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SPORTS ARCHITECTURE: LIGHTING OF SPORTS SPACES IN GEORGETOWN,

GUYANA

DECLARATION
The candidate hereby declares that the work presented in this dissertation "
SPORTS ARCHITECTURE: SPORTS LIGHTING " for the award of the Bachelor of
Science in Architecture submitted in the Department of Architecture, Faculty
of Technology, University of Guyana, is that of the candidate alone and has
not been submitted previously, in whole or in part, in respect of any other
academic award and has not been published in any form by any person
except where due reference is given.'
Author: ..Date: ..
Adesina Flatts

Lecturer: .. Date: ..
Mr. William Harris

Supervisor: .. . Date: ..
Mr. William Harris

DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to major influential persons. First to my mother, Joy Flatts
whom encouraged me to chase the dream of becoming the designer I want to be.
Secondly to Lavern Fraser for whom has exposed me deeper in the world of sport.
Mothers, teachers, realists, friends, professionals, sports enthusiasts and educators.

ABSTRACT
This document is the result of a final year Bachelor of Science forming a
research in the field of Architecture, pursuing the dissertation thesis: Sports
Lighting in Georgetown, Guyana. The following constitutes a qualitative
study concerning the current status of lighting for sports facilities in
Georgetown.
The objective of this research stresses an investigation of the current lighting
systems being utilized by sports facilities in Georgetown. It focuses
specifically on the lighting used for the performance areas.
The research identifies the significance of lighting upon the performance
space and how it affects the athlete. It covers the spaces in both outdoor and
indoor specific facilities that includes sport disciplines of; high intensity,
precision and longevity. These identifications form the basis for articulating a
lighting strategy concerning its application to these facilities with the added
nature of its tropical geographical location. This may serve as the foundation
for the future of lighting in of sports spaces locally.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION


Light can be thought of as a building material much like steel or concrete.
Although structural components are needed to enclose a space, the space
has no existence for an individual until it is seen and registered in the
conscious mind. Light defines space, reveals texture, shows form, indicates
scale, separates functions. Good lighting makes a space look and work the
way the architect intended at all hours of the day and night1.
Lighting in sports spaces
The year 1879 marked the commencement of the global lighting revolution
which etched a competition between inventors including Thomas Edison,
William Edward Sawyer and Phillip Diehl, Henry Woodward and Matthew
Evans and Joseph Swan. The first public building to use Edisons new
incandescent lamps was the Mahen Theatre in Czech Republic. In 1883 the
Czech National Theatre in Prague became the most technically advanced
building of its type in the world, with the installation of electric illumination
and constructional steel stage. These buildings were regarded as sportstype facilities because they accommodated dance and ballet and
performance. This gave these sports-type facilities at the center of the
electric light revolution.

1 (J.Fielder, 2001)
2 (Culley & Pascoe, 2009)

Problem Statement
There exist several public sports facilities within the capital city of Guyana,
Georgetown and its immediate environs. There are three National indoor
facilities; the Cliff Anderson Sports Hall located on Homestretch Avenue
(futsal, indoor basketball, martial arts, table tennis, badminton), the National
Gymnasium located on Mandela Avenue (Indoor Volley Ball, Indoor Hockey)
and the National Racquet Centre located on Woolford Avenue (Squash).
These three locations also serve as the only public outdoor facilities within
the city, having netball court at the Cliff Anderson Sports Hall, Basketball
court at the National Gymnasium and Lawn Tennis court at the National
Racquet Centre. The national park has outdoor sport spaces for rugby,
cycling, football, running and lawn tennis.
The above highlights the importance of these facilities and varying degree of
usage by the population. Sports is played, commencing at the 16:00 hours
and continues to varying hours within the night in Georgetown. The problem
of lighting comes before these buildings and the invent of sport but is
importantly incorporated today. As such these facilities have present their
own lighting systems based on the installations of their design team.
In as much as these spaces are celebrated for various sport excellence; in
the eyes of the layman they are acceptable, but those with an architectural
mind will generate some discomfort with their lighting flaws. These flaws
have both cost, comfort and environmental implications, aspects that will be

discussed in more detail in the succeeding chapters of this dissertation.


Lighting design for sports facilities is about producing good visibility which
meets the requirements of the sports being played (Culley & Pascoe, 2009).

