop and singing a song to amuse herself. The girl was alone in the field
and her song was echoing in the valley. He asks his companion to see the girl.
He also directs his companion either to stop the or to pass quietly without
disturbing the lonely girl.

Lines  5  8

Alone she cuts and binds the grain,
And sings a melancholy strain!
O listen! For the vale profound
Is overflowing with the sound.

binds  fasten grain  particle melancholy  sad
strain  act of singing overflowing  overfull

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth says that the girl whom
he saw in the fields was cutting and binding the crop. At the same time, he says,
she was singing the sorrowful song. Her song moved his heart very much. He
urges upon his companion to listen her song. He also says to his companion that
her sweet song is going in the valley.

Lines  9  12

No nightingale did ever chaunt
More welcome notes to weary bands
Of travellers in some shady haunt,
Among Arabian sands

chaunt  sing , recite notes  songs weary  tired
bands  groups shady  under the trees haunt  resort, place

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, the poet compare the sweetness
and charm of the lonely former girl’s song to that impressive quality of Arabian
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 23 POETRY - XII

nightingale. He says that when the weary travellers take rest under some shady
places in the hot Arabian desert, the sweet music of nightingale soothes and
relieves them from tiredness and the difficulties of the desert. But he says that the
sweet song of the reaping girl is even more relieving and charming than the song
of Arabian birds.

Lines  13  16

A voice so thrilling never was heard
In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird,
Breaking the silence of the seas
Among the farthest Hebrides.
thrilling  exciting farthest  very far away

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet compares the sweetness of
the song of the lonely girl to the cuckoo-bird of Scotch Islands. He says that the
cuckoo birds of Scotch Islands sing very sweetly and charmingly in the spring
season. Their voice is very thrilling. But the poet says that the song of the
cuckoo-bird is not as sweet as the sweet song of the village lass. He is so moved
by the girl's song that he finds no match for it.

Lines  17  20

Will no one tell me what she sings?
Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow
For old, unhappy, far off things,
And battles long ago.

plaintive  sad, mournful numbers  facts, records flow  run, sing
far off  very old

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet tells us that he cannot
understand what she is singing because her language is unknown to him. So he
asks if anyone can tell him the subject matter of her song. He himself tries to
make out the sense of the poem. He says that she may be singing some
sorrowful song describing some unhappy event such as battles etc; which
happened in ancient times.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 24 POETRY - XII

Lines  21  24

Or is it some more humble lay,
Familiar matter of today?
Some natural sorrow, loss or pain,
That has been, and may be again!
humble  modest, meek lay  story

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet tries to make out the theme
of a lonely farmer girl's song. He says that she may be singing about some
common event of human life or, he says, and she may be singing some natural
tragic event, some great loss or some pain. These events of sorrow, pain or loss
may have taken place or they might take place in feature.

Lines  25  28

What’er the theme, the Maiden sang
As if her song could have no ending;
I saw her singing at her work,
And o’er the sickle bending.

theme  subject, matter maiden  An unmarried girl ending  closing
sickle  grass cutting device bending  bowing

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth says that he is not sure
about the subject of Highland girl's song. He says that what ever maybe the
theme of the song, but it seems as if it goes on echoing without any pause. Her
work at the fields does not hinder the tempo of her song. Either she cuts are binds
the grain, the sweet melody is coming out of her throat. The whole atmosphere is
overflowing with her sweet song.

Lines  29  32

I listened, motionless and still;
And, as I mounted up the hill,
The music in my heart I bore
Long after it was heard no more.

listened  paid attention motionless  stationary/still still  silent
mounted up  got up bore  kept
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 25 POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth tells us the permanent
effect left on him by the solitary reaper girl’s mysterious song. He listened the
song very calmly and enjoyed it very much. Her song was so charming that when
he went away from the girl, it went on echoing in his mind. This song was a
pleasurable song for Wordsworth. He preserved this song in his mind and it
became lasting source of refreshment and joy for him. The sweetness of a song
never faded.

P. B. Shelley
Lines  1  2

Music, when soft voices die,
Vibrates in the memory;

soft  charming, spongy voices  tone, sound die  expire
vibrate  shake memory  remembrance

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from ‘ Music When
Soft Voices Die ’ composed by P. B. Shelley.

CONTEXT :- P. B. Shelley compares true love to sweet melodies and
the fragrance of sweet-smelling flowers. He says that beautiful things (concrete or
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 26 POETRY - XII

abstract) leave everlasting impact on human mind. His beloved’s physical
absence never makes him feel mourns because he enjoys and loves the memory
of his beloved event after her death or departure.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines P. B. Shelley says that sweet
melodious songs are too powerful and beautiful to lose their sweetness and
charm. Music has everlasting force. Its impression always keeps on echoing in
the valley of one's memories. A poet may die; a singer may die too, but the poet's
poetry and are singer's songs are deathless. They continue to amuse listeners
even when they are not alive.

Lines  3  4

Odours, when sweet violets sicken and,
Live within the sense they quicken.

odours  scent violets purple coloured flower
sicken  dies sense  brain quicken  go faster

EXPLANATION :- In these lines P. B. Shelley says that likewise
melodious music, the sweet-smelling fragrance of various flowers is too attractive
and impressive to lose its power and sense. The sweet perfume of flower is not
subject to its presence. But once a sweet-smelling flower leaves its effect on
someone, it remains there forever. A flower may die or fade away but if we smell it
once we could never remove the sense of its sweetness from our mind.

