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CHAPTER

2

Substitute into and evaluate

algebraic expressions involving
exponents.

Describe the relationship between

the algebraic and geometric
representations of a single-variable
term up to degree three.

Derive, through the investigation

and examination of patterns, the
exponent rules for multiplying
and dividing monomials, and
apply these rules in expressions
involving one and two variables
with positive exponents.

Relate understanding of inverse

operations to squaring and taking
the square root.

Extend the multiplication rule to

derive and understand the power
of a power rule, and apply it to
simplify expressions involving one
and two variables with positive
exponents.

up to two variables.

Multiply a polynomial by a
monomial involving the same
variable.

Expand and simplify polynomial

expressions involving one variable.

100

Polynomials
As science becomes more complex, it becomes more
important to communicate mathematical ideas clearly.
Imagine if Einstein always had to write out his famous
equation E = mc 2 as energy equals mass times the
square of the speed of light. Using letters or symbols to
represent unknown amounts is called algebra. Algebra
is a basic building block of advanced mathematical
and scientic thinking. How can you use algebra to

Vocabulary
variable
algebraic expression
term
polynomial

degree of a term
degree of a polynomial
like terms
distributive property

Chapter Problem
Alysia has selected the letter E to design
the logo for her school team, the Eagles.
The design will be used to make differentsized crests for clothing such as jackets,
sweaters, and baseball caps. How can Alysia
make sure that, when the crest is made
larger or smaller, the proportions do not change?

101

To add integers, you can use a number line.
Start at the first integer.
Add the second integer by drawing an
arrow.
The arrow points to the right if the second
integer is positive, and to the left if it is
negative.
The answer is at the tip of the arrow.
2

(1)  (2)  3

3 2 1

Opposite integers add to zero. For

example, (4)  (4)  0.
Subtracting an integer is the same
5  (2)
 5  (2)
7

(3)  (1)
 (3)  (1)
 4

1 is the opposite of 1.

2  (3)  1

2 1

2. Evaluate.

a) 7  5

b) 10  3

a) (2)  (2)  1

b) 10  (3)

c) 5  (9)

d) 5  (4)

c) 5  (7)  7

d) 4  (3)  (2)

e) (4)  6

f) 7  9

e) (9)  6

f) 1  (1)

g) (3)  (11)

h) (4)  (8)

g) (5)  8

h) (8)  9  (2)

Multiply and Divide Integers

The product or quotient of two integers of the same sign gives a positive result.
The product or quotient of two integers of opposite signs gives a negative result.
5  3  15
14  (7)  2

3  (4)  12
8
 1
8

3. Multiply.

5  6  30
15  (5)  3

4. Divide.

a) 3  (8)

b) (4)  (6)

a) (8)  4

b) 9  (3)

c) (8)  4

d) (5)(6)

e) 12(5)

f) 2(20)

c)

16
8
e) 25  (5)

6
6
f) 36  (4)

d)

Multiply Rational Numbers

To multiply fractions, multiply the numerators together and multiply the
denominators together.
When a numerator and a denominator share a common factor, you can
divide it out before multiplying.
2
3

3
4
1

2
3
 
3
4


4
2

1
2

When negative fractions or decimals occur, apply the same rules as

for products of integers.
1
3
a b 
4
5
3
1
 a b 
4
5
 

3
20

When I multiply a negative by a positive,

I get a negative result.

My scientific calculator may need

different keystrokes. Ill check the manual.

Check:
Using a scientific calculator:

0.25  0.5  0.125

Using a scientific calculator:

3 \4 *1 5  =

0.25\*0.5 =

3 4 *1 5 k1 e

0.25 * 0.5 e

5. Multiply.

6. Multiply.

1
1

3
4

a)

4
1

5
3

b) 

c)

3
2
 a b
5
9

d) a b  a b

e) 

3
4

8
5

3
4

f)

a) a b 

2
5

1
5

1
4

c) 0.6  (0.95)
e) 2.5 (3.2)

b) a

5
3
b  a b
10
6

d) (0.3)(0.4)
f) 8(3.8)

1
1
a1 b
2
2

3.1

Build Algebraic Models

Using Concrete Materials
Petra likes to run at the track to keep in shape.
This year, to motivate herself, she
will record her training progress
visually. What are some ways
that she can do this?

Investigate

algebra tiles

How can you model length, area, and volume using concrete
materials?

Part A: Model Length

Tools

Petras running record for the first 2 weeks of the year is shown below.
Petra used algebra tiles to model each distance. She used the side
length of a unit tile to represent 1 km.
Algebra tiles are tools that can be used to
model measured quantities.
What other concrete
materials could I use
to represent one unit?

A unit tile is a square tile that measures

1 unit by 1 unit. It can be used as a counter.
On July 14, Petra ran 4 km.
Date

Distance (km)

January 1

January 3

January 6

January 8

January 10

January 14

Progress

A tile model is a good way of tracking Petras

progress visually.

unit tile

In this book,
positive algebra
tiles are green
and negative
algebra tiles
are white.

One weekend, Petra cross-country skiied around a lake three times.

She did not know the distance around the lake, so she used a
variable , x, to represent it.
An x-tile is a rectangular tile that is used to represent the variable x.
It has the same width as the side length of a unit tile. You can use an
x-tile to describe any unknown value.

variable

a quantity whose value can

change (or vary)

usually represented by a
letter

x-tile

This means that on the weekend, Petra skiied a total of 3x kilometres,

where x is the distance around the lake.
1. Use tiles to represent each length.
a) 6 km
b) an unknown distance
c) an unknown distance and back
d) 3 km plus an unknown distance

algebraic expression

2. Use tiles to model each algebraic expression .

a) 7

b)

4x

c)

x3

d)

3x  2

a mathematical phrase
variables, connected by
operators

can be used to model

real-life situations

2x  3 is an algebraic
expression

a)

b)

c)

d)

model to represent it. Record the expression and the model.

Part B: Model Area

You can use an x2-tile to represent an unknown area, measured in

square units, if you let the side length of each tile represent x units.
Note that the side length of an x2-tile is equal to the length of an x-tile.

x-tile

4
9
(square units)

Literac

onnections

Expressions are sometimes

confused with equations.
For example, 2x  3 is an
expression, but 2x  3  1
is an equation. Equations
contain an equal sign,
expressions do not.

x 2-tile

x 2-tile
x-tile

3.1 Build Algebraic Models Using Concrete Materials MHR 105

This model shows that Petra mowed one square lawn 6 times over a
summer. The total area mowed, in square metres, is 6x2, where x is the
side length, in metres, of the square lawn.

5. Use algebra tiles to represent each area.

a) 16 square units
b) 25 square units
c) 3x2
d) 5x2
6. Use algebra tiles to represent each expression.
a) x2  2
b) 2x2  x
c) x2  3x  2
d) 3x2  5x  1
Part C: Model Volume
7. A cube is a rectangular prism with length, width, and height all

equal.
a) Use linking cubes to build a model of a cube that has a side

length of 3 cm. Sketch your model.

b) What is the volume, in cubic centimetres, of this cube?
c) Express the volume of the cube as a power.
8. Repeat step 7 for a cube with a side length of 5 cm.
9. Describe other concrete materials you could use to build an

algebraic model of volume.

10. Suppose you do not know the side length of a cube. You can use

the variable x to represent the side length.

a) Sketch the cube and label its length, width, and height.
b) Write an algebraic expression for the area of one face of

the cube.
c) Write an algebraic expression for the volume of the cube.
11. Reflect Describe how concrete materials can be used to build

algebraic models of length, area, and volume. Use words,

expressions, and diagrams to support your explanation.

Key Concepts

algebra tiles.

algebra tiles.

Concrete materials, such as algebra

tiles and linking cubes, can be used
to build algebraic models.

unit tile

1
negative
unit tile

x-tile

x-tile

x 2-tile

x 2-tile

C1

State the length and width of each.

a) a unit tile
b) an x-tile
c) an x2-tile

C2

a) How are the length and width of a unit tile and an x-tile related?
b) How are the length and width of an x-tile and an x2-tile related?

C3

a) Suggest two other objects that could be used to model length.

b) Suggest two other objects that could be used to model area.

C4

Explain how concrete materials can be used to model each type

of measurement. Include a diagram to support each explanation.
a) length

b) area

c) volume

Practise
1. Which expression is represented by the algebra

tile model?
A 4x2  2x  5

B 4x2  2x  5

C 4x2  2x  5

D 4x2  2x  5

Did You Know ?

The Greek mathematician
was the first person to use
a letter to represent an
unknown.

2. Use tiles to model each algebraic expression.

a) x2  3x
b) 2x2  5
c) 3x2  x  2
d) x2  2x  4
3. Write the algebraic expression represented by each model.
a)
b)

c)

d)

Connect and Apply

4. Each unit tile represents 1 km that Miko rode her bicycle.

Find each distance.

a)
b)
c)
d)
5. Create an algebraic expression of your own, using x2-tiles, x-tiles,

and unit tiles, and build a tile model to represent it. Record the
expression and the model.
6. a) Build a volume model to represent a cube with length, width,

and height all equal to 4 cm. Sketch the model and label the
length, width, and height.
b) What is the volume? Write this as a power.
c) Write an expression for the area of one face as a power.

7. A cube has a volume of 216 cm3.

a) What side length of the cube would give this volume?
b) Determine the area of one face of the cube.
8. The area of one face of a cube is 49 m2.
a) What side length of the cube would give this area?
b) Determine the volume of the cube.

Extend
9. Build an area model using tiles that have length and

width as indicated.
a) length  x  3, width  x
b) length  x  4, width  x  1
10. A cube has a volume of 8 cm3. Find the total surface area of

all six faces.

11. Math Contest Mersenne numbers are numbers of the form 2n  1.

Father Marin Mersenne (15881648) was especially interested

in prime numbers of this form. One conjecture about Mersenne
numbers is that numbers of the form 2p  1 are prime if p is prime.
Investigate this conjecture and write a brief report of your findings.
12. Math Contest Find the smallest possible value of ab  cd  e f if a, b,

c, d, e, and f are all different and are chosen from the values 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, and 6.
13. Math Contest When 3040  4030 is written in expanded form, the

A 30
B 40
C 70
D 120
E 1200
n

Pierre de Fermat (16011665) conjectured that all numbers of this

form are primes. Investigate this conjecture. Write a brief report of

3.2

Suppose the trend in the cartoon continues:

every day each new customer tells two new
friends at school about the Barney Burger.
How many new customers will Barney get
each day?

Day 1

Day 2
friend

friend
Sammy
friend

friend
friend
friend

110 MHR Chapter 3

Investigate
How can you use exponential models to describe growth patterns?
1. Copy and complete the table. In the last column, write the number

of new customers as a power of 2.

New Customers After Sammy Tells His Two Friends
Day

New Customers

Expanded Form

Power

21

22

22

3
4

many new customers Barney should expect on Day 7. Explain how

3. Use this model to determine how many new customers Barney

should expect on Day 14. Is this answer realistic? Why or why not?
4. Estimate the number of students at your school. How long would

it take for everyone at your school to find out about Barneys?

5. Suppose that each new customer told three friends about

Barneys, instead of two, and that this trend continued.

a) How many new customers should Barney expect after 2 days?
b) How many new customers should Barney expect after 4 days?
c) How much more quickly would word reach all the students

6. Reflect Explain how exponents are useful in describing growth

patterns.

A power is a product of identical factors and consists of two parts:

a base and an exponent.
24
base

is a power

exponent

The base is the identical factor, and the exponent tells how many factors
there are.
24  2  2  2  2
exponential form

expanded form

Powers are useful for expressing repeated multiplication.

3.2 Work With Exponents MHR 111

Example 1 Evaluate Powers

Write in expanded form, and then evaluate.
a) 25

b) (3)3

c) (3)4

d) 34

e) 3.53

f) a b

2
3

Solution
a) 25  2  2  2  2  2

 32

There is an odd number of

negative factors. The

b) (3)3  (3)  (3)  (3)

 27
There is an even number
of negative factors. The

c) (3)4  (3)  (3)  (3)  (3)

 81
d) 34  (3  3  3  3)

The base of this power is 3, not

makes the result negative.

