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Slide 1

MENU
PRINCIPAL

Slide 2

THIS PRESENTATION INCLUDES THE SOURCES OF AIR, THE MAJOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS AND THE WAY
THE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ARE USED TO OPERATE THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. FIRST, LET'S LOOK
AT THE SOURCES OF AIR. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE SOURCES OF AIR FOR THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM ARE: THE ENGINES (pause2) THE AUXILIARY POWER
UNIT (pause2) OR A GROUND PNEUMATIC CART MENU PRINCIPAL

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DURING GROUND OPERATION, THE NORMAL SUPPLY OF BLEED AIR FOR THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM IS THE
APU (pause2) (pause3) HOWEVER, A GROUND CART MAY BE USED WHEN IT IS AVAILABLE (pause2)
(pause2) AFTER ENGINE START, BLEED AIR IS NORMALLY SUPPLIED BY THE ENGINES. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF BLEED AIR IS THE MID OR EIGHTH STAGE OF THE ENGINE COMPRESSOR
SECTION. IF THE VOLUME OF MID STAGE AIR IS INSUFFICIENT FOR THE SYSTEM DEMAND, HIGH, OR
13TH STAGE, BLEED AIR AUGMENTS THE SUPPLY. CHECK VALVES ENSURE THE PROPER DIRECTION OF
AIR FLOW. AIR FROM THE MID AND HIGH COMPRESSOR SECTIONS IS HOT. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THIS HOT AIR IS COOLED BY FAN AIR PASSING THROUGH HEAT EXCHANGERS (pause2) A
THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED VALVE AUTOMATICALLY REGULATES THE VOLUME OF FAN AIR
REQUIRED FOR COOLING. MENU PRINCIPAL

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ANSWER AA IS CORRECT. MENU


PRINCIPAL

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BLEED AIR IS COOLED BY FAN AIR PASSING THROUGH HEAT EXCHANGERS. (pause4) NOW, LET'S LOOK
AT THE COCKPIT CONTROLS AND INDICATORS. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS FOR THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM ARE LOCATED ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF
THE FORWARD OVERHEAD PANEL. LOCATE THESE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ON YOUR PANEL. MENU
PRINCIPAL

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LET'S LOOK AT THE PNEUMATIC CONTROLS AND INDICATORS IN GREATER DETAIL. MENU
PRINCIPAL

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THE ENGINE BLEED-AIR SWITCHES OPEN AND CLOSE THE RESPECTIVE BLEED AIR VALVE. THESE VALVES
OPERATE ON AC POWER. (pause3) IF THE TEMPERATURE DOWNSTREAM OF THE VALVE IS EXCESSIVE, A
TEMPERATURE SENSOR AUTOMATICALLY CLOSES THE RESPECTIVE VALVE TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO
AIRPLANE COMPONENTS. WITH AN OVER TEMPERATURE CONDITION, THE BLEED TRIP [`]OFF LIGHT
ILLUMINATES. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE APU BLEED AIR SWITCH OPENS AND CLOSES THE APU BLEED AIR VALVE. AS WITH THE ENGINE
BLEEDS, THE APU BLEED ALSO OPERATES ON AC POWER. WHEN THE VALVE OPENS, IT ALLOWS AIR TO
FLOW FROM THE APU INTO THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. A CHECK VALVE PREVENTS ENGINE OR GROUND
CART BLEED AIR FROM FLOWING INTO THE APU. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACK SWITCHES CONTROL ELECTRICAL POWER TO THE PACK VALVES. THE VALVES

ARE SPRING-LOADED CLOSED. WITH AIR PRESSURE, THE VALVES OPEN AND REGULATE THE FLOW OF
BLEED AIR ENTERING THE AIR CONDITIONING PACKS. THESE VALVES OPERATE FROM BATTERY BUS
POWER. MENU PRINCIPAL

