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Name __________________________________________

Period___

Argumentation & Persuasion Manual


Hmong American Peace Academy
2015-2016

Overview
Scholars will be challenged to develop, clarify, write, and deliver arguments so that, when they leave high
school, they will be prepared to thoughtfully and articulately defend their worldview. This unit will focus on
constructing rational, supported arguments and using those arguments to fairly persuade an audience.
Scholars will develop classic arguments, support those arguments with relevant evidence, and deliver
arguments persuasively and logically.
Unit Topics
Arguments
Rhetorical Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, Logos
Controversy
Complications & Implications
Logical Reasoning Structures
Logical Fallacies
Formal Argumentation

College Writing 11

Appendix A - The Rhetorical Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, & Logos


Whenever you read an argument you must ask yourself, Is this persuasive? If so, why? And to whom? There are
many ways to appeal to an audience. Among them are appealing to logos, ethos, and pathos. These appeals are
identifiable in almost all arguments.

Appeal to Logos

Appeal to Ethos

Appeal to Pathos

Keywords:

Keywords:

Keyword:

Definition: the argument itself; the


________ the author uses;
____________ evidence

Definition: how an author builds


______________ &
____________________

Definition: ___________ or
passages an author uses to activate
____________

Types of Logos Appeals

Types of Ethos Appeals

Types of Pathos Appeals

Theories / scientific ______

Indicated meanings or _____________


(because)

Definitions

Factual data & _________


Quotations from

___________ & authorities

Expert opinions
Examples (real life examples)

Personal anecdotes

Authors profession /
background/ publication
Appearing ____________ ,
fair minded, knowledgeable
Conceding to opposition
where appropriate
Morally / ethically ________
Appropriate language for
audience and subject
Correct ___________
Professional format

__________ loaded language


Vivid ______________
Emotional examples
Anecdotes, testimonies,
or narratives about emotional
experiences or events
___________ language
Emotional tone (humor,
sarcasm, disappointment,
excitement, etc.)

Effect on the Audience


The rhetorical appeal evokes a
cognitive, rational response. Readers
get a sense of, Oh, that _______
_______ or Hmm, that really
doesnt prove anything.

The rhetorical appeal helps readers


see the author as reliable, trustworthy,
competent, and credible. The reader
might _________ the author or
his/her views.

The rhetorical appeal evokes an


__________ response.
They are persuaded by this strong
emotion.
(usually evoking fear, sympathy,
empathy, anger...)

Through his use of scientific


terminology, the author builds his
ethos by demonstrating expertise.

When referencing 9/11, the author is


appealing to pathos. Here, he is
eliciting both sadness and anger from
his readers.

How to talk about it


The author appeals to logos by
defining relevant terms and then
supports his claim with numerous
citations from authorities.
The authors use of statistics and
expert testimony are very convincing
logos appeals.

The authors ethos is effectively


developed as readers see that he is
sympathetic to the struggles minorities
face.

The authors description of the child


with cancer was a very persuasive
appeal to pathos.

Appendix B - Identifying Ethos, Pathos, & Logos


Directions: For each of the following advertisements, determine which rhetorical appeal is the strongest.

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Strongest Appeal:

Appendix C: Complications & Implications ANI Chart


Issue: Around 1884, three men and a young boy were stranded at sea on a small emergency boat after they
were forced to abandon their ship because of a storm. On the 18th day, having no food for the previous
seven days and no water for the previous five, one of the men suggested they draw straws to decide which
man should give up his life for the sustenance of the others on the raft (i.e. cannibalism).

Controversial Question:____________________________________________________
Affirmative

Negative

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

Implication & Complications

Controversial Question:___________________________________________________
Affirmative

Negative

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

Implication & Complications

Appendix D: Five Common Types of Reasoning


Causal Reasoning: Suggests a time-relationship between events. One event or thing causes the
other to happen. When A happens, B results.
Ex: 1. Cigarette smoking causes cancer.
2.
Logic Tests: 1. Is the (alleged) cause relevant to the (alleged) effect?
2. Are there other potential causes?