 81
e) 3.53  3.5  3.5  3.5

 42.875
3

3.5 Y3 =

f) a b  a ba ba b

2
3

2
3

2
3

2
3

222
333
8

27


To multiply fractions, I multiply

numerators together and
multiply denominators together.

Example 2 Apply Exponents to Solve Problems

10.4 cm

Popcorn

9.0 cm

9.2 cm

9.2 cm
9.2 cm

Mega-Box

Jumbo Drum

Which container holds more popcorn? How much more? Assume that
each container is filled just to the top. Round your answer to the
nearest cubic centimetre.

Solution
Mega-Box

Reasoning and Proving

Representing

The Mega-Box is in the shape of a cube. Apply the formula for the
volume of a cube.

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

V  s3
 9.23
 778.688

Reflecting
Communicating

9.2 Y 3 =

The Mega-Box holds about 779 cm3 of popcorn.

Jumbo Drum
The Jumbo Drum is in the shape of a cylinder. Apply the formula
for the volume of a cylinder.
V  r 2h
 (5.2)2(9.0)
 764.54


r is the radius of the base and h is the height of the cylinder.

The radius is half the diameter: 10.4  2  5.2
* 5.2 x * 9 =

The Jumbo Drum holds about 765 cm3 of popcorn.

The Mega-Box holds 14 cm3 more popcorn than the Jumbo Drum.

779  765  14

Key Concepts

example,
4  4  4  43

The base is the identical factor.

The exponent tells how many factors there are.

Powers sometimes appear in formulas. When evaluating expressions

involving powers, follow the correct order of operations.

C1

a) 34

C2

b) a b

1
2

c) (2)6

d) 26

e) 1.22

a) Evaluate each power in question 1.

b) Explain why the answers to parts c) and d) are different.

C3

C4

The first step in evaluating the volume of a

cylinder is to substitute the known values for
r and h into the formula for the volume of a
cylinder: V  r 2h. Describe the next step.

Which expressions would you evaluate using

a calculator? Explain.
a) 23

b) (4)2

c) (1.25)4

d) 82

e) 76

f) (0.1)3

Practise
For help with questions 1 to 5, see Example 1.
1. Which is 6  6  6  6 written as a power?
A 64

B 64

C 46

D 1296

A 35

B 555

C 33333

D 243

3. Write each expression as a power.

a) (5)  (5)  (5)
b) 1.05  1.05  1.05  1.05  1.05  1.05
c)

3
3
3
a b  a b  a b
5
5
5

a) (4)3

3 4
a b
4

b) 0.82

c)

b) (7)2

c) 24

5. Evaluate.
a) 93
d) a b

5
6

g) 18

e) a b

2
3

h) (1)55

f) 1.22
i) 0.53

a) 25  42

b)

53  52

c)

13  16  12

e)

2 3
3 2
a b a b
3
4

f)

500(1.08)5

7. Substitute the given values into each expression. Then, evaluate

necessary.
s5

a) 6s2

Technology Tip

b)

r 2

c)

a2

d)

r 2h

r  2.3, h  5.2

e)

4 3
r
3

r  1.5

r  2.5

have a key, use 3.14 as
an approximate value for .

a  3, b  4

b2

f) x 2  2x  24

x  6

Connect and Apply

8. a) Evaluate each power.

(2)2

(2)3

(2)4

(2)5

b) Examine the signs of your answers. What pattern do you notice?

c) Explain how you can tell the sign of the answer when a power

has a negative base. Create and use examples of your own to

9. Listeria is a type of bacteria that can cause dangerous

health problems. It doubles every hour. The initial

population of a sample of Listeria is 800.

Time (min)

a) Copy and complete this table, which shows the

Population of Listeria

800

60

1600

120

180

smooth curve to connect the points. Describe the

shape of the graph.

240

1 day?

2 days?

eating contaminated food or as long as 24 h later. Discuss why

some types of food poisoning begin quickly and others much
more slowly.

Did You Know ?

Food and water contaminated
with E. coli (escherichia coli)
can be very dangerous, but
infections are easily treatable
with certain antibiotics.

necessary for digestion. It doubles in population every 20 min. The

initial population is 10.
a) Copy and complete the table. Refer to your table from question 9

to complete the second column.

Time (min)

Population of Listeria

Population of E. Coli

0
20
40
60
80
100
120

b) When will the population of E. coli overtake the population of

Listeria?
c) What population will the two cultures have when they are equal?
11. The durations (lengths of time) of musical notes are related by

powers of

1
, beginning with a whole note. Copy and complete
2

the table.
Reasoning and Proving
Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

Note

Symbol

Duration (in beats)

Power Form

whole

half

(12)

quarter

(12)

Reflecting
Communicating

eighth

sixteenth

thirty-second

12. Refer to question 11. Look at the pattern in the last column. Extend

this pattern backward to write the power form for a whole note. Does
this answer make sense? Use a calculator to evaluate this power.
Describe what you observe.

116 MHR Chapter 3

13. Chapter Problem Alysia has selected the letter E to design the logo

for her school team, the Eagles.

The design will be used to make different-sized crests for clothing
such as jackets, sweaters, and baseball caps. The height of the crest is
twice the width. How can Alysia make sure that, when the crest
is made larger or smaller, the proportions will not change?
a) Find an expression for the area of the crest in terms of the width.
b) Determine the area of a crest with a width of 8 cm.
c) Determine the height of a crest with an area of 72 cm2.
14. Uranium is a radioactive material that emits energy when it changes

into another substance. Uranium comes in different forms, called

isotopes. One isotope, U-235, has a half-life of 23 min, which means
that it takes 23 min for a sample to decay to half its original amount.
a) Suppose you started with a 100-mg sample of U-235. Copy and

complete the table.

Number of
Half-Life Periods

Time (min)

Amount of U-235
Remaining (mg)

100

23

50

46

Expression

1 1
100
2

()
1
100()
2

Uranium is used as a fuel

source in nuclear fission
reactors, which provide 48%
of Ontarios electrical power.
Uranium) reactors are among
the safest nuclear power
generators in the world.

of U-235 remaining versus time, in minutes.

Describe the shape of the graph.
c) Approximately how much U-235 will remain

after 2 h?
d) How long will it take until only 1 mg of U-235

remains?
e) Use the pattern in the table to write an

1
, for the
2
original amount of U-235. Does this make
sense?
expression, using powers of

3.2 Work With Exponents MHR 117

Literac

onnections

Scientific notation is a
convenient way to write very
large or very small numbers. In
scientific notation, the value is
expressed as the product of a
number between 1 and 10
and a power of 10.
For example,
56 000 000 000  5.6  1010
0.000 342  3.42  104
Scientific calculators express
numbers in scientific notation
when there are too many
digits for the display. Multiply
1234 by 1000. Repeat until
the output appears in
scientific notation.
You can enter a number in
scientific notation into a
scientific calculator.
For example, to enter
5.6  1010, press
EE 10 =
5.6

Extend
15. Uranium-233 is another isotope that is used in nuclear power

generation. 1 kg of U-233 can provide about the same amount

of electrical power as 3 000 000 kg of coal. This number can be
written in scientific notation as 3  106.
a) Another isotope of uranium, U-238, has a half-life of

4 500 000 000 years. Write this number in scientific notation.

b) What is the half-life of U-238, in seconds? Write your answer

in scientific notation.
c) The number 6.022  1023 is a very important number in

chemistry. It is called one mole. One mole is the amount of a

substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, or other
elementary units as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12.
Carbon-12 is the basic building block of living things. Write one
mole in standard notation.
d) Describe any advantages you see to using scientific notation.
16. Refer to the cartoon at the beginning of the section. Suppose that

every new customer returns to Barneys every day for lunch, in

addition to recruiting two new customers.
a) How many customers in total will Barney have

2 days after Sammys first visit?

5 days after Sammys first visit?
b) On which day will Barneys reach 500 new customers for lunch?

EE 4 \ =
3.42

customers n days after Sammys first visit.

d) Describe any assumptions you must make in finding your

Not all calculators show
scientific notation, or let you
enter such numbers, in exactly
the same way. Experiment or
refer to the users manual for

17. Math Contest Determine the last digit of the number 31234 when

18. Math Contest If 3x  729, the value of x is
A 3

B 5

C 6

D 7

E 8

19. Math Contest Numbers are called perfect powers if they can be

written in the form x y for positive integer values of x and y. Find

all perfect powers less than 1000.
20. Math Contest x x is always greater than y y as long as x > y. For what

118 MHR Chapter 3

3.3

Discover the
Exponent Laws
The 100-m dash is one of the most
exciting events in track and field. If
you ran this race, how many
centimetres would you run? How
many millimetres is this?

Investigate A
How can you simplify expressions involving products and quotients
of powers?
Part A: Patterns Involving Powers of 10

In the metric system, length measures are related by powers of 10.

For example, there are 10 mm in 1 cm. This makes it easy to convert
one unit of length to another. Note that hectometres and decametres
are uncommon units.
Did You Know ?
Bailey set the mens world
record for the 100-m dash at
the 1996 Olympics. He ran
the race in 9.84 s, and was
considered at that time to be
the worlds fastest human.

kilometre (km)
1000 m

To convert to a smaller unit, move

the decimal point to the right.

hectometre (hm)
100 m
decametre (dam)
10 m
metre (m)
decimetre (dm)
0.1 m

centimetre (cm)
0.01 m

To convert to a larger unit, move

the decimal point to the left.

millimetre (mm)
0.001 m

1. How many metres are in 1 km? Write

I can use the metric ladder to
help. I count the steps on the

kilometre (km)
1000 m

hectometre (hm)
100 m
decametre (dam)
10 m
metre (m)
decimetre (dm)
0.1 m
centimetre (cm)
0.01 m
millimetre (mm)
0.001 m

2. Copy and complete the table.

Unit
decimetre
centimetre

Number of these in 1 m

Power of 10

10

101

100

millimetre

of metres in 1 km. What does this answer give you?

b) Write the product in part a) using powers of 10. Write the

answer as a power of 10.

4. Repeat step 3 for millimetres instead of centimetres.
5. Reflect Look at the exponents in the powers of 10 in your answers

to steps 3b) and 4b). Describe how these numbers are related.
Part B: Products of Powers
How can you simplify expressions containing products of powers with the
same base?
6. Copy and complete the table, including an example of your own.
Quotient

Expanded Form

Single Power

32  34

(3  3)  (3  3  3  3)

36

43  43
64  61
24  22  23
k3  k5

7. What do you notice about the bases of the powers in each product

in the first column?

8. Look at the exponents in the first column for each product. How

does the sum of the exponents compare to the exponent in the

last column?
9. Reflect Explain how you can write a product of powers using a

10. Write a rule for finding the product of powers by copying and

completing the equation xa  xb  .

Part C: Quotients of Powers
How can you simplify expressions containing quotients of powers with the
same base?
11. Copy and complete the table, including an example of your own.

I can reduce
common factors.

Quotient

Expanded Form

Single Power

55  53

55555
555

52

74  71
106  104
27  26
p8  p5

120 MHR Chapter 3

12. What do you notice about the bases of the powers in each quotient

in the first column?

13. Look at the exponents in the first column for each quotient. How

do they relate to the exponent of the single power in the last

column?
14. Reflect Explain how you can write a quotient of powers using a

15. Write a rule for finding the quotient of powers by copying and

completing the equation x a  x b  .