Slide 14

AN AC POWERED ISOLATION VALVE SEPARATES THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE PNEUMATIC
MANIFOLD. THE NUMBER ONE ENGINE AND APU ARE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE VALVE. THE NUMBER
TWO ENGINE AND THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CART CONNECTION ARE ON THE RIGHT SIDE. MENU
PRINCIPAL

Slide 15

PNEUMATIC PRESSURE IS SENSED ON EACH SIDE OF THE ISOLATION VALVE AND DISPLAYED ON THE
DUCT PRESSURE INDICATOR. THIS INDICATOR REQUIRES AC POWER. THE L POINTER INDICATES THE
PRESSURE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE PNEUMATIC MANIFOLD, AND THE R POINTER, THE PRESSURE ON
THE RIGHT SIDE. IF THE ISOLATION VALVE IS OPEN, BOTH PRESSURE INDICATIONS ARE THE SAME.
MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE DUCT PRESSURE INDICATOR DISPLAYS THE PRESSURE IN THE DUCTS FROM ANY OF THE
PNEUMATIC SOURCES (pause2) THE ENGINES, (pause2) THE APU, (pause2) OR THE GROUND
PNEUMATIC CART. (pause4) WHEN THE APU IS PROVIDING THE BLEED AIR AND THE ISOLATION VALVE IS
CLOSED, THE L POINTER INDICATES APU BLEED AIR PRESSURE. THE R POINTER INDICATES PRESSURE
ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE VALVE. NOW LET'S LOOK AT THE ISOLATION VALVE. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH HAS THREE POSITIONS (pause2) CLOSE, AUTO, AND OPEN (pause2) THE
NORMAL POSITION OF THE SWITCH IS AUTO. PLACING THE SWITCH TO OPEN WILL OPEN THE VALVE
(pause2) THE CLOSE POSITION WILL CLOSE THE VALVE. LET'S EXAMINE THE AUTO POSITION OF THE
SWITCH IN MORE DETAIL. MENU PRINCIPAL

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WITH THE SWITCH IN THE AUTO POSITION, THE ISOLATION VALVE IS CONTROLLED BY THE POSITION OF
THE ENGINE BLEED AND PACK SWITCHES (pause2) IF BOTH ENGINE BLEED SWITCHES AND BOTH PACK
SWITCHES ARE ON, THE VALVE WILL BE CLOSED. THIS ISOLATES THE LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE
PNEUMATIC SYSTEM SO THAT EACH ENGINE SUPPLIES AIR TO ONE PACK. THIS IS A NORMAL IN-FLIGHT
CONDITION. THE APU BLEED SWITCH HAS NO EFFECT ON THE ISOLATION VALVE OPERATION. COMPARE
THE PANEL SWITCH SELECTION TO THE ACTUAL VALVE POSITION. MENU PRINCIPAL

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WITH THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH IN AUTO, POSITIONING AN ENGINE BLEED OR PACK SWITCH TO
[`]OFF, (pause3) SIGNALS THE SWITCH LOGIC TO OPEN THE ISOLATION VALVE. THIS CONNECTS THE
LEFT AND RIGHT SIDES OF THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. (pause2) IN THIS SITUATION, THE LEFT PACK
SWITCH IS [`]OFF (pause2) THEREFORE, THE ISOLATION VALVE IS OPEN. STUDY THE SWITCH SELECTION
AND COMPARE THE EFFECT ON THE ISOLATION VALVE POSITION. MENU PRINCIPAL

Slide 20

THE CORRECT ANSWER IS B. MENU


PRINCIPAL

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THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH IS IN AUTO, AND ALL ENGINE BLEED AND PACK SWITCHES ARE ON.
(pause2) THEREFORE, THE VALVE IS CLOSED. THIS IS A NORMAL IN- FLIGHT PANEL CONFIGURATION.
MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE CORRECT ANSWER IS A. MENU


PRINCIPAL

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THE ISOLATION VALVE IS CLOSED, AND THE RIGHT POINTER INDICATES THE PRESSURE DEVELOPED BY
THE GROUND CART. (pause3) LET'S PROCEED TO THE SWITCH SELECTION TO SET THE PANEL FOR
ENGINE START. MENU PRINCIPAL