Lines  5  6

Rose leaves, when the rose is dead,
Are heaped for beloved bed;
heaped  piled, collected beloved  dear, darling

EXPLANATION :- In order to prove the everlasting quality of genuine
love, P.B. Shelley offers some permanent touches of sweet melodies, sweet-
smelling and a Rose petals. He says that when rose flowers are dead or
damaged there value and function do not cease to live. Because their petals are
leaves can be used to decorate the bed of one's beloved. It means that though
dead, rose flowers serve a great function and purpose.

_______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 27 POETRY - XII

Lines  7  8

And so thy thoughts, when thou art gone,
Love itself shall slumber on.

thy  your thoughts  feelings / memories
thou  you art  are slumber  sleep, drowse

EXPLANATION :- In these lines P. B. Shelley says that as sweet
music never dies, sweet-smelling never gets poor or rose-petals is never become
non-functional, likewise the sweet memories one has had with his beloved never
ceased to amuse one. The poet means to say that true love does not need the
presence of both lover and loved. But true love is not subject to physical presence
of one's beloved. He says that his beloved’s absence does not hurt him because
he knows to enjoy and love his beloved’s sweet memories.

Arthur Hugh Clough

Stanza 1

Say not the struggle naught availeth,
The Labour and the wounds are vain,
The enemy faints not, not faileth,
And as things have been they remained.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 28 POETRY - XII

naught not anything, zero availeth  gain, reward vain  ineffective, useless
faints weak

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Say
Not The Struggle Naught Availeth ’, composed by A.H. Clough.

CONTEXT :- This poem breathes the spirit of confidence and
optimism. It urges that we should be hopeful and never give up hope. Sincere
struggle never goes vain. The poet uses the symbols of battlefield, tired waves
and the shining sun to support his point of view. He seems to believe that man is
not born to yield.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines A.H.Clough says that if our efforts are
sincere then we should be confident of victory. One should never succumb to
timely troubles and difficulties. Our efforts and labours will never go in vain. We
will get reward of our efforts. We should not think that we could not defeat our
enemy. We can defeat our enemy if we do not give up our struggle. We should
believe that if the circumstances oppose us today, they will support us tomorrow.
Stanza 4

If hopes dupes, fears may be liars;
It may be, in yon smoke concealed
Your comrades chase even now the fliers,
And, but for you, possesses the field.
dupes  deceive, fool liars  deceiver, cheater concealed  hidden

comrades  friend, companion chase  pursue, follow
fliers  retreater, run away possesses  have, own, hold

EXPLANATION :- In these lines A.H.Clough tells us that hopes and
fears have common natures to some extent. Sometimes our hopes do not come
true, in the same way our fears might be baseless and wrong. An army general
should not lose hope because his soldiers may have advanced towards enemy
ranks. They may need his guidance and encouragement. The poet means to say
that the weapons of confidence and hopefulness can bring victory, fame and
fortune.

Stanza 4

For while the tired waves, vainly breaking,
Seem here no painful inch to gain,
Far back, through creeks and inlets making,
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 29 POETRY - XII

Comes silent, flooding in, the main.
painful  aching creeks  cove, inlet inlets  creek

flooding  deluge, overflow main  big sea, ocean

EXPLANATION :- in these lines the poet gives the example of waves
in order to prove that constant human efforts are certain to bear fruit. Apparently
the waves seem to have no effect on the shore, but the continuous collision
against the shore causes cracks and inlets to the shore. Thus they cast heavy
floods. In the same way if we remain constant and determined in our efforts, we
will achieve huge victories and targets. The poet urges us to follow the course of
tired waves.

Stanza 4

And not by eastern windows only,
When daylight comes, comes in the light;
In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,
But westward, look, the land is bright!

EXPLANATION :- The poet has great believe in human struggle &
power. This human struggle and power is most effective when we display
constancy and confidence. To prove this he gives the example of the sun. The
sun rises in the east but its brightness is not confined to Asia only. The sun lights
up the whole world. It goes up slowly but spreads its lights all over the world.
Similarly, we can be successful provided we remain devoted & committed to our
efforts.

Alfred Lord Tennyson

Lines  1  5

My mariners,
Souls that have toiled, and wrought & thought with me
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 30 POETRY - XII

That ever with a frolic welcome took
The thunder and the sunshine, & opposed
Free hearts, free foreheads you & I are old.
mariners  A man who serves as a sailor toiled  laboured
wrought  shaped formed frolic  playful

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Lines
From Ulysses ’, written by Alfred Tennyson.

CONTEXT :- This poem bears the spirit of determination, courage,
adventure and struggle. Ulysses, a great Greek hero, desires to undertake a great
adventure before his death. He encourages his sailors to prepare for the last sea
adventure. He says that their bodies are old and weak but there will-power is
young and strong. Therefore they should continue to explore new words.

EXPLANATION :- in these lines Ulysses appreciates the services of
his old mariners, who stood by him through all life's ups and downs. He admits
that they rendered him great services. They fought heroic battles with natural
forces and proved successful. He knows that they are now old and weak, still he
encourages them their glorious past adventures. He says that old age should not
or cannot hinder them from another great adventure. He tries to inspire his
sailors.

Lines  6  9

Old age hath yet his honour and his toil;
Death closes all, but something ’ere the end,
Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
Not unbecoming men that strove with gods.
unbecoming  improper, incorrect strove  strove

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the great Greek hero, Ulysses
encourages his old mariners to start an other but last sea adventure. Though he
realizes their old age and physical weakness, yet inspires that the old age has its
own dignity and charm. It is only death which closes all the chapter of man's
activities. So they should do some great adventure before death. He also
encourages them by reminding them of their heroic fights with gods and other
natural calamities.