Reasoning by Sign: Infers relationships or correlations between two variables that points to the
conclusion. Signs describe a situation. When A exists, B also exists.
Ex: 1. Where theres smoke, theres fire.
2.
Logic Tests: 1. Is the sign consistent?
2. Do the signs point primarily to one conclusion?

Reasoning by Example: Consists of inferring conclusions from specific cases. Statistics and survey
data are often cited.
Ex: 1. Rock stars do care. Look at USA for Africa and LiveAid.
2.
Logic Tests: 1. Is there a number of relevant examples?
2. Are negative examples noncritical?

Reasoning by Analogy: Comparing two cases and saying that what is true in one case is true in the
other, assuming some fundamental sameness.
Ex: 1. National health care works in Japan; it will work in the United States.
2.
Logic Test: 1. Are the cases similar enough to each other?

Reasoning by Authority: The credibility and expertise of a source warrants acceptance of a claim.
Ex: 1. The EPA says that acid rain will increase three fold by 1995.
2.
Tests:
1. Is the source qualified? In the relevant field?
2. Is the source weakened by biased language or self-interest?

Appendix E: Logical Fallacies


Definition: A logical fallacy is
an ________ or ________________
in reasoning that makes an argument invalid.

Fallacies of Relevance
These __________ the subject being argued.
Fallacy
Appeal to
Emotion

Definition

Example

Appeal to
Ignorance

False
Authority

Ad
Hominmen Straw Man

Red Herring

Fallacies of Presumption
These contain _________ ___________________ rather than real facts.
Fallacy
Circular
Reasoning
(Begging the
Question)

Definition

Example

False Dilemma

False Cause

Hasty
Generalization

Fallacies of Clarity
These contain ________________ _________________
Fallacy
Vagueness

Definition

Example

Ambiguity:
Equivocation

Loaded
Language

Appendix F: Sample Fallacy-Filled Illogical Essay


Directions: Reread the following essay carefully and:
1. Identify the author's main point--the claim. Star it and write "claim" in the margin.
2. Identify at least three different reasons the author gives for why this claim is true. Bracket these and
write "reason" in the margin.
3. Circle any facts, evidence, or specific data given to support the claim and write "evidence" in the
margin.
4. Find and underline three or more logical fallacies and write the type of logical fallacy in the margin.

A Stand Against Tailgating


Every tailgater will cruise three to five feet from another car's bumper just to pass them and come to a halt
at the red light. Because it is so common to meet a tailgater on the road, even the most careful driver pulls onto the
road with a certain anxiety for what may come. Driving is a complex responsibility and although there are many
ways drivers disobey the rules of the road, tailgating is one of the most dangerous everyday habits which can be
easily repaired through awareness and relaxation.
To understand how tailgating can cause volatile behavior from other drivers, one must first understand
tailgating. In 2011, 60 percent of drivers reported being tailgated by another car (Harding, 3). Nearly three years
later to this present day, the tailgating rate has surely increased. There is significant evidence that drivers are ten
times as likely to crash if they drive within 15 feet of the car in front of them; especially if the driver is between the
ages of 18 and 30, male, and drinks coffee more than twice a day. To prevent tailgating, one must be sure to avoid
all of the aforementioned circumstances.
It is imperative that people do not tailgate to avoid colossal fines as well as the birth of another aggressive
driver: the victim of this tailgation. Fortunately, tailgating does not encourage faster driving in other drivers
who are accosted by a tailgater; tailgating only causes frustration and agony in those who must deal with aggressive
drivers. Tailgating sparks rage and anger in the victim, and will certainly lead to other situations on the road, some
of which can be deadly. Just think of your children driving on a road with these types of people behind the wheel
of the other cars out there.
While tailgating dates back to some time ago, culture and laws have the potential to stop this evil
phenomenon. If it were a good thing, people would walk down the street with endless praise for it. When
President Obama ran for reelection, people marched in favor of him. Nobody marches in favor of tailgating.
Obama is the symbol of the nation. He endorses the good and denounces the bad in his speeches. Mr. Obama has
never kissed a baby with tailgating tattooed on his forehead.

College Writing 11