SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY IN ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY

A Technical seminar Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In ELETRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING BY

K.V.V.S.CHAKRADHAR

(06J21A0241)

Under the esteemed guidance of CH.VENKAT, B.TECH Asst.prof,EEE- Dept.JBREC.

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

JOGINPALLY B.R. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Yenkapally, Moinabad Mandal, R.R.District Affiliated to J.N.T. University, Hyderabad

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JOGINPALLY B.R. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Yenkapally, Moinabad Mandal, R.R.District Affiliated to J.N.T. University, Hyderabad

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Technical seminar report entitled “SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY IN ELECTRICALTECHNOLOGY” is being submitted by K.V.V.S.CHAKRADHAR (06J21A0241), in technical fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering to the Jawaharlal Nehuru technological university, as a record of bonafide work carried out by him under my guidance and supervision. The result embodied in the Technical seminar report has not been submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree. PROJECT GUIDE
CH.VENKAT Asst.prof, EEE-Dept.JBREC

HEAD OF THE DEPATRMENT
M.Kondalu,M.Tech,(Ph.D), HOD, EEE, JBREC

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our profound sense of gratitude for the administration of JOGINPALLY B R ENGINEERING COLLEGE for giving us an opportunity to take up the TECHNICAL SEMINAR work in their organization We express our great pleasure to have opportunity to take up the TECHNICAL SEMINAR work under the guidance of D.N.RAO M.E, Ph.D PRINCIPAL of JOGINPALLY B R ENGINEERING

COLLEGE

whose

invariable

references,

suggestions,

and

encouragement have immensely helped us in the successful completion of this TECHNICAL SEMINAR.

We express our sincere thanks and gratitude to Mr. KONDALU M.Tech (Ph.D) Associate Professor and HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
of

ELECTRICAL

AND

ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

for valuable help and

encouragement throughout the TECHNICAL SEMINAR work. We are very much thankful to Mr.CH.VENKAT, B.TECH

EEE

DEPARTMENT

for

his

excellent

guidance

AND

encouragement throughout the TECHNICAL SEMINAR work.

We thank all of teaching and non-teaching staff members of EEE department for their extended cooperation.
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INDEX
CONTENT :
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Pg.No

ABSTRACT……………………………………………..5 INTRODUCTION………………………………………7 WHAT IS SHORT CIRCUIT?........................................8 SHORT CIRCUIT TYPES …………………………….9 REASONS OF SHORT CIRCUIT…………………….13 EFFECTS OF SHORT CIRCUIT…………………….17 PREVENTION METHODS ………………………….19 ADVANTAGES OF SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY…….27 CONCLUSION………………………………………..29

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ABSTRACT
Short circuit study in electrical technology
Short Circuit (Fault Current) studies are required to insure that existing and new equipment ratings are adequate to withstand the available short circuit energy available at each point in the electrical system. Fault currents that exceed equipment ratings are capable of extensive equipment damage and are a serious threat to human life On large systems, short circuit studies are required to determine both the switchgear ratings and the relay settings. No substation equipment, motor control centers, breaker panels, etc. can be purchased without knowledge of the complete short circuit values for the entire power distribution system. The short circuit calculations must be maintained and periodically updated to protect the equipment and the lives. It is not necessarily safe to assume that new equipment is properly rated.Fires from electrical cords or from wiring devices are increasing in these years. The reason is supposed to be the increase of electrical power dissipation for domestic use. DELIVERABLES OF SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY A typical short circuit study includes:

Short circuit calculations, which highlights any equipment that is ascertained to be underrated as specified 5

Suggested modifications to rectify the underrated equipment; (trip sizes within the same frame, the time curve characteristics of induction relays, CT ranges, etc.).

The Protective Device Setting and Coordination Study is the suggested follow on analysis to develop the coordination curves, highlighting areas lacking coordination. Presentation of a protective device study would include a technical evaluation with a discussion of the logical compromises for best coordination The building/facility may not be properly protected against short-circuit currents. These currents can damage or deteriorate equipment. Improperly protected short-circuit currents can injure or kill maintenance personnel. Recently new initiatives have been taken to require facilities to properly identify these dangerous points within the power distribution of the facility.This is the main reason for requirement of study about short circuit.

