Talpur’s Outline Series

1

POETRY - XII

William Shakespeare (1564 — 1616)
Lines 1- 5 .

All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players; They have their exits and their entrances, And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages.
stage  theatre merely  only, simply exit  way out, outlet entrance  way in, entry, part  character act  perform, do something

players  group of actors, dramatists

REFERENCE:These lines have been taken ‘The Seven Ages of Man’. This is a speech from William Shakespeare's known comedy ‘As You like It’.

from well-

CONTEXT :- In this speech William Shakespeare compares our world with the stage. All men and women perform different roles on the stage of this world. The poet gives seven roles to a person during his life span. Each role or stage differs from the other. Man’s birth is entrance on the stage and death is departure from the stage. EXPLANATION :- William Shakespeare calls this world a stage. He says that we people are the actors of this stage. The poet observes a lot of resemblance between our world and the stage. Our birth in this world is like the entrance of an actor on the stage, and our death is like the departure of an actor from the stage. The poet tells that a man performs seven different roles. Each role or act possesses various features.
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Prof: Shakil Ahmed Talpur

Talpur’s Outline Series

2 Lines 6- 7 .

POETRY - XII

His acts being seven ages. At first the infant, Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arm.
infant  newborn, baby mewling cry with sharp Sound puking  vomiting nurse  look after, foster

EXPLANATION :- William Shakespeare compares the world with stage with men and women as its actors. He says that one man in his life performs seven different roles. The very first role is that of our birth. At this is stage one is infant. He remains crying and vomiting. He is looked after by his nurse.
Lines 7- 9 .

Then, the whining schoolboy, with his satchel And shining morning face, creeping like snail Unwillingly to school;
whining
humming,

buzzing

creeping

move

silently, crawl unwillingly

against

your

will satchel school bag

snail  small animal of water

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Shakespeare describes the second stage of a man in the world. This role begins when one starts going to school with school bag on his shoulders. The schoolboy's face shines because his parents have washed him well. And he does not want to go to school.
Lines 9-11 .

And then the lover, Sighing like furnace, with the woeful ballad Made to his mistress's eyebrow.
sighing  breathe out noisily furnace  heater, boiler woeful  unhappy ballad  poem, song

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Shakespeare describes the third stage of man's life. This age begins when one happens to know all about love and beauty. Being away from his beloved, are having been failed in his love-affair, he sighs heavily and composes poetry in remembrance of his beloved.

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Talpur’s Outline Series

3

POETRY - XII

Lines

11-15 .

Then a soldier, Full of strange oaths, and bearded like pard, Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel, Seeking the bubble reputation Event in the canon's mouth;
strange  odd, extraordinary pard  tiger, cheetah. sudden  rapid, abrupt reputation  status, name oaths  promise, pledge bearded  shave jealous  envious, resentful honour  respect, admiration quarrel  disagree, fight seeking  search for sth. canon  a large gun

EXPLANATION :- In these lines William Shakespeare describes the fourth role of a man on the stage of the world. The fourth the stage produces a man as soldier. The soldier is very much emotional. He is desirous for fame, not knowing that worldly reputation is temporary. He is ready to face all dangers and troubles of life. It takes all risks boldly in order to gain fame and gain.
Lines 16-18.

And then, the justice, In fair round belly with good lin’d. With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut, Full of wise saws and modern instances.
justice  judge, nobleman severe  strict, harsh saw  saying, proverb belly  abdomen, tummy formal  proper, official instance  example lin’d  lined, filled wise  intelligent, clever

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, William Shakespeare describes the fifth stage or role performed by a man or woman on the stage of the world. It is the role of the justice or an official. He bears hard temperament and has beard of formal cut. He is fond of eating and drinking. He knows much about tradition and modern sciences. He is expert in his field.
Lines 19-23 .

The sixth stage shifts Into the lean and slippered pantaloon, With spectacles on nose and pouch on side,
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Talpur’s Outline Series

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POETRY - XII

His youthful hose, well saved, the world too wide For his shrunk shrank;
shifts  change, move pantaloon  pant hose  man’s garment lean  bend, tilt spectacles  eyeglasses wide  broad, large slippered  loose, free pouch  small bag shrunk  get small, minimize

EXPLANATION :- In these lines W. Shakespeare describes the sixth role of an individual (player), on the stage of the world. This age shifts into old age. Once come before the audience as very weak, thin and ill. This is a tragic role which all human beings have to perform on this wide stage of the world. One's body turns to weak and thin that his youthful hose does not fit his body properly. His eye-sight being poor, he has spectacles. He always keeps the same all bags with him.
Lines 23-25 .

And his manly voice, Turning again towards childish treble, pipes, And whistles in his sound;
manly  masculine male pipes  whispering sound turning  changing voice  tone accent treble  sharp sound whistles  whistling sound

EXPLANATION: - Describing the sixth stage of man from “The Seven Ages of Man”, W. Shakespeare makes fun of man's vocal condition at this age. These vocal organs give up their proper function due to old age and illness. Therefore, the poet observes resemblance between the voices of a child an old man. The old man speaks as if a child.
Lines 25-28 .

Last scene of all, That ends this strange eventful history, In the second childishness, and mere of oblivion, Sans teeth, sans eyes, sense taste, sans everything.
scene  picture, sight ends  finish, closing stages strange  extraordinary, odd eventful  exciting, lively history  the past, times past mere  only, simple oblivion  forgetfulness, unconsciousness sans without

EXPLANATION :- In these lines William Shakespeare describes the last role that we human beings have to play at any rate. None can avoid this stage but dying young. This is the extreme old age. The poet terms it as the last scene of the drama. After this scene the curtain drops. Our poet says that it is
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Talpur’s Outline Series

5

POETRY - XII

second childishness. Because there are many things in common between a small baby and an utter old person; for example, forgetfulness, absence of teeth, weak eye-sight and poor sense of taste. A person is deprived of all charms of life. He depends on others.

Thomas Campion (I567—1620)
Stanza  1

The man of life upright, Whose guiltless heart is free From all dishonest deeds, Or thought of vanity.
upright  honest, straight deed  action, act guiltless  innocent thought  thinking, idea dishonest  unfair, insincere vanity  pride, egotism

REFERENCE :- These lines belong to Thomas Campion's religious

poem, ‘The Man of Life Upright’. CONTEXT :- In this poem Thomas Campion describes various virtues and qualities of an honest and pious man. This man, Campion says, lives a moral, careful and peaceful life. He believes in Divine rules. He is indifferent to material gain and fame. He fears none but God. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion describes certain virtues of the man of life upright. This type of man is free from guilt and crimes so his heart is pure and safe. His actions and thoughts are based on the principles of honesty. His conscience does not allow him to commit dishonest deeds. He does not like pride and arrogance.

Stanza  2

The man whose silent days In harmless joys are spent.
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POETRY - XII

Whom hopes can not delude, Nor sorrow discontent;
silent  quiet noiseless harmless safe, not dangerous joy  pleasure, delight spent  passed, exhausted hope  wish, expect delude  cheat deceive sorrow  unhappiness sadness discontent  restlessness displeasure

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us how the man of life upright lives his life. An upright man passes his life very silently. He finds peace and happiness in those activities which do not trouble and hurt his fellow beings. Hopes can not deceive him because he is not an ambitious man. He does not run blindly after hopes. Sorrows and problems of life cannot make him gloomy and disappointed.

Stanza

3

That man needs neither Tower Nor armour for defence, Nor secret vaults to fly From thunder’s violence.
tower  big building fly  to run away armour  shield thunder noise vault  cellar violence  cruelty, cruelty

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us that an honest, upright and pious person fears none but God. His deeds are based on Divine rules. So he does not do anything unreligious and unlawful. Therefore he needs neither armour to protect himself against his enemy's blows, nor any underground cell to hide him when he feels some danger.

Stanza

4

He only can behold With unaffrighted eyes The horrors of the deep And terrors of the skies.
behold  watch, see deep  ocean, bottomless unaffrighted  fearless terror  fear, horror horror  fear, terror

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us that an upright and God-fearing man does not fear natural and man-made troubles of life.
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Talpur’s Outline Series

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POETRY - XII

Those people who run after worldly gain and fame fears simple problems of life. But an upright man is always ready to welcome unexpected troubles in his life. Even he is not disheartened by roaring waves of oceans and terrible stormy rains. The poet means to say that only an upright man can face the horrors and terrors of the world.

Stanza

5

Thus, scorning all the cares That fate or fortune brings He makes the heaven his book His wisdom heavenly things.
scorning hating, contempt fortune kismet, luck cares  worry, mind heaven  nature, paradise fate chance, destiny

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Campion tells us a very important quality of his upright man. An upright man is one who does not care about worldly gains or loss. He is quite indifferent to worldly joys and sorrows that may come in his way by bad or good fortune. He thinks the heaven as his teacher and guide. His wisdom and knowledge is about natural objects.