_______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________

Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 31 POETRY - XII

Lines  10  13

The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks:
The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs the deep,
Moans round with many voices, come my friends,
’Tis not too late to seek a newer world.
twinkle  sparkle, shine wanes  decreases deep  ocean
moans  complain

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses urges upon his sailors to set
sails to explore an unknown world. He says to his friends that they are not late to
undertake that great voyage. There is enough time to seek a new world. He tells
them that it is a very good time for them to start their voyage. In past they used to
set for travel at sun-set when stars and the moon begin shining. The same
conditions Ulysses finds now. In addition to this, sea-waves are roaring as if to
invite them to a remarkable voyage. In this way he does everything to encourage
his elderly mariners.

Lines  14  17

Push off, and sitting well in order smite
The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds
To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths
Of all the western stars, until I die.
smite  slice furrows channel, groove
EXPLANATION :- In these lines that great Greek hero Ulysses directs
his mariners to move their boats into the sea. He also advises them to remain well
prepared to fight against sea troubles and stormy waves. He tells them that his
objective is to sail beyond the horizon where all the western stars seem to sink
down in the morning. He further tells his sailors that he wants to continue his
adventure till he dies. Of course, Ulysses knew the meaning of human life. He
wants to say that one can achieve a lot if he is resolute and determined in his
efforts.
Lines  18  20

It may be that the gulfs will wash us down:
It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.
wash  get away Happy Isles  paradise Achilles  great Greek Hero

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 32 POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses tells his mariners about the
possible troubles and hazards they might face in the sea. It is possible they may
all be drowned in the middle of their voyage. All the same time he is hopeful and
confident. He tells his friends that they might be successful to read the Happy
Islands (imaginary islands in Greek mythology) and meet their great warrior
Achilles (a character in Greek mythology). Thus he tells them both the aspects of
their adventure. He tries his best to develop the courage and confidence of his old
mariners.
Lines  21  23

Though much is taken, much abides and tho’
We are not now that strength which in old days
Move to earth and heaven; that which we are we are.
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses admits that they are not now
as energetic and strong as they were in their youth. because they have lost much
of their physical stamina and vigour. Nevertheless he says that they are not too
weak to undertake a great adventure. No doubt they made great adventures in
their young age. But still in their old age they had heroic hearts full with courage,
determination and adventurous spirit. Ulysses tries his utmost to remove
pessimism, fear and disappointment from the minds of his old marine friends.

Lines 24-26

One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate but strong and will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
temper  anger strive  struggle yield  surrender

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses describes some universal
and moral facts. He is not ready to believe that old age is useless. Though, he
says, there is much difference between young age and old age, old age can
display courageous and adventurous deeds. Their bodies are old and weak but
their hearts and souls are very young and energetic. Their hearts still have strong
will, courage, determination and adventurous zeal. He does not like to surrender
to old age. He wishes to explore, to search and to fight until they die. He wants to
keep himself as busy as bee even in his old age.

G. Allana
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 33 POETRY - XII

Lines  1  5

The cell of my being was small indeed
But there began the infinitude of God
With its endless immensity,
In the mirror of eternity
Countless cities and deserts throbbed within me.
infinitude  limitlessness immensity  vastness eternity  perpetuity
throbbed  beaten

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem,
“ The Lost Star ”, composed by G. Allana.

CONTEXT :- This poem breathes religious spirit in an excellent way.
G. Allana says that our strong believe in the existence of God gives us immense
and eternal peace. Man gets self-respect and broad-mindedness. Once man
weakens his faith in God, he becomes unimportant in his own eyes. Today's
material progress has destroyed our belief in Allah and hence we are deprived of
spiritual peace and enjoyment. Our divided aims have left us nowhere.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when he was
devoid of Divine assistance and light, he felt himself unimportant and inferior. But
when Divine help and light entered his soul, he found himself very dignified and
superior. He found himself thronged with Divine qualities. The poet having
received God’s light began to feel immortal and immense sparks in his existence.
When he saw himself in the mirror of eternity, many extraordinary things and
places seemed to exist in his soul. The poet means to say that spiritual relief
makes man's morale high.

Lines  6  8

Many constellations shone illustriously
I was larger than the world
Which I held in the grip of my fingers.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 34 POETRY - XII

constellations  group of stars shone  glimmer
illustriously  clearly grip  hold grasp

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when his soul
was devoid of Divine light and assistance, he felt himself forlorn. However when
he held firm belief in the existence of God he gained a lot of spiritual peace.
Really, in this way man becomes very dignified and superior to all things. We find
galaxies in our existence. In this way one is no longer the slave of world.

Lines  9  15

What has happened now?
Who am I?
An insignificant atom
In a chaotic cosmos
Someone has drugged my soul
Another has stolen my light
No longer I am the same I was.
insignificant  unimportant chaotic  confused cosmos  universe

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana bonds to say that when we
had not attained present mechanical and scientific progress, our soul was happy
and great. But now a days our material progress has destroyed our spiritual
peace and satisfaction. Today's man has lost his dignity. He has left the right
path. Material gain and fame haunt the mind of today's man. As a result he has
become a meaningless being in his chaotic world. His soul is dull in spite of all the
charms of the modern life. Thus today's man has lost the spiritual star, i.e., the
qualities of pious life. He has no spiritual satisfaction.

