Combined Science (Chemistry)




Atomic Structure and Stoichiometry


1 March 2016


Atomic Structure


0945 – 1045

Prior Knowledge
Students should already know:
1. state the relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and an electron
2. define proton number (atomic number) and nucleon number (mass number)
3. Interpret and use symbols such as C
Instructional Objectives
By the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
1. describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of an atom as containing protons and neutrons (nucleons) in the nucleus and electrons arranged in
shells (energy levels)
2. state and deduce the electronic configuration of elements

Lesson Development

Rationale (optional)

Introduction OR Pre-activity

Settling down of class
Recap of the key points of previous lessons:
- Relative charges and approximate relative masses of a proton, a neutron and
an electron
- What is a proton number and mass number and what it represents
- Interpreting symbols and deducing the structure of an element given its
Lesson Development OR Main Activities


Arrangement of electrons:
- Recapping the use of the analogy of the solar system and the atomic

Activating prior knowledge


Questions for today’s lesson:
1) Since electrons move around in their electron shells, how many electrons
can be present in each shell?
2) Why could the electrons be moving around the shell and not ‘fly away’ from
the nucleus?
Answer for Question 2:
- Because of the difference in charge between the protons and the electrons.
There is some forces of attraction between the two species holding them in
Answer to Question 1:
- Electrons are arranged in shells – first shell contains a maximum of 2
electrons, second and third a maximum of 8 electrons (until the 20 th electron)
Drawing of atomic structure:
- Use of whiteboard to show a few examples.
- Salient points include:
- Nucleus in the middle to be labelled by the chemical symbol (if
protons are not required)
- Electron shells to be spherical in shape
- Electrons to be labelled as x or o, with legend at the side if there is
more than one type of atoms
- Arrangement of electrons in each shell:
- First shell: 2 electrons to be placed on opposite ends
- Second and third shell: electrons to be arranged in pairs and
put in 4 quadrants of the shell
- Place 4 electrons on all 4 quadants first. If there is more
electrons then pairing takes place.
Electronic Structure:
- The arrangement of electrons in atoms
- How to write: (no. of e in first shell . no. of e in second shell . no. of e in third
shell etc)
- Show 4 examples (in slides)
- Go through the other 2 examples in the worksheet (notes)

Doing of Practice 1
- Students to be given an opportunity to try out drawing and deducing the


number of the various species inside an atom.
- Teacher to go through the worksheet after 15 minutes
- Teacher to pick 5 students to draw their answers on the board and to go
through together with the class.
- Key points to take note of when going through:
- Symbol in the middle is correct
- Shape of electron shell is somewhat spherical
- Electrons’ shape is clear and consistent – either x or o preferably
- Arrangement of electrons in each shell is correct:
- Does not exceed the maximum number of electrons per shell
- Electrons are paired up accordingly
Closure and Consolidation OR Post-Activity


Recap on what had been done on atomic structure so far with another example
(with more than 20 electrons to highlight that after 20 electrons, the fourth shell
could hold 18 electrons and not just 8 electrons)
- Use of symbols, mass number, proton numbers
- Atomic structure and how to draw a representation of an atom
- Electronic configuration

Reflections (Choose 1 aspect of the lesson to reflect on – positive or negative one. It can be written in point form – not more than 1 page)
1. What happened? (What did my students do? What did I do?)
2. Why? (Why did I think things happened this way? Why did I choose to act the way I did?)
3. So what? (What have I learnt from this?)
4. Now what? (What do I want to remember to think about in a similar situation? How do I want to act in future?)

NOTE: General guidelines for a double-period lesson – about 5 pages, excluding references and
worksheets/resources (Times New Roman, font size 12)
© 2015, NIE, Office of Teacher Education (OTE), Practicum