Stanza

6.

Good thoughts his only friends, His wealth is well-spent age, The earth his sober inn And quite pilgrimage.
sober  nice, good inn  hotel pilgrimage  a journey to a sacred place quite  fairly, pretty

EXPLANATION :- In these lines we are told by Thomas Campion that a pious and God-fearing man keeps his mind pure and clean from immoral and harmful thoughts, like a devoted friend, moral and fruitful thoughts revolve in his mind. The time he has spent purely and piously is his precious wealth. He takes this world as a temporarily place and lives as a pilgrim or traveller. Taking this world as an inn, he never uses his wisdom and knowledge for worldly gains. He does not pay much attention to this materialistic world. He does not care for spiritual world.

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Talpur’s Outline Series

8

POETRY - XII

John Milton (1608 – 1676)
Lines  16

He patient, but undaunted, where they led him Came to the place; and what was set before him, Which without help of eye might be assayed, To heave, to pull, draw or break, he is still performed All with incredible stupendous force, None daring to appear antagonist.
patient  tolerant, enduring set  put, place draw  drag pull daring  brave, bold undaunted  fearless led  directed, guided assayed  examined heave  pull, drag incredible  unbelievable stupendous  surprising antagonist  enemy, rival

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from John Milton's autobiographical poem ‘ Samson Agonistes’. CONTEXT :- In this poet the drama John Milton describes the death of its hero, Samson. He was a man of great strength. His enemies, Philistines, made him captive through the treaty of his wife. We are told that how Samson sacrificed his life for the freedom of his people. He amused his captors very much, but when he got a chance he brought the roof of a great temple upon them. Thus he died along with them.
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Talpur’s Outline Series

9

POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Milton describes the way Samson performed various feats of immense strength. He remained calm and cold through out his performance. He obliged the orders of his captors very patiently and boldly. He performed all deeds without any difficulty. He dragged, lifted, drew and broke different items with his eyes closed. All he did with unbelievable force. Nobody, present on the occasion, dared to compete with him.

Lines  712

At length for intermission sake they led him Between the pillars; he his guide requested, (For so from such as nearer stood we heard), As over-tired, to let him lean and a while With both his arms on those too massy pillars That to the arched roof gave the main support.
intermission  break interval massy  heavy support hold, back up over-tired  very tired arched  curved, bent lean  bow, bend over main  chief, major

EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that after Samson had performed many unbelievable feats, he was given an interval l to take some rest. His guide took him between two pillars. Their Samson requested him to allow him to lean on the pillars. He desired to put his both arms on the main huge pillars which supported the roof of the temple. He was over-tired so he wished in some way to support his body by leaning on the pillars.
Lines  13 16

He unsuspicious led him; which when Samson Felt in his arms, with head a while inclined, And eyes fast fixed, he stood, as one who prayed, Or some great mater in his mind revolved:
unsuspicious  innocent, above suspicion mater  big problem prayed
 beg,

ask

inclined  tending, leaning revolved  rotate

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet describes that Samson request was granted and his guide let him lean on the pillars. The guide did not suspect Samson's horrible plan. Samson put his arms round the pillars and held his head down. His eyes were fixed at the same place. Then he is stood as if he
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POETRY - XII

was performing some religious duty or he was thinking about some important mater. However none could suspect Samson's plan.
Lines  17  20

At last with head erect thus cried aloud Hitherto, lords, what your commands imposed I have performed, as reason was obeying, Not without wonder or delight beheld;
erect  straight vertical imposed  forced delight  pleasure hitherto  till now obey  follow, observe beheld  be felt commands  orders wonder  surprise

EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that after leaning a while on the pillars Samson raised his head and told the authorities about his forthcoming feat of strength. He told them that, being under their custody, he obeyed commands. Whatever his captors asked him to do; he did it with his eyes shut. He told them that nobody could help showing wonder and delight at his impressive feats.
Lines  21  23

Now of my own accord, such other trial I mean to show you of my strength, yet greater; As with amaze shall strike all who behold.
own  personal amaze  surprise accord  deal strike  hit trial  experiment

EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that Samson said to the Philistian nobility that he had performed whatever they demanded. But then he told them that he would show an other trial of his own accord. He said that that act of his immense strength would hold the captors spellbound. Of course, the action or trial he performed afterwards was amazing as well as horrible. Those who survived could never forget it.
Lines  24  30

Thus uttered, stretching all his nerves, he bowed, As with the force of winds and waters pent When mountains tremble, those two massy pillars With horrible; convulsion to and fro He tugged, he shook, till down they came, and drew
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Talpur’s Outline Series

11

POETRY - XII

Whole roof after them with burst of thunder Upon the heads of all who sat beneath.
uttered  spoken expressed bowed  bent massy  heavy, big to and fro  back and forth drew  pulled beneath  under, below stretching  making bigger nerves  muscles pent  closely confined tremble  shake horrible  awful convulsion  fit, tremor tugged  pulled shook  moved up and down burst  explode thunder  big noise

EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us how the great hero demolished the roof upon the Philistian nobility, his deadly enemies. Samson collected all his energy and then tried as hard as he could to shake the pillars from their roots. He shook the main pillars just as mountains do against the great force of winds and waters. He went on shaking the pillars till the roof collapsed with a thundering noise. All those who were present were pressed under the huge roof. Thus he destroyed the enemies of his race.

Lines  31  34

Lords, Ladies, captains, counsellors or priests, Their choice nobility and flower, not only Of this, but each Philistian city round, Met from all parts to solemnise feast.
priests  religious persons flower  decent persons choice  selected great person nobility  noble persons solemnise  celebrate feast  very great festival

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Milton tells us that the Philistian nobility destroyed by Samson included Lords, ladies, captains, advisers, priests and even their children. These people had come there from all parts of the country to observe the great occasion. And thus Samson did not lose the opportunity. He availed the chance properly not caring about his own life.

Lines  35  36

Samson, with these inmixed, inevitably Pulled down the same destruction on himself.
inmixed  among them destruction  damage, ruin inevitably  without doubt pulled down  fall upon

EXPLANATION :- In these lines John Milton tells us that when the roof came down, all the people at that time were killed. But at the same time the
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POETRY - XII

man who caused the roof fall down, could not escape from death. Samson killed himself too along with his enemies. He destroyed the enemies of his race by giving his own life. He did so because the freedom of his race was more important to him than his life.

Thomas Gray

Stanza

1

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd wind slowly over the lea, The plowman home ward plods his weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
curfew  bell tolls  rings slowly knell  bell announces death parting  departing, lowing  making a low noise herd  group of cattle wind move in circular course lea  grassland plowman  farmer plods  walk heavily, as when weary, or through mud weary  tired

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, “ An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard ”, written by Thomas Gray. CONTEXT :- This poem is written in a remote country Churchyard with true sentiments and ideas. While sitting in the churchyard the poet felt and considered the fate of those who lied under the graves. He counts their simple
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Talpur’s Outline Series

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POETRY - XII

joys, errors, achievements, etc. It leads the poet to think that how he himself will be remembered. The poet presents general & universal truths about life & death. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray sets before our eyes the atmosphere of the Churchyard at sun setting. The bells are ringing that the day is coming to its end. The flocks of sheep, goats and cows are coming back from the meadows. The farmers who worked hard all the day long are returning to their homes. They seem very tired. Everything is going away. There is left only poet with darkness all around in the Churchyard.

Stanza

2

Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight And all the air a solemn stillness holds, Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight, And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds.
fades  become lighter glimmering  sparking landscape  scenery sight  view solemn  serious stillness  silence/tranquillity holds  catch grasp save  except beetle insect wheels  swings droning  boring drowsy sleepy dozy tinklings  sound of a small bell lull  soothe or send to sleep distant  far-away fold  a place to keep animals in control

EXPLANATION :- The poet says that now darkness spreads everywhere but, he can still see the dim sight of the surrounding places. The atmosphere is calm and quite except few voices. Sometimes the sounds of the flight of the beetle break the dead silence of the graveyard. Sometimes, he hears the low sound of a bell fastened round the neck of a sheep from some distant folds. Thus there are little breaks in the dead silence of the graveyard. Stanza 3

Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower; The mopping owl does to the moon complain, Of such as, wandering near her secret bower, Molest her ancient solitary reign.
yonder  distant but within sight mantled  covered wandering  travelling molest  mistreat ivy  vine with evergreen leaves mopping  wiping complain  protest secret  undisclosed bower  living place ancient  very old solitary  lonely

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Talpur’s Outline Series reign  supremacy, government

14

POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that there is no sound in the are trees of elms and yews which are commonly planted in English Country graveyards. There he sees and leaves of earth…………………………… ………………. this village. These graves are not in sound condition because they are very old. Under these graves are sleeping the forefathers of the village. They are sleeping an endless sleep.