Lines  16  19

I now reason with truth,
Argued with the irrefutable,
Blur with doubt the mirror of Reality,
Demolished the image of the Almighty.
irrefutable  indisputable, certain blur  haze, not clear demolished  destroyed

EXPLANATION :- Mankind’s over all pre-occupation with material
way of life has led to spiritual to generation and restlessness. Man has deviated
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 35 POETRY - XII

from the path of Truth and Reality. The poet thinks over the spiritual decline of
mankind. He thinks over Divine realities of this world. He concludes that today's
man has committed a great spiritual sin. He has discoloured the image of the
mirror of reality. Today's man has ruined his position.

Lines  20  26

I am another man;
Of the race of the damned;
I am the dead man
And I wander in visionary worlds
In search of the Primeval Spark
That lent Light
To the Star that I have lost.
damned  ruined, lost wander  walk, roam visionary  imaginative
Primeval  ancient, original Spark  flash, sparkle lent  borrowed, gave
Light  brightness, good guide

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that today's man is
not as good and content as he used to be in old days. Modern man's preference
is material progress at the cost of spiritual progress. Today's man belongs to the
race of those who are cursed and unfortunate. The poet says that he is the dead
man because he has neglected the spiritual side of life. Having lost the real path,
he is now wandering in the imaginary worlds. He is now trying to regain the same
Divine Light, which brightened his star in the past. Therefore, we can conclude
that the Lost Star symbolises with man's past glory.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 36 POETRY - XII

AN ESSAY ON MAN

Alexander Pope

Lines 1-4
Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate,
All but the page prescribed, their present state:
From brutes what men, from men what spirits know:
Or who could suffer being here below?
  

  

 

REFERENCE :- These lines belong to the poem ‘ Lines From An Essay On Man ’ composed by
Alexander Pope.

CONTEXT :- In this poem Alexander Pope describes the importance of our hidden Fate. He says
that God discloses to us what happens at the present moment. If he discloses are our future
happenings at a time, our life it would have been a hell here. But at the same time God allows us
to have hopes. All human beings continue to realize their hopes.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope describes the importance of our unknown
future. He says that our Fate is like a closed book. Almighty Allah does not allow us to read the
whole book at a time. He only lets us read one-page, that is, what is happening now. At the same
time He gives us some knowledge about brutes and lets the angels know about us. Had God
disclosed to all our future to us, our existence would have been unbearable and uneasy.

Lines 5-8
The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed today.
Had he thy reason, would he skip and play?
Pleased to the last, he crops the flowery food,
And licks the hand, just raised to shed his blood.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope gives and example of lamb to show the
importance of our ignorance about it in the our future. A lamb does not know that his master has
kept it to get flesh. In this ignorance it is very happy and skips, jumps and play is very joyfully.
Even the lamb licks the hands of his master not knowing that the same hands are going to put
knife at his throat. It means that ignorance of future provides us present happiness and ease.

Lines 9-10
O blindness to the future! kindly given,
That each may fill the circle marked by Heaven.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope describes the importance and value of our
ignorance about our future. It is a blessing in disguise. If we know our joys and sorrows in
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 37 POETRY - XII

advance, our world and our life would not have remained so active and competitive. So it is a
great Divine favour to human beings. Because God has assigned to us certain roles to perform.
And we can perform these roles properly if we are blind to our future.

Lines 11-14
Who sees with equal eye, as God of all.
A hero perish, or a sparrow fall,
Atoms or systems into ruin hurled,
And now a bubble burst, and now a world.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope tells us that God is present everywhere. God is
the only master of our universe. God looks at all things equally whether it is an elephant or an ant.
The fate and fortune of all things is known to God. Omnipresence is one of the greatest qualities
of God. God knows in advance what will happen with huge solar systems, great heroes, smallest
creators, etc. If God knows the future of our world, then at the same time He knows what will
happen with a water bubble. The poet means to say that nothing is hidden from God.

Lines 15-18
Hope humbly then; with trembling pinion soar;
Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore!
What future bliss, he gives not thee to know,
But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope tells us that though God hides from us our
future yet he made our life liveable and attractive by giving us hope for future. It is this gift of
hope that makes man to do many roles. We keep on travelling ahead with hopes and big
ambitions. From birth to death we continue our struggle to realise our dreams and hopes. At the
door of death this voyage of hopes ends. Meanwhile we worship our God to bless and favour us.
The poet means to say that future hope is a great Divine gift without which life would have been a
hell.

Lines 19-22
Hope springs eternal in the human breast:
Man never is, but always to be blest:
The soul, uneasy and confined from home,
Rests and expatiates in a life to come.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope says that God gives us hopes and ambitions in
stead of future knowledge. Man cannot live without hoping for something. Hope continues to
live with us till we die. We hope that our future will be better than our present. We never become
satisfied with what we have at present. Thus the hope of a happy future is a great consolation in
our life. In the same way our soul feels uneasy in this world. It feels rest when it hopes to go back
to its real home, the heaven.

LINES FROM ENDYMION

John Keats

Lines 1-6
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 38 POETRY - XII

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever:
Its loveliness increases; it will never
Pass into nothingness; but still will keep
A bower quiet for us, and a steep
Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quite breathing.

REFERENCE :- These lines belong to the poem ‘ Lines From Endymion ’ composed by John
Keats.

CONTEXT :- In this poem Keats tells us the immortality and strong influence of beauty. A
beautiful thing is a joy for ever. The beautiful things of our universe guide and help us in the
miseries and worries of the world. The beauty and loveliness of beautiful objects never dies or
decreases. Beauty is an immortal phenomenon.