Objectives of this Study


It is the researchers intention of this dissertation to
1. Study and document the lighting guidelines for sports facilities as
established by authorities in the field of Sports Architecture.
2. Study and document the existing public sports facilities in the capital
city of Guyana, Georgetown, paying special attention to their lighting
design.
3. Compare the lighting performance of the existing public sports facilities
in the capital city of Guyana, Georgetown against best practices
elsewhere.
4. Compare the above findings in (2) and (3) against the lighting design
guidelines for indoor sports arenas in (1), as a post occupancy
performance analysis, with a view to establish the success of their
improved lighting application(s).
5. To recommend suitable lighting design systems for future renovations
as well as new developments of sports facilities in Georgetown, and
elsewhere.

Research Questions
It is the intention of this research project to provide answers to the following
questions: 1. What are the lighting guidelines for sports spaces that have been
established by the authorities?
2. What is the lighting design and in effect, the lighting performance of
the existing sports spaces (facilities) in the capital city of Guyana,
Georgetown?
3. What is the lighting design and in effect the lighting performance of
other best practices of sports facilities situated elsewhere?
4. What are the success levels of the lighting design and in effect, the
lighting performance of both the sports facilities in the capital city of
Guyana, Georgetown, as compared to the established guidelines for
the same?
5. What are the lighting systems design guidelines that can be
recommended that can guide possible renovations as well as new
developments of these facilities?

Review of Literature

Research Methodology
This research was done by the combination of two research methods,
Qualitative and Case Study. The first stage Qualitative; Internet research,
review of literature and interview, The second stage Case Study; design
analysis of multiple facilities and system design proposal.
The techniques to be used in the collection of data for this research project
are:

Internet Research (Library)


Interview

Internet Research (Library) related to this topic, will be carried out to


gain appropriate and additional data on the existing literature. The
information will be gathered from sources such as National websites, ebooks (published) and social media (interviews/observations).
Interviews will be done to obtain the necessary information from sports
personnel (athletes& officials) to gather information such as lighting
performance in the various sporting disciplines.
Design Proposal a recommendation of existing modern technology for
lighting techniques will be used as well as an original lighting proposal
model will be presented.

Scope of the Study


This research is focused on playing spaces within sports facilities. The
research is further focused on public facilities in the capital city of Guyana,
Georgetown as well as a theory gathered from the internet.

Limitations & Constraints


Due to the local facilitys schedule the researcher had limited access to the
facilities studied. It was a challenge taking necessary light readings with
special equipment due to the spaces being used at the time for which the
researcher was available to measure.

CHAPTER TWO: LIGHTING SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SPORTS SPACES


Lighting, the art and science of its design is just that and more: artistic flair;
scientific knowledge and physiology. Most lighting systems provide adequate
illumination for the task at hand but, the superior design goes the extra mile:
it takes into account the effect of the lighted environment on the eye and
mind of the human observer. As mentioned before light can be thought of as
a building material, such like timber such that it defines space. The way the
eye-mind combinations work evaluates light is a complex, dynamic process,
which could fill volumes the size of this one.

The electronic spectrum (source: Phillips Lighting Handbook) The Lit Interior

Key Areas of Lighting Design for Sports Spaces


Openings.:
These are windows, doors, skylights, clerestory, vents, that forms gaps in the
defined spaces and let light into the building via the sun or the moon. This
has to be considered since they have the characteristic to be both a negative
and positive attribute to the lit space. This will be talked about where specific
spaces are determined. These areas of the building must be correctly
positioned and sized to achieve uniform natural illumination which avoids
glare, reflections and unwanted solar gain and heat loss.

Building Materials
Some building materials naturally allows light to manipulate them for any
good purpose such as glass, which can be used to let daylight into the space
or metal which can absorb the heat property of light. Architectural
membranes are used to aid in the wider distribution of daylight.

Surface Finishes
Colors of surface finishes have to be carefully considered as they will affect
the playing ability as well as the comfort levels of the users. As seen in this
reference; walls of a sports hall should be of uniform and unbroken colors
with reflective values enough to give sufficient contrast to small and fast

moving objects such as shuttlecocks and balls as well as dangerous activities


such as fencing and martial arts. (Smith & Ford)
Daylighting
Natural Lighting has to be considered from the earliest planning stages of a
sports facilities project. (Culley & Pascoe, 2009) The lighting designer has
to take into account the prospective background (tone, color and variation),
roof configuration and any planned storage. Lighting design for sports
facilities is holistic and incorporates the daylight system, artificial system
and control system. Maximizing the use of natural light promotes energy
efficiency, but it cannot eliminate the need for artificial lighting and
associated controls.