Stanza

4

The breezy call of incense breathing Morn, The Swallow twittering from the straw built shed, The cocks’ shrill clarion or the echoing horn, No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.
breezy  windy swallow  small bird branches of plants shed  hut echoing  loud lowly humble incense  enrage breathing  living twittering  chirping straw  dried soft shrill harsh horn  loud noise clarion  clear rousing sound rouse awaken

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Sir Thomas Gray says that the forefathers of the hamlet are sleeping endless sleep in their secret rooms (graves). The sweet smelling breeze of mourning can not impress them. The sweet music of swallows, the wakening sound of mourning cocks and other sounds are useless to awake them. Stanza 5

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn, Or busy housewife ply her evening care; No children run to lisp their sire’s return, Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share.
blazing burning care worry envied jealousy hearth fireplace,grate lisp  A defected speech ply  work sire  elder of a family

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POETRY - XII

EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that forefathers of the hamlet are dead and hence nobody cares for them. No wife waits and prepares food for them. They are completely forgotten now, because they died long ago. No children stand on their door steps to greet their father and then to tell others about his return. No children wished to be kissed by them. The poet means to say that death ends all. Stanza
6

Or did the harvest to their sickle yield, Their furrow off the stubborn glebe has broke; How jocund did they drive their team afield! How bow’d the woods beneath their sturdy stroke.
harvest crop yield  An amount of a product glebe  land woods forest sickle  curved blade and a short handle device to cut crop furrow line stubborn immovable jocund  gay bow’d curved sturdy strong,powerful stroke hit,blow

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray says that the people lying in the graves might have been hard-working farmers of their times. It may be that these farmers used to cut their crops with sickle. They used to plough hard and tough earth. They felt very happy when they drove their horses and oxen. May be, they were strong and healthy farmers of their time. They might have felled many trees with they are powerful strokes. Stanza 7

Let not Ambition mock their useful toil. Their homely joys, and destiny obscure, Not Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile The short & simple annals of the poor.
ambition  ambitious/desirous people toil  hard work grandeur  greatness destiny  fate disdainful  scornful mock  laugh at obscure  unclear annals  records, history

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that ambitious and successful people should not mock at the simple but useful achievements that these simple villagers did. The poet advises them not to laugh at the simple playful and joyful activities of the villagers whose life is unknown. No doubt the simple villagers who lied buried in the graveyard were great people. They were
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POETRY - XII

respectable in spite of their simplicity. Although we know little about their achievements, we should not laugh at them. Stanza 8

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, And all that beauty all that wealth was gave, Awaits alike the inevitable hour, The paths of glory lead but to the grave.
boast  show off heraldry  family inevitable  expected hour  moment glory splendour, magnificence pomp  display paths course

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray tells us that the ambitious and great people of today should not boast of their achievements & victories. It is foolish to be proud of our high social status, beauty & wealth. All these things are temporary, they have to die or disappear one day. All those who are powerful, wealthy, respectable, glorious and great should not boast about their achievements & greatness. Because death comes to all, and all become equal after their death. Stanza 9

Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, If Memory over their tomb no trophies raise, Where through the long drawn aisle & fretted vault The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.
impute  accuse fretted  troubled anthem  song of praise fault  mistake vault  tomb swells enlarges aisle  passageway pealing  ringing

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that what should be our behaviour towards the simple villagers who lied buried in this graveyard. Those who are proud should not criticise and find faults with the simple joys and activities of the rude forefathers of this hamlet. If there are no tomb stones on their graves to tell their achievements, it is not a big matter. At the same time, if the Church does not respect and honour them by ringing Church bells and singing songs, we can not blame our forefathers for that. In spite of off… ………………………………………………………………

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POETRY - XII

Stanza

10

Can storied urn or animated bust, Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? Can Honour's Voice provoke the silent dust? Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death?
urn  pot, pitcher mansion house flattery  sweet talk animated  lively fleeting  short-lived soothe  calm bust  not working provoke  irritate dull boring, dry

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that death is an unavoidable hour. He we have to meet our Maker. A man, once died can never be made alive. We cannot bring the dead man to life by decorating an urn in his honour, or by building a fine statue in his memory. Just as simple words of praise can not bring a man to life again, soft and sweet words can not save us from death. He says that it is useless to decorate or to make statues in their honour after their death because death is eternal.

Stanza

11

Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid Some heart once pregnant celestial fire; Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.
neglected  ignored pregnant  charged, loaded lyre  musical instrument spot  mark laid  placed celestial divine ecstasy joy, happiness

EXPLANATION :- In this stanza, Thomas Gray tells us that the graveyard of this hamlet is ancient and we do not know much about the lives and achievements of the villagers who are lying buried under their graves. May be there are buried great and victorious people who have done great and achieved a lot. There may be buried some pious and righteous man whose soul had a divine light. Perhaps some of the people buried here were Kings and Princes and held power. May be some great poets and artists are lying buried in their country Churchyard. Stanza 12

But knowledge to their eyes her ample page
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POETRY - XII

Rich with the spoils of time did never unroll Chill penury repressed their noble rage, And froze the genial current of the soul.
ample  plenty, sufficient chill  cool, freeze rage  anger, fury spoils  destroy, ruin penury  poverty unroll  open, use repressed  withdrawn

EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that the simple forefathers of the village who lied buried in this graveyard could not be prominent & well-known. The reason was that they had no opportunities and sources to get knowledge. They could not know that how much the world progressed in this world. Though they had qualities and talents but due to their poverty they could not use their internal energies. Had they got a chance to receive knowledge, they could have got prominent position in the world.

Stanza

13

Full many a gem of purest ray serene The dark unfathom’d caves of oceans bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air.
gem  jewel blush  go red serene  tranquil, calm waste  misuse unfathomed  great depth

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray’s poetic spirit and thought run very high. These are the better than the best lines of this poem. Here we read a great universal truth. He says that beautiful, pure and precious gem and jewels remain hidden in the bottom of the ocean. They get no chance to be valued and judged by jewellers. Similarly many charming and sweet-smelling flowers blossom in deserts and die away unseen. Similarly many wise and brilliant men are born in this world, but they die without being known & recognised, because they get no chance to show their brilliancy and wisdom. Stanza 14

Some village Hampden that with dauntless breast
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The little tyrant of his fields withstood, Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country’s blood.
Hampden  a great parliamentarian who fearlessly defied King Charles I dauntless  fearless tyrant  dictator mute silent inglorious  dishonourable Milton  English Poet Cromwell  leader of parliamentarian force who over threw King Charles I guiltless  innocent

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray mentions some famous personalities of English history and says that such great men may lie buried in this graveyard. May be, there lies buried man like Hampden who fought against King Charles very boldly. May be, there lies buried man-like Milton who in spite of his great genius could not be recognised in his life-time. May be, there lies buried some Cromwell who was not responsible for the bloodshed that took place during struggle against King Charles.

Stanza

15

Th’ applause of listening senates to command, The threat of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty over a smiling land, And read their history in a nation’s eyes.
applause  clapping,praise senates  governing body scatter spread, distribute plenty  a lot, ample despise  hate

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us some features of the ill-fate of his forefathers. They were very simple and could not get any chance to become members of their parliament, such as the Senate. They could never use their energies for the welfare and well-being of their country-men. They could not relieve the sufferings of their people. Had they got some chance to reach their parliament and worked for the welfare of their people, they would have made their mark in history. But, alas! they could not do so, and lied buried unknown, unsung & unwritten. Stanza 16

Their lot forbade; not circumscribed alone
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Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined; Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne, And shut the gates of mercy on mankind.
forbade  prevent confined limited circumscribed bounded virtues qualities merits slaughter  killing, massacre

EXPLANATION :- In their previous stanzas, Thomas Gray feels sorry that the forefathers of the hamlet could not get any chance to be famous in the history. But in these lines he says that it was good for them that they could not display their virtues and energies. In this way they did not commit serious crimes. They were not involved in bloodshed for achieving a throne or in other inhuman activities. Though they could not get fame and fortune by serving their people, their wicked nature too remained checked and suppressed. Stanza 17

The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide, To quench the blushes of ingenious shame, Or heap the shrine of Luxury & Pride With incense kindled at Muse’s flame.
pangs shooting pain conscious aware hide conceal, cover quench satisfy blushes feel ashamed ingenious clever, original heap pile, bundle shrine holy place luxury comfort incense anger kindle  start burning Muse goddess in Greek religion who supported poetry, music and dancing flame fire

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray wants to say that these simple villagers could not get any chance to be popular politicians of their time. Thus they did not need to conceal political realities. Their conscience never suffered from moral torture. Thus they were saved from the blush of the real shame which comes when a politician or statesman is compelled to contradict himself knowing all facts. Their ignorance of poetry saved them of writing flattering poetry. Thus, their ignorance, simplicity & innocence saved them from many evils. Stanza 18

Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife Their sober wishes never learned to stray; Along the cool sequestered vale of life,
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They kept the noiseless tenor of their way.
madding  of mad behaviour strife fighting away sequestered appropriate vale valley tenor mood, tone sober clear-headed ignoble  dishonourable stray lose way, wander

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray means to say that the people who lie buried in this village graveyard are simple, innocent, honest and lived quite happily. They were content with their fate. Their wishes and aims were quite simple and harmless. They did not, like mad, and unhappy people run after wild and selfish ends. They passed their lives very calmly & gracefully.