EXPLANATION :- In these very first lines of the poem John Keats says that the beautiful things
are the permanent source of joy and relief. The beautiful things themselves may die but their
impression left on our mind never dies. Even their beautiful impression increases with the passage
of time. It will never cease to please and amuse us. Our experience of beautiful things remains
for ever in our memories and we can enjoy it in the same way as we enjoy a beautiful gardens and
oasis, sweet dreams and sound health. Beautiful experiences are endless fountains of relief.

Lines 7-14
Therefore, on every marrow are we wreathing
A flowery band to bind us to the earth,
Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth
Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,
Of all the unhealthy and over darkened ways
Made for our searching: yes in spite of all,
Some shared of beauty moves away the pass
From our dark spirits.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Keats says that it is only because of beauty and loveliness of our
world that we want to live. Because of our beautiful and forgetful experiences we find ourselves
engaged with more attractive affairs. Is our life is full of sorrows and agonies, so an experience of
beauty soothes and relieves us from these mental tortures and sufferings. The poet thinks that our
world has an inhuman atmosphere and the sole source of solace and consolation is beauty and its
permanent influence on our memories.

Lines 14-20
Such the sun, the moon,
Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon
For simple sheep; and such are daffodils
With the green world they live in, and clear rills
That for themselves a cooling covert make
’Gainst the hot season; the mid-forest brake,
Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Keats tells us some natural objects which provide us beauty and
pleasure. In these natural beautiful objects include the sun, the moon, green shady trees which
shelter sheep. In addition to these, beautiful daffodils with their green surroundings, stream with
crystal water, relieving us from hot season, are some other sources of beauty. He also mentions
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 39 POETRY - XII

the charm and beauty of musk-rose flowers growing here and there. Thus Keats tells us about
some beautiful objects which, he thinks, amuse and entertain us forever.

Lines 21-25
And such too is the grandeur of the dooms
We have imagined for the mighty deed;
All lovely tales that we have heard our red;
An endless fountain of immortal drink,
Pouring onto us from the heaven's brink.

EXPLANATION :- in these lines Keats says that our real attachment with beauty and its
everlasting impression on our memories makes us composed imaginary legends about our great
heroes. There heroic deeds had beauty and grandeur and we continue to add to their worth and
value. All the beauty we have, comes from a big source, that is heaven. Heaven is the immortal
source of beauty and it never suspends its rain of beauty on the earth. Thus beauty is a divine
thing, and a divine thing is a truth and truth is deathless. Beauty is truth, truth is beauty, that is all.

SAY NOT THE STRUGGLE NAUGHT AVAILETH

Arthur Hugh Clough

Stanza :- 1.
Say not the struggle naught availeth,
The Labour and the wounds are vain,
The enemy faints not, not faileth,
And as things have been they remained.

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Say Not The Struggle Naught
Availeth ’, composed by A.H. Clough.

CONTEXT :- This poem breathes the spirit of confidence and optimism. It urges that we should
be hopeful and never give up hope. Sincere struggle never goes vain. The poet uses the symbols
of battlefield, tired waves and the shining sun to support his point of view. He seems to believe
that man is not born to yield.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines A.H.Clough says that if our efforts are sincere then we should be
confident of victory. One should never succumb to timely troubles and difficulties. Our efforts
and labours will never go in vain. We will get reward of our efforts. We should not think that we
could not defeat our enemy. We can defeat our enemy if we do not give up our struggle. We
should believe that if the circumstances oppose us today, they will support us tomorrow.

Stanza :- 2.
If hopes dupes, fears may be liars;
It may be, in yon smoke concealed
Your comrades chase even now the fliers,
And, but for you, possesses the field.

EXPLANATION :- in these lines A.H.Clough tells us that hopes and fears have common natures
to some extent. Sometimes our hopes do not come true, in the same way our fears might be
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 40 POETRY - XII

baseless and wrong. An army general should not lose hope because his soldiers may have
advanced towards enemy ranks. They may need his guidance and encouragement. The poet
means to say that the weapons of confidence and hopefulness can bring victory, fame and fortune.

Stanza :- 3.
For while the tired waves, vainly breaking,
Seem here no painful inch to gain,
Far back, through creeks and inlets making,
Comes silent, flooding in, the main.

EXPLANATION :- in these lines the poet gives the example of waves in order to prove that
constant human efforts are certain to bear fruit. Apparently the waves seem to have no effect on
the shore, but the continuous collision against the shore causes cracks and inlets to the shore.
Thus they cast heavy floods. In the same way if we remain constant and determined in our efforts,
we will achieve huge victories and targets. The poet urges us to follow the course of tired waves.

Stanza :- 4.
And not by eastern windows only,
When daylight comes, comes in the light;
In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,
But westward, look, the land is bright!

EXPLANATION :- The poet has great believe in human struggle & power. This human struggle
and power is most effective when we display constancy and confidence. To prove this he gives
the example of the sun. The sun rises in the east but its brightness is not confined to Asia only.
The sun lights up the whole world. It goes up slowly but spreads its lights all over the world.
Similarly, we can be successful provided we remain devoted & committed to our efforts.

LINES FROM ULYSSES

Alfred Lord Tennyson

Lines 1-5
My mariners,
Souls that have toiled, and wrought & thought with me
That ever with a frolic welcome took
The thunder and the sunshine, & opposed
Free hearts, free foreheads you & I are old.

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Lines From Ulysses ’, written by
Alfred Tennyson.