The patterns in the activity above illustrate two exponent laws. The
exponent laws are a set of rules that allow you to simplify expressions
involving powers with the same base.
Product Rule
When multiplying powers with the same base, add the exponents
to write the product as a single power:
xa  xb  xa  b
Quotient Rule
When dividing powers with the same base, subtract the exponents
to write the quotient as a single power:
xa  xb  xa  b

Example 1 Apply the Product Rule

Write each product as a single power. Then, evaluate the power.
a) 32  33

b) 52  5  52

c) (2)4  (2)3

d) a b  a b

1
2

1
2

e) 0.14  0.12

Solution
a)

32  33
 32  3
 35
 243

3 Y5=

b)

c)

52  5  52
 52  51  52
 55
 3125

When no exponent appears, I

know that it is 1.
52  5  52  52  51  52
Now, I can add the exponents:
2125

(2)4  (2)3
 (2)4  3
 (2)7
 128
1 3
1 2
a b a b
2
2

d)

1 32
 a b
2
1 5
 a b
2
1
1
1
1
1
 a ba ba ba ba b
2
2
2
2
2
11111
22222
1

32


e)

0.14  0.12
 0.14  2
 0.16
 0.000 001

To find the sixth power of 0.1, I need to

multiply 0.1 by itself six times. In the
product, there will be six digits after the
decimal point.

Example 2 Apply the Quotient Rule

Write each product as a single power. Then, evaluate the power.
a) 87  85
b) 47  4  43
3 3
3 2
a
b

a
b
(0.5)6
4
4
c)
d)
(0.5)3
3 5
a b
4

Solution
a)

87  85
 87  5
 82
 64

The bases are the same, so I

can subtract the exponents.

b)







c)

47  4  43
47  41  43
47  1  43
46  43
46  3
43
64

Divide in order
from left to right.

(0.5)6
(0.5)3
 (0.5)6  3
 (0.5)3
 0.125

d)

3 3
3 2
a b a b
4
4
3 5
a b
4
3 32
a b
4

3 5
a b
4
3 5
a b
4

3 5
a b
4

Apply the product

rule first to simplify
the numerator.
What if I use the quotient rule?
3
)
(
3
4 
(
)
3
(4) 4
3
 ()
4
5

Anything divided
by itself equals 1.

55

I know the answer is 1.

I wonder if an exponent of 0
always gives an answer of 1?

1

Investigate B
How can you simplify expressions involving powers of powers?
1. Copy and complete the table, including an example of

Power of a Power

Expanded Form

Single Power

(22)3

(22)  (22)  (22)

 (2  2)  (2  2)  (2  2)

26

(53)4
(104)2

3.3 Discover the Exponent Laws MHR 123

2. Look at the exponents in the first column for each case. How do

they relate to the exponent of the single power in the last column?
3. Reflect Explain how you can write a power of a power using

4. Write a rule for finding the power of a power by copying and

The patterns in Investigate B illustrate another exponent law.

Power of a Power Rule
A power of a power can be written as a single power by multiplying
the exponents.
(xa)b  xa  b

Example 3 Apply the Power of a Power Rule

Write each as a single power. Then, evaluate the power.
a) (32)4
b) [(2)3]4
2 2

c) c a b d

2
3

d) (0.23)2

Solution
a) (32)4 32  4

b) [(2)3]4 (2)3  4


 6561

(2)12
 4096

38

2 2

c) c a b d

2
3

2 2:2
 a b
3
2 4
 a b
3

124 MHR Chapter 3

2
2
2
2



3
3
3
3

16
81

d) (0.23)2  0.23  2

 0.26
 0.000 064

Example 4 Simplify Algebraic Expressions

Simplify each algebraic expression by applying the exponent laws.
a) y 3  y 5

b) 6p7  3p3

c) a2b3  a6b4

d)

2uv 3  8u2v 2
(4uv 2)2

Solution
a) y 3  y 5  y 3 + 5

Apply the product rule.

 y8
b) 6p7  3p3  2p 7  3

Divide the numeric factors, 6  3 = 2.

 2p4
c) a2b3  a6b1  a8b4

2uv 3  8u2v 2
(4uv 2)2

d)

Simplify numerator and denominator first.

The exponent in the denominator applies to
all the factors inside the brackets.

Exponent laws only apply to

powers with the same base.
First, I add exponents of a:
a2  6  a8
Then, I add exponents of b :
b3  1  b4

(2)  8  u  u2  v 3  v 2

42u2(v 2)2

16  u1  2  v 3  2
16u2v 2  2

16u v
16u2v 4

3 5

Divide.

 u3  2v 5  4
 uv

Key Concepts

The exponent laws are a way to simplify expressions involving

powers with the same base.

When multiplying powers with the same base, add the exponents:
xa  x b  xa  b

When dividing powers with the same base, subtract the exponents:
xa  x b  xa  b

(xa)b  xa  b

C1

Identify which exponent law you can apply to simplify each

expression. If no exponent law can be used, explain why not.
a) 63  62
b) (m2)3
c) 34  43
d) a2b  a3b4
e)

f)

p3q2
pq
u4v 5
w 2x 3

C2

Create an example involving powers where you can

b) multiply exponents
c) subtract exponents

C3

Look at part d) of Example 4. Suppose that u  3 and v  2:

Original expression

Simplified expression

2uv  8u v
(4uv 2)2

uv

2 2

the expression, and why?

b) What is the value of the expression after substituting the given

values?

Practise
For help with questions 1 and 2, see Example 1.
1. Which is 73  72 expressed as a single power?
A 76

B 75

C 79

D 496

a) 34  37

b) 24  2  23

c) (1)5  (1)6

d) a b  a b

2
5

2
5

For help with questions 3 and 4, see Example 2.

3. Which is 117  115 expressed as a single power?
A 1112

111.4

12

112

a) 128  122
c)

3 4
3
a b  a b
4
4

d)

0.16  0.14
0.12

For help with questions 5 and 6, see Example 3.

5. Which is (54)2 expressed as a single power?
A 58
C 256

B 56
D 258

The notation that we use

for powers, with a raised
number for the exponent,
was invented by Rn
Descartes (1596-1650).
Descartes used this notation
in his text Gomtrie,
published in 1637. In this
famous text, Descartes
connected algebra and
geometry, starting the
branch of mathematics
called Cartesian geometry.

a) (42)2

b) [(3)3]2

c) [(0.1)4]2

d) c a b d

3
2

3 2

a) 52  53  54

b) 37  35  3

3 4

c)

(0.5 )

0.56  0.54

For help with questions 8 and 9, see Example 4.

8. Simplify.
a) y 4  y 2
d) (c3)4
g) m2n  mn2

b) m8  m5
e) a2b2  a3b
h) h2k3  hk

c) k 2  k 3  k 5
f) (2uv2)3
i) (a3b)2

b) 8a5  (2a3)2

c) (x2)3  (3x2)2

Connect and Apply

9. Simplify.
a) 12k 2m8  4km5
d)

g)

4d4w3  6dw4
3d3w  8dw2

e)

5c 3d  4c2d2
(2c 2d)2

h)

3f 4g3  8fg4

(6f 2g3)2

f) (3a2b)2  (ab)2

(3xy2)3  (4x2y)
2 2 2

(2x y )

30g 2h  (2gh)2

i)

5gh 2  6gh

5xy 2  2x 2y

(2xy)

a) Substitute x  3 and y  1 into the expression. Then, evaluate

the expression.
b) Simplify the original expression using the exponent laws.

Literac

onnections

Rectangular prism is the

mathematical name for a box.

It is about 100 cm high, 10 m wide, and 1 km long. What is the

volume enclosed by the crawlspace?
1
, because
2
it is one of two possible outcomes. The probability of tossing three
1 3
1
heads in a row is a b or .
2
8

a) What is the probability of tossing

b) Write each answer in part a) as a power of a power.
13. a) What is the probability of rolling a 6 with a standard

number cube?

2
3 6

b) What is the probability of rolling four 6s in a row?

c) What is the probability of rolling a perfect square with a

number cube?
d) What is the probability of rolling eight perfect squares in a row?
e) Write each answer in parts b) and d) as a power of a power.

Achievement Check
14. Consider the expression

3m2n  4m3n2
.
(2m2n)2  3mn

a) Substitute m  4 and n  3 into the expression and evaluate it.

b) Simplify the original expression using the exponent laws.
c) Substitute m  4 and n  3 into the simplified expression and

evaluate it.

of the two methods?

e) Josie made two errors in copying the above expression. She wrote

3m2n  4mn2
, but she still got the correct answer.
(2mn)2  3mn
Explain how this is possible.

128 MHR Chapter 3

Extend
15. You can multiply and divide numbers in scientific notation by

applying the exponent laws. For example,

(3  105)  (2  104)
 3  2  105  104
 6  109

(9  108)  (3  105)
9  108

3  105
3

9  108

3  105
1

 3  103
Evaluate each of the following. Express each answer in scientific
notation and then in standard notation.
a) 4  102  2  103

b) 1.5  104  6  106

c) (8  107)  (2  105)

when you enter the following calculation: (3  105)  (2  106).

b) Is the answer what you predicted? Explain the answer that the

calculator has provided.

17. a) Predict the screen output of your scientific or graphing calculator

when you enter the following calculation: (3  1018)  (6  102).

b) Is the answer what you predicted? Explain the answer that the

calculator has provided.

18. a) Evaluate (2  105)3. Express your answer in both scientific and

standard notation.
b) Explain how you can evaluate a power of a number expressed in

scientific notation. Create an example of your own to help

19. Math Contest Copy and complete the table to make the square a

multiplicative magic square (the product of every row, column,

and diagonal is equal).
a19b16
a9b6

a15b12
a13b10
a21b18

a7b4

20. Math Contest If x 

1
, place the following values in order from
9

least to greatest:
1
x, x2, x3, 2x ,
x
3.3 Discover the Exponent Laws MHR 129

3.4

Communicate With Algebra

You have seen how algebra tiles can be used to model algebraic
expressions.
The model below shows that Petra mowed a square lawn of unknown
area once a week for 4 weeks.

The algebraic representation is 4x2. Look at each part of this expression.

What does the 4 represent? What does the x2 represent?
term

an expression formed by
the product of numbers
and/or variables

4
coefficient

x2
variable

When you represent an algebraic expression using algebra

tiles, the variable in the expression tells you which type of
tile to use. To represent x2, use an x2-tile.
x 2-tile

The number of tiles corresponds to the coefficient. Since the expression

is 4x2, there are four x2-tiles.

Literac

The coefficient is also called

the numerical coefficient. It
is a number only.

a) Jim earns \$7 per hour at his part-time job. If he works for x hours,

his earnings, in dollars, are 7x.

b) The depth, in metres, of a falling stone in a well after t seconds is

4.9t2.
c) The area of a triangle with base b and height h is

1
bh.
2

d) The area of a square with side length k is k2.

e) Amir walks 6 blocks to school.

Solution
Expression

Coefficient

Variable

a)

7x

b)

4.9t 2

4.9

t2

coefficient.

c)

1
bh
2

bh

The variable can consist of more than one

letter or symbol.

d)

k2

k2

e)

none

onnections

The variable is also called the

literal coefficient. It consists
of one or more variables and
their exponents, if they exist.
Exponents on the variables
belong to the literal
coefficient, because they
represent a product of
variables: x 2  x  x.

A term with no variable is called a

constant term, or simply a constant.

polynomial

A polynomial can be classified by the number of terms it has.

Type of Polynomial

Number of Terms

Examples

monomial

x, 3y, 4a 2, 5

binomial

2x  3, ab  2a,

trinomial

2x 2

0.4x 2

an algebraic expression
consisting of one or more
or subtraction operators

Literac

onnections

The prefixes of the polynomial

names have the following
meanings:
mono means 1
bi means 2
tri means 3

x

 3x  1, a  2b  c

Example 2 Classify Polynomials by Name

Classify each polynomial by the number of terms it has.
a) 3x2  2x

b) 2m

c) 4x2  3xy  y 2

d) a  2b  c  3

3x 2  2x has two
terms, 3x 2 and 2x.