William Wordsworth
Lines  1  4

Behold her, single in the field, You solitary Highland Lass! Reaping and singing by herself, Stop here, or gently pass!
behold  see, observe lass  girl solitary  lonely reaping  cutting, harvest highland  upland gently  quietly

REFERENCE :- These lines belonged to William Wordsworth’s poem

‘ The Solitary Reaper ’.

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CONTEXT :- W. Wordsworth was pre-eminently a poet of nature. Once, while passing through a valley in Scotland he saw a lonely girl reaping in the field. She was also singing a sweet song. The poet could not understand the meaning of her song. But he was very much touched by the song. It went on echoing in the valley of his mind after it was heard no more. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth describes to us that once he, along with his companion, was passing across the mountainous area of Scotland. He chanced to see a mountainous girl of the area. The girl was reaping some crop and singing a song to amuse herself. The girl was alone in the field and her song was echoing in the valley. He asks his companion to see the girl. He also directs his companion either to stop the or to pass quietly without disturbing the lonely girl. Lines  5  8

Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain! O listen! For the vale profound Is overflowing with the sound.
binds  fasten strain  act of singing grain  particle overflowing  overfull melancholy  sad

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth says that the girl whom he saw in the fields was cutting and binding the crop. At the same time, he says, she was singing the sorrowful song. Her song moved his heart very much. He urges upon his companion to listen her song. He also says to his companion that her sweet song is going in the valley. Lines  9  12

No nightingale did ever chaunt More welcome notes to weary bands Of travellers in some shady haunt, Among Arabian sands
chaunt  sing , recite bands  groups notes  songs shady  under the trees weary  tired haunt  resort, place

EXPLANATION :- In these lines, the poet compare the sweetness and charm of the lonely former girl’s song to that impressive quality of Arabian
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nightingale. He says that when the weary travellers take rest under some shady places in the hot Arabian desert, the sweet music of nightingale soothes and relieves them from tiredness and the difficulties of the desert. But he says that the sweet song of the reaping girl is even more relieving and charming than the song of Arabian birds. Lines  13  16

A voice so thrilling never was heard In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird, Breaking the silence of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides.
thrilling  exciting farthest  very far away

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet compares the sweetness of the song of the lonely girl to the cuckoo-bird of Scotch Islands. He says that the cuckoo birds of Scotch Islands sing very sweetly and charmingly in the spring season. Their voice is very thrilling. But the poet says that the song of the cuckoo-bird is not as sweet as the sweet song of the village lass. He is so moved by the girl's song that he finds no match for it.

Lines  17  20

Will no one tell me what she sings? Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow For old, unhappy, far off things, And battles long ago.
plaintive  sad, mournful far off  very old numbers  facts, records flow  run, sing

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet tells us that he cannot understand what she is singing because her language is unknown to him. So he asks if anyone can tell him the subject matter of her song. He himself tries to make out the sense of the poem. He says that she may be singing some sorrowful song describing some unhappy event such as battles etc; which happened in ancient times.
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Lines  21  24

Or is it some more humble lay, Familiar matter of today? Some natural sorrow, loss or pain, That has been, and may be again!
humble  modest, meek lay  story

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the poet tries to make out the theme of a lonely farmer girl's song. He says that she may be singing about some common event of human life or, he says, and she may be singing some natural tragic event, some great loss or some pain. These events of sorrow, pain or loss may have taken place or they might take place in feature. Lines  25  28

What’er the theme, the Maiden sang As if her song could have no ending; I saw her singing at her work, And o’er the sickle bending.
theme  subject, matter maiden  An unmarried girl ending  closing sickle  grass cutting device bending  bowing

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth says that he is not sure about the subject of Highland girl's song. He says that what ever maybe the theme of the song, but it seems as if it goes on echoing without any pause. Her work at the fields does not hinder the tempo of her song. Either she cuts are binds the grain, the sweet melody is coming out of her throat. The whole atmosphere is overflowing with her sweet song. Lines  29  32

I listened, motionless and still; And, as I mounted up the hill, The music in my heart I bore Long after it was heard no more.
listened  paid attention mounted up  got up motionless  stationary/still bore  kept still  silent

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EXPLANATION :- In these lines Wordsworth tells us the permanent effect left on him by the solitary reaper girl’s mysterious song. He listened the song very calmly and enjoyed it very much. Her song was so charming that when he went away from the girl, it went on echoing in his mind. This song was a pleasurable song for Wordsworth. He preserved this song in his mind and it became lasting source of refreshment and joy for him. The sweetness of a song never faded.

P. B. Shelley
Lines  1  2

Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory;
soft  charming, spongy vibrate  shake voices  tone, sound memory  remembrance die  expire

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from ‘ Music When Soft Voices Die ’ composed by P. B. Shelley. CONTEXT :- P. B. Shelley compares true love to sweet melodies and the fragrance of sweet-smelling flowers. He says that beautiful things (concrete or
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abstract) leave everlasting impact on human mind. His beloved’s physical absence never makes him feel mourns because he enjoys and loves the memory of his beloved event after her death or departure. EXPLANATION :- In these lines P. B. Shelley says that sweet melodious songs are too powerful and beautiful to lose their sweetness and charm. Music has everlasting force. Its impression always keeps on echoing in the valley of one's memories. A poet may die; a singer may die too, but the poet's poetry and are singer's songs are deathless. They continue to amuse listeners even when they are not alive. Lines  3  4

Odours, when sweet violets sicken and, Live within the sense they quicken.
odours  scent sicken  dies violets purple coloured flower sense  brain quicken  go faster

EXPLANATION :- In these lines P. B. Shelley says that likewise melodious music, the sweet-smelling fragrance of various flowers is too attractive and impressive to lose its power and sense. The sweet perfume of flower is not subject to its presence. But once a sweet-smelling flower leaves its effect on someone, it remains there forever. A flower may die or fade away but if we smell it once we could never remove the sense of its sweetness from our mind.

Lines  5  6

Rose leaves, when the rose is dead, Are heaped for beloved bed;
heaped  piled, collected beloved  dear, darling

EXPLANATION :- In order to prove the everlasting quality of genuine love, P.B. Shelley offers some permanent touches of sweet melodies, sweetsmelling and a Rose petals. He says that when rose flowers are dead or damaged there value and function do not cease to live. Because their petals are leaves can be used to decorate the bed of one's beloved. It means that though dead, rose flowers serve a great function and purpose.

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Lines  7  8

And so thy thoughts, when thou art gone, Love itself shall slumber on.
thy  your thou  you thoughts  feelings / memories art  are slumber  sleep, drowse

EXPLANATION :- In these lines P. B. Shelley says that as sweet music never dies, sweet-smelling never gets poor or rose-petals is never become non-functional, likewise the sweet memories one has had with his beloved never ceased to amuse one. The poet means to say that true love does not need the presence of both lover and loved. But true love is not subject to physical presence of one's beloved. He says that his beloved’s absence does not hurt him because he knows to enjoy and love his beloved’s sweet memories.