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INTRODUCTION
Fires from electrical cords or from wiring devices are increasing in these years. The reason is supposed to be the increase of electrical power dissipation for domestic use. A circuit breaker is used to protect the circuit from overcurrent or short-circuit. If the conductors do not touch directly and they are shorten by an arcing along the carbonised insulating material, the current flows intermittently. This is the reason why a circuit breaker does not cut off the current more than 100 Amps and fire hazardous sparking continues. Peak value of the short-circuit current is limited by the resistance of the circuit. In typical conditions the circuit breaker does not cut off the intermittent current under about 200 Amps in peak value. This condition is easily made when an extending cord of about 10 meters long is used.

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India has approximately 60000 fires a year. The number of fires related to electrical cause or electrical appliances are shown in table 1. Although insulating materials have been increased their quality, the number of electrical fires have not been decreased.

Table 1: Loss of lives in Andhra Pradesh due to fires Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 No.of fire accidents 12741 13569 12459 14456 16987 12584 12999 18456 16271 15631 17452 18975 No.of lives lost 79 184 58 81 123 58 78 156 249 183 129 149

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Short circuit arcing was made intentionally in this study. Although insulating materials have been increased their quality, fires are still caused by these failures. It is necessary to doubt about their safety and to make a study on the mechanism of the beginning of short circuit arcing in order to prevent these fires. A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) in an electrical circuit is one that allows a current to travel along a different path from the one originally intended. The electrical opposite of a short circuit is an "open circuit", which is an infinite resistance between two nodes. It is common to misuse "short circuit" to describe any electrical malfunction, regardless of the actual problem.

What is short circuit?
A short circuit is a fault. It means there is a very low resistance conducting path from one side of a component to the other. For example a wire might have come loose which connects two sides of a circuit together. Or perhaps there's some moisture on the surface of a component that means current can bypass it. The wire or the moisture 'shorts' the circuit because the length of the conducting path back to the battery has decreased.

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Simple activity showing the effect of shorting out a bulb. A short makes the circuit behave as if the component wasn't there. The component stops working (it isn't there, after all) and the current everywhere in that circuit will increase, which can damage other components or, in extreme cases, cause a fire. So how can we explain shorts? A very misleading way of explaining them is to say that current takes the easiest path

Shorting out a single component which is in series with others
When you connect a wire across the terminals of a bulb you're effectively creating a little parallel circuit. The thing with parallel circuits is that the effective resistance is less than the smallest resistance. In this case the smallest resistance is just the wire, and this has a very low resistance indeed.

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Simulation A full explanation of what happens when a bulb is shorted out.Now you've reduced the resistance of the series circuit and so the current everywhere increases. The current through the unshorted bulb increases and so it gets brighter. But brightness isn't just a function of current. You have a low resistance (the shorted bulb) in series with a higher resistance (the unshorted bulb) and this changes the way the voltage is shared around the circuit. The bigger resistance takes a bigger share of the total voltage. So the second bulb is bright for these two reasons, bigger current through it AND bigger voltage across it. Remember that voltage and current are connected. The current through the second bulb can only increase because the voltage across it is bigger. In the same way the shorted bulb has a very low voltage across it so the current through it is very small and that's why it's out. The wire doing the shorting has the same voltage across it as the bulb but it also has a very low resistance so the current through the wire is big. The current through the wire and the current through the bulb add up to the current through the unshorted bulb.

Shorting out a whole circuit

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This is exactly the same as saying that the power supply is shorted out. In this case the explanation of why the bulb goes out is slightly different

Animation showing different ways of shorting out a whole circuit by connecting one terminal of a battery directly to the other. Again we've introduced a parallel circuit and the parallel circuit has an effective resistance of a little bit less than the wire. This means that there isn't really any resistance anywhere in the circuit and so the current supplied by the battery becomes very big. So the battery has to work very hard. When you work very hard you sweat a lot and this is similar to what the battery does. The chemical reactions in the battery take place very rapidly and lots of the energy released gets turned straight into heat rather than being given to the charges in the circuit. This means the voltage is a lot less than it should be. The voltage across the components is very low and so none of them work. This type of short can cause a battery to get very hot. It may even explode!