Solution
Polynomial

Number of Terms

Type of Polynomial

a)

3x 2  2x

binomial

b)

2m

monomial

c)

4x 2  3xy  y 2

trinomial

d)

a  2b  c  3

four-term polynomial

I can find the number of terms

by looking for the addition and
subtraction operators that
separate the terms:
4x 2  3xy  y 2
Two operators separate the
three terms in this trinomial.

degree of a term

the sum of the exponents

on the variables in a term

Find the degree of each term .

a) x2

b) 3y 4

c) 0.7u

d) 2a2b

2
e) xy
3

f) 5

Solution
Look at the exponents of the variables. Add them if there is more
than one.
Remember, when no
exponent appears on
a variable, the value of
the exponent is 1. For
example, 4u  4u1.

If the term has no

variable at all, then
the degree is 0.

Term

Sum of Exponents

Degree

a)

x2

b)

3y 4

c)

0.7u1

d)

2a 2b1

213

e)

2
x 1y 1
3

112

f)

5

degree of a
polynomial

the degree of the

highest-degree term

Find the degree of each polynomial .

a) x  3
b) 5x 2  2x
c) 3y 3  0.2y  1
d) 7x2y 4  x 6y

Solution
The degree of the first
term is 1. The degree of
the second term is 0. The
highest degree is 1.

The degree of the first

term is 2  4. The degree
of the second term is
6  1.

132 MHR Chapter 3

Polynomial

Term With
Highest Degree

Degree of Term in
Column 2

Degree of
Polynomial

a)

x3

first

b)

5x 2  2x

5x 2

second

c)

3y 3  0.2y  1

3y 3

third

d)

7x 2y 4  x 6y

x 6y

seventh

Example 5 Use an Algebraic Model to Solve a Problem

Cheryl works part-time as a ski instructor. She earns \$125
for the season, plus \$20 for each childrens lesson and \$30
for each adult lesson that she gives.
a) Write an expression that describes Cheryls total

earnings for the season. Identify the variable and the

coefficient of each term and explain what they mean.
b) One winter, Cheryl gave eight childrens lessons and

six adult lessons. What were her total earnings?

Solution
a) Cheryls total earnings can be described by the

polynomial expression 20c  30a  125.

Term

Variable

Meaning of Coefficient

20c

c represents the number of

childrens lessons.

20 represents the earnings

per childrens lesson.

30a

30 represents the earnings

125

There is no variable.

\$125 per season.

20c  30a  125

 20(8)  30(6)  125
 160  180  125
 465
Cheryls total earnings for this season were \$465.

Key Concepts

ideas.

by its degree

C1

Create two examples of each.

a) monomial

b) binomial

c) trinomial

d) four-term polynomial

C2

Julio says that the term x2 has a coefficient of 2 and a variable x.

Is Julio correct? Explain.

C3

2w  1t

2w  t

b) Are these expressions equivalent? Explain.

3x  1

3x

c) Explain when you must write the number 1, and when you

do not need to.

Practise
For help with question 1, see Example 1.
1. Identify the coefficient and the variable part of each term.
a) 2y
d)

1 2
x
2

b) 3x

c) mn

e) w 2

f) 0.4gh3

For help with questions 2 and 3, see Example 2.

2. 7x2  3xy  4y 2 is a
A monomial

B binomial

C trinomial

D term

3. Classify each polynomial by the number of terms.

a) 2x

b) 6y 2  2y  1

1
b
2
1
e) 3k2 
k
2
c) a 

d) 3u2  uv  2v 2
f) m  0.2n  0.3  mn

For help with questions 4 and 5, see Example 3.

4. The degree of 4u  5u2  9 is
A 1

B 2

C 3

D 0

a) 5x2

b) 6y

d) u2v 4

e)

1 2 3
xy
3

c) 3
f) 0.2a2b

For help with question 6, see Example 4.

6. State the degree of each polynomial.
a) 3x  4

b) y2  3y  1

d) a3b2  8a2b5

e) 2x2y 4 

c) m  2m3

2 3
xy
5

For help with questions 7 and 8, see Example 4.

7. In a TV trivia show, a contestant receives 500 points for a correct

represent the number of correct answers and i represent the
number of incorrect answers. Which expression describes a
contestants total points?
A 500c  200i

B 500c  200i

C 500i  200c

D 500i  200c

8. A hockey team earns 2 points for a win and 1 point for a tie. Let

w represent the number of wins and t represent the number of ties.

a) Which expression can be used to describe the total points?
A 2w  1

B wt

C 2w  1t

D 2w  t

9. Substitute the given values and evaluate each expression.
a) 3x  5

x2

b) 4y  4

y  2

 2b  7

c)

a2

d)

2m2

 3n  8

a  4, b  1
m  2, n  5

Connect and Apply

10. The students at Prince Albert Public School sell magazine

subscriptions to raise money. The school receives 37% of the

money paid for the subscriptions.
a) Choose a variable to represent the money paid for the

subscriptions.
b) Using your variable from part a), write an expression for the

amount of money the school will receive.

c) Tyler sold one magazine subscription to his aunt for \$25.99.

Calculate the amount the school receives on this sale.

d) The sum of all the subscription orders was \$4257.49. Use your

formula to calculate how much the school will receive for this
fundraiser.

3.4 Communicate With Algebra MHR 135

11. Meredith has a summer job at a fitness club. She earns a \$5 bonus

for each student membership and a \$7 bonus for each adult

membership she sells.
a) Write a polynomial expression that describes Merediths total

bonus.
b) Identify the variable and the coefficient of each term and explain

what they mean.

c) How much will Merediths bonus be if she sells 12 student

12. An arena charges \$25 for gold seats, \$18 for red seats, and \$15 for

blue seats.
a) Write an expression that describes the total earnings from seat

sales.
b) Identify the variable and the coefficient of each term and explain

what they mean.

c) How much will the arena earn if it sells 100 gold seats, 200 blue

seats, and 250 red seats?

13. On a multiple-choice test, you earn 2 points for

a) Write an expression for a students total score.
b) Maria answered 15 questions correctly and 3 incorrectly.

Find Marias total score.

14. a) Describe a situation that can be modelled by an algebraic

expression.
b) Select variables and write the expression.
c) Illustrate your expression using algebra tiles or a diagram.
15. Write a response to this e-mail from a classmate.
FROM:
TO:

ManuelS
JillP

SUBJECT: changing a decimal to

a percent
Hi Jill,
Too bad I missed todays class.
I copied your
notes and I get most of it, I gues
s. Im just a
e between
a term and a polynomial. Can you
help me out?
Thanks,
Manuel

136 MHR Chapter 3

16. Chapter Problem Alysia is designing a logo for her school team, the

Eagles. The design will be used to make different-sized crests for clothing
such as jackets, sweaters, and baseball caps. How can Alysia make sure
that, when the crest is made larger or smaller, the shape will not change?
The height will always be double the width.
a) If w represents the width, what expression represents the height?
b) How high will a crest that is 5 cm wide be?
c) How wide will a crest that is 25 cm high be?

Achievement Check
17. In a soccer league, teams receive 3 points for a win, 2 points for a

loss, and 1 point for a tie.

a) Write an algebraic expression to represent a teams total points.
b) What variables did you choose? Identify what each variable

represents.
c) The Falcons record for the season was 5 wins, 2 losses, and

3 ties. Use your expression to find the Falcons total points.

d) The 10-game season ended with the Falcons tied for second place

with the same number of points as the Eagles. The Eagles had a
different record than the Falcons. How is this possible?

Extend
18. Alberto is training for a triathlon, where athletes swim, cycle, and

run. During his training program, he has found that he can swim
at 1.2 km/h, cycle at 25 km/h, and run at 10 km/h. To estimate his
time for an upcoming race, Alberto rearranges the formula
distance
distance  speed  time to find that: time 
.
speed
a) Choose a variable to represent the distance travelled for each

part of the race. For example, choose s for the swim.

b) Copy and complete the table. The first row is done for you.
Part of the Race

Speed (km/h)

Distance (km)

Time (h)

swim

1.2

1.2

cycle
run

c) Write a trinomial to model Albertos total time.

d) A triathlon is advertised in Kingston. Participants have to swim

1.5 km, cycle 40 km, and run 10 km. Using your expression from
part c), calculate how long it will take Alberto to finish the race.

Explain.
3.4 Communicate With Algebra MHR 137

19. Ashleigh can walk 2 m/s and swim

I can use the formula
distance
to
time 
speed
calculate Ashleighs travel
time.

1 m/s. What is the quickest way for

Ashleigh to get from one corner of her
pool to the opposite corner?

10 m

25 m

Ashleigh to walk or swim.

b) Ashleigh can walk at a speed of 2 m/s. The time, in seconds, for

w
, where w is the distance, in metres, she
2
walks. Use this relationship to find the travel time if Ashleigh
walks around the pool.
Ashleigh to walk is

10 m
25 m

Ashleigh to swim a distance s. Her swimming speed is 1 m/s. Use

this relationship to find the travel time if Ashleigh swims straight
across.
Path 2: Swim the entire distance.

d) Which route is faster, and by how much?

20. Refer to question 19.
a) Do you think it will be faster for Ashleigh to walk half the length

and then swim? Explain your reasoning.

Did You Know ?
Sixteen year-old Marilyn Bell
of Toronto was the first
person to swim across
Lake Ontario. In September
1954 Marilyn swam from
Youngstown, NY, to the
CNE grounds in Toronto.
The 51.5 km distance took
her 21 h.

Path 3: Walk half the length, then swim.

b) Find the travel time for this path. Compare this with your

c) Do you think this is the fastest possible path? Find the fastest

path and the minimum time required to cross the pool, corner to
opposite corner. Describe how you solved this.

21. Some algebraic expressions involve more than one variable. You can

model these using an expanded set of algebra tiles.

unit tile

x-tile

x2

y-tile

y 2-tile

Fly By Night Aero Insurance company charges \$500 for liability, plus
10% of the value of the plane, plus \$300 per seat. Let v represent the
value of the plane and s represent the number of seats. The cost of
the insurance is modelled by C  500  0.1v  300s. A four-seat
Piper Cherokee valued at \$30 000 would cost
500  0.1(30 000)  300(4) or \$4700 per year to insure.
a) Explain how you would use tiles to

represent 0.1v.
b) Explain how you would use tiles to

represent 300s.
c) Build an algebraic model to describe

the cost for airplane insurance for the

Piper Cherokee, using algebra tiles,
diagrams, or virtual algebra tiles.
d) Find the cost of insurance for a

50-seat plane, valued at

\$500 000.
22. Math Contest If 3m  5  23

3m  2n is
A 20

B 44

C 46

D 54

E 56

A 7

B 10

D 12

E 20

C 11

1
2

2m

1 m
 a b . Is there
4

Use Technology

Virtual Algebra Tiles With

You can create and manipulate virtual algebra tiles using computer
software such as The Geometers Sketchpad. You can build algebraic
models, plus you can change the length of the variable tiles.

Investigate
Tools

computer equipped with

The Geometers
Algebra Tiles.gsp

How can you build algebraic models using virtual algebra tiles?
1. a) Start The Geometers Sketchpad and open the sketch

Algebra Tiles.gsp.
b) Read the instructions and click on the Algebra Tiles page button.
a) Click on the Show example tiles button.

b) Click and drag the top of the x-slider. Which tiles are affected

by the x-slider?
c) Repeat part b) for the y-slider.
d) The unit tile seems to have a slider next to the x-slider. Try to

change its length, and describe what happens. Why can you not
change the dimensions of the unit tile?
140 MHR Chapter 3

For the rest of this activity, you will work only with
unit tiles

x-tiles (horizontal and vertical)

x2-tiles

3.

Clear the workspace and bring out only the algebra tiles you need:
Click on Hide example tiles.

Technology Tip

Click and hold the Custom Tool icon at the left side of the
screen.

If you do not see the list of

tools when you click on the
Custom Tool icon, try
holding the left mouse
button for a couple of
seconds, and they will
appear.