Artificial Lighting
Evaluating artificial lighting options involves considering quality of light,
visual comfort, uniformity of illumination, lighting type, position (ceiling
mounted uplighters and/or down lighters, and/or wall/track-mounted lights),
energy efficiency, length of life, radiation of heat, initial and ongoing costs,
and ease of cleaning and replacement. (Culley & Pascoe, 2009)

Power Conversion for typical white light sources (source (Culley & Pascoe,
2009))

Lighting Positions
This is very important as it affects several aspects of the lighting system.
Consider arenas, sports halls and other high- ceiling activity, these spaces
should be a minimum of 7.3m (24ft) above the playing surface so that they
will not interfere with mandatory clearance heights for indoor sports (Culley
& Pascoe, 2009)

Sporting Discipline
Generally, sports involving small balls and fast moment call for higher
lighting level of at least 300 lux (27.9fc). this is echoed throughout the
various sporting disciplines.

Considering Light Properties

Light Mechanics
Lightings source in light flows in a straight line until it comes in contact
with a surface. This is where it gets altered by any of four (4) processes
known as transmission, refraction, reflection or absorption for which will
play a role in presenting this research. There are further processes that
can affect or interrupt light paths and alter its properties; these are known
as polarization, diffraction, or interference by other light rays.

Type of light modification (source: F.H. Jones) The lit Interior

Transmission
This occurs when in when the light rays come in contact with surfaces
that allow it to pass through, where the material absorb almost none of
the light. There are three forms which are; Direct transmission, occurs
when light strikes transparent material which can be seen through;
Spread transmission (translucent material), where the light rays emerging
at a wider angle than the incident beam, but the general direction
remains the same. There is Diffuse transmission which occurs with semi-

opaque materials such as opal glass, and the light passing through the
material is scattered in all direction. (J.Fielder, 2001)

Types of Light Transmission (source: F.H. Jones) The lit Interior

Refraction
This occurs when a beam of light is bent as it passes from air to a medium of
higher density, or vice versa. This occurs because the speed of the light is
slightly lower in the medium of higher density. Two most commonly used
refractive devices are prisms and lenses. A prism is made of transparent
material which has non-parallel sides. A large prism slows down the various
wavelengths of light by different amounts and can be used to divide the light
ray into its color components; smaller prisms are used in lighting fixtures to
lower brightness or to redirect light into useful zones. Lenses are used to
cause parallel light rays to converge or diverge, focusing or spreading the

light, as desired. (J.Fielder, 2001)

Refractive devices (source: F.H. Jones/The Lit Interior)


Reflection
Reflection occurs when light strikes a shiny opaque surface, or any shiny
surface at an angle. Reflection can be classified in three general categories:
specular reflection, spread reflection and diffuse reflection. Specular
reflection occurs when light strikes a highly polished or mirror surface. The
ray of light is reflected, or bounced off the surface at an angle equal to that
at which it arrives. Very little of the light is absorbed, and almost all of the
incident light leaves the surface at the reflected angle. Spread reflection
occurs when a ray of light strikes a polished but granular surface. The
reflected rays are spread in diverging angles, due to reflection from the
facets of the granular surface. Diffuse reflection
occurs when the ray of light strikes a reflective
opaque but non-polished surface, such as flat white
paint. (J.Fielder, 2001)

. Refractive devices (source: F.H. Jones). The Lit Interior

Absorption
Absorption occurs when the object struck by the light ray retains the energy
of the ray in the form of heat. If you remember the blue ball example, the
ball reflects only the blue wavelengths of the incident light, and absorbs all
of the others. If the ball were in the sunlight, this energy absorption would
heat the ball up. Some surfaces, like flat black paint, absorb nearly all of the
incident light rays. These surfaces, such as those of a solar collector panel,
tend to get very hot when placed in the sunlight. (J.Fielder, 2001)

Physical Factors
In addition to color, four factors which determine the visibility of an object
are: size, contrast, luminance, and time where luminance is the dominant
factor.
Size
Size is considered because the larger or nearer an object, the easier it is to
see. A larger object, of course, reflects more total light, and offers a stronger
stimulation of the rods and cones. The strength of the reflected light
decreases as the square of the distance between the object and the eye.
(J.Fielder, 2001)

Contrast
Contrast is simply the difference in brightness of an object and its
background. Distinct contrast allows the brain to differentiate easily between
areas of strong and mild visual stimulation. (J.Fielder, 2001)

Luminance
Luminance, simply put, is the brightness of an object, or the strength of the
light reflected from it. The greater the luminance, the stronger the visual
stimulation, and the easier the object is to see. (J.Fielder, 2001)

Time
Time refers to how long it takes to see an object clearly. Under the best
conditions, it takes slightly less than one-sixteenth of a second for the eye to
register an image. In a dim setting, it takes longer. This is especially
important where motion is involved. (J.Fielder, 2001)

Light Quantity
Light output is usually measured in candlepower and light output given
direction is expressed in candelas. The density of light flux radiating from the
source is expressed in lumens, and the luminance, or light reflected from an
object is expressed in foot-candles. Foot-candles has units of lumens per
square foot.