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How does a short circuit happen?
When the cables of the electrical appliances are worn out or it's not connected properly a short circuit may occur. A short circuit has a very low resistance that almost all electric current flow through it. It'll affect the operation of the electrical appliances. Owing to the heating effect the excess electric current would produce a large amount of heat without a fuse or a circuit breaker a fire may be occured when there's a short circuit. A short circuit is an abnormal low-resistance connection between two nodes of an electrical circuit that are meant to be at different voltages. This results in an excessive electric current (overcurrent) limited only by the Thevenin equivalent resistance of the rest of the network and potentially causes circuit damage, overheating, fire or explosion. Although usually the result of a fault, there are cases where short circuits are caused intentionally, for example, for the purpose of voltage-sensing crowbar circuit protectors. In circuit analysis, the term short circuit is used by analogy to designate a zero-impedance connection between two nodes. This forces the two nodes to be at the same voltage. In an ideal short circuit, this means there is no resistance and no voltage drop across the short. In simple circuit analysis, wires are considered to be shorts. In real circuits, the result is a connection of nearly zero impedance, and almost no resistance. In such a case, the current drawn is limited by the rest of the circuit.

Examples
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An easy way to create a short circuit is to connect the positive and negative terminals of a battery together with a low-resistance conductor, like a wire. With low resistance in the connection, a high current exists, causing the cell to deliver a large amount of energy in a short time. A large current through a battery can cause the rapid buildup of heat, potentially resulting in an explosion or the release of hydrogen gas and electrolyte, which can burn tissue and may be either an acid or a base. Overloaded wires can also overheat, sometimes causing damage to the wire's insulation, or a fire. High current conditions may also occur with electric motor loads under stalled conditions, such as when the impeller of an electrically driven pump is jammed by debris; this is not a short, though it may have some similar effects. In electrical devices, unintentional short circuits are usually caused when a wire's insulation breaks down, or when another conducting material is introduced, allowing charge to flow along a different path than the one intended. In mains circuits, short circuits may occur between two phases, between a phase and neutral or between a phase and earth (ground). Such short circuits are likely to result in a very high current and therefore quickly trigger an overcurrent protection device. However, it is possible for short circuits to arise between neutral and earth conductors, and between two conductors of the same phase. Such short circuits can be dangerous, particularly as they may not immediately result in a large current and are therefore less likely to be detected.

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Possible effects include unexpected energisation of a circuit presumed to be isolated. To help reduce the negative effects of short circuits, power distribution transformers are deliberately designed to have a certain amount of leakage reactance. The leakage reactance (usually about 5 to 10% of the full load impedance) helps limit both the magnitude and rate of rise of the fault current. A short circuit may lead to formation of an arc. The arc, a channel of hot ionized plasma, is highly conductive and can persist even after significant amount of original material of the conductors was evaporated. Surface erosion is a typical sign of electric arc damage. Even short arcs can remove significant amount of materials from the electrodes. A short circuit is an accidental path of low resistance which passes an abnormally high amount of current. A short circuit exists whenever the resistance of a circuit or the resistance of a part of a circuit drops in value to almost zero ohms. A short often occurs as a result of improper wiring or broken insulation

Reasons for short circuit occurs
A short circuit is simply a low resistance connection between the two conductors supplying electrical power to any circuit. This results in excessive current flow in the power source through the 'short,' and may even cause the power source to be destroyed. If a fuse is in the supply circuit, it will do its job and blow out, opening the circuit and stopping the current flow. 15

A short circuit may be in a direct- or alternating-current (DC or AC) circuit. If it is a battery that is shorted, the battery will be discharged very quickly and will heat up due to the high current flow. Short circuits can produce very high temperatures due to the high power dissipation in the circuit. If a charged, high-voltage capacitor is short circuited by a thin wire, the resulting huge current and power dissipation will cause the wire to actually explode. Arc welding is a common example of the practical application of the heating due to a short circuit. The power supply for an arc welder can supply very high currents that flow through the welding rod and the metal pieces being welded. The point of contact between the rod and the metal surfaces gets heated to the melting point, fusing a part of the rod and both surfaces into a single piece.

