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Composition Imagery using ArcGIS

Learning Outcomes
This lab will provide an introduction and overview of some of the basic functionality of ArcGIS for
working with raw image data. This lab specifically provides practice with adding and viewing
image datasets. Students are also encouraged to become familiar working with and finding
information on ArcGIS Help topics. The goals for this assignment are to:
Analyze individual wavelength bands to compare how they record an image remotely.
Create a series of composite images using various individual wavelength bands.
Compare how various composite images help us understand the physical and human
environments on the surface of the earth.
This assignment also meets the colleges learning outcome for critical thinking. This includes
reasoning effectively from available evidence; demonstrating effective problem solving;
demonstrating higher-order skills such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; making
connections across disciplines; applying scientific methods to the inquiry process.

Case Study Scenarios


The urban planners of Las Vegas area have been asked to use a multispectral band analysis of
Las Vegas and the surrounding area using Landsat imagery. They want to use color composite
images to monitor patterns of urban growth, look at the increase of impervious areas, and
gather information about the encroachment of the urban area on the desert environment.
To complete this task, you will need to use a Landsat TM (thematic mapper) satellite image to
produce a series of color composite images. Using the color composite imagery, you will need
to observe and analyze various land features, compare and contrast land features using
different color composite images,

Analyzing Individual Bands


The Image Analysis window provides a number of tools that can be used to perform some
image pre-processing (i.e image subset, compose a multi-band image from individual bands,
image mosaics, NDVI, and more).
The Image Analysis window can be launched by clicking on Windows -> Image Analysis
Window from the main ArcMap Window. See the images below for reference.
An image composite is created by taking individual bands and combining them into a single
multi-band image data set. In many cases, image data that is downloaded is provided in such a
way that the end-user will need the ability to put the imagery together.

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Step 1: Log into AllAccess via the instructions provided to you by your instructor.
Step 2: You will need to go to the folder that contains the data for this and future assignments.
From your AllAccess virtual computer, start a new ArcMap project and open up a blank map.
Once opened, click on the Add Data icon.

Step 3: Click on the Connect to Folder icon and click on My Computer. From there, click on
the gis$ server and navigate to: G:\GEOG_1780_RemoteSensing\Data
Click Ok.
Within the Data folder, youll see several more folders. Double-click on CompositeImagery ->
landsat_may_2006.
Single-click on B10.TIF, hold down the shift key, and select through B70. Click Add. You
should be adding 7 different .TIF layers to ArcMap.
Note the following information about the bands within this image below.

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Sensor Image Band

Wavelength
(nanometers)

Band

Spatial
Resolution

Band Name

L5039035_03520060512_B10.TIF

0.45-0.515

Band 1

30 meters

Blue

L5039035_03520060512_B20.TIF

0.525-0.605

Band 2

30 meters

Green

L5039035_03520060512_B30.TIF

0.63-0.69

Band 3

30 meters

Red

L5039035_03520060512_B40.TIF

0.75-0.90

Band 4

30 meters

Near Infrared

L5039035_03520060512_B50.TIF

1.55-1.75

Band 5

30 meters

Shortwave
Infrared 1

L5039035_03520060512_B60.TIF

10.4-12.5

Band 6

60 meters

Thermal
Infrared

L5039035_03520060512_B70.TIF

2.09-2.35

Band 7

30 meters

Shortwave
Infrared 2

Above is a graph that highlights the various uses for each band within a Landsat image. For this
section of the assignment, we are going to compare how each individual band can be used to
analyze an image.
Step 1: Turn on (check the box) the layer titled L5039035_03520060512_B10.TIF (i.e. Band 1)
and analyze the image.
Q1: What band name (i.e. electromagnetic wavelength) is this layer?

blue

Step 2: Now compare Bands 1, 3, 5, and 7. Make sure only one is checked when looking at that
particular band.
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Q2: How would you compare the difference between Band 1, Band 3, Band 5, and Band 7?
there are different layers of contrast

Composite Image using Bands 1, 2, and 3


Step 1: Lets now zoom into the Las Vegas region. Using the magnifying glass within ArcMap,
draw a box around the region indicated below.

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Step 2: Open the Image Analysis Window by clicking on Windows and then Image Analysis.
In the Image Analysis window, highlight bands 1, 2, and 3 (i.e. B10, B20, and B30) using the
Control button and select the Composite tool within the Processing box.
A 3-band composite image will automatically be created and added to the Image Analysis
window as well as the Table of Contents.
Q3: What color assignment are Bands 1, 2, and 3 assigned to? In other words, what display
colors are Bands 1, 2, and 3 assigned to by default?
red 1 green 2 blue 3
NOTE: In ArcGIS, the color assignments will always be Red, Green, and Blue (RGB). You will
assign specific wavelengths to specific color bands.
Step 3: Next, we will change the display colors. To do this, right-click on the new 3-band image
layer (the layer on the top of the Table of Contents) and select Properties. Click on the
Symbology tab.
Step 4: Click on the down arrow for each of the Red, Green, and Blue channels and select the
bands as shown in the table below.