Arthur Hugh Clough
Stanza 1

Say not the struggle naught availeth, The Labour and the wounds are vain, The enemy faints not, not faileth, And as things have been they remained.
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naught not anything, zero availeth  gain, reward faints weak

vain  ineffective, useless

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Say Not The Struggle Naught Availeth ’, composed by A.H. Clough. CONTEXT :- This poem breathes the spirit of confidence and optimism. It urges that we should be hopeful and never give up hope. Sincere struggle never goes vain. The poet uses the symbols of battlefield, tired waves and the shining sun to support his point of view. He seems to believe that man is not born to yield.
EXPLANATION :- In these lines A.H.Clough says that if our efforts are

sincere then we should be confident of victory. One should never succumb to timely troubles and difficulties. Our efforts and labours will never go in vain. We will get reward of our efforts. We should not think that we could not defeat our enemy. We can defeat our enemy if we do not give up our struggle. We should believe that if the circumstances oppose us today, they will support us tomorrow. Stanza 4

If hopes dupes, fears may be liars; It may be, in yon smoke concealed Your comrades chase even now the fliers, And, but for you, possesses the field.
dupes
 deceive,

fool

liars

 deceiver,

cheater

concealed chase

 hidden

comrades fliers

 friend,

companion

 pursue,

follow

 retreater,

run away

possesses

 have,

own, hold

EXPLANATION :- In these lines A.H.Clough tells us that hopes and fears have common natures to some extent. Sometimes our hopes do not come true, in the same way our fears might be baseless and wrong. An army general should not lose hope because his soldiers may have advanced towards enemy ranks. They may need his guidance and encouragement. The poet means to say that the weapons of confidence and hopefulness can bring victory, fame and fortune. Stanza 4

For while the tired waves, vainly breaking, Seem here no painful inch to gain, Far back, through creeks and inlets making,
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Comes silent, flooding in, the main.
painful
 aching  deluge,

creeks overflow

 cove,

inlet main

inlets
 big

 creek

flooding

sea, ocean

EXPLANATION :- in these lines the poet gives the example of waves in order to prove that constant human efforts are certain to bear fruit. Apparently the waves seem to have no effect on the shore, but the continuous collision against the shore causes cracks and inlets to the shore. Thus they cast heavy floods. In the same way if we remain constant and determined in our efforts, we will achieve huge victories and targets. The poet urges us to follow the course of tired waves. Stanza 4

And not by eastern windows only, When daylight comes, comes in the light; In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly, But westward, look, the land is bright!
EXPLANATION :- The poet has great believe in human struggle & power. This human struggle and power is most effective when we display constancy and confidence. To prove this he gives the example of the sun. The sun rises in the east but its brightness is not confined to Asia only. The sun lights up the whole world. It goes up slowly but spreads its lights all over the world. Similarly, we can be successful provided we remain devoted & committed to our efforts.

Alfred Lord Tennyson
Lines  1  5

My mariners, Souls that have toiled, and wrought & thought with me
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That ever with a frolic welcome took The thunder and the sunshine, & opposed Free hearts, free foreheads you & I are old.
mariners  A man who serves as a sailor wrought  shaped formed toiled  laboured frolic  playful

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Lines From Ulysses ’, written by Alfred Tennyson. CONTEXT :- This poem bears the spirit of determination, courage, adventure and struggle. Ulysses, a great Greek hero, desires to undertake a great adventure before his death. He encourages his sailors to prepare for the last sea adventure. He says that their bodies are old and weak but there will-power is young and strong. Therefore they should continue to explore new words. EXPLANATION :- in these lines Ulysses appreciates the services of his old mariners, who stood by him through all life's ups and downs. He admits that they rendered him great services. They fought heroic battles with natural forces and proved successful. He knows that they are now old and weak, still he encourages them their glorious past adventures. He says that old age should not or cannot hinder them from another great adventure. He tries to inspire his sailors. Lines  6  9

Old age hath yet his honour and his toil; Death closes all, but something ’ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with gods.
unbecoming  improper, incorrect strove  strove

EXPLANATION :- In these lines the great Greek hero, Ulysses encourages his old mariners to start an other but last sea adventure. Though he realizes their old age and physical weakness, yet inspires that the old age has its own dignity and charm. It is only death which closes all the chapter of man's activities. So they should do some great adventure before death. He also encourages them by reminding them of their heroic fights with gods and other natural calamities.

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Lines  10  13

The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks: The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs the deep, Moans round with many voices, come my friends, ’Tis not too late to seek a newer world.
twinkle  sparkle, shine moans  complain wanes  decreases deep  ocean

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses urges upon his sailors to set sails to explore an unknown world. He says to his friends that they are not late to undertake that great voyage. There is enough time to seek a new world. He tells them that it is a very good time for them to start their voyage. In past they used to set for travel at sun-set when stars and the moon begin shining. The same conditions Ulysses finds now. In addition to this, sea-waves are roaring as if to invite them to a remarkable voyage. In this way he does everything to encourage his elderly mariners. Lines  14  17

Push off, and sitting well in order smite The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths Of all the western stars, until I die.
smite  slice furrows channel, groove

EXPLANATION :- In these lines that great Greek hero Ulysses directs his mariners to move their boats into the sea. He also advises them to remain well prepared to fight against sea troubles and stormy waves. He tells them that his objective is to sail beyond the horizon where all the western stars seem to sink down in the morning. He further tells his sailors that he wants to continue his adventure till he dies. Of course, Ulysses knew the meaning of human life. He wants to say that one can achieve a lot if he is resolute and determined in his efforts. Lines  18  20

It may be that the gulfs will wash us down: It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.
wash  get away Happy Isles
 paradise

Achilles  great Greek Hero

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EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses tells his mariners about the possible troubles and hazards they might face in the sea. It is possible they may all be drowned in the middle of their voyage. All the same time he is hopeful and confident. He tells his friends that they might be successful to read the Happy Islands (imaginary islands in Greek mythology) and meet their great warrior Achilles (a character in Greek mythology). Thus he tells them both the aspects of their adventure. He tries his best to develop the courage and confidence of his old mariners. Lines  21  23

Though much is taken, much abides and tho’ We are not now that strength which in old days Move to earth and heaven; that which we are we are.
EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses admits that they are not now as energetic and strong as they were in their youth. because they have lost much of their physical stamina and vigour. Nevertheless he says that they are not too weak to undertake a great adventure. No doubt they made great adventures in their young age. But still in their old age they had heroic hearts full with courage, determination and adventurous spirit. Ulysses tries his utmost to remove pessimism, fear and disappointment from the minds of his old marine friends. Lines 24-26

One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate but strong and will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
temper  anger strive  struggle yield  surrender

EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses describes some universal and moral facts. He is not ready to believe that old age is useless. Though, he says, there is much difference between young age and old age, old age can display courageous and adventurous deeds. Their bodies are old and weak but their hearts and souls are very young and energetic. Their hearts still have strong will, courage, determination and adventurous zeal. He does not like to surrender to old age. He wishes to explore, to search and to fight until they die. He wants to keep himself as busy as bee even in his old age.

G. Allana
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Lines  1  5

The cell of my being was small indeed But there began the infinitude of God With its endless immensity, In the mirror of eternity Countless cities and deserts throbbed within me.
infinitude  limitlessness throbbed  beaten immensity  vastness eternity  perpetuity

REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, “ The Lost Star ”, composed by G. Allana. CONTEXT :- This poem breathes religious spirit in an excellent way. G. Allana says that our strong believe in the existence of God gives us immense and eternal peace. Man gets self-respect and broad-mindedness. Once man weakens his faith in God, he becomes unimportant in his own eyes. Today's material progress has destroyed our belief in Allah and hence we are deprived of spiritual peace and enjoyment. Our divided aims have left us nowhere. EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when he was devoid of Divine assistance and light, he felt himself unimportant and inferior. But when Divine help and light entered his soul, he found himself very dignified and superior. He found himself thronged with Divine qualities. The poet having received God’s light began to feel immortal and immense sparks in his existence. When he saw himself in the mirror of eternity, many extraordinary things and places seemed to exist in his soul. The poet means to say that spiritual relief makes man's morale high.

Lines  6  8

Many constellations shone illustriously I was larger than the world Which I held in the grip of my fingers.
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EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when his soul was devoid of Divine light and assistance, he felt himself forlorn. However when he held firm belief in the existence of God he gained a lot of spiritual peace. Really, in this way man becomes very dignified and superior to all things. We find galaxies in our existence. In this way one is no longer the slave of world.