How do we locate short circuit?
Along a wire, there should be a place where some insulation is burnt where short occur. Some times you might also want to locate a place where there is a lapse of electrical connection, or where there is a break along the wire. To locate wires that are broken you can measure the resistance with a multimeter. First shut off all power

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to item and wires that you are going to test. Set to measure resistance at the highest setting. Place one lead at the beginning or end of the wire and then place the other lead the other end of the wire. With the measurement of infinite resistance or very high resistance, that means that there is a break in that wire. With zero or very little resistance, that means the wire is good. Safety is a large concern. The following images show some steps of the setup. There are areas available 17

for double-checking setup before taking actual measurements. The motor contactor below is used to cause the transformer to short circuit to show a fault.

Below (Fig 2) is the short circuit part of the test circuit. On the left side is a current transformer that was used to measure the current through the shorting circuit. The fuse box on the right has fuses which we blew to stop the short circuit. The small black wires coming off of the side of the contactor are connected to a switch. When the switch is flipped, the short circuit is then working. After a few cycles (or 1/10 of a second), the fuses blow and the short circuit is no longer conducting current. This prevents damage to the transformer. The other small black wires connect to the relay and as soon as the short circuit turns on, the relay starts collecting data. Figure 2 18

A diagram of the shorting circuit is

below.

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Figure shows Normal and short circuit conditions.

A short is caused by improper wiring. Note the effect on current flow. Since the resistor has in effect been replaced with a piece of wire, practically all the current flows through the short and very little current flows through the resistor. Electrons flow through the short (a path of almost zero resistance) and the remainder of the circuit by passing through the 10-ohm resistor and the battery. The amount of current flow increases greatly because its resistive path has decreased from 10,010 ohms to 10 ohms. Due to the excessive current flow. the 10-ohm resistor becomes heated. As it attempts to dissipate this heat, the resistor will probably be destroyed. EFFECTS OF SHORT CIRCUIT Short circuit currents play a vital role in Influencing the design and operation of equipment and power 20

system and could not be avoided despite careful planning and Design, good maintenance and thorough operation of the system. This paper discusses the short circuit analysis conducted in KSO Briefly comprising of its significances, methods and results. A result sample of the analysis based on a single transformer is detailed in this paper. Furthermore, the results of the analysis and its significances were also discussed and commented. Home electrical circuits may have a number of problems:

     

Too many lamps or appliances on one circuit; Faulty wiring within the house; Defective wall switches or receptacles; Defective cords or plugs; Defective circuits within appliances. Short circuits happen when a hot wire touches a neutral or ground wire; the extra current flowing through the circuit causes the breaker to trip or fuse to blow.

Although it's often easy to tell when

you have a short

or overloaded circuit—the lights go dead when you plug in the toaster oven—it isn't always as simple to tell where in the system this has occurred.

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Start by turning off all wall switches and unplugging all lights and appliances. Then reset the circuit breaker. Pull the lever to off and then to on again to reset a circuit breaker with a lever switch. If a fuse is blown, it must be replaced. Unscrew the fuse to replace it with one with exactly the same amperage rating (both circuit breakers and fuses should be sized according to the wire used in the circuit they protect). - If the breaker trips immediately: the problem may be a short circuit in a receptacle or switch. - If the breaker does not trip again, turn on each switch one at a time and check if and when the breaker trips again. - If turning on a switch causes the breaker to trip, there's a short circuit in a fixture or receptacle controlled by the switch.

-If turning on the switch makes no difference, the problem is in one of the appliances connected to the switch. - If the circuit went dead when you plugged in the appliance, the problem is probably in the cord or plug. - If the circuit went dead when you turned on the appliance, the appliance itself is defective. Table 2

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Causes and effects of short circuit : Causes 1. Over temperatures due to excessively high over current. 2. Disruptive changes causes by over voltage. 3. Arcing caused by moisture together with impure air especially on insulators. 2. System components damage or destruction. 3. Development of unacceptable mechanical & thermal stresses in electrical operational equipments. Effects 1. Power supply interruptions.