CONTEXT :- This poem bears the spirit of determination, courage, adventure and struggle.
Ulysses, a great Greek hero, desires to undertake a great adventure before his death. He
encourages his sailors to prepare for the last sea adventure. He says that their bodies are old and
weak but there will-power is young and strong. Therefore they should continue to explore new
words.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 41 POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- in these lines Ulysses appreciates the services of his old mariners, who stood
by him through all life's ups and downs. He admits that they rendered him great services. They
fought heroic battles with natural forces and proved successful. He knows that they are now old
and weak, still he encourages them their glorious past adventures. He says that old age should not
or cannot hinder them from another great adventure. He tries to inspire his sailors.

Lines 6-9
Old age hath yet his honour and his foil;
Death closes all, but something ’ere the end,
Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
Not unbecoming men that strove with gods.

EXPLANATION :- in these lines the great Greek hero, Ulysses encourages his old mariners to
start an other but last sea adventure. Though he realizes their old age and physical weakness, yet
inspires that the old age has its own dignity and charm. It is only death which closes all the
chapter of man's activities. So they should do some great adventure before death. He also
encourages them by reminding them of their heroic fights with gods and other natural calamities.

Lines 10-13
The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks:
The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs the deep,
Moans round with many voices, come my friends,
’Tis not too late to seek a newer world.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses urges upon his sailors to set sails to explore an unknown
world. He says to his friends that they are not late to undertake that great voyage. There is
enough time to seek a new world. He tells them that it is a very good time for them to start their
voyage. In past they used to set for travel at sun-set when stars and the moon begin shining. The
same conditions Ulysses finds now. In addition to this, sea-waves are roaring as if to invite them
to a remarkable voyage. In this way he does everything to encourage his elderly mariners.

Lines 14-17
Push off, and sitting well in order smite
The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds
To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths
Of all the western stars, until I die.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines that great Greek hero Ulysses directs his mariners to move their
boats into the sea. He also advises them to remain well prepared to fight against sea troubles and
stormy waves. He tells them that his objective is to sail beyond the horizon where all the western
stars seem to sink down in the morning. He further tells his sailors that he wants to continue his
adventure till he dies. Of course, Ulysses knew the meaning of human life. He wants to say that
one can achieve a lot if he is resolute and determined in his efforts.

Lines 18-20
It may be that the gulfs will wash us down:
It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses tells his mariners about the possible troubles and
hazards they might face in the sea. It is possible they may all be drowned in the middle of their
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 42 POETRY - XII

voyage. All the same time he is hopeful and confident. He tells his friends that they might be
successful to read the Happy Islands (imaginary islands in Greek mythology) and meet their great
warrior Achilles (a character in Greek mythology). Thus he tells them both the aspects of their
adventure. He tries his best to develop the courage and confidence of his old mariners.

Lines 21-23
Though much is taken, much abides and tho’
We are not now that strength which in old days
Move to earth and heaven; that which we are we are.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses admits that they are not now as energetic and strong as
they were in their youth. because they have lost much of their physical stamina and vigour.
Nevertheless he says that they are not too weak to undertake a great adventure. No doubt they
made great adventures in their young age. But still in their old age they had heroic hearts full with
courage, determination and adventurous spirit. Ulysses tries his utmost to remove pessimism, fear
and disappointment from the minds of his old marine friends.

Lines 24-26
One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate but strong and will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses describes some universal and moral facts. He is not
ready to believe that old age is useless. Though, he says, there is much difference between young
age and old age, old age can display courageous and adventurous deeds. Their bodies are old and
weak but their hearts and souls are very young and energetic. Their hearts still have strong will,
courage, determination and adventurous zeal. He does not like to surrender to old age. He wishes
to explore, to search and to fight until they die. He wants to keep himself as busy as bee even in
his old age.

THE LOST STAR

G. Allana

Lines 1-5
The cell of my being was small indeed
But there began the infinitude of God
With its endless immensity,
In the mirror of eternity
Countless cities and deserts throbbed within me.

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, “ The Lost Star ”, composed by G.
Allana.

CONTEXT :- This poem breathes religious spirit in an excellent way. G. Allana says that our
strong believe in the existence of God gives us immense and eternal peace. Man gets self-respect
and broad-mindedness. Once man weakens his faith in God, he becomes unimportant in his own
eyes. Today's material progress has destroyed our belief in Allah and hence we are deprived of
spiritual peace and enjoyment. Our divided aims have left us nowhere.

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 43 POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when he was devoid of Divine assistance and
light, he felt himself unimportant and inferior. But when Divine help and light entered his soul, he
found himself very dignified and superior. He found himself thronged with Divine qualities. The
poet having received God’s light began to feel immortal and immense sparks in his existence.
When he saw himself in the mirror of eternity, many extraordinary things and places seemed to
exist in his soul. The poet means to say that spiritual relief makes man's morale high.

Lines 6-8
Many constellations shone illustriously
I was larger than the world
Which I held in the grip of my fingers.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when his soul was devoid of Divine light and
assistance, he felt himself forlorn. However when he held firm belief in the existence of God he
gained a lot of spiritual peace. Really, in this way man becomes very dignified and superior to all
things. We find galaxies in our existence. In this way one is no longer the slave of world.