Light Quality
The quality of light has to consider several factors. These are 1. Brightness
ratio, which is the brightness contrast between the task and background. 2.
Diffusion, it is the result from light arriving at the task from many different
directions. 3. Color rendition, the color of light affects the emotional aspects
of a space and importantly affects the accuracy with which tasks are
performed. 4. Glare, maybe the more important aspect sends a negative
review of light if not desired. Glare comes in many levels but ultimately
distorts the viewers vision from the object.

Sport Specific Guidelines

Badminton

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the shuttlecock must be incorporated as it needs to

remain visible at all times and at certain heights.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the shuttlecock
Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

Basketball

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the basketball must be incorporated as it needs to

remain visible at all times and at certain heights.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the Basketball
Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

Futsal

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the football must be incorporated as it needs to

remain visible at all times and at certain heights and floor.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the football
Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

Hockey

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the ball must be incorporated as it needs to remain

visible at all times and at certain heights and floor.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the ball
Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

Martial arts

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive

in reflecting light to the athletes vision.


Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the users
visibility

Table tennis

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the tennis ball must be incorporated as it needs to

remain visible at all times and at certain heights and floor.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the tennis ball


Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

Squash

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the squash ball must be incorporated as it needs to

remain visible at all times and at certain heights and floor.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the squash balls


Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

Volleyball

Uniform, glare free light is recommended, aiming for high levels of

illumination, ranging between 300-750 lux.


The properties of the volleyball must be incorporated as it needs to

remain visible at all times and at certain heights and floor.


Wall finishes should be matt and without unnecessary dcor.
Unnecessary wall openings should be avoided, since the competing
light will give visual discomfort and will compete with the visibility of

the volleyball
Floor/court finishes should be reflective resistant as it can be disruptive
in reflecting light to the athletes vision.

CHAPTER THREE: FIELDWORK/CASE STUDIES


The Cliff Anderson Sports Hall
Historical Background
The Cliff Anderson Sports Hall and the National Gymnasium are two of our
main sports facilities. These facilities are used for training and competition
purposes: Basketball, Table Tennis, Hockey, Boxing, Netball, Martial Arts,
Volleyball, Badminton, Weightlifting, Cultural and Religious activities are also
conducted at these venues.
The Cliff Anderson Sports Hall which has a capacity of 2000 also has a
Fitness Gym and a Resource Centre. The National Gymnasium with a
capacity of 1000 carries living accommodation for approximately 50 persons.
(Association)
Lighting System/Distribution of Light
Type: Natural/Artificial
Fixtures: HED Metal Aluminum Reflective Casing/single bulb
: Florescent and incandescent
Light Color: white
Walls: Concrete vent blocks
Openings: Concrete vents, angled wooden louvres
Colors Interior: White/blue/green

Ceiling: Open
Roof: Metal clear span framing with corrugated metal sheathing
Playing Surface: concrete base with rubberized matt finish

The National Gymnasium


Historical Background
The National Gymnasium is another of our main sports facilities.
This facility is used for training and competition activities including Basketball, Volleyball, Weightlifting
and Powerlifting, Hockey, Boxing, Netball, Martial Arts, Football, Dominoes.
Exhibitions, Cultural and Religious activities are also held at this venue.
The National Gymnasium has a capacity of 1000 persons and also has dormitory for approximately 50
persons. (Association)

Lighting System/Distribution of Light


Type: Natural/Artificial
Fixtures: HED Metal Aluminum Reflective Casing/single bulb
: Florescent and incandescent
Light Color: white
Walls: wooden Louvres/ concrete block
Openings: Concrete vents, angled wooden louvres
Colors Interior: White/blue/green
Ceiling: Open
Roof: Metal clear span framing with corrugated metal sheathing
Sports Surface: polished/lacquered grove and tongue close boarding timber

Redlynch Central Sports Centre


Historical Data
Completed in the year 2010, it is considered a well-designed, versatile sports
centre with easy maintenance and low running costs.
The Redlynch Sports Stadium is a purpose built, four court multipurpose cent
re that includes a 40m x 20m international standard court. It caters to futsal
competitions as well as other sports (netball, volleyball and badminton).

Lighting System/Distribution of Light

University of Cambridge Sports Center


This center for sports is located on the University of Cambridge campus and
represents the 16 million Phase One of the West Cambridge University
Masterplan.

CHAPTER FOUR: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF STUDY

CHAPTER SIX: RECOMMENDATIONS