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NORMALLY, APU BLEED AIR IS USED TO START THE ENGINES MENU


PRINCIPAL

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BOTH ENGINE BLEED VALVES AND THE ISOLATION VALVE MUST BE OPEN TO PERMIT AIR TO REACH THE
STARTERS (pause2) FOR THIS REASON, THESE BLEED SWITCHES ARE LEFT [']ON PRIOR TO ENGINE
SHUT DOWN. THIS INSURES THAT THE VALVES ARE OPEN FOR ENGINE START IN THE EVENT THAT AC
POWER IS NOT AVAILABLE, IN WHICH CASE (pause2) THE ENGINE BLEED VALVES MAY BE MANUALLY
OPENED. COMPARE THE SWITCH SELECTIONS TO THE ACTUAL VALVE POSITIONS. MENU PRINCIPAL

Slide 26

AIR FROM THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CART MAY BE USED TO START THE ENGINES MENU
PRINCIPAL

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THE ENGINE BLEED AND ISOLATION VALVES MUST BE OPEN. THE APU BLEED VALVE MUST BE CLOSED
TO PREVENT THE POSSIBILITY OF GROUND CART OR ENGINE BLEED AIR FROM ENTERING THE APU
(pause2) COMPARE THE SWITCH SELECTIONS TO THE ACTUAL VALVE POSITIONS. MENU PRINCIPAL

Slide 28

A CROSS BLEED START USES AN OPERATING ENGINE AS A BLEED AIR SOURCE TO START THE OTHER
ENGINE MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE ENGINE BLEED AND ISOLATION VALVES ARE OPEN FOR A CROSS BLEED START (pause2) THE APU
BLEED VALVE WILL BE CLOSED FOR THIS OPERATION. THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH REMAINS IN
AUTOMATIC (pause2) COMPARE THE VALVE POSITIONS TO THE SWITCH SELECTIONS. IN THIS
SITUATION, THE NUMBER TWO ENGINE IS PROVIDING THE BLEED AIR. REVIEW THE CROSS BLEED START
IN SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THERE IS A DUAL BLEED LIGHT LOCATED ABOVE THE PNEUMATIC PANEL. MENU
PRINCIPAL

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WHEN BOTH AN ENGINE AND THE APU BLEED VALVE OPEN, THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT AIR FROM
THE ENGINE COULD BACK PRESSURE THE APU. THE DUAL BLEED LIGHT ILLUMINATES WHENEVER BOTH
OF THESE VALVES ARE OPEN. ILLUMINATION OF THIS LIGHT IS AN INDICATION OF CERTAIN
COMBINATIONS OF VALVE POSITIONS. (pause2) IT MEANS THAT THE ENGINE, ISOLATION, AND APU
VALVES ARE POSITIONED OPEN SO THAT ANY ENGINE BLEED AIR CAN BACK-PRESSURE THE APU BLEED
AIR. (pause2) IN THIS CASE, THE BLACK ARROWS INDICATE THAT WITH THE APU BLEED VALVE, (pause2)
THE ISOLATION VALVE (pause2) AND THE NUMBER TWO ENGINE BLEED VALVE OPEN, THE NUMBER TWO
ENGINE BLEED AIR CAN BACK PRESSURE THE APU, AND THE LIGHT ILLUMINATES. ILLUMINATION OF THE
DUAL BLEED LIGHT IS A NORMAL INDICATION DURING ENGINE START. WHEN THE APU IS THE SOURCE
OF BLEED AIR; AND DURING GROUND OPERATIONS WHEN THE APU IS USED AS A PNEUMATIC BLEED
SOURCE FOR CABIN HEATING OR COOLING. TO EXTINGUISH THE LIGHT, RE-CONFIGURE EITHER OR THE
ENGINE BLEED, ISOLATION, AND APU BLEED VALVE SWITCHES TO OFF. THIS ELIMINATES THE POTENTIAL
FOR ANY ENGINE BLEED AIR TO BACK-PRESSURE THE APU. (pause4) THIS LIGHT OPERATES ONLY AS A
FUNCTION OF VALVE POSITION AND CAN ILLUMINATE EVEN WITH THE ENGINES SHUT DOWN AND NO
ENGINE PNEUMATIC PRESSURE AVAILABLE. TO ENSURE THAT NO SIGNIFICANT BACK- PRESSURE
OCCURS, ENGINE THRUST MUST BE LIMITED TO IDLE WHILE THIS LIGHT IS ILLUMINATED. MENU
PRINCIPAL