HOW CAN WE PREVENT SHORT CIRCUITS?
Whenever you are working with electricity, the proper use of safety precautions is of the utmost importance to remember. In the front of all electronic technical manuals, you will always find a section on safety precautions. Also posted on each piece of equipment should be a sign listing the specific precautions for that equipment. One area that is sometimes overlooked, and is a hazard especially on board ship, is the method in which equipment is grounded. By grounding the return side of the power transformer to the metal chassis, the load being supplied by the power supply can be wired directly to the metal chassis. Thereby the necessity of wiring directly to the return side of the transformer is eliminated. This method saves wire and reduces the cost of building the equipment, and while it solves one of the problems of the manufacturer, it creates a problem for you, the technician. Unless the chassis is physically 23

grounded to the ship's ground (the hull), the chassis can be charged (or can float) several hundred volts above ship's ground. If you come in contact with the metal chassis at the same time you are in contact with the ship's hull, the current from the chassis can use your body as a low resistance path back to the ship's ac generators. At best this can be an unpleasant experience; at worst it can be fatal. For this reason Navy electronic equipment is always grounded to the ship's hull, and approved rubber mats are required in all spaces where electronic equipment is present. Therefore, before starting to work on any electronic or electrical equipment, ALWAYS ENSURE THAT THE EQUIPMENT AND ANY TEST EQUIPMENT YOU ARE USING IS PROPERLY GROUNDED AND THAT THE RUBBER MAT YOU ARE STANDING ON IS IN GOOD CONDITION. As long as you follow these simple rules, you should be able to avoid the possibility of becoming an electrical conductor. TESTING : There are two widely used checks in testing electronic equipment, VISUAL and SIGNAL TRACING. The importance of the visual check should not be underestimated because many technicians find defects right away simply by looking for them. A visual check does not take long. In fact, you should be able to see the problem readily if it is the type of problem that can be seen. You should learn the following procedure. You could find yourself using it quite often. This procedure is not only for power supplies but also for any type of electronic equipment you may be troubleshooting. (Because diode and transistor testing was covered in

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chapter 1 and 2 of this module, it will not be discussed at this time. If you have problems in this area, refer to chapter 1 for diodes or chapter 2 for transistors.) BEFORE YOU ENERGIZE THE EQUIPMENT, LOOK FOR: SHORTS - Any terminal or connection that is close to the chassis or to any other terminal should be examined for the possibility of a short. A short in any part of the power supply can cause considerable damage. Look for and remove any stray drops of solder, bits of wire, nuts, or screws. It sometimes helps to shake the chassis and listen for any tell-tale rattles. Remember to correct any problem that may cause a short circuit; if it is not causing trouble now, it may cause problems in the future. DISCOLORED OR LEAKING TRANSFORMER This is a sure sign that there is a short somewhere. Locate it. If the equipment has a fuse, find out why the fuse did not blow; too large a size may have been installed, or there may be a short across the fuse holder. LOOSE, BROKEN, OR CORRODED CONNECTION - Any connection that is not in good condition is a trouble spot. If it is not causing trouble now, it will probably cause problems in the future. Fix it. DAMAGED RESISTORS OR CAPACITORS - A resistor that is discolored or charred has been subjected to an overload. An electrolytic capacitor will show a whitish deposit at the seal around the terminals. Check for a short whenever you notice a damaged resistor or a damaged capacitor. If there is no short, the trouble may be that the power supply has been overloaded in some 25

way. Make a note to replace the part after signal tracing. There is no sense in risking a new part until the trouble has been located.