Lines  9  15

What has happened now? Who am I? An insignificant atom In a chaotic cosmos Someone has drugged my soul Another has stolen my light No longer I am the same I was.
insignificant  unimportant chaotic  confused cosmos  universe

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana bonds to say that when we had not attained present mechanical and scientific progress, our soul was happy and great. But now a days our material progress has destroyed our spiritual peace and satisfaction. Today's man has lost his dignity. He has left the right path. Material gain and fame haunt the mind of today's man. As a result he has become a meaningless being in his chaotic world. His soul is dull in spite of all the charms of the modern life. Thus today's man has lost the spiritual star, i.e., the qualities of pious life. He has no spiritual satisfaction. Lines  16  19

I now reason with truth, Argued with the irrefutable, Blur with doubt the mirror of Reality, Demolished the image of the Almighty.
irrefutable  indisputable, certain blur  haze, not clear demolished  destroyed

EXPLANATION :- Mankind’s over all pre-occupation with material way of life has led to spiritual to generation and restlessness. Man has deviated
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from the path of Truth and Reality. The poet thinks over the spiritual decline of mankind. He thinks over Divine realities of this world. He concludes that today's man has committed a great spiritual sin. He has discoloured the image of the mirror of reality. Today's man has ruined his position. Lines  20  26

I am another man; Of the race of the damned; I am the dead man And I wander in visionary worlds In search of the Primeval Spark That lent Light To the Star that I have lost.
damned  ruined, lost Primeval  ancient, original Light  brightness, good guide wander  walk, roam visionary  imaginative Spark  flash, sparkle lent  borrowed, gave

EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that today's man is not as good and content as he used to be in old days. Modern man's preference is material progress at the cost of spiritual progress. Today's man belongs to the race of those who are cursed and unfortunate. The poet says that he is the dead man because he has neglected the spiritual side of life. Having lost the real path, he is now wandering in the imaginary worlds. He is now trying to regain the same Divine Light, which brightened his star in the past. Therefore, we can conclude that the Lost Star symbolises with man's past glory.

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AN ESSAY ON MAN Alexander Pope Lines 1-4 Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate, All but the page prescribed, their present state: From brutes what men, from men what spirits know: Or who could suffer being here below?
       

REFERENCE :- These lines belong to the poem ‘ Lines From An Essay On Man ’ composed by Alexander Pope. CONTEXT :- In this poem Alexander Pope describes the importance of our hidden Fate. He says that God discloses to us what happens at the present moment. If he discloses are our future happenings at a time, our life it would have been a hell here. But at the same time God allows us to have hopes. All human beings continue to realize their hopes. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope describes the importance of our unknown future. He says that our Fate is like a closed book. Almighty Allah does not allow us to read the whole book at a time. He only lets us read one-page, that is, what is happening now. At the same time He gives us some knowledge about brutes and lets the angels know about us. Had God disclosed to all our future to us, our existence would have been unbearable and uneasy. Lines 5-8 The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed today. Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleased to the last, he crops the flowery food, And licks the hand, just raised to shed his blood. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope gives and example of lamb to show the importance of our ignorance about it in the our future. A lamb does not know that his master has kept it to get flesh. In this ignorance it is very happy and skips, jumps and play is very joyfully. Even the lamb licks the hands of his master not knowing that the same hands are going to put knife at his throat. It means that ignorance of future provides us present happiness and ease. Lines 9-10 O blindness to the future! kindly given, That each may fill the circle marked by Heaven. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope describes the importance and value of our ignorance about our future. It is a blessing in disguise. If we know our joys and sorrows in
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advance, our world and our life would not have remained so active and competitive. So it is a great Divine favour to human beings. Because God has assigned to us certain roles to perform. And we can perform these roles properly if we are blind to our future. Lines 11-14 Who sees with equal eye, as God of all. A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurled, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope tells us that God is present everywhere. God is the only master of our universe. God looks at all things equally whether it is an elephant or an ant. The fate and fortune of all things is known to God. Omnipresence is one of the greatest qualities of God. God knows in advance what will happen with huge solar systems, great heroes, smallest creators, etc. If God knows the future of our world, then at the same time He knows what will happen with a water bubble. The poet means to say that nothing is hidden from God. Lines 15-18 Hope humbly then; with trembling pinion soar; Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore! What future bliss, he gives not thee to know, But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope tells us that though God hides from us our future yet he made our life liveable and attractive by giving us hope for future. It is this gift of hope that makes man to do many roles. We keep on travelling ahead with hopes and big ambitions. From birth to death we continue our struggle to realise our dreams and hopes. At the door of death this voyage of hopes ends. Meanwhile we worship our God to bless and favour us. The poet means to say that future hope is a great Divine gift without which life would have been a hell. Lines 19-22 Hope springs eternal in the human breast: Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul, uneasy and confined from home, Rests and expatiates in a life to come. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Alexander Pope says that God gives us hopes and ambitions in stead of future knowledge. Man cannot live without hoping for something. Hope continues to live with us till we die. We hope that our future will be better than our present. We never become satisfied with what we have at present. Thus the hope of a happy future is a great consolation in our life. In the same way our soul feels uneasy in this world. It feels rest when it hopes to go back to its real home, the heaven.

LINES FROM ENDYMION John Keats Lines 1-6
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A thing of beauty is a joy for ever: Its loveliness increases; it will never Pass into nothingness; but still will keep A bower quiet for us, and a steep Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quite breathing. REFERENCE :- These lines belong to the poem ‘ Lines From Endymion ’ composed by John Keats. CONTEXT :- In this poem Keats tells us the immortality and strong influence of beauty. A beautiful thing is a joy for ever. The beautiful things of our universe guide and help us in the miseries and worries of the world. The beauty and loveliness of beautiful objects never dies or decreases. Beauty is an immortal phenomenon. EXPLANATION :- In these very first lines of the poem John Keats says that the beautiful things are the permanent source of joy and relief. The beautiful things themselves may die but their impression left on our mind never dies. Even their beautiful impression increases with the passage of time. It will never cease to please and amuse us. Our experience of beautiful things remains for ever in our memories and we can enjoy it in the same way as we enjoy a beautiful gardens and oasis, sweet dreams and sound health. Beautiful experiences are endless fountains of relief. Lines 7-14 Therefore, on every marrow are we wreathing A flowery band to bind us to the earth, Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth Of noble natures, of the gloomy days, Of all the unhealthy and over darkened ways Made for our searching: yes in spite of all, Some shared of beauty moves away the pass From our dark spirits. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Keats says that it is only because of beauty and loveliness of our world that we want to live. Because of our beautiful and forgetful experiences we find ourselves engaged with more attractive affairs. Is our life is full of sorrows and agonies, so an experience of beauty soothes and relieves us from these mental tortures and sufferings. The poet thinks that our world has an inhuman atmosphere and the sole source of solace and consolation is beauty and its permanent influence on our memories. Lines 14-20 Such the sun, the moon, Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon For simple sheep; and such are daffodils With the green world they live in, and clear rills That for themselves a cooling covert make ’Gainst the hot season; the mid-forest brake, Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Keats tells us some natural objects which provide us beauty and pleasure. In these natural beautiful objects include the sun, the moon, green shady trees which shelter sheep. In addition to these, beautiful daffodils with their green surroundings, stream with crystal water, relieving us from hot season, are some other sources of beauty. He also mentions
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the charm and beauty of musk-rose flowers growing here and there. Thus Keats tells us about some beautiful objects which, he thinks, amuse and entertain us forever. Lines 21-25 And such too is the grandeur of the dooms We have imagined for the mighty deed; All lovely tales that we have heard our red; An endless fountain of immortal drink, Pouring onto us from the heaven's brink. EXPLANATION :- in these lines Keats says that our real attachment with beauty and its everlasting impression on our memories makes us composed imaginary legends about our great heroes. There heroic deeds had beauty and grandeur and we continue to add to their worth and value. All the beauty we have, comes from a big source, that is heaven. Heaven is the immortal source of beauty and it never suspends its rain of beauty on the earth. Thus beauty is a divine thing, and a divine thing is a truth and truth is deathless. Beauty is truth, truth is beauty, that is all.

SAY NOT THE STRUGGLE NAUGHT AVAILETH Arthur Hugh Clough Stanza :- 1. Say not the struggle naught availeth, The Labour and the wounds are vain, The enemy faints not, not faileth, And as things have been they remained. REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Say Not The Struggle Naught Availeth ’, composed by A.H. Clough. CONTEXT :- This poem breathes the spirit of confidence and optimism. It urges that we should be hopeful and never give up hope. Sincere struggle never goes vain. The poet uses the symbols of battlefield, tired waves and the shining sun to support his point of view. He seems to believe that man is not born to yield. EXPLANATION :- In these lines A.H.Clough says that if our efforts are sincere then we should be confident of victory. One should never succumb to timely troubles and difficulties. Our efforts and labours will never go in vain. We will get reward of our efforts. We should not think that we could not defeat our enemy. We can defeat our enemy if we do not give up our struggle. We should believe that if the circumstances oppose us today, they will support us tomorrow. Stanza :- 2. If hopes dupes, fears may be liars; It may be, in yon smoke concealed Your comrades chase even now the fliers, And, but for you, possesses the field. EXPLANATION :- in these lines A.H.Clough tells us that hopes and fears have common natures to some extent. Sometimes our hopes do not come true, in the same way our fears might be
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baseless and wrong. An army general should not lose hope because his soldiers may have advanced towards enemy ranks. They may need his guidance and encouragement. The poet means to say that the weapons of confidence and hopefulness can bring victory, fame and fortune. Stanza :- 3. For while the tired waves, vainly breaking, Seem here no painful inch to gain, Far back, through creeks and inlets making, Comes silent, flooding in, the main. EXPLANATION :- in these lines the poet gives the example of waves in order to prove that constant human efforts are certain to bear fruit. Apparently the waves seem to have no effect on the shore, but the continuous collision against the shore causes cracks and inlets to the shore. Thus they cast heavy floods. In the same way if we remain constant and determined in our efforts, we will achieve huge victories and targets. The poet urges us to follow the course of tired waves. Stanza :- 4. And not by eastern windows only, When daylight comes, comes in the light; In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly, But westward, look, the land is bright! EXPLANATION :- The poet has great believe in human struggle & power. This human struggle and power is most effective when we display constancy and confidence. To prove this he gives the example of the sun. The sun rises in the east but its brightness is not confined to Asia only. The sun lights up the whole world. It goes up slowly but spreads its lights all over the world. Similarly, we can be successful provided we remain devoted & committed to our efforts.