Lines 9-15
What has happened now?
Who am I?
An insignificant atom
In a chaotic cosmos
Someone has drugged my soul
Another has stolen my light
No longer I am the same I was.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana bonds to say that when we had not attained present
mechanical and scientific progress, our soul was happy and great. But now a days our material
progress has destroyed our spiritual peace and satisfaction. Today's man has lost his dignity. He
has left the right path. Material gain and fame haunt the mind of today's man. As a result he has
become a meaningless being in his chaotic world. His soul is dull in spite of all the charms of the
modern life. Thus today's man has lost the spiritual star, i.e., the qualities of pious life. He has no
spiritual satisfaction.

Lines 16-19
I now reason with truth,
Argued with the irrefutable,
Blur with doubt the mirror of Reality,
Demolished the image of the Almighty.

EXPLANATION :- Mankind’s over all pre-occupation with material way of life has led to
spiritual to generation and restlessness. Man has deviated from the path of Truth and Reality. The
poet thinks over the spiritual decline of mankind. He thinks over Divine realities of this world.
He concludes that today's man has committed a great spiritual sin. He has discoloured the image
of the mirror of reality. Today's man has ruined his position.

Lines 20-26
I am another man;
Of the race of the damned;
I am the dead man
And I wander in visionary worlds
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 44 POETRY - XII

In search of the Primeval Spark
That lent Light
To the Star that I have lost.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that today's man is not as good and content as he
used to be in old days. Modern man's preference is material progress at the cost of spiritual
progress. Today's man belongs to the race of those who are cursed and unfortunate. The poet says
that he is the dead man because he has neglected the spiritual side of life. Having lost the real
path, he is now wandering in the imaginary worlds. He is now trying to regain the same Divine
Light, which brightened his star in the past. Therefore, we can conclude that the Lost Star
symbolises with man's past glory.

AN ELEGY WRITTEN IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD

Thomas Gray

Stanza :- 1.
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd wind slowly over the lea,
The plowman home ward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, “ An Elegy Written in a Country
Churchyard ”, written by Thomas Gray.

CONTEXT :- This poem is written in a remote country Churchyard with true sentiments and
ideas. While sitting in the churchyard the poet felt and considered the fate of those who lied under
the graves. He counts their simple joys, errors, achievements, etc. It leads the poet to think that
how he himself will be remembered. The poet presents general & universal truths about life &
death.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray sets before our eyes the atmosphere of the
Churchyard at sun setting. The bells are ringing that the day is coming to its end. The flocks of
sheep, goats and cows are coming back from the meadows. The farmers who worked hard all the
day long are returning to their homes. They seem very tired. Everything is going away. There is
left only poet with darkness all around in the Churchyard.

Stanza :- 2.
Now fades the glimmering lends------
And all the air a solemn stillness holds,
Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,
And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.

EXPLANATION :- The poet says that now darkness spreads everywhere but, he can still see the
dim sight of the surrounding places. The atmosphere is calm and quite except few voices.
Sometimes the sounds of the flight of the beetle break the dead silence of the graveyard.
Sometimes, he hears the low sound of a bell fastened round the neck of a sheep from some distant
folds. Thus there are little breaks in the dead silence of the graveyard.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 45 POETRY - XII

Stanza :- 3.
Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower;
The mopping owl does to the moon complain,
Of such as, wandering near her secret bower,
Molest her ancient solitary reign.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that there are trees of elms and yews which
are commonly planted in English Country graveyards. There he sees and leaves of earth…………
…………………………………. this village. These graves are not in sound condition because
they are very old. Under these graves are sleeping the forefathers of the village. They are
sleeping an endless sleep.

Stanza :- 5.
The breezy call of incense breathing Morn,
The Swallow twittering from the straw built shed,
The cocks’ shrill clarion or the echoing horn,
No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Sir Thomas Gray says that the forefathers of the hamlet are
sleeping endless sleep in their secret rooms (graves). The sweet smelling breeze of mourning can
not impress them. The sweet music of swallows, the wakening sound of mourning cocks and
other sounds are useless to awake them.

Stanza :- 6.
For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,
Or busy housewife ply her evening care;
No children run to lisp their sire’s return,
Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share.

EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that forefathers of the hamlet are dead
and hence nobody cares for them. No wife waits and prepares food for them. They are
completely forgotten now, because they died long ago. No children stand on their door steps to
greet their father and then to tell others about his return. No children wished to be kissed by them.
The poet means to say that death ends all.

Stanza :- 7.
Or did the harvest to their sickle yield,
Their furrow off the stubborn glebe has broke;
How jocund did they drive their team afield!
How bow’d the woods beneath their sturdy stroke.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray says that the people lying in the graves might
have been hard-working farmers of their times. It may be that these farmers used to cut their crops
with sickle. They used to plough hard and tough earth. They felt very happy when they drove
their horses and oxen. May be, they were strong and healthy farmers of their time. They might
have felled many trees with they are powerful strokes.

Stanza :- 8.
Let not Ambition mock their useful toil.
Their homely joys, and destiny obscure,
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 46 POETRY - XII

Not Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile
The short & simple annals of the poor.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that ambitious and successful people should
not mock at the simple but useful achievements that these simple villagers did. The poet advises
them not to laugh at the simple playful and joyful activities of the villagers whose life is unknown.
No doubt the simple villagers who lied buried in the graveyard were great people. They were
respectable in spite of their simplicity. Although we know little about their achievements, we
should not laugh at them.

Stanza :- 9.
The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
And all that beauty all that wealth was gave,
Awaits alike the inevitable hour,
The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray tells us that the ambitious and great people of
today should not boast of their achievements & victories. It is foolish to be proud of our high
social status, beauty & wealth. All these things are temporary, they have to die or disappear one
day. All those who are powerful, wealthy, respectable, glorious and great should not boast about
their achievements & greatness. Because death comes to all, and all become equal after their
death.