ENERGIZE THE EQUIPMENT AND LOOK FOR: SMOKING PARTS - If any part smokes or if you hear any boiling or sputtering sounds, remove the power immediately. There is a short circuit somewhere that you have missed in your first inspection. Use any ohmmeter to check the part once again. Start in the neighborhood of the smoking part. SPARKING - Tap or shake the chassis. If you see or hear sparking, you have located a loose connection or a short. Check and repair. If you locate and repair any of the defects listed under the visual check, make a note of what you find and what you do to correct it. It is quite probable you have found the trouble. However, a good technician takes nothing for granted. You must prove to yourself that the equipment is operating properly and that no other troubles exist. If you find none of the defects listed under the visual check, go ahead with the signal tracing procedure. The trouble is probably of such a nature that it cannot be seen directly-it may only be seen using an oscilloscope. Tracing the ac signal through the equipment is the most rapid and accurate method of locating a trouble that cannot be found by a visual check, and it also serves as check on any repairs you may have made. The idea is to trace the ac voltage from the transformer, to see it

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change to pulsating dc at the rectifier output, and then see the pulsations smoothed out by the filter. The point where the signal stops or becomes distorted is the place look for the trouble. If you have no dc output voltage, you should look for an open or a short in your signal tracing. If you have a low dc voltage, you should look for a defective part and keep your eyes open for the place where the signal becomes distorted. Signal tracing is one method used to localize trouble in a circuit. This is done by observing the waveform at the input and output of each part of a circuit. Let's review what each part of a good power supply does to a signal, as shown in figure 4-51. The ac voltage is brought in from the power line by means of the line cord. This voltage is connected to the primary of the transformer through the ON-OFF switch (S1). At the secondary winding of the transformer (points 1 and 2), the scope shows you a picture of the stepped-up voltage developed across each half of the secondary winding-the picture is that of a complete sine wave. Each of the two stepped-up voltages is connected between ground and one of the two anodes of the rectifier diodes. At the two rectifier anodes (points 4 and 5), there is still no change in the shape of the stepped-up voltage-the scope picture still shows a complete sine wave. Complete power supply (without regulator)

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However, when you look at the scope pattern for point 6 (the voltage at the rectifier cathodes), you see the waveshape for pulsating direct current. This pulsating dc is fed through the first choke (L1) and filter capacitor (C1) which remove a large part of the ripple, or "hum," as shown by the waveform for point 7. Finally the dc voltage is fed through the second choke (L2) and filter capacitor (C2), which remove nearly all of the remaining ripple. (See the waveform for point 8, which shows almost no visible ripple.) You now have almost pure dc. No matter what power supplies you use in the future, they all do the same thing - they change ac voltage into dc voltage. Component Problems The following paragraphs will give you an indication of troubles that occur with many different electronic circuit components.

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TRANSFORMER AND CHOKE TROUBLES. - As you should know by now, the transformer and the choke are quite similar in construction. Likewise, the basic troubles that they may develop are comparable.
• •

A winding can open. Two or more turns of one winding can short together. A winding can short to the casing, which is usually grounded. Two windings(primary and secondary) can short together. This trouble is possible, of course, only in transformers.

When you have decided which of these four possible troubles could be causing the symptoms, you have definite steps to take. If you surmise that there is an open winding, or windings shorted together or to ground, an ohmmeter continuity check will locate the trouble. If the turns of a winding are shorted together, you may not be able to detect a difference in winding resistance. Therefore, you need to connect a good transformer in the place of the old one and see if the 29

symptoms are eliminated. Keep in mind that transformers are difficult to replace. Make absolutely sure that the trouble is not elsewhere in the circuit before you change the transformer. Occasionally, the shorts will only appear when the operating voltages are applied to the transformer. In this case you might find the trouble with a megger-an instrument which applies a high voltage as it reads resistance. CAPACITOR AND RESISTOR TROUBLES. - Just two things can happen to a capacitor:

It may open up, removing the capacitor completely from the circuit. It may develop an internal short circuit. This means that it begins to pass current as though it were a resistor or a direct short.

You may check a capacitor suspected of being open by disconnecting it from the circuit and checking it with a capacitor analyzer. You can check a capacitor suspected 30

of being leaky with an ohmmeter; if it reads less than 500 kilohms, it is more than likely bad. However, capacitor troubles are difficult to find since they may appear intermittently or only under operating voltages. Therefore, the best check for a faulty capacitor is to replace it with one known to be good. If this restores proper operation, the fault was in the capacitor. Resistor troubles are the simplest. However, like the others, they must be considered.
• • •

A resistor can open. A resistor can increase in value. A resistor can decrease in value.