Channel

Band

Red

Band 3

Green

Band 2

Blue

Band 1

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The Symbology tab should now look like the following image:

Next, click on the General tab and rename the layer 3 2 1 Composite.
Click OK.
Step 5: Rename the layer to 3-2-1 Composite. This is called a natural color image because it
looks normal to our eyes.
Capture an image of this composite by doing the following. Go to File -> Export Map. Save the
image to your desktop (AllAccess or your personal computer). Name the file Natural Color
Image and save it as a .JPEG (Save as type:). You will submit this and other images at the end
of the assignment.
Q4: Compare the results above (band combination 3, 2, 1) with the band combination originally
displayed (band combination 1, 2, 3) when the image was first created. Which display band
combination creates the most natural looking image for a true color display? (You may need
to switch Red to Band 1 and Band 3 to Blue to review the combinations). red 3, green 2, blue 2
Step 6: Bring up the Properties on the 3 2 1 Composite image. Click on the Source tab. Look
through the specific properties in this tab. Enter the value for each property in the table below.

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Property

Value

Columns and Rows

7871, 7001

Number of Bands

Cell Size (meters a pixel represents)

30, 30

Spatial Reference

WGS_1984_UTM_zone_11N

Status

temporary

Creating Other Composite Images


Step 1: Turn off the previous composite image (or images) created in the previous task.
Step 2: Use the same procedure (as described in the previous task) to generate another 3-band
image using only bands 4, 5, and 7 using the Control button on you keyboard. If you havent,
make sure you are zoomed into the Las Vegas area to easily see the urban area.
Step 3: Rename the layer 4-5-7 Composite. Export a .JPG image of the map to your desktop.
STOP! Now this is something weird with ArcGIS. You just added bands 4, 5, and 7 into the color
guns. but when you look at the Symbology tab under this new layers Properties, it will say Red
is on Band_1, Green is on Band_2, and Blue is on Band_3. What??? If you click on the
Functions tab within the Layer Properties box, you will see that bands 4, 5, and 7 were added,
but ArcGIS renamed them to Band_1, Band_2, and Band_3. Just make a mental note that this
composite image is a 4-5-7 band combination and not a 1-2-3 band combination.

Color Band

Landsat Band

ArcGIS Band

Wavelength

Wavelength Name

Red

Band 4

Band_1

0.75-0.90

Near Infrared

Green

Band 5

Band_2

1.55-1.75

Shortwave IR-1

Blue

Band 7

Band_3

2.09-2.35

Shortwave IR-2

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Q5: Describe what the table above is trying to explain. In other words, how are the assigned
wavelengths being represented by RGB?
Step 4: Create a new composite layer of Landsat 2, 3, 4. Rename that layer 2-3-4 Composite.
Export the map to your desktop.
Step 5: Use the same procedure to generate another 3-band image using only bands 4 3 2.
Right-click on the layer and select Properties and click on the Symbology tab.
The Red band should be represent Landsat Band 4. The green band should represent Landsat
Band 3. The Blue band should represent Landsat Band 2. Rename the layer 4-3-2 Composite.
This is called a false color image. This rendition looks rather strange; vegetation jumps out as
a bright red because green vegetation readily reflects infrared light energy. It is similar to
pictures taken from aircraft when using infrared film; very useful for studying vegetation.

Step 6: Following previous steps, create a pseudo natural color image where the Blue band
represents Landsat Band 2, the Green band represents Landsat Band 3, and Red represents
Landsat Band 7. Name the layer 7-3-2 Composite. This retention looks like a more intense
natural color rendition, but with more striking colors.

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psuedo natural shows soil, vegetation, and buildings and offers th most visual contrast
for analisi

Q6: Compare the natural color image, the false color image, and the pseudo natural color
image. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each.
the natural color shows soil, buildings and roads, stengths: natural looking, weakness not a lot of contrast for easy viewing
Q7: Describe three features (objects) and three types of land cover in EACH of the three
images.
the false color shows soil, vegetation, and lot types, strengths are clear vegetation, weekness is buildings
Q8: Which of the three images best visually represents vegetation? Explain why.
psuedo natural best represents because it is green like you'd expect and there are many shades of contrast
Q9: Which of the three images best visually represents urban areas. Explain why.
natural best reflects urban areas, showuing more detailed roads, lots, and building types

Write-up
Geographers and other spatial scientists often usegeographic inquiryto analyze physical and
cultural environments on the earth. The geographic inquiry is similar to the scientific method, but
with an emphasis in spatial analysis. This process, called geographic inquiry, is based on the
following processes:

Ask- What is the problem you are trying to solve or analyze, and where is it located?
Framing the question will help you decide what to analyze and how to present the results
toyour audience.
Acquire- Describe the type of data you used for this assignment. The type of data and
the geographic scope of your assignment dictated how the data was collected and how it
was analyzed.
Examine- Was the data you used for the assignment appropriate for the study
area?This includes how the data is organized, how accurate it is, and where the data
came from.
Analyze- Geographic analysis is the core strength of spatial knowledge. Describe how
you analyzed the data and imagery used for the assignment. What information did you
acquire and learn from theanalyses.
Act-The results of your analyses can be shared through reports, maps, tables, and
charts and delivered in printed format or digitally over a network or on the web. Describe
how you shared your analyses for the assignment.
Connect - How might you apply this type of geographicinquiry in other contexts (i.e.
real-world and other courses you've taken or are taking throughout your academic
career)?

Based on the assignment you just completed, write a detailed report within your ePortfolio
based on the geographic inquiry process and use the mapping imagery you created to support
your analysis. This assignment must be located within the course page within your Coursework
tab of your ePortfolio.
Also, you need to actually write your report within your ePortfolio, along with satellite imagery. I
do NOT want this submitted in a word processing document that you upload into your ePortfolio.
Rather, you need to have your report written within your ePortfolio You will be submitting
several assignments into your ePortfolio throughout the course, so please considerwebsite
designas you upload them into your ePortfolio.

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