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ANSWER C IS CORRECT. MENU


PRINCIPAL

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POSITIONING THE APU BLEED SWITCH TO [']OFF, ELIMINATES THE POSSIBILITY OF BACK- PRESSURING
THE APU WITH ENGINE BLEED AIR, AND THE LIGHT EXTINGUISHES. THE LIGHT WILL ALSO BE
EXTINGUISHED BY LEAVING THE APU BLEED [']ON, AND POSITIONING BOTH ENGINE BLEEDS TO [']OFF.
MENU PRINCIPAL

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LET'S EXAMINE THE NORMAL PREFLIGHT PNEUMATIC PANEL CONFIGURATION FOR AN ENGINE START
USING THE APU. MENU PRINCIPAL

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FIRST, POSITION THE LEFT AND RIGHT PACK SWITCHES OFF, TO ENSURE ALL BLEED AIR IS AVAILABLE
FOR THE STARTERS. A MINIMUM OF 30 PSI IS REQUIRED FOR NORMAL ENGINE START. MENU PRINCIPAL

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SECOND, VERIFY THE ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH IS IN THE AUTO POSITION, SO BLEED AIR CAN FLOW TO
ENGINE NUMBER TWO. (pause2) THIRD, VERIFY THE ENGINE AND APU BLEED SWITCHES ARE ON. THIS

ALLOWS BLEED AIR FROM THE APU TO ENTER THE PNEUMATIC MANIFOLD AND FLOW TO THE STARTERS
(pause2) REVIEW THIS OPERATION UNTIL YOU ARE CONFIDENT THAT YOU UNDERSTAND IT. MENU
PRINCIPAL

Slide 37

ANSWER C IS CORRECT. MENU


PRINCIPAL

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THE NUMBER ONE ENGINE BLEED VALVE IS CLOSED SO THE PNEUMATIC GROUND CART CAN SUPPLY AIR
PRESSURE TO START ENGINE NUMBER TWO ONLY. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE AIRPLANE MAY BE OPERATED IN AN ENGINE BLEEDS [']OFF CONFIGURATION FOR TAKEOFF. MENU
PRINCIPAL

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IN THIS CONFIGURATION, THE APU SUPPLIES AIR TO THE LEFT AIR CONDITIONING PACK. THE ISOLATION
VALVE IS CLOSED BECAUSE THE APU CANNOT SUPPLY ENOUGH AIR FOR BOTH AIR CONDITIONING
PACKS. THIS PROCEDURE PERMITS ENGINE TAKEOFF THRUST TO BE SET TO EITHER THE LOWER E-P-R,
THAT WOULD BE REQUIRED IF ENGINE BLEEDS WERE USED TO OPERATE THE PACKS, OR, TO THE
MAXIMUM ENGINE BLEEDS [']OFF E-P-R, WHEN ADDITIONAL THRUST IS REQUIRED FOR TAKEOFF. THE
ENGINE BLEEDS [']ON E-P-R IS POINT ZERO FOUR LESS THAN THE BLEEDS [']OFF E-P-R. (pause3) USE
OF THE LOWER E-P-R REDUCES INTERNAL ENGINE TEMPERATURES AND EXTENDS ENGINE LIFE. THE
LOWER E-P-R MAY BE USED WHENEVER THE ACTUAL TAKEOFF WEIGHT IS SUFFICIENTLY LESS THAN THE
PUBLISHED MAXIMUM WEIGHT FOR EACH RUNWAY. REVIEW THE PANEL CONFIGURATION, AND ITS
EFFECT ON SYSTEM OPERATION. MENU PRINCIPAL