You already know how to check possible resistor troubles. Just use an ohmmeter after making sure no parallel circuit is connected across the resistor you wish to measure. When you know a parallel circuit is connected across the resistor or when you are in doubt disconnect one end of the resistor before measuring it. The ohmmeter check will usually be adequate. However, never forget that occasionally intermittent troubles may develop in resistors as well as in any other 31

electronic parts. Although you may observe problems that have not been covered specifically in this chapter, you should have gained enough knowledge to localize and repair any problem that may occur. The continuous rating of the main components such as generators, transformers, rectifiers, etc., therefore determine the nominal current carried by the busbars but in most power systems a one to four second short-circuit current has to be accommodated. The value of these currents is calculated from the inductive reactance of the power system components and gives rise to different maximum short-circuit currents in the various system sections.

DAMAGES Damage from short circuits can be reduced or prevented by employing fuses, circuit breakers, or other overload protection, which disconnect the power in reaction to excessive current. Overload protection must be chosen according to the prospective short circuit current in a circuit. For example, large home appliances (such as clothes dryers) typically draw 10 to 20 amperes, so it is common for them to be protected by 20–30 ampere circuit breakers, whereas lighting circuits typically draw less than 10 amperes and are protected by 15–20 ampere breakers. Wire gauges are specified in building and electrical codes, and must be carefully chosen for their specific application to ensure safe operation in conjunction with the overload protection. In an improper installation, the over current from a short circuit may cause ohmic heating of the circuit parts with poor conductivity (faulty joints in wiring, faulty contacts 32

in power sockets, or even the site of the short circuit itself). Such overheating is a common cause of fires. An electric arc, if it forms during the short circuit, produces high amount of heat and can cause ignition of combustible substances as well. ADVANTAGES OF SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY Short Circuit Analysis uses the point-to-point method to calculate fault currents at various points in an electrical system up to 600V. Calculations can be made from the utility transformer secondary to the utilization equipment in an electrical system. Printouts are available for each calculation, and the help system guides you through the calculations. Benefits :  Save time by easily obtaining the short circuit magnitude at each point in the power system.  Design safer systems by comparing the calculated fault current to the ratings of installed equipment.  Increase design reliability by supporting proper selection of circuit protection equipment for protection and coordination.

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 Reports ac and dc current for 4 user defined times.  Reports zero crossing time of total current.

How to perform short-circuit calculations.
Performing short-circuit calculations requires an understanding of various system components and their interaction. It's very important to understand the meaning of the term "short-circuit fault." Basically, a short-circuit fault in a power system is an abnormal condition that involves one or more phases unintentionally coming in contact with ground or each other. Thus, short-circuit protection is necessary to protect personnel and apparatus from the destructive effects of the resulting excessive current flow, which is caused by the relatively low impedance of the short-circuit fault connection. To provide the required protection, we must determine the extent of short-circuit current at various points of our  Reduce the risk a facility could face and help avoid catastrophic losses.
   

Increase the safety and reliability of the power system and related equipment. Evaluate the application of protective devices and equipment. Identify problem areas in the system. Obtain recommended solutions

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power distribution system. This determination requires a calculation.

CONCLUSION
Finally from this short circuit study, We have to learn about short circuit And we can clarify from some doubtable question like, what is short circuit?, how it happens?, when it happen?, why it happens?. And also learn prevention methods of short circuit. We can know the advantages about short circuit study.

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Short Circuit (Fault Current) studies are required to insure that existing and new equipment ratings are adequate to withstand the available short circuit energy available at each point in the electrical system. Fault currents that exceed equipment ratings are capable of extensive equipment damage and are a serious threat to human life.

Recently, 23000 fire complaints a year from all over state. There are lot of fire accidents are occurred due to these short circuit. To protect the buildings from these short circuit, we have to learn about this short circuit phenomenon.

REFERENCE

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1. www.google.com \ short circuit phenomenon 2. www.howstuffworks.com \ electrical stuff 3. IEEE journals on short circuit phenomenon

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