Technology Tip

Select 1 (the unit tile) and place a unit tile somewhere on the
workspace.
Click and hold the Custom Tool again and select x (horizontal)
and place a tile on the workspace.

You can add more tiles by

using the Custom Tool or by
using the Copy and Paste
To copy an entire tile, use
the Selection Arrow Tool
to click and drag a dashed
box around the tile you want
to copy. Then, paste it and
move it wherever you like.

Repeat for the x (vertical) and x^2 (x2) tiles.

Use Technology: Virtual Algebra Tiles With The Geometers Sketchpad MHR 141

Use Technology

Once you have all four tiles, choose the Selection Arrow Tool and
click somewhere in the white space to deselect the last object you
created.

shown, by clicking and dragging them one at a time.

a) Move the x-slider and describe what happens to the length and

width of each tile.

Tile

Length (changes/does
not change)

Width (changes/does
not change)

unit
x (horizontal)
x (vertical)
x2

b) Describe how the length of the x-tile is related to the length and

width of the x2-tile. Why is this so?

c) Describe how the width of the x-tile is related to the length and

width of the unit tile. Why is this so?

142 MHR Chapter 3

5. a) Why is it that you can change the length of an x-tile, but not a

unit tile?
b) What advantage does this give to virtual algebra tiles over

physical algebra tiles?

6. Build each algebraic model using virtual algebra tiles.
a) 3x  2

b)

x 2  2x  5

7. Build each algebraic model and try to put the parts together to form a

rectangle. You may have to change horizontal x-tiles to vertical ones,

or vice versa. Once you have built the rectangle, write expressions for
its length and width. The first one is shown as an example.
a) x 2  5x  6

The length is x  3 and the width is x  2.

Now try these.
b) x 2  2x  1
c) x 2  7x  12
8. a) Create your own example like the ones in step 7. Not all

expressions will work. Make sure that you can create a

b) Trade expressions with a classmate and try to build each others

algebraic models.

virtual algebra tiles to build algebraic models.

Use Technology: Virtual Algebra Tiles With The Geometers Sketchpad MHR 143

3.5

Recreational vehicles can be a lot of fun. However, they

sometimes require costly repairs. Suppose you are faced
with a repair bill involving parts and labour charges. How
can you use algebra to simplify the information?

Example 1 Build and Simplify an Algebra Tile Model

Crystal bought a used personal watercraft with her summer earnings.
Unfortunately, it needs some repairs before she can use it.
a) Model each repair using

algebra tiles and write an

expression to describe it.
b) Find a simplified expression

Item

Alternator
Fuel Pump

200
100

4
3

for both repairs.

c) Calculate the total repair cost

if the mechanic charges \$50/h for labour.

Solution
a) Let each unit tile represent \$100 and each x-tile represent an

Makin

onnections

You will study relations such as

this in 5.2 Partial Variation.

Literac

Alternator

Fuel Pump

200  4x expresses the cost

to repair the alternator.

100  3x expresses the cost

to repair the fuel pump.

b) Find a simplified expression for

onnections

To simplify an expression is
to find an equivalent, simpler,
and shorter expression.
Original expression:
200  4x  100  3x
Simplified expression:
300  7x

expressions.

200 + 4x

100 + 3x

300 + 7x

and evaluate it.

300  7x
 300  7(50)
 300  350
 650
The total repair cost for Crystals personal watercraft is \$650.

In Example 1 you added fixed coststhe cost of the parts:

200  100  300
You also added variable coststhe cost of the labour:
4x  3x  7x
When you add all the fixed costs, or add all the variable costs, you

like terms

variables

Identify the like terms in each group.

a) 2x, 2, 5x, 3xy, 3x
b) 4a2, 2a, a2, a3, a2b
c) 3u2, 4uv, 6, 2u2,

1
v, 5
2

Solution
a) Like terms have identical variable parts.

2x , 2, 5x , 3xy, 3x
2x, 5x, and 3x all have x as the variable. They are like terms.

2x and 2 are unlike terms

because the second term has
no variable.
2x and 3xy are unlike terms
because the second term
includes a y.

b) 4a2 , 2a, a2 , a3, a2b

4a2 and a2 have identical variables: a2. They are like terms.
The other terms all have different variables.
1
v, 5
2
3u2 and 2u2 are like terms.
6 and 5 are also like terms.

The exponents on all

variables must be identical
for terms to be like.

c) 3u2 , 4uv, 6 , 2u2 ,

1
v and 4uv are unlike any of the other terms.
2

To simplify a polynomial expression, add or subtract like terms.

a) 4x  3x
b) 4x  3  2x  5

Solution
a)

4x  3x
 7x

b)

4x  3  2x  5
 4x  2x  3  5
 6x  8
 6x  8

Example 4 Subtract Like Terms

Subtract.
a) 8x  3x
b) 2x  5x

Solution
a) 8x  3x
Method 1: Take Away

8x  3x
 5x

146 MHR Chapter 3

I use a different colour
of tile to represent
negative values.

3x

3x

3x and 3x are opposites.

Their sum is 0, leaving 5x as
the result.

8x  3x
 5x

You cannot remove 5 x-tiles,

because there are only 2 of
them. You must add 5 x-tiles.

2x  5x
 3x

Adding and subtracting to simplify algebraic expressions is called

collecting like terms.

Example 5 Collect Like Terms With Concrete Materials

Use algebra tiles to simplify each expression.
a) 5k  3k  6  3
b) 3c2  c  2 5c  4c2

Solution
a)

5k  3k  6  3

 5k  3k  6  3

I can rearrange the tiles to

group zero pairs, then
remove them.

 2k  3
b) 3c2  c  2  5c  4c2

Remove zero pairs.

 3c2  4c2  c  5c  2

When the coefficient is 1 or

1, you can omit the 1. But
you must keep the minus sign.
3c 2  4c 2  1c 2
 c 2

Algebraic expressions are usually

written in order of degree, with
the greatest-degree term first and
the least-degree term last.

 c2  4c  2

Example 6: Collect Like Terms Without Concrete Materials

Simplify.
a) 6x  4  8x  3
b) 2b  b  7  8
c) 3r 2  2  6r  9r  3r 2
d) 0.5m  4.5n  0.7m  4.5n  1.5

Solution
When collecting like terms,
group or identify like terms
add or subtract like terms only
apply integer rules to the coefficients of like terms
do not change the variable parts
a) 6x  4  8x  3

Identify like terms first.

6x and 8x are like terms.
4 and 3 are also like terms.

Method 2: Collect Like Terms

6x  4
 8x  3
14x  7

6x  4  8x  3
 6x  8x  4  3

Once you have had some practice,

you may be able to skip this step.

 14x  7

3.5 Collect Like Terms MHR 149

Literac

b) 2b  b  7  8

onnections

always include the sign on
the left. For example, the
coefficient of b is 1. Then,
terms using integer rules. It
is important that when you
collect terms, you include the
sign to the left of them:

2b and b are like terms.

7 and 8 are also like terms.

Method 1: Align Like Terms Vertically

2b  7
 b  8
b1
Method 2: Collect Like Terms

Apply integer rules to the

coefficients of like terms:
2  (1)  1
7  (8)  1

2b  b  7  8
b1

2b  b  7  8

c)

3r 2  2  6r  9r  3r 2
 3r 2  3r 2  6r  9r  2
 3r  2

d)

0.5m  4.5n  0.7m  4.5n  1.5

 0.5m  0.7m  4.5n  4.5n  1.5
 1.2m  1.5

Key Concepts

You can simplify a polynomial by adding or subtracting like terms.

This is called collecting like terms.

It is helpful to think of only adding terms. When a subtraction sign

appears, think of adding a negative term.

C1

a) Explain what is meant by like terms and unlike terms.

b) Provide two examples of each.

C2

Explain why the two sides are not equal.

a) 2x  x  3x  5x
b) y  y  y  y 3
c) 5m  2m  3m
d) 2x  2x  0
e) x  x  x2
f) 3ab  2b  a

150 MHR Chapter 3

Practise
For help with questions 1 to 4, see Example 2.
1. Which polynomial contains no like terms?
A 2x  5  3x  2xy

B 3x2  3xy  3

C 4  9x  9y  3

D 4a3  5b  2a2  7b

1 2
x
2

a) 2x and 5x

b) 3y and 3z

c) x2 and

h) 9p2q3 and 4q3p2

3. Copy the two columns of terms into your notebook. Connect each

term in the first column with the like term in the second column.
3x2

4xy

y2

xy

1
y
2

2y2

7x

5x2y

4x2

7y

3x2y

a) 5m

b) x

c) 2y 2

d) 3ab

For help with question 5, see Example 3.

5. Simplify where possible. If it is not possible to simplify,

explain why.
a) 3x  6x

b) 2m  5n

c) 5h  8h  2h

d) 7u  4u  u

For help with question 6, see Example 4.

6. Simplify. If it is not possible to simplify, explain why.
a) 4k  2k

b) 8n  n

c) 3z  7z

d) p  6

For help with questions 7 to 9, see Example 5.

7. Simplify by collecting like terms.
a) 3x  5  2x  1

b) 3  7y  8  y

c) 2k  3m  4m  6k

d) 7u  v  v  u

e) 8n  5  3n  2

f)

4p  7q  3q  p

3.5 Collect Like Terms MHR 151

Makin

8. Simplify.

onnections

Algebraic expressions
are used in work with
formulas in cells to tell the
computer to make specified
calculations. For example,
the formula in cell D2 might
be 2  B2 2  C2. You
will have the opportunity
to apply this connection in
Chapter 9 Optimizing
Measurement.

a) 3x  8  4x  3
b) y  9  7  6y
c) 2x2  7x  4x2  x
d) 7m  6m2  2m  m2
e) 3k  5  8  k  1  4k
f) 3u  2  u2  5  3u  2u2  3
9. Simplify.
a) 2a2  3ab  6  4b2  7  5ab  3b  2a2
b) 3mn  6m2  n2  3  m2  3mn  2n2  4

Connect and Apply

10. Claudette, Johanna, and Ming all have summer jobs at a clothing

store. They earn \$7/h, plus a bonus every week that depends on how
well they do that week. The table shows how many hours they work
and their bonuses one week this summer.
Employee

Number of Hours

Bonus

Claudette

20

\$100

Johanna

25

\$125

Ming

27

\$110

represent the amount each student makes that week.

b) Substitute the time, in hours, into each expression, and find

how much each student makes.

c) The three students decide to put their earnings for that week

together to go for an end-of-summer trip. Write a binomial to

represent the total amount they earn that week.
d) Substitute the total number of hours and find the total amount

you found in part b).
11. Yannick simplified the following expression:

3x  4  6x
 13x
a) Describe the error Yannick made.
b) How can you convince Yannick that these two expressions are

not equal?
c) Simplify the expression properly. How can you convince

w

a) Write an expression for the perimeter of the field.

b) Find the perimeter if the field is 300 m wide.

3w

c) Find the length and width of the field if the perimeter is 1600 m.
13. Use algebra tiles, virtual algebra tiles, or a diagram to model and

simplify each expression.

a) 3x  1  5x  4
b) 4y  3  y  2
c) x  5y  8  x  2y  2
14. Chapter Problem The white bars from the right of the crest into

the centre run halfway across the width.

a) Find an expression for the

perimeter
total length of white trim needed
b) What length of trim will be needed for a crest that is 10 cm wide?

Extend
15. a) An equilateral triangle has an unknown side length, x. Write a

simplified expression for its perimeter.

b) A right isosceles triangle has two sides equal to x. Which triangle,

the equilateral triangle in part a) or the right isosceles triangle,

has the greater perimeter? Use algebraic reasoning to justify
16. Which triangle in question 15 has the greater area? Use algebraic

17. Math Contest What is the value of the 100th term in the sequence

3x  2y, 5x2  5y 3, 7x3  8y 5, ?