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NOW, REFER TO THE TAKEOFF PERFORMANCE SECTION OF YOUR MANUAL AND REVIEW THE WEIGHT
REDUCTION REQUIRED WHEN USING THE ENGINE BLEEDS [']ON E-P-R. MENU PRINCIPAL

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NOW, LET'S CONFIGURE THE PNEUMATIC PANEL FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS [']OFF TAKEOFF OR LANDING.
MENU PRINCIPAL

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FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS [']OFF TAKEOFF, FIRST, POSITION THE RIGHT PACK SWITCH [']ON, THE
ISOLATION VALVE SWITCH TO CLOSE, AND THE LEFT PACK SWITCH [']ON. MENU PRINCIPAL

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NEXT, POSITION THE NUMBER ONE BLEED SWITCH OFF, AND VERIFY THE APU BLEED SWITCH IS ON.
THIS ALLOWS BLEED AIR FROM THE APU TO FLOW TO THE LEFT PACK. FINALLY, POSITION THE NUMBER
TWO ENGINE BLEED SWITCH TO OFF. NOTICE THAT THIS OPERATION IS PERFORMED USING A LETTER C
PATTERN FLOW. REVIEW THESE STEPS AS YOU TRACE THE C PATTERN. MENU PRINCIPAL

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AFTER TAKEOFF, THE PANEL IS RE-CONFIGURED TO ALLOW THE ENGINES TO SUPPLY THE AIR
CONDITIONING PACKS. FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS [`]OFF LANDING, THE LETTER C PATTERN IS AGAIN
USED TO POSITION THE SWITCHES EXACTLY AS FOR AN ENGINE BLEEDS [`]OFF TAKEOFF MENU
PRINCIPAL

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AFTER AN ENGINE BLEEDS-OFF LANDING, DURING TAXI IN, THE PANEL IS CONFIGURED USING THE
REVERSE LETTER C PATTERN FLOW SO THAT THE ENGINE BLEEDS ARE BOTH [']ON, THE APU BLEED
[']OFF, THE ISOLATION VALVE AUTO, AND THE LEFT PACK [']OFF. (pause2) WE WILL CONCLUDE THIS
SECTION WITH A DISCUSSION OF THE PNEUMATIC DUCT PROTECTION FEATURES. MENU PRINCIPAL

Slide 47

OVERHEAT DETECTORS ARE INSTALLED ALONG THE PNEUMATIC DUCT SYSTEM TO DETECT BLEED AIR
LEAKAGE FROM THE DUCTS. THESE DETECTORS FOLLOW THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM FROM THE FIRE
WALLS TO THE AIR CONDITIONING PACKS. THEY ARE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE DUCTS IN BOTH THE
WING AND BODY AREAS. MENU PRINCIPAL

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WHEN AN OVERHEAT CONDITION OCCURS, THE APPROPRIATE WING BODY OVERHEAT LIGHT WILL

ILLUMINATE. MENU PRINCIPAL

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REVIEW THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM IN THE LIMITATIONS SECTION OF YOUR OPERATIONS MANUAL AT THIS
TIME. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THE CORRECT ANSWER IS B. MENU


PRINCIPAL

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NOW, REVIEW THE TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE WING BODY OVERHEAT DETECTION CIRCUITS. MENU
PRINCIPAL

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THIS IS FOUND IN THE AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION SECTION OF SUPPLEMENTARY


PROCEDURES. MENU PRINCIPAL

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THIS CONCLUDES THE SECTION ON THE PNEUMATIC SYSTEM. MENU PRINCIPAL RETURN TO
MENU
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COMPONENTS AND THE WAY THE CONTROLS AND INDICATORS ARE USED TO OPERATE."