Stanza :- 10.
Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault,
If Memory over their tomb no trophies raise,
Where through the long drawn aisle & fretted vault
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that what should be our behaviour towards
the simple villagers who lied buried in this graveyard. Those who are proud should not criticise
and find faults with the simple joys and activities of the rude forefathers of this hamlet. If there
are no tomb stones on their graves to tell their achievements, it is not a big matter. At the same
time, if the Church does not respect and honour them by ringing Church bells and singing songs,
we can not blame our forefathers for that. In spite of off……………………………………………
……………………

Stanza :- 11.
Can storied urn or animated bust,
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath?
Can honour's Voice provoke the silent dust?
Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that death is an unavoidable hour. He we
have to meet our Maker. A man, once died can never be made alive. We cannot bring the dead
man to life by decorating an urn in his honour, or by building a fine statue in his memory. Just as
simple words of praise can not bring a man to life again, soft and sweet words can not save us
from death. He says that it is useless to decorate or to make statues in their honour after their
death because death is eternal.

Stanza :- 12.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 47 POETRY - XII

Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
Some heart once pregnant celestial fire;
Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed
Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.

EXPLANATION :- In this stanza, Thomas Gray tells us that the graveyard of this hamlet is
ancient and we do not know much about the lives and achievements of the villagers who are lying
buried under their graves. May be there are buried great and victorious people who have done
great and achieved a lot. There may be buried some pious and righteous man whose soul had a
divine light. Perhaps some of the people buried here were Kings and Princes and held power.
May be some great poets and artists are lying buried in their country Churchyard.

Stanza :- 13.
But knowledge to their eyes her ample page
Rich with the spoils of time did never unroll
Chill penury repressed their noble rage,
And froze the genial current of the soul.

EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that the simple forefathers of the village
who lied buried in this graveyard could not be prominent & well-known. The reason was that they
had no opportunities and sources to get knowledge. They could not know that how much the
world progressed in this world. Though they had qualities and talents but due to their poverty they
could not use their internal energies. Had they got a chance to receive knowledge, they could have
got prominent position in the world.

Stanza :- 14.
Full many a gem of purest ray serene
The dark unfathom’d caves of oceans bear:
Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,
And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray’s poetic spirit and thought run very high. These
are the better than the best lines of this poem. Here we read a great universal truth. He says that
beautiful, pure and precious gem and jewels remain hidden in the bottom of the ocean. They get
no chance to be valued and judged by jewellers. Similarly many charming and sweet-smelling
flowers blossom in deserts and die away unseen. Similarly many wise and brilliant men are born
in this world, but they die without being known & recognised, because they get no chance to show
their brilliancy and wisdom.

Stanza :- 15.
Some village Hampden that with dauntless breast
The little tyrant of his fields withstood,
Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest,
Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country’s blood.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray mentions some famous personalities of English
history and says that such great men may lie buried in this graveyard. May be, there lies buried
man like Hampden who fought against King Charles very boldly. May be, there lies buried man-
like Milton who in spite of his great genius could not be recognised in his life-time. May be, there
lies buried some Cromwell who was not responsible for the bloodshed that took place during
struggle against King Charles.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 48 POETRY - XII

Stanza :- 16.
Th' applause of listening senate’s to command,
The threat of pain and ruin to despise,
To scatter plenty over a smiling land,
And read their history in a nation’s eyes.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us some features of the ill-fate of his
forefathers. They were very simple and could not get any chance to become members of their
parliament, such as the Senate. They could never use their energies for the welfare and well-being
of their country-men. They could not relieve the sufferings of their people. Had they got some
chance to reach their parliament and worked for the welfare of their people, they would have made
their mark in history. But, alas! they could not do so, and lied buried unknown, unsung &
unwritten.

Stanza :- 17.
Their lot forbade; not circumscribed alone
Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined;
Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne,
And shut the gates of mercy on mankind.

EXPLANATION :- In their previous stanzas, Thomas Gray feels sorry that the forefathers of the
hamlet could not get any chance to be famous in the history. But in these lines he says that it was
good for them that they could not display their virtues and energies. In this way they did not
commit serious crimes. They were not involved in bloodshed for achieving a throne or in other
inhuman activities. Though they could not get fame and fortune by serving their people, their
wicked nature too remained checked and suppressed.

Stanza :- 18.
The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide,
To quench the blushes of ingenious shame,
Or heap the shrine of Luxury & Pride
With incense kindled at Muse’s fame.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray wants to say that these simple villagers could not
get any chance to be popular politicians of their time. Thus they did not need to conceal political
realities. Their conscience never suffered from moral torture. Thus they were saved from the
blush of the real shame which comes when a politician or statesman is compelled to contradict
himself knowing all facts. Their ignorance of poetry saved them of writing flattering poetry.
Thus, their ignorance, simplicity & innocence saved them from many evils.

Stanza :- 19.
Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife
Their sober wishes never learned to stray;
Along the cool sequestered vale of life,
They kept the noiseless tenor of their way.

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray means to say that the people who lie buried in this
village graveyard are simple, innocent, honest and lived quite happily. They were content with
their fate. Their wishes and aims were quite simple and harmless. They did not, like mad, and
unhappy people run after wild and selfish ends. They passed their lives very calmly & gracefully.
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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur
Talpur’s Outline Series 49 POETRY - XII

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Prof: Shakil
Ahmed Talpur