A 199x100  296y197
B 200x100  300y199
C 200x100  300y197
D 201x100  299y199
E 203x100  299y199
18. Math Contest The last digit of the number 22020 when written in

expanded form is
A 2

B 4

D 8

E 0

C 6

3.6

Have you ever wondered about who writes textbooks

like this one? When do they write these books?
How do they get paid?
Experienced mathematics teachers write most math
textbooks. They usually write when they are not
teaching. They are paid in different ways, depending
on their contracts:
a fixed amount, or flat rate
a royalty, which depends on the number of books
sold
a combination of fixed amount plus royalty
Why do you think that they are paid in these ways?

Simplify each expression.
a) (4x  3)  (7x  2)

b) (2p  2)  (4p  7)

c) (0.5v 2  2v)  (2.4v 2 3v)

Solution
a)

b)

(4x  3)  (7x  2)
 4x  3  7x  2
 4x  7x  3  2
 11x  5

First, remove the brackets, and then collect like terms.

(2p  2)  (4p  7)
 2p  2  4p  7
 2p  4p  2  7
 6p  9

I can rearrange terms

to group like terms.

I use integer rules to

collect like terms.

(0.5v 2  2v)  (2.4v 2  3v)

 0.5v 2  2v 2.4 v 2  3v

Apply the integer rules when you remove

brackets.

 0.5v 2  2.4v 2  2v  3v
 1.9v 2  v
Method 2: Write the Addition Vertically

0.5v 2  2v
 2.4v 2  3v

of the like terms vertically.
0.5  (2.4)  1.9 and
2  (3)  1.

1.9v 2  v
(0.5v 2  2v)  (2.4v 2  3v)  1.9v 2  v
154 MHR Chapter 3

Example 2 Opposite Polynomials

State the opposite of each expression.
b) 2x

a) 7
d) 5y  2

e)

x2

c) 4x  1

 3x  7

Solution
a) The opposite of 7 is 7.
b) The opposite of 2x is 2x.

find the opposite of each term.

The opposite of 4x  1 is 4x  1.
d) The opposite of 5y  2 is 5y  2.

e) The opposite of x2  3x  7 is

x2  3x  7.

Example 3 Subtract Polynomials

Simplify.
a) (3y  5)  (7y  4)

b) (a2  2a  1)  (a2  2a  5)

Solution
a)





b)

(3y  5)  (7y  4)
(3y  5)  (7y  4)
3y  5  7y  4
3y  7y  5  4
4y  9

To subtract a polynomial, add its opposite.

(a2  2a  1)  (a2  2a  5)
 (a2  2a  1)  (a2  2a  5)
 a2  2a  1  a2  2a  5
 2a2  6

2a and 2a are opposites.

They add to give 0. There is no
a term in the final expression.

Example 4 Apply an Algebraic Model to Solve a Problem

Four authors team up to write a textbook. The publisher negotiates the
following contracts with them.
Author

Lita

2000

Jamal

1000

2n

Vera

1500

3n

Fleming

a) Write a simplified expression for the total payout to the authors.

b) Determine the total amount paid to the authors for 1200 books sold.

Solution
a) Write an expression for the total amount paid to each author.

Lita:
Jamal:
Vera:
Fleming:

2000
1000  2n
1500  n
3n

Total payout:
2000  (1000  2n)  (1500  n)  3n
 2000  1000  2n  1500  n  3n
 4500  6n
The publisher will pay 4500  6n to the authors, where n
is the number of books sold.
b) Substitute n  1200 and evaluate the expression.

4500  6n
 4500  6(1200)
 4500  7200
 11 700
If 1200 books are sold, the publisher will pay \$11 700 to the
authors.

Key Concepts

C1

Use an example to support your explanation.

b) Describe the process of subtracting one polynomial from

C2

Each of the following solutions contains an error. Describe

the error and suggest how it should be corrected.
a)

(2x  3)  (6x  2)
 2x  3  6x  2
 8x  1

b)

(4y  7)  (2y  5)
 4y  7  2y  5
 2y  12

Practise
For help with questions 1 and 2, see Example 1.
1. (2x  7)  (3x  8) simplified is
A 5x  15

B 5x  1

C 5x  1

D 6x  56

2. Simplify by removing brackets and collecting like terms.

a) (3x  4)  (7x  5)

b) (y  2)  (3  6y)

c) (4m  1)  (3m  8)

d) (5  3d)  (d  6)

e) (4k  3)  (5  k)  (5k  3)
f) (6r  1)  (3r  2)  (6r  1)

For help with questions 3 and 4, see Examples 2 and 3.

3. (3x  5)  (x  4) simplified is
A 2x  1

B 2x  1

C 2x  9

D 2x  9

4. Simplify by adding the opposite polynomial.

a) (2x  3)  (x  6)

b) (8s  5)  (s  5)

c) (6m  4)  (2m  1)

d) (4v  9)  (8  3v)

e) (9  6w)  (6w  8)

f) (5h  9)  (5h  6)

5. Simplify.
a) (7x  9)  (x  4)

b) (3y  8)  (y  5)

c) (8c  6)  (c  7)

d) (k  2)  (3k  2)

 8p  1) 

e)

(3p2

f)

(5xy 2

(9p2

 4p  1)

 6x  7y)  (3xy 2  6x  7y)

g) (4x  3)  (x  8)  (2x  5)
h) (2uv 2  3v)  (v  3u)  (4uv 2  9u)

Connect and Apply

For help with questions 6 and 7, see Example 4.
6. A group of musicians who made a CD are paid according to the

Musician

2000

0.1n

0.3n

Nigel

1500

0.2n

Tulia

5000

Ling
Fredrick

a) Find a simplified expression for the total amount paid

to the group.
b) The table shows sales achievement levels for the Canadian

recording industry.
Status

Gold

50 000

Platinum

100 000

Diamond

1 000 000

Find the total amount paid to the group if their CD

sells 100 copies
reaches gold status
reaches diamond status
c) Which musician makes the most money at each level

in the table in part b)?

by a fixed rate
by royalty
by a combination of fixed rate and royalty
7. A womens basketball team gives players a bonus of \$100 on top of

their base salary for every 3-point basket. Data for some of the teams
players are given.
Player

Gomez

50

25

Henreid

40

20

100

44

Jones

a) Find a simplified expression for the total earnings for these

three players.
b) Find the total earnings for these players.

simplify each expression.

a) (2x  5)  (3x  2)
b) (y 2  3y  1)  (y 2  2y  2)
c) (2x2  3x  4y 2)  (2x2  x  2y 2)
9. A swimming pool manufacturer installs rectangular pools whose

Reasoning and Proving

Representing

a) Draw a diagram of the pool and label the width and length

with algebraic expressions.

Problem Solving
Connecting

b) The entire outer edge of the pool must be fitted with coping,

Selecting Tools

Reflecting
Communicating

which is a cap used to join the wall of the pool and the deck.
Find a simplified algebraic expression that describes the total
length of coping needed.
c) How much coping is required if the width of the pool is 6 m?
10. Refer to question 9.
a) Predict how the amount of coping will change if you double

the width of the pool.

b) Calculate the new amount required and compare this with

Extend
11. Refer to question 9. If you use the same expressions for the length

and width of the pool as in question 9, do the proportions of the

pool change when you change the width? Describe the relationships
between width, length, and perimeter as you change the width. Use
diagrams, words, and algebraic expressions to support your
explanations.
12. Math Contest
5k  7p
8k  4p

3k  11p

4p  3k
k  2p

3.7

The Distributive Property

Any successful sports team must practise. Often a practice begins with a
warm-up. Suppose the coach tells her players to run the perimeter
of the field. How can you use algebra to write an expression for the
total distance? Is there more than one way to do this?
James claims, I can calculate the perimeter of the field by using the
formula P  2(l  w).
Sylvie replies, Thats not right, James. The correct formula is
P  2l  2w.
Who is correct, James or Sylvie? Can they both be right?

Investigate
Tools

algebra tiles

How can you simplify algebraic expressions involving

multiplication?
The area of a rectangle can be expressed as the
product of its width and length:
w

Awl
2

A=6

A = 2x + 2

x+1

A=23
=6

A = 2(x + 1)
= 2x + 2

1
1
x

1. Copy and complete the table. Use algebra tiles to help.

Rectangle

Width

Length

Area

Equation
wlA

x1

2x  2

2  (x  1)  2x  2

2x

x2  2x

2x  3

2. Look at the last column. Describe how you can start with the

expression on the left side of the equation and get the expression
on the right side.
3. Use the technique from step 2 to multiply the following.
a) 4(x  3)
b) x(2x  7)
c) 3x(x  2)
4. Reflect Create an example and use it to explain how you can

The total amount can be expressed different ways:

3(10)  3(5)
 30  15
 45
3(10  5)
 3(15)
 45
Whether you use 3(10)  3(5) or 3(10  5), the result is 45. What
does this tell you about these two numeric expressions?
Some algebraic expressions cannot be simplified using the second
method. Reflect on the situations when you cannot simplify an
expression. Suppose you add two nickels to a pile of nickels. The
value of the nickels can be modelled by 5(x  2), where x is the number
of nickels in the original pile.
5(x  2)
You cannot add x  2 because they are not like terms. However,
you can multiply the 5 by both terms in the binomial:
5(x  2)
 5(x)  5(2)
 5x  10
distributive property

This is called the distributive property .

a (x  y )  ax  ay

Expand.
Literac

onnections

When you apply the

distributive property, you are
expanding an expression.

a) 3(x  2)

b)

5(4m  3)

c) (2y  5)(4)

d)

2(5a2  7a  2)

Solution
a)

3(x  2)
 3(x)  3(2)
 3x  6

To apply the distributive

property, I need to multiply both
terms in the brackets by 3.

b) Method 1: Show the Distributive Step

5(4m  3)
 5(4m  (3))
 (5)(4m)  (5)(3)

When I distribute a negative

term, I must follow the integer
rules for multiplication.

Remember to keep the negative sign when you are

distributing.

 20m  15
Method 2: Apply the Distributive Step Mentally

5(4m  3)
 20m  15

(5)  4m  20m
(5)  (3)  15

sometimes it appears after. Apply the distributive property in

the same way.
(2y  5)(4)
 2y (4)  5(4)
 8y  (20)
 8y  20
d) You can also apply the distributive property to trinomials.

2(5a2  7a  2)
 10a2  14a  4

number of terms.

Example 2 Distribute Variables

Simplify using the distributive property.
a) x(x  3)

b) p(p2  2p  1)

Solution
a)

x(x  3)
 x(x)  x(3)
 x2  3x

To multiply variables, I
need to use the exponent
laws. The product rule is
x a  x b  x a  b.

b)

p(p2  2p  1)
 p3  2p2  p

I need to use the

product rule.
p  p 2  p (1  2)
 p3

expressions.

Example 3 Expand and Simplify Expressions

Expand and simplify.
a) 4(x  3)  2(2x  1)
b) 3m(m  5)  (2m2  m)
1
2
c)
(2w  6)  (9w  6)
2
3

Solution
a)






4(x  3)  2(2x  1)
4(x)  4(3)  2(2x)  2(1)
4x  12  4x  2
4x  4x  12  2
14

Apply the distributive property first to

remove brackets. Then, collect like terms.

b) Method 1: Add the Opposite Polynomial

3m(m  5)  (2m2  m)
 3m(m  5)  (2m2  m)
 3m2  15m  2m2  m
 3m2  2m2  15m  m
 m2  14m

2m 2  m is the
opposite of 2m 2  m.

Method 2: Distribute 1

3m(m  5)  (2m2  m)
 3m(m  5)  (1)(2m2  m)
 3m2  15m  2m2  m
 m2  14m
c)

2
1
(2w  6)  (9w  6)
2
3
1 1
1 3
2 3
2 2
 (2w)  (6)  (9w)  (6)
2
2
3
3
1

 w  3  6w  4
 5w  1

164 MHR Chapter 3

Multiplying a polynomial by 1
produces the opposite polynomial:
(1)(2m 2  m )  2m 2  m

Example 4 Nested Brackets

Expand and simplify.
3[2  5(2k  1)]

Solution
When simplifying expressions involving nested brackets, begin
with the inner brackets and work your way outward.
3[2  5(2k  1)]
 3(2  10k  5)
 3(10k  3)
 30k  9

Simplify the inner

brackets before
distributing the 3.