LINES FROM ULYSSES Alfred Lord Tennyson Lines 1-5 My mariners, Souls that have toiled, and wrought & thought with me That ever with a frolic welcome took The thunder and the sunshine, & opposed Free hearts, free foreheads you & I are old. REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, ‘ Lines From Ulysses ’, written by Alfred Tennyson. CONTEXT :- This poem bears the spirit of determination, courage, adventure and struggle. Ulysses, a great Greek hero, desires to undertake a great adventure before his death. He encourages his sailors to prepare for the last sea adventure. He says that their bodies are old and weak but there will-power is young and strong. Therefore they should continue to explore new words.
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EXPLANATION :- in these lines Ulysses appreciates the services of his old mariners, who stood by him through all life's ups and downs. He admits that they rendered him great services. They fought heroic battles with natural forces and proved successful. He knows that they are now old and weak, still he encourages them their glorious past adventures. He says that old age should not or cannot hinder them from another great adventure. He tries to inspire his sailors. Lines 6-9 Old age hath yet his honour and his foil; Death closes all, but something ’ere the end, Some work of noble note, may yet be done, Not unbecoming men that strove with gods. EXPLANATION :- in these lines the great Greek hero, Ulysses encourages his old mariners to start an other but last sea adventure. Though he realizes their old age and physical weakness, yet inspires that the old age has its own dignity and charm. It is only death which closes all the chapter of man's activities. So they should do some great adventure before death. He also encourages them by reminding them of their heroic fights with gods and other natural calamities. Lines 10-13 The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks: The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs the deep, Moans round with many voices, come my friends, ’Tis not too late to seek a newer world. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses urges upon his sailors to set sails to explore an unknown world. He says to his friends that they are not late to undertake that great voyage. There is enough time to seek a new world. He tells them that it is a very good time for them to start their voyage. In past they used to set for travel at sun-set when stars and the moon begin shining. The same conditions Ulysses finds now. In addition to this, sea-waves are roaring as if to invite them to a remarkable voyage. In this way he does everything to encourage his elderly mariners. Lines 14-17 Push off, and sitting well in order smite The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths Of all the western stars, until I die. EXPLANATION :- In these lines that great Greek hero Ulysses directs his mariners to move their boats into the sea. He also advises them to remain well prepared to fight against sea troubles and stormy waves. He tells them that his objective is to sail beyond the horizon where all the western stars seem to sink down in the morning. He further tells his sailors that he wants to continue his adventure till he dies. Of course, Ulysses knew the meaning of human life. He wants to say that one can achieve a lot if he is resolute and determined in his efforts. Lines 18-20 It may be that the gulfs will wash us down: It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses tells his mariners about the possible troubles and hazards they might face in the sea. It is possible they may all be drowned in the middle of their
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voyage. All the same time he is hopeful and confident. He tells his friends that they might be successful to read the Happy Islands (imaginary islands in Greek mythology) and meet their great warrior Achilles (a character in Greek mythology). Thus he tells them both the aspects of their adventure. He tries his best to develop the courage and confidence of his old mariners. Lines 21-23 Though much is taken, much abides and tho’ We are not now that strength which in old days Move to earth and heaven; that which we are we are. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses admits that they are not now as energetic and strong as they were in their youth. because they have lost much of their physical stamina and vigour. Nevertheless he says that they are not too weak to undertake a great adventure. No doubt they made great adventures in their young age. But still in their old age they had heroic hearts full with courage, determination and adventurous spirit. Ulysses tries his utmost to remove pessimism, fear and disappointment from the minds of his old marine friends. Lines 24-26 One equal temper of heroic hearts, Made weak by time and fate but strong and will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Ulysses describes some universal and moral facts. He is not ready to believe that old age is useless. Though, he says, there is much difference between young age and old age, old age can display courageous and adventurous deeds. Their bodies are old and weak but their hearts and souls are very young and energetic. Their hearts still have strong will, courage, determination and adventurous zeal. He does not like to surrender to old age. He wishes to explore, to search and to fight until they die. He wants to keep himself as busy as bee even in his old age. THE LOST STAR G. Allana Lines 1-5 The cell of my being was small indeed But there began the infinitude of God With its endless immensity, In the mirror of eternity Countless cities and deserts throbbed within me. REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, “ The Lost Star ”, composed by G. Allana. CONTEXT :- This poem breathes religious spirit in an excellent way. G. Allana says that our strong believe in the existence of God gives us immense and eternal peace. Man gets self-respect and broad-mindedness. Once man weakens his faith in God, he becomes unimportant in his own eyes. Today's material progress has destroyed our belief in Allah and hence we are deprived of spiritual peace and enjoyment. Our divided aims have left us nowhere.
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EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when he was devoid of Divine assistance and light, he felt himself unimportant and inferior. But when Divine help and light entered his soul, he found himself very dignified and superior. He found himself thronged with Divine qualities. The poet having received God’s light began to feel immortal and immense sparks in his existence. When he saw himself in the mirror of eternity, many extraordinary things and places seemed to exist in his soul. The poet means to say that spiritual relief makes man's morale high. Lines 6-8 Many constellations shone illustriously I was larger than the world Which I held in the grip of my fingers. EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that when his soul was devoid of Divine light and assistance, he felt himself forlorn. However when he held firm belief in the existence of God he gained a lot of spiritual peace. Really, in this way man becomes very dignified and superior to all things. We find galaxies in our existence. In this way one is no longer the slave of world. Lines 9-15 What has happened now? Who am I? An insignificant atom In a chaotic cosmos Someone has drugged my soul Another has stolen my light No longer I am the same I was. EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana bonds to say that when we had not attained present mechanical and scientific progress, our soul was happy and great. But now a days our material progress has destroyed our spiritual peace and satisfaction. Today's man has lost his dignity. He has left the right path. Material gain and fame haunt the mind of today's man. As a result he has become a meaningless being in his chaotic world. His soul is dull in spite of all the charms of the modern life. Thus today's man has lost the spiritual star, i.e., the qualities of pious life. He has no spiritual satisfaction. Lines 16-19 I now reason with truth, Argued with the irrefutable, Blur with doubt the mirror of Reality, Demolished the image of the Almighty. EXPLANATION :- Mankind’s over all pre-occupation with material way of life has led to spiritual to generation and restlessness. Man has deviated from the path of Truth and Reality. The poet thinks over the spiritual decline of mankind. He thinks over Divine realities of this world. He concludes that today's man has committed a great spiritual sin. He has discoloured the image of the mirror of reality. Today's man has ruined his position. Lines 20-26 I am another man; Of the race of the damned; I am the dead man And I wander in visionary worlds
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Talpur’s Outline Series In search of the Primeval Spark That lent Light To the Star that I have lost.

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EXPLANATION :- In these lines G. Allana says that today's man is not as good and content as he used to be in old days. Modern man's preference is material progress at the cost of spiritual progress. Today's man belongs to the race of those who are cursed and unfortunate. The poet says that he is the dead man because he has neglected the spiritual side of life. Having lost the real path, he is now wandering in the imaginary worlds. He is now trying to regain the same Divine Light, which brightened his star in the past. Therefore, we can conclude that the Lost Star symbolises with man's past glory.