Key Concepts

Literac

The distributive property allows you to expand algebraic

expressions:
a(x  y)  ax  ay

onnections

When you distribute a handout

in class, you give one copy to
each student. Similarly, when
you use the distributive
property, the term in front of
the brackets is multiplied by,
or given to, each term inside
the brackets..

When distributing, multiply the monomial by each term

in the polynomial.
Multiply numerical coefficients.
Apply exponent laws to variables.

C1

Consider the expression 3(x  5). Why do you need to use the
distributive property? Why can you not just add the terms in the
brackets first?

C2

C3

Dmitri simplified the following expression, as shown:

3x(x  2)
 3x  2x
 5x
a) Explain the errors in Dmitris solution and how to correct them.
b) How can you prove that Dmitris answer is not correct?

C4

Explain why the following simplification is incorrect.

(x2  3x  1)(5)
 x2  3x  4

C5

Describe the steps you must follow to simplify the expression

3[x  2(x  1)].
3.7 The Distributive Property MHR 165

Practise
For help with questions 1 to 3, see Example 1.
1. Which expression shows 3(x  5) expanded?
A 3x  15

B 3x  5

C 3x  8

D 3x  15

simplify each expression.

a) 2(x  3)

b) x(x  4)

c) 3(x  1)  2(x  5)
3. Expand, using the distributive property.
a) 4(x  2)

b) 5(k  3)

c) 2(y  1)

d) 8(2  d)

e) 5(2t  3)

f) (4y  5)

4. Expand.
a) y(y  4)

b)

r(r  5)

c) x(2x  5)

d)

q(4q  8)

e) z(3z  2)

f)

m(m  5)

5. Expand.
a) 2b(3b  5)

b) 3v(8v  7)

c) 4w(3w  1)

d) 6m(m  5)

e) 2q(4q  3)

f) 3d(d  2)

6. Expand using the distributive property.

a) (n  5)  4

b) (2p  4)  9

c) (7m  6)  (4)

d) (7  c)(3c)

e) (3  6w)(2)

f) (4k  7)(3k)

7. Expand.

166 MHR Chapter 3

a) 2(a2  5a  3)

b) 3(2n2  8n  5)

c) 4k(k2  k  3)

d) 5h(3h2  7h  2)

e) (x2  5x  2)(3)

f) (2y2  3y  1)(4y)

For help with question 8, see Example 3.

8. Expand and simplify.
a) 3(x  2)  4(x  5)

b) 4(y  1)  2(2y  3)

c) 2(u  v)  3(u  v)

d) 4(w  2)  2(2w  7)

e) 3(a  b)  2(a  b)

f) 2(p  q)  2(p  q)

For help with question 9, see Example 4.

9. Expand and simplify.
a) 3[x  2(x  4)]

b) 5[2(y  1)  3]

c) 3[2k  (2  k)]

d) 4[3(r  5)  2r]

e) 2[h  2(h  1)]

f) 3[2(p  2)  3p]

Connect and Apply

10. A computer repair technician charges \$50 per visit plus \$30/h for

house calls.
a) Write an algebraic expression that describes the service charge for

one household visit.

b) Use your expression to find the total service charge for a 2.5-h

repair job.
c) Suppose all charges are doubled for evenings, weekends, and

holidays. Write a simplified expression for these service charges.

d) Use your simplified expression from part c) to calculate the cost

for a 2.5-h repair job on a holiday. Does this answer make sense?
Explain.

A
b

1
(a  b)h
2

Apply the distributive property twice to write this formula in

another way.
13. A garden has dimensions as shown.
3x + 1

2x

a) Find a simplified expression for the perimeter.

b) Find a simplified expression for the area.
c) Repeat parts a) and b) if both the length and width are tripled.
14. Is the distributive property true for numerical expressions

Representing

Selecting Tools

Problem Solving
Connecting

Reflecting
Communicating

(expressions without variables)? Make a prediction. Then, create

some numerical expressions and explore this. Describe any
conclusions that you reach.
15. Expand and simplify.
a) 2(x  3)  3(x  5)
b) 3(k  4)  2(k  1)
c) 0.2p(p  5)  0.4p(3p  2)
d) 4h(h  2)  h(2h  3)
e) 5j(j  3)  (2j2  3j)
f) 0.7w(2w  3)  0.6w(w  3)
g) 3(y  2)  2(4  2y)  (6  7y)
h) 4k(k  3)  2(k2  3k  4)  (k2  5)
16. Expand and simplify.
a)

1
1
(3a  2)  (4a  2)
3
4

b)

1
1
(x  2y)  (3y  2x)
2
3

c)

2
3
(3m  2)  (8m  2)
3
4
1
4

d)  (4u  3v) 

168 MHR Chapter 3

3
(6u  10v)
5

Achievement Check
17. a) Find a simplified expression for the perimeter of each figure.

2x 1

2x  1

x
2x + 1

2x + 1

3x + 1

3w  2

20  4x

2x + 3

2w +3

b) A rectangle has length 2x  1 and width 8  2x. What is unusual

c) For what value of x is the rectangle in part b) also a square?

Extend
18. Expand and simplify.
a) 2m[m  3(m  2)]
b) 3p[2p(p  4)  p2]
c) 2[3  2(x  6)]  3[2(x  5)  8]
d) 3[2  (y  5)]  4[3(y  1)  (6  y)(2)]
19. How do you distribute a binomial? Consider the following product

of two binomials:
(x  3)(2x  2)
Distribute the (x  3) to each term in the second binomial to form
an expression consisting of two products:

Makin

onnections

You will multiply binomials in

grade 10 and beyond as a
method of simplifying
polynomial expressions.

(x  3)(2x)  (x  3)(2)
a) Simplify this expression. Check to see that your result appears to

be equivalent to the original expression, by substituting values

into both expressions.
b) Make up your own question similar to this and simplify it.
c) Can you see an easier way to expand the product of two

binomials? Find and explain an easier method.

20. Expand and simplify. Check to see if your result is correct.

If you need a hint, look at the method from question 19.

(k  1)(k2  2k  1)
x

1
2

Use Technology

Computer Algebra Systems

A computer algebra system (CAS) is a type of calculator or computer
software that can perform algebraic functions. They are sometimes called
symbolic manipulators. You can investigate many of the skills that you
have learned in this chapter using CAS systems.

Investigate A
Tools

TI-89 calculators

How can you learn about a CAS?

Technology Tip
Before you start doing
calculations, clear the
calculators memory.
Press n for [F6] to
Select 2:NewProb. Press
e.

function keys
N key
b key

Technology Tip

variable keys

Note that you use a different

signs , as in the 5 in
question 2 part c), than the
subtraction button -.
o key

the calculator on. If you

do not see the Home
screen, as shown, press
HOME key.
the

a) 3(6  4)5
3 *(6 - 4 )^5 e

b)  (2.5)2
n^*2.5 ^2 e

c) 5  29
5 -n*9 )e

3. Explore the Function keys at the top of the keypad.

a) Press to see the TI-89 Tools menu. Identify at

least three commands that you recognize from

working on a computer. Use the up and down cursor
keys to see more commands.
b) Press to see the algebra functions that the TI-89

can perform. Identify two commands that you

recognize from this chapter and two that you do not
recognize.
c) You can also use the left and right cursor keys to see the

and F4. You will learn about these functions in future
mathematics courses.
d) Clean up the home screen:

Press n [F6] to display the Clean Up menu.

Select 2:NewProb.
Press e.

Use Technology: Computer Algebra Systems MHR 171

Use Technology

Investigate B
How can you use a CAS to simplify and expand expressions?
1. Collect like terms for the

expression 2x  3y  x  5y.
Type the expression 2x  3y
 x  5y.
Press e.
2. Use the CAS to collect like

terms for each expression.

a) 3y  2x  5x  3y
b) x2  3x  2  6x  3x2

Technology Tip
Note the nested brackets
required in this command
line. If you get an error
message, check that you
have the same number of
open and close brackets, and
that they are placed
correctly.

3. Expand 4(2x  3) using the

distributive property.
Press .
Select 3:expand(.
Type the expression.
Press ).
Press e.

a) 2z(3z  5)

b) 3(4x  7y)  2(3x  2y)

Investigate C
How can you verify the exponent laws?
1. a) Use a CAS to illustrate the

product rule of exponents

by entering the expression
y 2  y 5.
b) Create two of your own

examples to illustrate the

product rule using a CAS.
2. You can also evaluate expressions involving powers, such as

y2  y3 when y  3.
172 MHR Chapter 3

Press

Y
Y
|
Y

^2 *
^3

= 3.

Use this feature to evaluate

a) y 3  y 4

x x
x5
4

c)

when y  4
when x 

b)

2
3

z8
z5

when z  5

3. Design your own method for verifying either the quotient rule or

the power of a power rule for exponents. Describe your steps,

keystrokes, and screen outputs.

Investigate D
How can you explore an unknown function?
Many of the functions of the CAS will be unknown to you at this level.
Several of them you will learn about in future mathematics courses,
but in this section you will have the opportunity to experiment and
learn a little about some of these mystery functions.
1. a) Clear the home screen. Press n for [F6] to display the

e.

b) Use the Expand command to simplify the expression 3(x  4).

c) Factor the result:

Press .
Select 2:Factor(.
Type 3x  12.
Press ).
Press e.

function do?

d) Write down the result. What do you notice?

2. Repeat step 1 for each expression.
a) y(2y  3)
b) 5z(2z  1)

Makin

3. Explain what the Factor command seems to do. How does it seem

onnections

4. a) Repeat step 1 for the expression 2(2x  6).

b) Is the factored result what you expected? Explain.
c) Create a few examples of your own. Describe what you discover.
5. Explore some of the unknown features of the TI-89. Try to figure

out what one of them does. Write a brief report of your findings.

Use Technology: Computer Algebra Systems MHR 173

Chapter 3 Review
3.1 Build Algebraic Models Using Concrete
Materials, pages 104109
1. Use algebra tiles to build a model for each

situation. Write an algebraic expression to

represent the model.
a) Jeanne ran 4 km.
b) Klaus drove an unknown distance, twice.
c) Evelyn ran 3 km plus an unknown

distance.

6. The half-life of carbon-14 (C-14) is

5700 years.
a) Copy and complete the table for

Number of
Half-Life
Periods

Years

Amount of C-14
Expression
Remaining (g)

50

5 700

25

11 400

d) Suki painted her house with two coats of

paint.
2. a) Build a volume model to represent a

cube with side length 3 cm. Sketch the

model and label the length, width, and
height.
b) What is the volume of the cube? Write

this as a power.
c) Write an expression for the area of one

face of the cube as a power. Evaluate the

area of one face.

1 1
50
2

()
1
50()
2

3
4

remaining versus time, in years. Describe

the shape of the graph.
c) Approximately how much C-14 will

remain after 20 000 years?

d) How long will it take until only 1 g of

C-14 remains?
3.2 Work With Exponents, pages 110118
3. Evaluate.
a) 45
b) (3)4
c)

2 3
a b
5

d) 1.058
4. \$100 is put into a bank account that pays

interest so that the amount in the account

grows according to the expression
100(1.06)n, where n is the number of years.
Find the amount in the account after
a) 5 years
b) 10 years
5. Find the annual interest rate of the account

in question 4.

Did You Know ?

Carbon dating is a method of
determining the age of fossilized
creatures, such as dinosaur remains.
Scientists compare the ratio of two
carbon isotopes in the sample:
C-14, which is radioactive, and C-12,
which is stable. Because everything
on Earth has about the same ratio
of C-14 to C-12 at any given time,
measuring this ratio tells when
the creature lived.

3.3 Discover the Exponent Laws, pages 119129

7. Write as a single power. Then, evaluate the

expression.
a) 23  22  24

b) 67  62  63

c) [(4)2]3

d)

74  75
(74)2

8. Simplify.

a)

n5  n3
n4

c)

2ab2  3a3b3
(4ab2)2

b) cd3  c4d2

9. Identify the coefficient and the variable part

of each term.
b) uv

d) de2f

e) 8

b) 7k  5m  k  6m
c) 6a2  5a  3  3a2  5a  4

3.4 Communicate With Algebra, pages 130139

a) 5y

a) 4x  3  6x  5

c)

1 2
ab
2

10. Classify each polynomial by the number

of terms.
a) x2  3x  5

b) 24xy

c) a  2b  c  3

d) 

2
3

pages 154159
16. Simplify.
a) (4x  3)  (3x  2)
b) (5k  2)  (3k  5)
c) (6u  1)  (2u  5)
d) (y 2  3y)  (2y 2  5y)
e) (2a2  4a  2)  (a2  4a  2)
f) (3v  2)  (v  3)  (2v  7)
17. A rectangular window frame has

e) 16u2  7v 2
11. In a hockey tournament, teams are awarded

3 points for a win, 2 points for an overtime

win, and 1 point for an overtime loss.
a) Write an expression that describes the

number of points a team has.

b) Use your expression to find the number of

points earned by a team that has 4 wins,

1 overtime win, and 2 overtime losses.
12. State the degree of each term.
a) 3x2

b) 6n4

c) 17

d) abc2

a) 3y  5

b) 2d2  d

c) 3w  6w 2  4

d) 3x3  5x2  x

3.5 Collect Like Terms, pages 144153

14. Identify the like terms in each set.
a) 2p, 3q, 2, p, 3q2
b) 5x2, 5x, x5, 5x2, 3x2

dimensions expressed by 3x and 2x  5.

Find a simplified expression for its
perimeter.
3.7 The Distributive Property, pages 160169
18. Expand.
a) 3(y  7)
b) 2(x  3)
c) m(5m  3)
d) 4k(2k  6)
e) 5(p2  3p  1)
f) 4b(b2  2b  5)
19. Expand and simplify.
a) 2(q  5)  4(3q  2)
b) 5x(2x  4)  3(2x2  8)
c) 3(2m  6)  (8  6m)
d) 4(2d  5)  3(d2  3d)  2d(d  1)
20. Simplify.
a) 2[4  3(x  5)]
b) 3[9  2(k  3)  5k]

Multiple Choice

3

1
3

A 1
C

1
9

1
3
1
27

2. What is the simplified form of the

expression w 2  w 4  w?
B w7

C w8

D w9

C 6m2  2m

D 6m2  2m

Short Response
Show all steps in your solutions.
10. Write as a single power. Then, evaluate.
a) (2)2  (2)3  (2)

35  33
(32)3

11. Simplify.
a) k2n3  kn4

45
3. What does 3 equal?
4

b) 6p5  3p2

A 4

B 8

C 16

D 32

c) (3g2h)3
12. Simplify.
a) (5x  3)  (2x  7)

A 10

B 12

C 32

D 64

terms?
A 3x

2x

x2

B 4a

4b

4c

C 3y

y

8y

2mn2

4mn

B 6m2  1

b)

A w6

3m2n

A 6m2  2m

6. 2k2  3k is a
A monomial

B binomial

C trinomial

D term

7. What is the degree of 2u3v?

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4

8. 3x  5  2x  3 can be simplified to
A 3x

B 5x  2

C x2

D 5x  2

b) (3u  4)  (5u  1)
13. Expand and simplify.
a) 3(y  4)  6(y  2)
b) 4(6b  3)  (3b  5)
14. James and Sylvie need to paint the line

around the outside of a soccer field. To know

how much paint to buy, they must find the
perimeter of the field.
James claims, I can calculate the perimeter
of the field by using the formula
P  2(l  w).
Sylvie replies, Thats not right, James.
The correct formula is P  2l  2w.
a) Who is correct? Is it possible for both to

be right? Provide evidence to support

b) Find two other ways to write a valid

formula for the perimeter of a rectangle

and explain why they work.
c) Even though the students accurately

calculated the perimeter, they ran out of

paint. Discuss possible reasons for this
situation.
176 MHR Chapter 3

Extended Response

represents the total that the publisher

must pay the writing team.

Provide complete solutions.

15. Vanessa, the student council president,

needed to get a message to the whole school,

but she did not have time to e-mail every
student. So she set up an e-mail tree. She
sent the message to her two vice-presidents,
and asked them each to forward it to two
students. Suppose that this pattern is
repeated and assume that no one receives
the e-mail more than once.

b) Determine the total payout if the book

sells
200 copies
5000 copies
17. Suppose you place a penny on the first

square of a checkerboard.

on the seventh mailing?

b) On which mailing will the e-mail be sent

to at least 500 people? Explain how you

c) At this point, how many people would

have received the e-mail, in total?

d) There are 500 students in the school.

How many mailings would it take to

reach all the students?
16. Three authors team up to write a childrens

Now, suppose you double the amount and

place this on the second square. If you repeat
this for the entire board, how much will be
on the
a) 64th square?
b) entire board?

book. The publisher pays them according to

the following contracts.
Author

Latoya

3000

Sven

1500

2n

Michelle

1000

3n

Chapter Problem Wrap-Up

a) Design a logo for your school team, or a

team of your choice. You can pick your

favourite professional team and create a
new logo for them, or make up your own
fantasy team. Your design should include
one or more polygons.
b) Use one or more variables to represent

c) Find a simplified expression for the

d) Find a simplified expression for the area

e) Create two problems involving your logo.

Solve the problems.

f) Trade problems with a classmate. Solve

solutions.

Chapter 3 Practice Test MHR 177

Chapters 1 to 3 Review
Chapter 1 Mathematical Processes
1. Find the next three terms in each sequence.

9.

Can you find five odd numbers that add up

to 50? What about six numbers? Explain.

10. Give a counter-example to prove that each

a) 1, 2, 4, 7

b) 1, 4, 9, 16

statement is false.

c) 17, 12, 7, 2

d) 2, 6, 12, 20

always a square number.

b) The sum of two acute angles is an obtuse

angle.

A  B  80
A  C  200
B  D  36
D  E  18
C  100

c) The sum of two prime numbers is a

prime number.

Chapter 2 Relations

\$20 bills. How many different sums of

money can you make?
4. The area of this figure is

students in your school that have

computers in their home.
b) Describe how you could collect data to

secondary data?

perimeter?

12. Describe how you could choose a random

5. Evaluate.

sample to determine

2
3
1
 
a)
3
4
2

2
3
1
b) a  b 
3
4
2

3
2
1
 
c)
4
3
2

3
2
1
d) a  b 
4
3
2

week in February were 6C, 2C, 8C,

5C, 4C, 1C, and 9C. What was the
mean high temperature that week?
7. A number is considered a perfect number if

its factors (not including itself) add up to

the number. For example, 6 is a perfect
number because 1, 2, and 3 are factors of 6
and 1  2  3  6. Find the next perfect
number. Describe the strategy that you used.
8. How many breaths do you take in 1 year?

a) the favourite TV show of grade 9 girls

b) the percent of students in your school

who have their own cell phone

13. The table shows the

heights and shoe sizes of

a) Make a scatter plot of

the data.
b) Describe the

relationship between a
students height and
her shoe size.
c) Identify any outliers.

them? Explain.

Height
(cm)

Shoe
Size

157

5.5

153

165

160

175

162

164

6.5

155

168

7.5

162

Chapter 3 Polynomials

male employees. The manager wants to

select 10 employees to help choose a new
uniform.

17. The area of one face of a cube is 64 cm2.

a) What is the side length of the cube?
b) Determine the volume of the cube.

a) Identify the population.

b) Describe how the manager can choose a

18. Evaluate.
a) 32  23

Number of Height
Storeys
(m)

Building

19. Simplify.
a) n2  n3

b) d8  d2
d) 3m2n  4mn3

72

290

c) (a3)4

36

146

Calgary

52

210

29

112

36

140

33

126

for each correct answer but lose 5 points for

a) Write an expression for a contestants

total score.
b) Theo answered 12 questions correctly

total score.

b) Draw a line of best fit.

c) Describe the relationship between the

number of storeys and the height of the

building.
d) Use your graph to predict the height of a

new 40-storey office tower.

16. Claire is training for a half-marathon. The

21. Simplify.
a) 5m  8  3m  10
b) 3x2  6x  3  x2  5x  1
c) (h  5)  (3h  8)
d) (4t  5w)  (t  2w)  (3t  4w)
22. Expand and simplify.
a) 5(x  3)

b) k(2k  1)

c) 4(3y  2)  3(2y  7)

d
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

d)

2
1
(3a  1)  (4a  1)
3
2

9:
15
9:
30
9:
4
10 5
:0
10 0
:1
10 5
:3
10 0
:4
11 5
:0
11 0
:1
11 5
:3
11 0
:4
5

Distance (km)

graph shows how her distance from home

changed with time on a 14-km run. Write a
description of her run.

52  62  22
3 2
9
d) a b 
5
10
b)

5n 8

4n 16

Distance (km)

4n + 3
b) Determine the perimeter when n  5.

Chapters 1 to 3 Review MHR 179

Electricity and Gas Costs
Tico keeps records of the amount of electricity, in
kilowatt hours (kWh), and natural gas, in cubic
metres, used by his family business. He set up a table
to compare monthly hydro and natural gas costs.

Cost of Gas

Amount of
Gas Used
(m3)

Cost of
Electricity

Amount of
Electricity
Used (kWh)

Average
Monthly
Temperature

January

\$174.60

949

\$165.75

1950

5C

February

\$177.30

965

\$159.38

1875

6C

March

\$158.40

861

\$150.11

1766

1C

April

\$135.00

733

\$139.57

1642

5C

May

\$76.50

416

\$106.00

1247

15C

June

\$35.10

192

\$88.57

1042

20C

July

\$32.40

176

\$90.10

1060

24C

August

\$31.50

171

\$84.83

998

25C

September

\$34.20

187

\$95.54

1124

21C

October

\$70.20

381

\$108.20

1273

15C

November

\$126.90

691

\$129.88

1528

8C

December

\$167.40

912

\$161.08

1895

0C

Month

draw a scatter plot of the relationship between

the amount of gas used each month and the cost.
b) Use the scatter plot to describe the relationship

between these two variables. Is the relationship

linear or non-linear? Justify your response.
c) Find another set of data involving two variables

that have a relationship similar to the one you

found in part b). Construct a scatter plot to check
d) Find a set of data involving two variables that

relationship.

x+2

a) Write an expression, in simplified form, for the perimeter

of this rectangle.
x

b) Write an expression for the area of the rectangle.

c) Suppose 16 of these rectangles are put together to form a larger

rectangle. Show all the possible ways of combining them. Write

an expression for the perimeter in each case.
d) For each of the values x  1, x  2, and x  3, which combination of

small rectangles from part c) has the least perimeter? Is this more
e) Find the area of each combined rectangle in part c).

Part 1

Part 2

Aidans cousin Heather found this

Mind Reader challenge in a games
explain how it works.

Aidan found another Mind Reader in the

magazine. It involves a persons birth date.
In this challenge, 15 April 1993 is written
numerically as 150493.

Think of a number.
Double the result.
Subtract 200.
Divide by the number you picked.

Write down the day of the month that you

were born.
Multiply the number by 5.
Multiply by 20.
Add the number of the month you were
born.
Multiply by 100.
Add the last two digits of the year you
were born.
Subtract 8000.

The answer will always be the same.

What is it?
a) Heather thought of the number 5.

Show how the steps work for this

number.
b) Explain how this challenge

and/or symbols.

a) What is the result? What does it mean?

b) Explain, using symbols, how this Mind