AN ELEGY WRITTEN IN A COUNTRY CHURCHYARD Thomas Gray Stanza :- 1. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day, The lowing herd wind slowly over the lea, The plowman home ward plods his weary way, And leaves the world to darkness and to me. REFERENCE :- These lines have been taken from the poem, “ An Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard ”, written by Thomas Gray. CONTEXT :- This poem is written in a remote country Churchyard with true sentiments and ideas. While sitting in the churchyard the poet felt and considered the fate of those who lied under the graves. He counts their simple joys, errors, achievements, etc. It leads the poet to think that how he himself will be remembered. The poet presents general & universal truths about life & death. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray sets before our eyes the atmosphere of the Churchyard at sun setting. The bells are ringing that the day is coming to its end. The flocks of sheep, goats and cows are coming back from the meadows. The farmers who worked hard all the day long are returning to their homes. They seem very tired. Everything is going away. There is left only poet with darkness all around in the Churchyard. Stanza :- 2. Now fades the glimmering lends-----And all the air a solemn stillness holds, Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight, And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds. EXPLANATION :- The poet says that now darkness spreads everywhere but, he can still see the dim sight of the surrounding places. The atmosphere is calm and quite except few voices. Sometimes the sounds of the flight of the beetle break the dead silence of the graveyard. Sometimes, he hears the low sound of a bell fastened round the neck of a sheep from some distant folds. Thus there are little breaks in the dead silence of the graveyard.
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Talpur’s Outline Series Stanza :- 3. Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tower; The mopping owl does to the moon complain, Of such as, wandering near her secret bower, Molest her ancient solitary reign.

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EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that there are trees of elms and yews which are commonly planted in English Country graveyards. There he sees and leaves of earth………… …………………………………. this village. These graves are not in sound condition because they are very old. Under these graves are sleeping the forefathers of the village. They are sleeping an endless sleep. Stanza :- 5. The breezy call of incense breathing Morn, The Swallow twittering from the straw built shed, The cocks’ shrill clarion or the echoing horn, No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed. EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Sir Thomas Gray says that the forefathers of the hamlet are sleeping endless sleep in their secret rooms (graves). The sweet smelling breeze of mourning can not impress them. The sweet music of swallows, the wakening sound of mourning cocks and other sounds are useless to awake them. Stanza :- 6. For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn, Or busy housewife ply her evening care; No children run to lisp their sire’s return, Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share. EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that forefathers of the hamlet are dead and hence nobody cares for them. No wife waits and prepares food for them. They are completely forgotten now, because they died long ago. No children stand on their door steps to greet their father and then to tell others about his return. No children wished to be kissed by them. The poet means to say that death ends all. Stanza :- 7. Or did the harvest to their sickle yield, Their furrow off the stubborn glebe has broke; How jocund did they drive their team afield! How bow’d the woods beneath their sturdy stroke. EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray says that the people lying in the graves might have been hard-working farmers of their times. It may be that these farmers used to cut their crops with sickle. They used to plough hard and tough earth. They felt very happy when they drove their horses and oxen. May be, they were strong and healthy farmers of their time. They might have felled many trees with they are powerful strokes. Stanza :- 8. Let not Ambition mock their useful toil. Their homely joys, and destiny obscure,
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Talpur’s Outline Series Not Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile The short & simple annals of the poor.

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EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray says that ambitious and successful people should not mock at the simple but useful achievements that these simple villagers did. The poet advises them not to laugh at the simple playful and joyful activities of the villagers whose life is unknown. No doubt the simple villagers who lied buried in the graveyard were great people. They were respectable in spite of their simplicity. Although we know little about their achievements, we should not laugh at them. Stanza :- 9. The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power, And all that beauty all that wealth was gave, Awaits alike the inevitable hour, The paths of glory lead but to the grave. EXPLANATION :- In these lines, Thomas Gray tells us that the ambitious and great people of today should not boast of their achievements & victories. It is foolish to be proud of our high social status, beauty & wealth. All these things are temporary, they have to die or disappear one day. All those who are powerful, wealthy, respectable, glorious and great should not boast about their achievements & greatness. Because death comes to all, and all become equal after their death. Stanza :- 10. Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, If Memory over their tomb no trophies raise, Where through the long drawn aisle & fretted vault The pealing anthem swells the note of praise. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that what should be our behaviour towards the simple villagers who lied buried in this graveyard. Those who are proud should not criticise and find faults with the simple joys and activities of the rude forefathers of this hamlet. If there are no tomb stones on their graves to tell their achievements, it is not a big matter. At the same time, if the Church does not respect and honour them by ringing Church bells and singing songs, we can not blame our forefathers for that. In spite of off…………………………………………… …………………… Stanza :- 11. Can storied urn or animated bust, Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? Can honour's Voice provoke the silent dust? Or Flattery soothe the dull cold ear of Death? EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us that death is an unavoidable hour. He we have to meet our Maker. A man, once died can never be made alive. We cannot bring the dead man to life by decorating an urn in his honour, or by building a fine statue in his memory. Just as simple words of praise can not bring a man to life again, soft and sweet words can not save us from death. He says that it is useless to decorate or to make statues in their honour after their death because death is eternal. Stanza :- 12.
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Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid Some heart once pregnant celestial fire; Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre. EXPLANATION :- In this stanza, Thomas Gray tells us that the graveyard of this hamlet is ancient and we do not know much about the lives and achievements of the villagers who are lying buried under their graves. May be there are buried great and victorious people who have done great and achieved a lot. There may be buried some pious and righteous man whose soul had a divine light. Perhaps some of the people buried here were Kings and Princes and held power. May be some great poets and artists are lying buried in their country Churchyard. Stanza :- 13. But knowledge to their eyes her ample page Rich with the spoils of time did never unroll Chill penury repressed their noble rage, And froze the genial current of the soul. EXPLANATION :- Here in these lines Thomas Gray says that the simple forefathers of the village who lied buried in this graveyard could not be prominent & well-known. The reason was that they had no opportunities and sources to get knowledge. They could not know that how much the world progressed in this world. Though they had qualities and talents but due to their poverty they could not use their internal energies. Had they got a chance to receive knowledge, they could have got prominent position in the world. Stanza :- 14. Full many a gem of purest ray serene The dark unfathom’d caves of oceans bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray’s poetic spirit and thought run very high. These are the better than the best lines of this poem. Here we read a great universal truth. He says that beautiful, pure and precious gem and jewels remain hidden in the bottom of the ocean. They get no chance to be valued and judged by jewellers. Similarly many charming and sweet-smelling flowers blossom in deserts and die away unseen. Similarly many wise and brilliant men are born in this world, but they die without being known & recognised, because they get no chance to show their brilliancy and wisdom. Stanza :- 15. Some village Hampden that with dauntless breast The little tyrant of his fields withstood, Some mute inglorious Milton here may rest, Some Cromwell, guiltless of his country’s blood. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray mentions some famous personalities of English history and says that such great men may lie buried in this graveyard. May be, there lies buried man like Hampden who fought against King Charles very boldly. May be, there lies buried manlike Milton who in spite of his great genius could not be recognised in his life-time. May be, there lies buried some Cromwell who was not responsible for the bloodshed that took place during struggle against King Charles.
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Talpur’s Outline Series Stanza :- 16. Th' applause of listening senate’s to command, The threat of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty over a smiling land, And read their history in a nation’s eyes.

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EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray tells us some features of the ill-fate of his forefathers. They were very simple and could not get any chance to become members of their parliament, such as the Senate. They could never use their energies for the welfare and well-being of their country-men. They could not relieve the sufferings of their people. Had they got some chance to reach their parliament and worked for the welfare of their people, they would have made their mark in history. But, alas! they could not do so, and lied buried unknown, unsung & unwritten. Stanza :- 17. Their lot forbade; not circumscribed alone Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined; Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne, And shut the gates of mercy on mankind. EXPLANATION :- In their previous stanzas, Thomas Gray feels sorry that the forefathers of the hamlet could not get any chance to be famous in the history. But in these lines he says that it was good for them that they could not display their virtues and energies. In this way they did not commit serious crimes. They were not involved in bloodshed for achieving a throne or in other inhuman activities. Though they could not get fame and fortune by serving their people, their wicked nature too remained checked and suppressed. Stanza :- 18. The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide, To quench the blushes of ingenious shame, Or heap the shrine of Luxury & Pride With incense kindled at Muse’s fame. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray wants to say that these simple villagers could not get any chance to be popular politicians of their time. Thus they did not need to conceal political realities. Their conscience never suffered from moral torture. Thus they were saved from the blush of the real shame which comes when a politician or statesman is compelled to contradict himself knowing all facts. Their ignorance of poetry saved them of writing flattering poetry. Thus, their ignorance, simplicity & innocence saved them from many evils. Stanza :- 19. Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife Their sober wishes never learned to stray; Along the cool sequestered vale of life, They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. EXPLANATION :- In these lines Thomas Gray means to say that the people who lie buried in this village graveyard are simple, innocent, honest and lived quite happily. They were content with their fate. Their wishes and aims were quite simple and harmless. They did not, like mad, and unhappy people run after wild and selfish ends. They passed their lives very calmly & gracefully.
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